Science.gov

Sample records for earth surface temperatures

  1. Soil moisture from temperature measurements at the Earth's surface, update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Soil moisture budgets at the Earth's surface were investigated based on soil and atmospheric temperature variations. A number of data sets were plotted and statistically analyzed in order to accentuate the existence and the characteristics of mesoscale soil temperature extrema variations and their relations to other parameters. The correlations between diurnal temperature extrema for air and soil in drought and non-drought periods appear to follow different characteristic patterns, allowing an inference of soil moisture content from temperature data. The recovery of temperature extrema after a precipitation event also follows a characteristic power curve rise between two limiting values which is an indicator of evaporation rates. If these indicators are applied universally to regional temperature data, soil moisture content or drought conditions can be inferred directly from temperature measurements.

  2. Retrieval of surface temperature by remote sensing. [of earth surface using brightness temperature of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    A simple procedure and computer program were developed for retrieving the surface temperature from the measurement of upwelling infrared radiance in a single spectral region in the atmosphere. The program evaluates the total upwelling radiance at any altitude in the region of the CO fundamental band (2070-2220 1/cm) for several values of surface temperature. Actual surface temperature is inferred by interpolation of the measured upwelling radiance between the computed values of radiance for the same altitude. Sensitivity calculations were made to determine the effect of uncertainty in various surface, atmospheric and experimental parameters on the inferred value of surface temperature. It is found that the uncertainties in water vapor concentration and surface emittance are the most important factors affecting the accuracy of the inferred value of surface temperature.

  3. Satellite Derived Earth Surface Temperatures: a Crop Assessment Tool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosiar, Christy Lynn

    The data for this research consist of the following: 23 days of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data; AgRISTARS enumerator data (or ground truth data) for 26 counties in three midwestern states (Iowa, Nebraska and North Dakota) and radiosonde observations for nine upper air stations, producing an 8 state coverage. The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop a regression model to estimate maximum shelter temperature, (2) to develop a method to assess crop conditions and (3) to determine the variability within a scan line due to changes in optical depth and/or scan angle. The regression model uses three independent variables derived from satellite data to predict maximum shelter temperature. The first independent variable is the satellite's first estimate of temperature, the channel 4 effective temperature. The second independent variable is the difference in the amount of radiation received by the satellite's two thermal channels (4 and 5) serving as a measure of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The third independent variable, path length, uses the pixel position within the scan line to calculate the viewing angle from nadir. This approach resulted in a good R^2 of.65. Three reasons to explain why this R ^2 is not stronger are as follows: (1) a known temperature difference between satellite and shelter temperature, (2) unregistered satellite data--the latitude and longitude of the satellite data are not the location of the shelter and (3) comparison of an area averaged temperature (satellite data) to a point source (shelter) measurement are two different values. The second objective is using satellite data, during the heading and flowering period, combined with the ground truth data or the enumerator data obtained through the AgRISTARS program to determine crop stress. Using two regression models, two satellite temperature indices are used as predictors of a ratio in yield. Statistically significant relationships exist for soybeans and sunflowers. The third

  4. EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth - the EUSTACE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick; Auchmann, Renate; Bessembinder, Janette; Brönnimann, Stefan; Brugnara, Yuri; Carrea, Laura; Ghent, Darren; Good, Elizabeth; Herring, Katie; Høyer, Jacob; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert; Lindgren, Finn; Morice, Colin; Merchant, Chris; Remedios, John; Stephens, Ag; Tonboe, Rasmus

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work would need to include partnerships with statisticians and computer scientists to enable the development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. To achieve this, the EUSTACE project will: • provide new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in satellite retrievals of surface skin temperature; • identify inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from meteorological stations and correct for these over Europe; • estimate surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • use new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of the information in data-rich eras. EUSTACE will undertake this work

  5. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ardanuy, P.E.; Kyle, H.L.; Hoyt, D. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1992-10-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent. 41 refs.

  6. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  7. Effects of increased CO2 concentrations on surface temperature of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, W. R.; Kasting, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that enhanced levels of CO2 in the atmosphere could have provided the necessary warming to maintain the temperature above freezing. The processes that have been proposed for these larger amounts of CO2 are increased tectonic activity, a decrease in the solubility of CO2 in the oceans, rock weathering, and sediment deposition. It is shown here that large CO2 concentrations are necessary to maintain the early earth's surface temperature at approximately today's level. A thousand times the present atmospheric level of CO2 in the atmosphere would yield a temperature of 292 K, whereas a 100-fold increase in CO2 concentration would give a temperature of 284 K. The surface warming is highly dependent on the amount of water vapor and clouds, and knowledge of both of these during the early history of the earth is scant.

  8. Controls of CO2 sources and sinks in the earth scale surface ocean - Temperature and nutrients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Liu, Zhongze

    1988-01-01

    Several regions in the ocean in which disequilibrium persists on an annual avarage between CO2 in the surface water and the overlying atmosphere were examined using various models in which CO2 does cycle in a steady state at which sources (ocean outgassing) and sinks (ingassing) are in balance. The relative values of the surface temperature and surface nutrients, the two major contributors to the CO2 source and/or sink properties, are determined. Results from models with two ocean surfaces indicate that the sink in the north Atlantic and the sources in the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific are all dominated by the global temperature patterns. Results from ocean models with three surface zones show that, in the equatorial Pacific, the temperature control is responsible for over 50 percent (and, possibly, for almost 70 percent) of the CO2 outgassing, with the balance coming from the earth scale surface nutrient structure.

  9. Land and Ocean Surface Skin Temperature from Geostationary and Low Earth Orbit Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Heck, P.; Bedka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from imagers aboard Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites allow for spatially detailed, near-real-time retrievals of cloud and surface radiation properties. Validating and improving the quality of these observations is important for the advancement of climate studies. Compared to GEO sensors, LEO-based instruments can typically provide higher-spatial-resolution datasets, but at the cost of limited areal coverage and reduced sampling frequency at any given location. Conversely, the persistence and coverage of GEO-based imagers offer the opportunity for more frequent retrievals of near-instantaneous, near-global surface properties. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides pixel-level land and ocean skin temperature datasets by comparing clear-pixel top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature observations with modeled, atmospheric-absorption-corrected surface temperature values. Depending on cloud-cover thresholds, this method yields surface temperature values that are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of measurements from ground-based networks including the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, the U.S. Climate Reference Network, and the global Baseline Surface Radiation Network. Furthermore, monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of NOAA-based SST climatology records, and have an uncertainty of less than 1 K. These data will be useful for assimilation into atmospheric models, which offer improved performance when high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions are included. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature observations valuable, which can lead to improved forecasting and more advanced global climate models.

  10. A dissection of the surface temperature biases in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae-Won; Deng, Yi; Cai, Ming; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Zhou, Renjun

    2014-10-01

    Based upon the climate feedback-responses analysis method, a quantitative attribution analysis is conducted for the annual-mean surface temperature biases in the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). Surface temperature biases are decomposed into partial temperature biases associated with model biases in albedo, water vapor, cloud, sensible/latent heat flux, surface dynamics, and atmospheric dynamics. A globally-averaged cold bias of -1.22 K in CESM1 is largely attributable to albedo bias that accounts for approximately -0.80 K. Over land, albedo bias contributes -1.20 K to the averaged cold bias of -1.45 K. The cold bias over ocean, on the other hand, results from multiple factors including albedo, cloud, oceanic dynamics, and atmospheric dynamics. Bias in the model representation of oceanic dynamics is the primary cause of cold (warm) biases in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere oceans while surface latent heat flux over oceans always acts to compensate for the overall temperature biases. Albedo bias resulted from the model's simulation of snow cover and sea ice is the main contributor to temperature biases over high-latitude lands and the Arctic and Antarctic region. Longwave effect of water vapor is responsible for an overall warm (cold) bias in the subtropics (tropics) due to an overestimate (underestimate) of specific humidity in the region. Cloud forcing of temperature biases exhibits large regional variations and the model bias in the simulated ocean mixed layer depth is a key contributor to the partial sea surface temperature biases associated with oceanic dynamics. On a global scale, biases in the model representation of radiative processes account more for surface temperature biases compared to non-radiative, dynamical processes.

  11. What Is the Atmosphere’s Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xubin

    2010-04-01

    It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33°C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20°C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature in K-12, undergraduate, and graduate education material and to science papers and reports. The greenhouse effect on Earth's surface temperature is well understood qualitatively and is regarded as basic knowledge about Earth's climate and climate change. The 33°C warming has been used to quantify the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases, or of greenhouse gases and clouds, in K-12 educational material (e.g., http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html), undergraduate freshman introductory textbooks on weather and climate [e.g., Ahrens, 2008], and graduate textbooks on climate [e.g., Peixoto and Oort, 1992]. Some textbooks and various other publications have less stringently attributed the warming to the greenhouse effect [e.g., Wallace and Hobbs, 2006; Le Treut et al., 2007; American Meteorological Society, 2000].

  12. Earth System Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between Sea Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    2000-01-01

    The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links sea surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.

  13. Causes of twentieth-century temperature change near the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tett, Simon F. B.; Stott, Peter A.; Allen, Myles R.; Ingram, William J.; Mitchell, John F. B.

    1999-06-01

    Observations of the Earth's near-surface temperature show a global-mean temperature increase of approximately 0.6K since 1900 (ref. 1), occurring from 1910 to 1940 and from 1970 to the present. The temperature change over the past 30-50 years is unlikely to be entirely due to internal climate variability and has been attributed to changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols due to human activity. Attribution of the warming early in the century has proved more elusive. Here we present a quantification of the possible contributions throughout the century from the four components most likely to be responsible for the large-scale temperature changes, of which two vary naturally (solar irradiance and stratospheric volcanic aerosols) and two have changed decisively due to anthropogenic influence (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols). The patterns of time/space changes in near-surface temperature due to the separate forcing components are simulated with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, and a linear combination of these is fitted to observations. Thus our analysis is insensitive to errors in the simulated amplitude of these responses. We find that solar forcing may have contributed to the temperature changes early in the century, but anthropogenic causes combined with natural variability would also present a possible explanation. For the warming from 1946 to 1996 regardless of any possible amplification of solar or volcanic influence, we exclude purely natural forcing, and attribute it largely to the anthropogenic components.

  14. The middle atmospheric circulation of a tidally locked Earth-like planet and the role of the sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proedrou, Elisavet; Hocke, Klemens; Wurz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) changes on the middle atmosphere of a tidally locked Earth-like planet orbiting a G star using the coupled 3D chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM). We perform three 90 day simulations. The first simulation is a present-day Earth (PDE) simulation, the second is a simulation of a tidally locked Earth-like planet with a tidally locked aquaplanet sea surface temperature (cold TLE (CLTE)) and the third is a hybrid simulation of a tidally locked Earth-like planet with a present-day Earth sea surface temperature (warm TLE (WTLE)). Our results show that changes in the SST have an influence on the lower stratospheric temperature and the secondary ozone layer. Both atmospheres exhibit a dayside upwelling and a nightside downwelling extending from the surface to the mesosphere. They are also characterised by comparable lower and middle stratospheric horizontal winds and relatively different mesospheric horizontal winds. The temperature of the WTLE atmosphere is altered as a result of the SST changes, compared to the CTLE. Specifically, the WTLE lower tropospheric temperature is increased by 3.7 K on average, due to the absorption of the increased upwelling longwave radiation and the increased sensible and latent heat. The WTLE upper troposphere temperature is decreased by 4 K on average, is adiabatic in nature, and is generated by the increased WTLE upwelling. The WLTE lower stratospheric temperature is increased by 3.8 K on average due to the absorption of the increased upwelling longwave radiation. The lower mesospheric temperature is decreased by 1.13 K on average due to increased mesospheric wave breaking. The upper mesospheric temperature is increased by 4.3 K, and its generation mechanism is currently unknown. Furthermore, the secondary ozone volume mixing ratio is increased by 40.5 %. The occurrence of large-scale vortices and variable jet streams depends, to some extent, on the SST distribution.

  15. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  16. Analyzing earth's surface data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, D. J.; Elifrits, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Manual discusses simple inexpensive image analysis technique used to interpret photographs and scanner of data of Earth's surface. Manual is designed for those who have no need for sophisticated computer-automated analysis procedures.

  17. Climatic responses to tropical sea surface temperature changes on a ``greenhouse'' Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthew; Sloan, L. Cirbus

    2000-08-01

    The uncertainty associated with tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during past "greenhouse" climates may have important and unaccounted for effects. We explore early Paleogene climatic sensitivity to changes in tropical-subtropical SSTs with a general circulation model. We demonstrate that tropical SST changes have local and far-field climatic effects, underscoring their importance in understanding greenhouse climates. The responses of winds, upwelling, and surface water balance to tropical SST changes are substantial. Our results indicate that current tropical SST reconstructions may have a significant cool bias despite corrections and that the existence of hot (>30°C) tropical SSTs may be realistic for greenhouse climate intervals, including the Eocene.

  18. Diagnostics of a cause-effect relation between solar activity and the Earth's global surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    The influence of solar activity on the Earth’s global surface temperature (GST) was quantified. The method for estimation of the Granger causality was used, with analysis of the improvement of the prediction of one process by using data from another process as compared to autoprediction. Two versions of reconstructions of the solar flux variations associated with solar activity were used, according to Hoyt et al. [1997] for 1680 1992 (data H) and according to Lean et al. [2005] for 1610 2005 (data L). In general, the estimation results for the two reconstructions are reasonably well consistent. A significant influence of solar activity on GST with a positive sign was found for two periods, from the late 19th century to the late 1930s and from the latter half of the 1940s to the early 1990s, with no inertia or time delay. In these periods, up to 8 and 25% of the variance of the GST change, respectively, can be attributed to solar activity variations. The solar influence increased in the 1980s to the early 1990s according to data H and began to decrease in the latter half of the 1980s according to data L.

  19. A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbas, E. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Knuteson, R.; Feltz, M.; Hook, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA has identified a major need to develop long-term, consistent products valid across multiple missions, with well-defined uncertainty statistics addressing specific Earth science questions. These types of data sets are termed Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) and are defined as long-term, well calibrated and validated data records for Earth Science research. Land surface temperature and emissivity (LST&E) data have been identified as an important ESDR by NASA and many other international organizations, e.g. GCOS. LST&E data are essential for a wide variety of surface-atmosphere studies, from calculating the evapotranspiration of plant canopies to retrieving atmospheric water vapor. LST&E products are currently generated from sensors in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as the NASA-EOS MODIS instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites as well as from sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Sensors in LEO orbits provide global coverage at moderate spatial resolutions (~1-km) but more limited temporal coverage (twice-daily), while sensors in GEO orbits provide more frequent measurements (hourly) at lower spatial resolutions (~3-4 km) over a geographically restricted area. LST&E products from these instruments are currently produced using different emissivities, atmospheric correction, and algorithmic approaches, and usually do not include a full set of uncertainty metrics. NASA has recognized this general lack of consistency between science products and has identified the need to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. We address this problem by generating three self-consistent LST&E ESDRs from 2000-2018 with well defined uncertainties; 1) a unified global LEO LST-ESDR at 1-km spatial resolution and resampled to daily, 8-day and monthly; 2) a unified N. and S. America GEO LST-ESDR at 5-km spatial resolution and resampled to hourly temporal resolution; 3) a unified

  20. Sea and land surface temperatures, ocean heat content, Earth's energy imbalance and net radiative forcing over the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Cazenave, Anny; Meyssignac, Benoit; Schuckmann, Karina

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's global mean surface temperature (GMST) has increased less rapidly since the early 2000s than during the previous decades. Here we investigate the regional distribution of the reported temperature slowdown, focusing on the 2003-2014 decade of most complete global datasets. We find that both land surface temperature (LST) and sea surface temperature (SST) have increased at a rate significantly lower than over the previous decades with small regional differences. While confirming cooling of eastern tropical Pacific during the last decade, our results show that the reduced rate of change is a global phenomenon. We further evaluate the time derivative of full-depth ocean heat content to determine the planetary energy imbalance based on three different approaches: in situ measurements, ocean reanalysis and an indirect measure through the global sea level budget. For the 2003-2014 time span, it is estimated to 0.5 +/- 0.06 Wm-2, 0.64 +/- 0.04 Wm-2, and 0.6 +/- 0.07 Wm-2, respectively for the 3 approaches. We constrain the ocean heat uptake rates using the EBAF energy imbalance time series from the CERES/TOA project and find significant agreement at interannual scales. Finally, we compute the net radiative forcing of the last decade, considering the radiative feedback from observed GMST and the 3 different rates of the total ocean heat content. We obtain values of 1.6 +/- 0.19 Wm-2, 1.75 +/- 0.17 Wm-2, and 1.70 +/- 0.19 Wm-2, respectively over 2003-2014. We find no evidence of decrease in the net radiative forcing in the recent years, but rather increase compared to the previous decades.

  1. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  2. The CRUTEM4 land-surface air temperature dataset: construction, previous versions and dissemination via Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, T. J.; Jones, P. D.

    2013-10-01

    The CRUTEM4 (Climatic Research Unit Temperature version 4) land-surface air temperature dataset is one of the most widely used records of the climate system. Here we provide an important additional dissemination route for this dataset: online access to monthly, seasonal and annual data values and timeseries graphs via Google Earth. This is achieved via an interface written in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and also provides access to the underlying weather station data used to construct the CRUTEM4 dataset. A mathematical description of the construction of the CRUTEM4 dataset (and its predecessor versions) is also provided, together with an archive of some previous versions and a recommendation for identifying the precise version of the dataset used in a particular study. The CRUTEM4 dataset used here is available from doi:10.5285/EECBA94F-62F9-4B7C-88D3-482F2C93C468.

  3. The CRUTEM4 land-surface air temperature data set: construction, previous versions and dissemination via Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, T. J.; Jones, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    The CRUTEM4 (Climatic Research Unit Temperature, version 4) land-surface air temperature data set is one of the most widely used records of the climate system. Here we provide an important additional dissemination route for this data set: online access to monthly, seasonal and annual data values and time series graphs via Google Earth. This is achieved via an interface written in Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and also provides access to the underlying weather station data used to construct the CRUTEM4 data set. A mathematical description of the construction of the CRUTEM4 data set (and its predecessor versions) is also provided, together with an archive of some previous versions and a recommendation for identifying the precise version of the data set used in a particular study. The CRUTEM4 data set used here is available from doi:10.5285/EECBA94F-62F9-4B7C-88D3-482F2C93C468.

  4. Kinetic Fractionation Of Heavy Stable Isotopes At Earth Surface Temperatures: Complexity And Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    2003-04-01

    Many applications of heavy stable isotopes are aimed at the oceans, ground water and surface water. In these environments, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo isotope variations have been observed, and in most cases are generated by kinetic isotope effects (KIE's). Whereas equilibrium isotope effects are thermodynamic quantities that are insensitive to reaction mechanisms, KIE's depend strongly on reaction mechanisms and conditions. For example, the rates of reactions, the speciation of dissolved elements, and transient effects can all greatly affect the sizes of KIE's. Accurate interpretations of measured heavy stable isotope variations thus depend on sufficient understanding of variability in KIE's. Complexity in KIE's arises when they are induced by reactions consisting of multiple reaction steps arranged in series and possibly with branches. Paradoxically, a reaction can have a small KIE even though a single step within it has a large KIE. The key to understanding this, as explained in the carbon and sulfur isotope literature, is to consider the sizes and isotopic compositions of the intermediate species between steps. Intermediates consumed by relatively fast steps have low concentrations and short residence times, and tend to become strongly enriched in heavier isotopes. This reduces the size of the overall KIE. However, this situation takes some time to be established, and in the very early stages of reactions, "start-up effects" may be observed, with anomalously large KIE's. In the face of such complexity, laboratory and field experiments are both needed to develop understanding of KIE systematics. Simple laboratory experiments provide insight into the likely dependence of KIE's on reaction mechanisms and conditions. More complex laboratory experiments (e.g., sediment microcosms) can mimic natural conditions somewhat and provide estimates of naturally relevant KIE's. Finally, in-situ measurement of KIE's in natural settings are needed to determine naturally relevant

  5. Surface Temperatures of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisfeiler, M.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    In the search for habitable exoplanets, the planet's surface temperature plays a crucial role. Unfortunately, direct measurements of surface temperature are not available at this time. Many physical processes influence the surface temperature distribution of a planet. However, the dominating influence is an energy balance between the stellar radiation input and the radiative surface loss of heat. With the further assumptions of a uniform planetary surface temperature, no filtering of the incoming radiation, and black body emission, the only variables are the stellar luminosity and the radial distance of the exoplanet from the star. For the solar system, agreement with observations is quite good except for Venus. The agreement is good for both the inner planets and the outer planets. In this paper we systematically look at methods of improving the zero order approach given above. We consider the filtering of the incoming radiation and the grey body emission. This accounts for the greenhouse effect and can explain the surface temperature of Venus. We systematically vary the filtering of incoming radiation and the emissivities of the daytime and nighttime surfaces. There is evidence that greenhouse heating on the Earth is primarily at nighttime. Different emissivities can explain this effect. It is straightforward to extend the energy balance analysis to include the latitude dependence of surface temperature. Good agreement is obtained at low latitudes but temperature buffering and heat transport by the oceans and atmosphere are clearly important at high latitudes. It is also straightforward to estimate the difference between the daytime and nighttime temperatures. The important parameter is the rotation rate of the exoplanet. The roles of the oceans and the atmosphere in moderating this difference on the Earth will be discussed. Some exoplanets are sufficiently close to their star to have temperatures above the melting temperatures and even the vaporization

  6. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  7. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  8. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

  9. Climate change stored below the earth`s surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cermak, V.; Safanda, J.; Kresl, M.

    1997-12-31

    Earth`s subsurface has a certain capability to remember what has happened on its surface tens to hundreds (or even thousands) years ago. Long-term climate changes accompanied by variations in tile mean annual temperature determine tile soil temperature, the time variations of which then propagate downwards with an attenuated amplitude and delayed phase. Ground surface temperature (GST) history, reflecting the past climate, can thus be evaluated by analysing its excursions left on the present-day temperature-depth T(z) distribution measured by precise temperature logging in the boreholes. Whereas the depths of several hundred metres may still keep and reveal a reliable record oil the climate of the past several centuries, tile uppermost layer of 100-150 in presents a plentiful archive of the recent global warming. Several characteristic examples of extracted climate recollections from holes all over the world will be resented and discussed.

  10. Investigating the recent apparent hiatus in surface temperature increases: 1. Construction of two 30-member Earth System Model ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outten, Stephen; Thorne, Peter; Bethke, Ingo; Seland, Øyvind

    2015-09-01

    The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, along with numerous studies since, has suggested that the apparent global warming hiatus results from some combination of natural variability and changes to external forcings. Herein the external forcings for greenhouse gases (GHGs), long-lived trace gases, volcanic and tropospheric aerosols, and solar irradiance have been replaced in the Norwegian Earth System Model using recent observational estimates. The potential impact of these alternative forcings, and by residual the internally generated variability, is examined through two 30-member ensembles covering the period 1980 to 2012. The Reference ensemble uses the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 historical forcings extended with the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario, while the Sensitivity ensemble uses the alternative forcings. Over the hiatus period defined herein as 1998-2012, all of the forcings show some change between the Sensitivity and Reference experiments and have a combined net forcing change of -0.03 W m-2. The GHG forcing is 0.012 W m-2 higher in the Sensitivity forcings. The alternative solar forcing differs from the Reference forcing by -0.08 W m-2, the same as the alternative volcanic forcing that was based on the latest estimates from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions were replaced using the EU-EclipseV4a data set and produce a mean forcing change of 0.11 W m-2 over the period. Part 1 details the creation of the two 30-member ensembles and their characterization for parameters of particular relevance to the explanation of the hiatus. A detailed investigation of the two resulting ensembles global surface temperature behavior is given in Part 2, along with comparisons to observational data sets.

  11. Role of anthropogenic aerosols in the20th century surface solar radiation, temperature, and meridional heat transport in the Max Planck Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It is still debated, to what degree anthropogenic aerosols were affected surface temperatures - especially over sea surfaces - through alteration of surface solar radiation (SSR). Previous work using mixed-layer ocean equilibria corroborated the relevance of anthropogenic aerosols for surface temperature response patterns obtained. Here we complement these studies by fully coupled simulations with the Max Planck Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) in its CMIP5 version. Experiments comprise preindustrial control and historical as in CMIP5, as well as transient experiments 1850 - 2000 with either anthropogenic aerosols or well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) kept at 1850 levels. With this suite of experiments, we analyse the impact of anthropogenic aerosols and WMGHG on the global energy balance and provide estimates of atmospheric and oceanic meridional heat transport changes in our modeling setup. We find that Global mean surface temperature responses to single forcings are additive. Furthermore, spatial surface temperature response patterns in the WMGHG only experiment are more strongly correlated with the historical experiment than the aerosol only case. We compare transient and equilibrium responses and discuss potential implications of not allowing for cloud-aerosol interactions in the transient modeling set-up.

  12. Zooming into temperature conditions in the city of Leipzig: how do urban built and green structures influence earth surface temperatures in the city?

    PubMed

    Weber, Nicole; Haase, Dagmar; Franck, Ulrich

    2014-10-15

    Urban landscape and land-use structure, particularly that of built space, were found to have a significant impact on environmental exposures, e.g., on the level and spatial distribution of particle and noise exposure in cities. Climate change will increase the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves. Hence, the question arises: how do urban structures affect the shape and intensity of urban temperature conditions? To answer this question, multiple urban structures have been quantified in terms of their structural patterns and configuration using the landscape metric (LSM) approach. The results of a linear regression analysis showed that both the edge density and patch size ratio are significantly correlated with the spread and intensity of temperatures across all urban built structures. The analysis shows that the higher the proportion and structural complexity of the built area, the higher are the morning and evening surface temperatures. LSMs were found to be very well suited as analysis models of the site-specific temperature impact beyond the aggregate city level. Hence, they may serve as a planning tool for urban adaptation measures to climate change.

  13. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments

  14. Linking Deep Earth and Surface Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the important developments in Earth science over the past decade has been recognition of the significance of linking deep Earth dynamic processes with surface and near-surface geologic processes [e.g., Braun, 2010]. Deep Earth research, encompassing fields such as seismology and mantle geodynamics, has traditionally operated distinctly from fields focusing on dynamics of the Earth's surface, such as sedimentology and geomorphology. However, these endeavors have in common the study of Earth's topography and the prediction of changes in its surface. Observables from surface studies, such as basin stratigraphy, geomorphology of landscapes, changes in surface elevation, and changes in sea level, provide some of the principal constraints on geodynamic and tectonic models. Conversely, deep geodynamic processes give rise to the topography, erosion, and sediment generation that are the basis of surface geology. Surface manifestations of deep geodynamic processes have significant societal impact by creating natural hazards, such as earthquakes and mass movements, and controlling the distribution of natural resources such as fossil fuels or geothermal energy. The relevance of research conducted in both the deep Earth and surface regimes is thus enhanced through a focus on their interaction.

  15. Hydrology: The dynamics of Earth's surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Dai; Trigg, Mark A.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution satellite mapping of Earth's surface water during the past 32 years reveals changes in the planet's water systems, including the influence of natural cycles and human activities. See Letter p.418

  16. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Initiation of clement surface conditions on the earliest Earth

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, N. H.; Zahnle, K.; Neuhoff, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning the surface of the Earth was extremely hot, because the Earth as we know it is the product of a collision between two planets, a collision that also created the Moon. Most of the heat within the very young Earth was lost quickly to space while the surface was still quite hot. As it cooled, the Earth's surface passed monotonically through every temperature regime between silicate vapor to liquid water and perhaps even to ice, eventually reaching an equilibrium with sunlight. Inevitably the surface passed through a time when the temperature was around 100°C at which modern thermophile organisms live. How long this warm epoch lasted depends on how long a thick greenhouse atmosphere can be maintained by heat flow from the Earth's interior, either directly as a supplement to insolation, or indirectly through its influence on the nascent carbonate cycle. In both cases, the duration of the warm epoch would have been controlled by processes within the Earth's interior where buffering by surface conditions played little part. A potentially evolutionarily significant warm period of between 105 and 107 years seems likely, which nonetheless was brief compared to the vast expanse of geological time. PMID:11259665

  18. Ocular surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Efron, N; Young, G; Brennan, N A

    1989-09-01

    A wide-field color-coded infra-red imaging device was applied to the measurement of i) the temperature profile across the ocular surface and ii) the temporal stability of central corneal temperature, on 21 subjects. The thermographs showed a pattern of ellipsoidal isotherms (major axis horizontal) approximately concentric about a temperature apex (coldest point) which was slightly inferior to the geometric center of the cornea (GCC). The GCC had a mean temperature (+/- SD) of 34.3 +/- 0.7 degrees C (range 32.8 to 35.4 degrees C). Temperature increased towards the periphery of the cornea with the limbus being 0.45 degrees C warmer than the GCC (p less than 0.0001). Following a blink, the GCC cooled at a mean (+/- SD) rate of 0.033 +/- 0.024 degrees C/s (p less than 0.0001) over the first 15s. Subjects whose corneas cooled more slowly following a blink demonstrated a greater capacity to avoid blinking for a prolonged period (p less than 0.05). This improved method of measuring ocular surface temperature has important applications in modeling corneal physiology and pathology.

  19. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  20. Surface temperature measurement errors

    SciTech Connect

    Keltner, N.R.; Beck, J.V.

    1983-05-01

    Mathematical models are developed for the response of surface mounted thermocouples on a thick wall. These models account for the significant causes of errors in both the transient and steady-state response to changes in the wall temperature. In many cases, closed form analytical expressions are given for the response. The cases for which analytical expressions are not obtained can be easily evaluated on a programmable calculator or a small computer.

  1. Calibration of surface temperature on rocky exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap Jagadeesh, Madhu

    2016-07-01

    Study of exoplanets and the search for life elsewhere has been a very fascinating area in recent years. Presently, lots of efforts have been channelled in this direction in the form of space exploration and the ultimate search for the habitable planet. One of the parametric methods to analyse the data available from the missions such as Kepler, CoRoT, etc, is the Earth Similarity Index (ESI), defined as a number between zero (no similarity) and one (identical to Earth), introduced to assess the Earth likeness of exoplanets. A multi-parameter ESI scale depends on the radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of exoplanets. Our objective is to establish how exactly the individual parameters, entering the interior ESI and surface ESI, are contributing to the global ESI, using the graphical analysis. Presently, the surface temperature estimates are following a correction factor of 30 K, based on the Earth's green-house effect. The main objective of this work in calculations of the global ESI using the HabCat data is to introduce a new method to better estimate the surface temperature of exoplanets, from theoretical formula with fixed albedo factor and emissivity (Earth values). From the graphical analysis of the known data for the Solar System objects, we established the calibration relation between surface and equilibrium temperatures for the Solar System objects. Using extrapolation we found that the power function is the closest description of the trend to attain surface temperature. From this we conclude that the correction term becomes very effective way to calculate the accurate value of the surface temperature, for further analysis with our graphical methodology.

  2. The surface of near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Martin

    1991-01-01

    The surfaces of near-Earth asteroids are expected to differ significantly from those of large objects like the moon because of their different origin and evolution. A selection of such objects for an extensive procurement of material will also be made on criteria like the surface roughness and the rotation rate with respect to the surface gravity. From the currently known distribution of near-Earth asteroid rotation rates it is shown that a significant fraction of them is rotating near their escape velocities. The determination of macroscopic surface roughness from rotation light curves under an assumption of a fractal surface geometry is discussed. Much information is expected from the variation of harmonic expansions of the light curves with the phase angle.

  3. The Human Transformation of the Earth's Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the tremendous transformation that human beings have wrought on the earth's surface from the Holocene to the present. Traces this transformation through various stages: the emergence and development of agriculture, agricultural impact and land degradation, ecological and political imperialism, industrialization, and environmental…

  4. The thermodynamic effect of atmospheric mass on early Earth's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemke, R.; Kaspi, Y.; Halevy, I.

    2016-11-01

    Observations suggest that Earth's early atmospheric mass differed from the present day. The effects of a different atmospheric mass on radiative forcing have been investigated in climate models of variable sophistication, but a mechanistic understanding of the thermodynamic component of the effect of atmospheric mass on early climate is missing. Using a 3-D idealized global circulation model (GCM), we systematically examine the thermodynamic effect of atmospheric mass on near-surface temperature. We find that higher atmospheric mass tends to increase the near-surface temperature mostly due to an increase in the heat capacity of the atmosphere, which decreases the net radiative cooling effect in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Additionally, the vertical advection of heat by eddies decreases with increasing atmospheric mass, resulting in further near-surface warming. As both net radiative cooling and vertical eddy heat fluxes are extratropical phenomena, higher atmospheric mass tends to flatten the meridional temperature gradient.

  5. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  6. On the temperature of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, J. Adin, Jr.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the temperature of a surface is introduced from the viewpoint of the physical chemistry of surfaces. The surface, near surface and microlayer regions of the interface are defined. Most methods measure the temperature of the microlayer or at best the near surface region and may err in representing the surface temperature. Methods based on capillary ripples actually measure the surface temperature since surface tension (or surface tension tensor when a monolayer has been spread or absorbed at the interface) is the main restoring force that controls their propagation. Light scattering methods are described for determining the elevation of very small amplitude capillary waves through the computation of various correlation functions from which the surface tension can be estimated. Procedures for estimating the surface temperature are described.

  7. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  8. On Similarities Between the Earth Rotation and Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.

    Earths rotation reflects processes in the atmosphere, ocean, Earths interior. The similarities between the global temperature oscillations and Earths rotation speed changes are well known, but still are not explained. We also have found similarities between ~ 20-year temperature oscillations, Chandler excitation envelope and cycle of regression of the Moon orbital nodes. In this short article we want to attract attention to this fact.

  9. Impact of decreasing sea ice cover and warming Arctic surface temperature on the Northern mid-latitude climate - comparison of coupled with uncoupled EC-Earth simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmler, T.; Gleeson, E.; McGrath, R.; Jung, T.

    2012-04-01

    Idealized atmosphere-only simulations with reduced and removed Arctic sea-ice cover and increased Arctic surface temperatures are compared with fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice simulations for 1850-2100 including increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. While the uncoupled simulations only contain surface forcing in the areas of Arctic sea-ice of the reference simulation, the coupled simulations show warming over the whole globe although in the Arctic the strongest signal occurs in all seasons but summer. A warming of more than 21 °C over the northern Barents Sea in winter 2001-2100 compared to winter 1851-1950 is simulated according to the strong RCP 8.5 scenario. The weakest warming within the area north of 40 °N can be seen south of Greenland and Iceland with even a slight cooling simulated in spring according to the moderate RCP 4.5 scenario, due to a weakened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Over the Central Arctic a baroclinic response, i.e. sea level pressure decrease and 500 hPa geopotential increase, can be seen in both the uncoupled and the coupled simulations. Barotropic responses with sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential increases occur in the uncoupled simulations over Eastern Europe and in the coupled simulations south of Iceland and over the west coast of the US.

  10. Did surface temperatures constrain microbial evolution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, D.; McMenamin, M.; Volk, T.

    1993-01-01

    The proposition that glaciation may not have occurred before the Cenozoic--albeit not yet a consensus position--nevertheless raises for reconsideration the surface temperature history of the earth. Glacial episodes, from the Huronian (2.3 billion years ago; BYA) through the late Paleozoic (320 to 250 million years ago; MYA) have been critical constraints on estimation of the upper bounds of temperature (Crowley 1983, Kasting and Toon 1989). Once removed, few if any constraints on the upper temperature limit other than life remain. Walker (1982) recognized that life provides an upper limit to temperature in the Precambrian. We propose a more radical concept: the upper temperature limit for viable growth of a given microbial group corresponds to the actual surface temperature at the time of the group's first appearance. In particular, we propose here that two major evolutionary developments--the emergence of cyanobacteria and aerobic eukaryotes--can be used to determine surface temperature in the Precambrian, and that only subsequent cooling mediated by higher plants and then angiosperms permitted what may possibly be the earth's first glaciation in the late Cenozoic.

  11. The international surface temperature initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  12. The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Earth surface slide movement at Soledad is a mountain-slide type of movement. Estimations of the thickness of the layer which is moving range between 10 and 100 m. There is no proof that the movement is water induced, but it could be influenced by the water household. The slope of the slide area is H: D = 1: 2. The height difference in the moving area studied, according to this paper, is 1 km. The actual rate of movement is about 12 cm/yr.

  13. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that NH3 and other reducing gases were present in the earth's primitive atmosphere, enhancing the global greenhouse effect; data obtained through isotopic archeothermometry support this hypothesis. Computations have been applied to the evolution of surface temperatures on Mars, considering various bolometric albedos and compositions. The results are of interest in the study of Martian sinuous channels which may have been created by aqueous fluvial errosion, and imply that clement conditions may have previously occurred on Mars, and may occur in the future.

  14. Quantifying the Lack of Consistency between Climate Model Projections and Observations of the Evolution of the Earth's Average Surface Temperature since the Mid-20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, P. J.; Knappenberger, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent climate change literature has been dominated by studies which show that the equilibrium climate sensitivity is better constrained than the latest estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) and that the best estimate of the climate sensitivity is considerably lower than the climate model ensemble average. From the recent literature, the central estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity is ~2°C, while the climate model average is ~3.2°C, or an equilibrium climate sensitivity that is some 40% lower than the model average.To the extent that the recent literature produces a more accurate estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity than does the climate model average, it means that the projections of future climate change given by both the IPCC and NCA are, by default, some 40% too large (too rapid) and the associated (and described) impacts are gross overestimates.A quantitative test of climate model performance can be made by comparing the range of model projections against observations of the evolution of the global average surface temperature since the mid-20th century. Here, we perform such a comparison on a collection of 108 model runs comprising the ensemble used in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report and find that the observed global average temperature evolution for all trend lengths (with one exception) since 1986 is less than 97.5% of the model distribution, meaning that the observed trends are significantly different from the average trend simulated by climate models. For periods approaching 40 years in length, the observed trend lies outside of (below) the range that includes 95% of all climate model simulations.We conclude that at the global scale, this suite of climate models has failed. Treating them as mathematical hypotheses, which they are, means that it is the duty of scientists to, unfortunately, reject their predictions in lieu of those with a lower climate

  15. Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Spanu, Leonardo; Donadio, Davide; Hohl, Detlef; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Determining the thermochemical properties of hydrocarbons (HCs) at high pressure and temperature is a key step toward understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in the deep Earth. The stability of carbon-hydrogen systems at depths greater than a few thousand meters is poorly understood and the extent of abiogenic HCs in the Earth mantle remains controversial. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations aimed at investigating the formation of higher HCs from dissociation of pure methane, and in the presence of carbon surfaces and transition metals, for pressures of 2 to 30 GPa and temperatures of 800 to 4,000 K. We show that for T≥2,000 K and P≥4 GPa HCs higher than methane are energetically favored. Our results indicate that higher HCs become more stable between 1,000 and 2,000 K and P≥4 GPa. The interaction of methane with a transition metal facilitates the formation of these HCs in a range of temperature where otherwise pure methane would be metastable. Our results provide a unified interpretation of several recent experiments and a detailed microscopic model of methane dissociation and polymerization at high pressure and temperature.

  16. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  17. HCMM satellite to take earth's temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The heat capacity mapping mission (HCMM), a low cost modular spacecraft built for the Applications Explorer Missions (AEM), was designed to allow scientists to determine the feasibility of using day/night thermal infrared remote sensor-derived data to: (1) discriminate various rock types and locate mineral resources; (2) measure and monitor surface soil moisture changes; (3) measure plant canopy temperatures at frequent intervals to determine transpiration of water and plant stress; and (4) measure urban heat islands. The design of the spacecraft (AEM-A), its payload, launch vehicle, orbit, and data collection and processing methods are described. Projects in which the HCMM data will be applied by 12 American and 12 foreign investigators are summarized.

  18. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  19. Flexible Multiplexed Surface Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, Preston B.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Unitary array of sensors measures temperatures at points distributed over designated area on surface. Useful in measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models and thermally controlled objects. Made of combination of integrated-circuit microchips and film circuitry. Temperature-sensing chips scanned at speeds approaching 10 kHz. Operating range minus 40 degrees C to 120 degrees C. Flexibility of array conforms to curved surfaces. Multiplexer eliminates numerous monitoring cables. Control of acquisition and recording of data effected by connecting array to microcomputers via suitable interface circuitry.

  20. Geodiversity of the Earth's surface and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastochkin, Alexander; Zhirov, Andrey; Boltramovich, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Geologic and geographic objects can be successfully systemized based on the mathematical theories of diversity and sets. This can give us a clear understanding of the nomenclature of the Earth's surface: its elements, forms, as well as their combinations and structures. All these surface structural units are closely related to elementary landscapes, or geotops (other elementary locations such as biotops, lythotops, edafotops, hydrotops, climatops, and etc. can also be considered). Both surface structural units and corresponding geotops should be studied on two systematic levels: 1) the morphological one that provides us with the taxonomic (by unit size) and meronomic (by unit complexity) information, and 2) the dynamical one that allows working out various interpretations: geo-flows and their influence on the Earth's surface (including new formation and complete destruction of elements and forms), sustainability of geodiversity, etc. At the present time, the dynamical level is in a process of defining clear criteria and developing relevant classification. The morphological level has in turn three sub-levels: a) relief elements, b) landforms (geomorphosystems), and c) regions (super-geomorphosystems). The entire set of two-dimensional surface elements comprises 52 variants (elementary surfaces) and more than 2,700 three-dimensional geotops. Each of the geotops is characterized by four different exposures: gravitational (hypso- and bathymetric position, steepness, vertical and horizontal curvature), insolational (dip azimuth of the location), circulating (orientation against prevailing flows - frontal, rear or flank position), and anthropogenic ones. The most contrasting geotops are tied to the upper (tops, crests and their adjacent areas) and lower (bottoms, thalwegs and their adjacent areas) relief elements. Slope elements (faces, cliffs, terraces, and feet) serve as the linking areas and determine not the diversity as such but, first of all, commonalities of the

  1. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A.; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C18H12) on a Gd2O3. Our study evidences a novel effect – oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level. PMID:28327642

  2. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-22

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C18H12) on a Gd2O3. Our study evidences a novel effect - oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  3. Surface chemistry of rare-earth oxide surfaces at ambient conditions: reactions with water and hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külah, Elçin; Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Romanyuk, Andriy; Jung, Thomas A.; Wäckerlin, Aneliia; Meyer, Ernst

    2017-03-01

    Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics. Here we first address physical properties of the RE oxide, nitride and fluoride surfaces modified by exposure to ambient air and then we report a room temperature reaction between PAH and RE oxide surfaces, exemplified by tetracene (C18H12) on a Gd2O3. Our study evidences a novel effect – oxidation of higher hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures (~300 K) than previously reported (>500 K). The evolution of the surface chemical composition of RE compounds in ambient air is investigated and correlated with the surface wetting. Our surprising results reveal the complex behavior of RE surfaces and motivate follow-up studies of reactions between PAH and catalytic surfaces at the single molecule level.

  4. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of these binary NEAs with all NEAs and rapidly rotating NEAs suggests a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. --- Acknowledgments This research was carried out while Marco Delbo and Kevin Walsh were Henri Poincare Fellows at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur. The Henri Poincare Fellowship is funded by the CNRS-INSU, the Conseil General des Alpes-Maritimes and the Rotary International -- District 1730.

  5. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  6. The Temperature of the Earth in 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In spite of the confusion in the public discourse about global warming, there is no doubt that the Earth has been warming for the past century. The chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere is complex, and it is sometimes difficult to claim cause-and-effect with certainty. Nevertheless, the evidence seems clear that CO2 and non-CO2 forcings such as methane and air pollution are causally related to this warming trend. Our dependence on fossil fuels make it difficult to expect that massive reductions in CO2 will be feasible in the near-term, however. In this talk I will consider the evidence for global warming, the extent to which we can extrapolate current trends into the future if no changes in global policy are introduced, and those near-term policies that might be realistically introduced to significantly affect those trends.

  7. Superconductivity above the lowest Earth temperature in pressurized sulfur hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Antonio; Jarlborg, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    A recent experiment has shown a macroscopic quantum coherent condensate at 203 K, about 19 degrees above the coldest temperature recorded on the Earth surface, 184 K (-89.2 ^\\circ \\text{C}, -128.6 ^\\circ \\text{F}) in pressurized sulfur hydride. This discovery is relevant not only in material science and condensed matter but also in other fields ranging from quantum computing to quantum physics of living matter. It has given the start to a gold rush looking for other macroscopic quantum coherent condensates in hydrides at the temperature range of living matter 200c <400 \\text{K} . We present here a review of the experimental results and the theoretical works and we discuss the Fermiology of \\text{H}3\\text{S} focusing on Lifshitz transitions as a function of pressure. We discuss the possible role of the shape resonance near a neck disrupting Lifshitz transition, in the Bianconi-Perali-Valletta (BPV) theory, for rising the critical temperature in a multigap superconductor, as the Feshbach resonance rises the critical temperature in Fermionic ultracold gases.

  8. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  10. Global surface temperatures and the atmospheric electrical circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin

    1993-01-01

    To monitor future global temperature trends, it would be extremely useful if parameters nonlinearly related to surface temperature could be found, thereby amplifying any warming signal that may exist. Evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations is presented. Since global thunderstorm activity is also well correlated with the earth's ionospheric potential, it appears that variations of ionospheric potential, that can be measured at a single location, may be able to supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. The observations presented enable a prediction that a 1 percent increase in global surface temperatures may result in a 20 percent increase in ionospheric potential.

  11. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  12. PRISM3 Pliocene Sea surface Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Foley, K.; Caballero, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project provides a conceptual model and synoptic view of the earth during a considerably warmer than modern (2-3°C warmer global mean annual temperature) interval (mid-Piacenzian Age, Pliocene Epoch; ~3.3 to 3.0 Ma) through reconstruction of sea-surface temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental parameters. The PRISM3 SST fields include new equatorial Pacific and subpolar - polar North Atlantic components based upon multiproxy (faunal, alkenone and Mg/Ca) temperature analyses from new sites. These data are presented in 12 interpolated global fields with 2° spatial resolution representing monthly SST estimates. Results show a reduced longitudinal temperature gradient across the equatorial Pacific and extension of warm North Atlantic surface conditions into the eastern regions of the Arctic Ocean near Spitzbergen. These data are part of the PRISM3 paleoenvironmental reconstruction designed in part to provide climate modeling groups with new SST and alternative land cover reconstructions, 3-dimensional deep ocean temperature, topography and sea level. The PRISM3 reconstruction is the primary data source for the new Pliocene Climate Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP).

  13. Earth Surface Patterns in 200 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, B.

    2009-12-01

    What kinds of patterns will characterize Earth's surface in 200 years? This question is addressed using a complex systems dynamical framework for distinct levels of description in a hierarchy, in which time scale and spatial extent increase and number of variables decrease with level, and in which levels are connected nonlinearly to each other via self-organization and slaving and linearly to the external environment. Self-organized patterns linking the present to 200 years in the future must be described dynamically on a level with a time scale of centuries. Human-landscape coupling will play a prominent role in the formation of these patterns as population peaks and interactions become nonlinear over these time scales. Three related examples illustrate this approach. First, the response of human-occupied coastlines to rising sea level. Coastlines in wealthy regions develop a spatially varying boom and bust pattern, with response amplified by structures meant to delay the effects of sea level rise. Coastlines in economically disadvantaged regions experience a subdued response, with populations developing a culture of displacement that minimizes human-landscape interactions in a context of scarce resources. Second, the evolution of nation-state borders with degrading ecosystems, declining resource availability and increasing transportation costs. The maintenance of strong borders as selective filtration systems (goods, capital and people) is based on a cost-benefit analysis in which the economic benefits accruing from long distance, globalized resource exploitation are weighed against policing and infrastructure costs. As costs rise above benefits, borders fragment, with a transition to local barriers and conflicts, and mobile peoples moving to resources. Third, trends in urbanization and development of megacities under economic and environmental stress. The pattern of rapid growth of megacities through inward migration, with displaced people occupying high

  14. Temperature of the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows the nighttime (2 AM) temperature of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 500 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The coldest temperatures (shown in purple) are -120C and the warmest temperatures (white) are -65C. The pattern of nighttime temperature in the equatorial region indicates variations in the particle size of the surface materials.

    The coldest regions are areas of very fine (dust) grains, while the warmest regions are areas of coarse sand, gravel, and rocks. Valles Marineris (-10S, 30-90W) and the channels leading into Acidalia Planitia and the Pathfinder landing site (5-20N; 20-45W) are clearly visible as regions of warm (sand and rock) material. The cold regions in the south mark the edge of the south polar cap. The pattern of nighttime temperatures observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).

  15. Deep drilling; Probing beneath the earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.250

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on boreholes from 4.5 to greater than 10 kilometers deep that are pushing back the boundaries of earth science as they yield information that is used to refine seismic surveys, chart the evolution of sedimentary basins and shield volcanos, and uncover important clues on the origin and migration of mantle-derived water and gas.

  16. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle of Titan's and Earth's surface climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, T.

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of the seasonal cycle of Titan's surface temperature, surface pressure and surface wind and their implication for weather are compared with the terrestrial counterpart. The surface climatology of Titan predicted by a GCM and partly observed by Cassini is presented side by side with the well-known Earth's climatology. Even though the surface temperature varies only by a few K in the course of a Titan year, the seasonality of Titan's surface climate is partly more pronounced than on Earth in a qualitative sense. The seasonal forcing can completely reverse the global circulation and precipitation pattern on almost entire Titan in a monsoon-like fashion. This high sensitivity of Titan's climate to small seasonal temperature variations can be mainly ascribed to Titan's slow rotation.

  17. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  18. Mission to Earth: LANDSAT Views the World. [Color imagery of the earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Freden, S. C.; Finch, W. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT program and system is described. The entire global land surface of Earth is visualized in 400 color plates at a scale and resolution that specify natural land cultural features in man's familiar environments. A glossary is included.

  19. Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the Earth's surface electrons.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T; Oschman, James L; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits-including better sleep and reduced pain-from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  20. Solar flare intermittency and the earth's temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2003-06-20

    We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare intermittency are linked. The analysis is based upon the study of the scaling of both the spreading and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the fluctuations of the temperature time series. The joint use of these two methods evidences the presence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002.

  1. NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

  2. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2006 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. This compilation gives the bibliographical citations for 123 new publications, most of which are available online using the hyperlinks provided.

  3. Earth's field NMR; a surface moisture detector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Eiichi; Altobelli, Stephen; McDowell, Andrew; Zhang, Tongsheng

    2012-10-01

    Earth's field NMR (EFNMR), being free of magnets, would be an ideal teaching medium as well as a mobile NMR technique except for its weak S/N. The common EFNMR apparatus uses a powerful prepolarization field to enhance the spin magnetization before the experiment. We introduce a coil design geared to larger but manageable samples with sufficient sensitivity without prepolarization to move EFNMR closer to routine use and to provide an inexpensive teaching tool. Our coil consists of parallel wires spread out on a plywood to form a current sheet with the current return wires separated so they will not influence the main part of the coil assembly. The sensitive region is a relatively thin region parallel to the coil and close to it. A single turn of the coil is wound to be topologically equivalent to a figure-8. The two crossing segments in the center of a figure-8 form two of the parallel wires of the flat coil. Thus, a two-turn figure-8 has four crossing wires so its topologically equivalent coil will have four parallel wires with currents in phase. Together with the excellent sensitivity, this coil offers outstanding interference rejection because of the figure-8 geometry. An example of such a coil has 328 parallel wires covering a ˜1 meter square plywood which yields a good NMR signal from 26 liters of water spread out roughly over the area of the coil in less than one minute in a nearby park.

  4. Atmospheric CO2: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2010-01-01

    Ample physical evidence shows that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the single most important climate-relevant greenhouse gas in Earth s atmosphere. This is because CO2, like ozone, N2O, CH4, and chlorofluorocarbons, does not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere at current climate temperatures, whereas water vapor can and does. Noncondensing greenhouse gases, which account for 25% of the total terrestrial greenhouse effect, thus serve to provide the stable temperature structure that sustains the current levels of atmospheric water vapor and clouds via feedback processes that account for the remaining 75% of the greenhouse effect. Without the radiative forcing supplied by CO2 and the other noncondensing greenhouse gases, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound Earth state.

  5. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  6. Metadata for numerical models of deep Earth and Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Peckham, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Model metadata aims to provide an unambiguous and complete description of a numerical model that would allow an end user scientist an immediate snapshot of the pertinent physical laws, assumptions, and numerical approximations. A rigorous metadata format that allows machine parsing of this information also makes it possible for model coupling frameworks to provide automatic and reliable semantic matching of input and output variables when models are coupled. Model metadata hinges in part on a controlled vocabulary that consists of human- and machine-readable terms that are unambiguously defined across modeling domains. The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Standard Names are a set of generic naming conventions that have been used to generate a self-consistent controlled vocabulary for surface dynamics processes. As part of the NSF's EarthCube "Earth System Bridge" project, we extend the rich controlled vocabulary of CSDMS standard names to solid Earth modeling domains, including geodynamics, seismology, magnetotellurics, and petrology. We proceed to create a standard for Model Coupling Metadata (MCM) that is flexible enough to serve both the surface dynamics modeling community, and the deep Earth process modelers, thus bridging CSDMS and the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) communities with a common semantic network. Here, we focus on our progress towards establishing an MCM standard for numerical models of solid Earth and Earth surface processes, and on the tools that facilitate creation and maintenance of such metadata. In development of the MCM standard, we leverage the Common Information Model (CIM) of the climate modeling community, as well as the NSF-funded EarthCube GeoSoft project.

  7. Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equations for rare-earth sesquioxides.

    PubMed

    Zelmon, David E; Northridge, Jessica M; Haynes, Nicholas D; Perlov, Dan; Petermann, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    High-power lasers are making increasing demands on laser hosts especially in the area of thermal management. Traditional hosts, such as YAG, are unsuitable for many high-power applications and therefore, new hosts are being developed including rare-earth sesquioxides. We report new measurements of the refractive indices of these materials as functions of wavelength and temperature, which will aid in the design of laser cavities and other nonlinear optical elements.

  8. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the

  9. Towards Monitoring Satellite Land Surface Temperature Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Yu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is of fundamental importance to the net radiation budget at the Earth surface and to monitoring the state of crops and vegetation, as well as an important indicator of both the greenhouse effect and the energy flux between the atmosphere and the land. Since its launch on October 28, 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has been continuously providing data for LST production; intensive validation and calibration of the LST data have been conducted since then. To better monitor the performance of the S-NPP LST product and evaluate different retrieval algorithms for potential improvement, a near-real-time monitoring system has been developed and implemented. The system serves as a tool for both the routine monitoring and the deep-dive researches. It currently consists of two major components: the global cross-satellite LST comparisons between S-NPP/VIIRS and MODIS/AQUA, and the LST validation with respect to in-situ observations from SURFRAD network. Results about cross-satellite comparisons, satellite-in situ LST validation, and evaluation of different retrieval algorithms are routinely generated and published through an FTP server of the system ftp. The results indicate that LST from the S-NPP is comparable to that from MODIS. A few case studies using this tool will be analyzed and presented.

  10. Earthlike planets: Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, earth, moon, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.; Malin, M. C.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The surfaces of the earth and the other terrestrial planets of the inner solar system are reviewed in light of the results of recent planetary explorations. Past and current views of the origin of the earth, moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars are discussed, and the surface features characteristic of the moon, Mercury, Mars and Venus are outlined. Mechanisms for the modification of planetary surfaces by external factors and from within the planet are examined, including surface cycles, meteoritic impact, gravity, wind, plate tectonics, volcanism and crustal deformation. The origin and evolution of the moon are discussed on the basis of the Apollo results, and current knowledge of Mercury and Mars is examined in detail. Finally, the middle periods in the history of the terrestrial planets are compared, and future prospects for the exploration of the inner planets as well as other rocky bodies in the solar system are discussed.

  11. Earth surface response to a load moving in a tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukrainets, V. N.

    2009-04-01

    Using the solution of the problem on an elastic half-space subjected to a load uniformly propagating on the surface of a circular cylindrical cavity along its generator parallel to the free boundary of the half-space, we study the stress-strain state of the Earth surface over the tunnel under the action of normal axisymmetric periodic and aperiodic loads moving in the tunnel. Numerical results are analyzed on the basis of the tables and graphs presented in the paper.

  12. A Low Temperature Limit for Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Andrew; Morris, G. John; Fonseca, Fernanda; Murray, Benjamin J.; Price, Hannah C.

    2013-01-01

    There is no generally accepted value for the lower temperature limit for life on Earth. We present empirical evidence that free-living microbial cells cooling in the presence of external ice will undergo freeze-induced desiccation and a glass transition (vitrification) at a temperature between −10°C and −26°C. In contrast to intracellular freezing, vitrification does not result in death and cells may survive very low temperatures once vitrified. The high internal viscosity following vitrification means that diffusion of oxygen and metabolites is slowed to such an extent that cellular metabolism ceases. The temperature range for intracellular vitrification makes this a process of fundamental ecological significance for free-living microbes. It is only where extracellular ice is not present that cells can continue to metabolise below these temperatures, and water droplets in clouds provide an important example of such a habitat. In multicellular organisms the cells are isolated from ice in the environment, and the major factor dictating how they respond to low temperature is the physical state of the extracellular fluid. Where this fluid freezes, then the cells will dehydrate and vitrify in a manner analogous to free-living microbes. Where the extracellular fluid undercools then cells can continue to metabolise, albeit slowly, to temperatures below the vitrification temperature of free-living microbes. Evidence suggests that these cells do also eventually vitrify, but at lower temperatures that may be below −50°C. Since cells must return to a fluid state to resume metabolism and complete their life cycle, and ice is almost universally present in environments at sub-zero temperatures, we propose that the vitrification temperature represents a general lower thermal limit to life on Earth, though its precise value differs between unicellular (typically above −20°C) and multicellular organisms (typically below −20°C). Few multicellular organisms can

  13. Common oscillations in Global Earth Temperature, Sea Level, and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Leonid; Bizouard, Christian; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) of Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) and Global Average Earth Temperature (HadCRUT4) data after global warming trends subtraction revealed presence of quasi-periodic components with periods of 60, 20 and 10 years in both time series. 60-year component of sea level is anticorrelated with long-periodic changes in temperature, while 10 and 20-year components are correlated. Simultaneous presence of 60-year component in secular Earth rotation rate changes rises a question of interrelations between Earth rotation and Climate. Quasi-20-year changes in GMSL and HadCRUT4 have maxima and minima well corresponding to the amplitude changes of recently reconstructed Chandler wobble excitation, which could be caused by the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon orbital nodes regression. The cause of 10-year oscillations in climate characteristics is enigmatic. It could be related to El Nino variability, Volcanoes, or Solar activity, but correlation with each of those processes found to be small. Looks like it is correlated with 9.3 yr tidal wave.

  14. Remote sensing of the Dead Sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehorai, R.; Lensky, I. M.; Lensky, N. G.; Shiff, S.

    2009-05-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique terminal lake located at the lowest place on Earth's surface. It has the highest surface temperature, salinity, and density among Earth's large water bodies, and its level is currently dropping at a rate of ˜1 m/a. Knowledge of the Dead Sea thermal and saline structure is based on meteorological and hydrological measurements from a single site at a time. In this study, we used satellite and in situ data to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of the Dead Sea sea surface temperature (SST) and to explore the causes for these variations. Sequences of almost continuous individual satellite images were transformed into a time series of parameters representing the spatial distribution of SST. Also used were in situ measured bulk SST, wind speed, solar radiation, and water temperature profiles with depth. Analysis of this data set shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations of the surface and vertical temperature field and the meteorological forcing. The temperature field is heterogeneous after noon, when radiation is high and wind speed is low and thermal layering develops. The temperature field is homogeneous during the nighttime, when solar radiation is absent and the high wind speed vertically mixes the upper layer.

  15. Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

  16. Earth's surface loading study using InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelung, F.; Zhao, W.; Doin, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's surface loading/unloading such as glacier retreat, lake water level change, ocean tide, cause measurable (centimeter to millimeter) surface deformation from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). Such seasonal or decadal deformation signals are useful for the estimation of the amount of load and the parameterization of crust and upper mantle - typically under an elastic or a visco-elastic mechanism. Since 2010, we established a study of surface loading using small baseline InSAR time-series analysis. Four sites are included in this study, which are Vatnajokull ice cap, Lake Yamzho Yumco, Petermann glacier, and Barnes ice cap using different satellites such as ERS1/2, Envisat, Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X. We present results that mainly answer three questions: 1) Is InSAR time-series capable for the detection of millimeter level deformation due to surface loading; 2) When the Earth's rheology is known, how much load change occured; 3) When the surface loading is known, what are the Earth's parameters such as Young's modulus, viscosity. For glacier retreat problem, we introduce a new model for the ice mass loss estimation considering the spatial distribution of ice loss. For lake unloading problem, modeled elastic parameters are useful for the comparison to other 1-D models, e.g. the model based on seismic data.

  17. Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; Grigolini, Paolo; Imholt, Timothy; Roberts, Jim; West, Bruce J

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern hemispheres as well as on land and ocean regions. While solar irradiance data are not directly analyzed, we make use of a published solar irradiance reconstruction for long-time-scale fluctuations, and for short-time-scale fluctuations we hypothesize that solar irradiance and solar flare intermittency are coupled in such a way that the solar flare frequency fluctuations are stochastically equivalent to those of the solar irradiance. The analysis is based upon wavelet multiresolution techniques and scaling analysis methods for processing time series. The limitations of the correlation analysis applied to the short-time-scale fluctuations are discussed. The scaling analysis uses both the standard deviation and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the temperature signals. The joint use of these two scaling methods yields evidence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature fluctuations within the temporal range from a few weeks to a few years. This apparent Lévy persistence of the temperature fluctuations is found, by using an appropriate model, to be equivalent to the Lévy scaling of the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002.

  18. Microclimatic Temperature Relationships over Different Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of temperature variations over different surfaces in an urban campus setting. Explains that researchers sampled temperatures over grass, bare soil, gravel, concrete, and blacktop. Reports that grassy areas registered the highest morning temperatures and lowest afternoon temperatures. (SG)

  19. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, James F.; Chen, Howard; Kopparapu, Ravi K.

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  20. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Chen, Howard E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  1. Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J.

    2012-07-15

    This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

  2. A much warmer Earth surface for most of geologic time: implications to biotic weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, D. W.; McMenamin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two scenarios for the temperature history of Earth. One scenario is conventional, the other relies on a warmer history. Both scenarios include surface cooling determined by the evolution of the biosphere and are similar until the Proterozoic period. The warmer scenario requires a higher plant/lichen terrestrial biota to increase weathering intensity. Justification for a warmer surface includes period temperatures from the oxygen isotope record of coexisting phosphates and cherts, an upper limit of 58 degrees C from primary gypsum precipitation, and the lack of fractionation of sulfur isotopes between sulfide and sulfates in Archean sediments.

  3. Profiles of electron temperature and Bz along Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Nakamura, R.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2013-06-01

    We study the electron temperature distribution and the structure of the current sheet along the magnetotail using simultaneous observations from THEMIS spacecraft. We perform a statistical study of 40 crossings of the current sheet when the three spacecraft THB, THC, and THD were distributed along the tail in the vicinity of midnight with coordinates XB \\in [-30 RE, -20 RE], XC \\in [-20 RE, -15 RE], and XD ~ -10 RE. We obtain profiles of the average electron temperature \\mlab Te\\mrab and the average magnetic field \\mlab Bz\\mrab along the tail. Electron temperature and \\mlab Bz\\mrab increase towards the Earth with almost the same rates (i.e., ratio \\mlab Te\\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab ≈ 2 keV/7 nT is approximately constant along the tail). We also use statistics of 102 crossings of the current sheet from THB and THC to estimate dependence of Te and Bz distributions on geomagnetic activity. The ratio \\mlab Te \\mrab/\\mlab Bz\\mrab depends on geomagnetic activity only slightly. Additionally we demonstrate that anisotropy of the electron temperature \\mlab T∥/T⊥\\mrab ≈ 1.1 is almost constant along the tail for X \\in [-30 RE, -10 RE].

  4. Titan Surface Temperatures from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F.M.; Kundle, V.G.; Samuelson, R.E.; Pearl, J.C.; Nixon, C.A.; Carlson, R.C.; Mamoutkine, A.A.; Brasunas, J.C.; Guandique, E.; Achterberg, R.K.; Bjoraker, M.H.; Romani, P.N.; Segura, M.E.; Albright, S.A.; Elliott, M.H.; Tingley, J.S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window at 19-microns wavelength. After removing the effects of the atmosphere, measurement of this radiance gives the brightness temperature of the surface. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has made such measurements during the Cassini prime mission. These observations cover a wide range of emission angles, thereby constraining the contributions from atmospheric radiance and opacity. With the more complete latitude coverage and much larger dataset, we have been able to improve upon the original results from Voyager IRIS. CIRS measures an equatorial surface brightness temperature, averaged over longitude, of 93.7 +/- 0.6 K. This agrees with the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. The latitude dependence of surface brightness temperature exhibits an approximately 2 K decrease toward the South Pole and 3 K decrease toward the North Pole. The lower surface temperatures seen at high latitudes are consistent with conditions expected for lake formation.

  5. Effect of surface temperature on microparticle-surface adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallabh, Chaitanya Krishna Prasad; Stephens, James D.; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of surface temperature on the adhesion properties of the bond between a substrate and a single micro-particle is investigated in a non-contact/non-invasive manner by monitoring the rolling/rocking motion dynamics of acoustically excited single microparticles. In the current work, a set of experiments were performed to observe the change in the rocking resonance frequency of the particles with the change of surface temperature. At various substrate surface temperature levels, the work-of-adhesion values of the surface-particle bond are evaluated from the resonance frequencies of the rocking motion of a set of microparticles driven by an orthogonal ultrasonic surface acoustic wave field. The dependence of adhesion bonds of a microparticle and the substrate on the surface temperature has been clearly demonstrated by the performed experiments. It was also observed and noted that the relative humidity plays a vital role in the rolling behavior of particles.

  6. Trends in Surface-Ignition Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-09-01

    air ratio, and surface-ignition advance. Scope. - Tests were made on a supercharged CFR engine to deter- mine surface-ignition temperature as a...laboratory has conducted tests on a supercharged CFR engine to determine the rela- tionships between a hot-spot temperature required for surface igni...February 1, 1944. APPARATUS The tests were performed on a high-speed, supercharged CFR engine coupled to a 25-hcrsepower, alternating-ourront

  7. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several μm, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences

  8. Determining the source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Ford, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a method to determine source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface. The technique accounts for the reduction in amplitudes as the explosion depth approaches the free surface and less energy is coupled into the ground. We apply the method to the Humming Roadrunner series of shallow explosions in New Mexico where the yields and depths are known. Knowledge of the material properties is needed for both source coupling/excitation and the free surface effect. Although there is the expected trade-off between depth and yield, the estimated yields are close to the known values when the depth is constrained to the free surface. We then apply the method to a regionally recorded explosion in Syria. We estimate an explosive yield less than the 60 t claimed by sources in the open press. The modifications to the method allow us to apply the technique to new classes of events.

  9. Mapping the downwelling atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface: A research strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.

    1986-01-01

    A strategy is presented along with background material for determining downward atmospheric radiation at the Earth's surface on a regional scale but over the entire globe, using available information on the temperature and humidity of the air near the ground and at cloud base altitudes. Most of these parameters can be inferred from satellite radiance measurements. Careful validation of the derived radiances will be required using ground-based direct measurements of radiances, to avoid systematic biases of these derived field quantities.

  10. Upscaling and downscaling of land surface fluxes with surface temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key surface boundary condition that is significantly correlated to surface flux partitioning between latent and sensible heat. The spatial and temporal variation in LST is driven by radiation, wind, vegetation cover and roughness as well as soil moisture status ...

  11. Earth encounters as the origin of fresh surfaces on near-Earth asteroids.

    PubMed

    Binzel, Richard P; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Merouane, Sihane; Demeo, Francesca E; Birlan, Mirel; Vernazza, Pierre; Thomas, Cristina A; Rivkin, Andrew S; Bus, Schelte J; Tokunaga, Alan T

    2010-01-21

    Telescopic measurements of asteroids' colours rarely match laboratory reflectance spectra of meteorites owing to a 'space weathering' process that rapidly reddens asteroid surfaces in less than 10(6) years. 'Unweathered' asteroids (those having spectra matching the most commonly falling ordinary chondrite meteorites), however, are seen among small bodies the orbits of which cross inside Mars and the Earth. Various explanations have been proposed for the origin of these fresh surface colours, ranging from collisions to planetary encounters. Less reddened asteroids seem to cross most deeply into the terrestrial planet region, strengthening the evidence for the planetary-encounter theory, but encounter details within 10(6) years remain to be shown. Here we report that asteroids displaying unweathered spectra (so-called 'Q-types') have experienced orbital intersections closer than the Earth-Moon distance within the past 5 x 10(5) years. These Q-type asteroids are not currently found among asteroids showing no evidence of recent close planetary encounters. Our results substantiate previous work: tidal stress, strong enough to disturb and expose unweathered surface grains, is the most likely dominant short-term asteroid resurfacing process. Although the seismology details are yet to be worked out, the identification of rapid physical processes that can produce both fresh and weathered asteroid surfaces resolves the decades-long puzzle of the difference in colour of asteroids and meteorites.

  12. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. ); Critchley, E. )

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

  13. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-02-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented.

  14. Titan's Surface Temperatures Measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kundle, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Arhterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    A large fraction of 19-micron thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low atmospheric opacity. The emergent radiance, after removing the effect of the atmosphere, gives the brightness temperature of the surface. This atmospheric window is covered by the far-infrared channel of the Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) on Cassini. In mapping Titan surface temperatures, CIRS is able to improve upon results of Voyager IRIS, by taking advantage of improved latitude coverage and a much larger dataset. Observations are from a wide range of emission angles and thereby provide constraints on the atmospheric opacity and radiance that are used to derive the surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, virtually identical to the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. Mapping in latitude shows that the surface temperature decreases toward the poles by about 2 K in the south and 3 K in the north. This surface temperature distribution is consistent with the formation of lakes seen at high latitudes on Titan.

  15. On possible search of cometary material on the Earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.

    2015-09-01

    There are about 15 major meteor showers. Therefore, in the near-Earth space are moving meteoroids, which are fragments of asteroids and comet nuclei. When entering the atmosphere at a speed of 11-72 km/s they are heated and illuminated. This often leads to Fireball phenomena [1]. Founded on the Earth surface meteorites have reflow bark. The bark is a good thermal insulator. Because of this, inside the meteorite saved even such minerals, which are usually not withstand intense heat (gypsum, etc.) We propose [2], that to study the nature of cometary nuclei and of the chemical composition of their primary substance, must be carefully examined samples of meteoritic matter. The larger the size of such a sample, the greater chances that has not changed the original structure and chemical composition of the material from which it was formed during the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Therefore, to find the primary cometary material here on Earth, and not fly for millions of kilometers into space. That is, in the study of the chemical nature of such meteorites in their composition can be detected even substances which in modern ground conditions are natural organic nutrient compounds: saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, nitrogenous compounds, etc. From statistical studies it is clear that the progenitors of most meteor showers are precisely the cometary nuclei [2], with a loose structure. References. [1] Churyumov K. I., Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov A. F., Steklov E. A. Three bright bolides in Kiev sky on 29 March 2013 // Conference «Meteoroids 2013». Program and abstracts. 26-30 Aug. 2013, Poznan;, Poland P. 77. [2] Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov A. F. The study of cometary material on the surface of the Earth // Astronomical School`s Report. - 2013. V. 9, No 2., p.146-148.

  16. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

  17. A simple thermal model of the earth's surface for geologic mapping by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal inertia of the earth's surface can be used in geologic mapping as a complement to surface reflectance data as provided by Landsat. Thermal inertia cannot be determined directly but must be inferred from radiation temperature measurements (by thermal IR sensors) made at various times in the diurnal cycle, combined with a model of the surface heating processes. A model is developed which differs from those created previously for this purpose, because it includes sensible and latent heating. Tests of this model using field data indicate that it accurately determines the surface heating. When the model is used with field measurements of meteorological variables and is combined with remotely sensed temperature data, a thermal inertia image can be produced.

  18. Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 μm and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

  19. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  20. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  1. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  2. Enceladus Near-Fissure Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Robert R.; Goguen, J. D.; Spencer, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Recently reported Cassini VIMS observations of thermal emission from the Enceladus south-pole fissures (Goguen et al. 2013) when combined with previous longer wavelength Cassini CIRS observations (Spencer et al. 2006) allow us to better constrain the highest temperatures present, but also require more detailed modeling of the processes which control those highest temperatures. The simplest interpretation of the VIMS observations is that the 3-5 µm thermal radiation comes from the walls within a fissure, rather than the adjacent surface. But as part of investigating that latter alternative it became clear that very high sublimation rates are implied by some predicted surface temperatures. Abramov and Spencer (2009) produced models of the expected surface temperature distribution, assuming conduction of heat through the ice, balanced by thermal radiation at the surface. However as temperature is raised, at 186K sublimation cooling equals radiation, and because it depends exponentially on temperature, it quickly dominates. We have found that including the surface sublimation cooling suppresses the higher temperatures. Regardless of the fissure temperature, surface temperatures above 200K can only be maintained by conduction within a few tens of centimeters of the assumed fissure wall. The high sublimation erosion rates (0.25 m/yr at 180K, rising to over 100 m/yr at 220K) imply that the fixed boundaries we have previously assumed are unrealistic. If these surface temperatures are maintained then either a sublimation lag of non-ice components will accumulate, inhibiting sublimation, or the geometry of the fissure vent will rapidly change. However the rate of change will be limited by the available heat provided by conduction. We are now developing numerical models with moving boundary conditions to explore the time evolution. The simplest result may be that the lip of the fissure erodes back till it no longer remains in thermal contact with the rising vapor which

  3. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  4. Earth's core-mantle boundary - Results of experiments at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments document that liquid iron reacts chemically with silicates at high pressures (above 2.4 x 10 to the 10th Pa) and temperatures. In particular, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, the most abundant mineral of earth's lower mantle, is expected to react with liquid iron to produce metallic alloys (FeO and FeSi) and nonmetallic silicates (SiO2 stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite) at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, 14 x 10 to the 10th Pa. The experimental observations, in conjunction with seismological data, suggest that the lowermost 200 to 300 km of earth's mantle, the D-double-prime layer, may be an extremely heterogeneous region as a result of chemical reactions between the silicate mantle and the liquid iron alloy of earth's core. The combined thermal-chemical-electrical boundary layer resulting from such reactions offers a plausible explanation for the complex behavior of seismic waves near the core-mantle boundary and could influence earth's magnetic field observed at the surface.

  5. Analysis of Curiosity surface temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, J.; Piqueux, S.; Poulet, F.; Vincendon, M.; Gondet, B.

    2015-10-01

    Since its landing in August 2012 in Gale crater, the rover Curiosity of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) NASA mission has performed many measurements to characterize its surroundings according to its science objectives [1]. In this work, we analyse the first year of data recorded by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrumental suite [2], and specifically by its Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) which measures the temperature of the surface [3].The temperature of the Martian surface is a complex function of the surface specific thermophysical properties (thermal inertia and albedo) and of the heterogeneity of the surface (horizontal mixing, and/or vertical heterogeneity, both expected on Mars). Using an Energy Balance model, we perform an analysis of GTS first year of data.

  6. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  7. Crystallization in Earth's Core after High-Temperature Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, K.; Morard, G.; Hernlund, J. W.; Helffrich, G. R.; Ozawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent core formation models based on the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements suggest that the Earth's core was formed by metal segregation at high pressure and high temperature in a deep magma ocean. It is also thought that the simultaneous solubility of silicon and oxygen in liquid iron are strongly enhanced at high pressure and high temperature, such that at the end of accretion the core was rich in both silicon and oxygen. Here we performed crystallization experiments on the Fe-Si binary and Fe-Si-O ternary systems up to core pressure in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The starting material for the latter was a homogeneous mixture of fine-grain Fe-Si and SiO2 (<1 µm). We prepared cross sections of samples recovered from the DAC using a focused ion beam (FIB) and subsequently performed textural and chemical characterization with field-emission-type electron microprobe (FE-EPMA). Quenched liquid alloy was found at the hottest part coexisting with a solid phase (liquidus phase) at the periphery. These results combined with literature data on the melting phase relations in the Fe-FeO binary system demonstrate that the liquidus field of SiO2 is very wide at the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-Si-O ternary system at the core pressure range. It indicates that the original Fe-Si-O core liquid should have crystallized a large amount SiO2 until it lost either silicon or oxygen. The recent finding of high thermal conductivity of the core suggests that core thermal convection is difficult to sustain without extreme degrees of secular cooling. However, even for modest degrees of joint Si-O incorporation into the early core, the buoyancy released by crystallization of SiO2 is sufficient to overcome thermal stratification and sustain the geodynamo.

  8. Understanding Surface Temperature Variability during the Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan; Hunter, Stephen; Dowsett, Harry; Prescott, Caroline; Dolan, Aisling

    2015-04-01

    Surface temperatures during the Pliocene have often been characterised as being warm and relatively stable. The link between Milankovitch cycles, insolation and global ice volume (as demonstrated by the magnitude of negative and positive benthic oxygen isotope excursions), appears to have been weaker in the Pliocene compared to the Pleistocene. However, the marine benthic oxygen isotope record may over represent the signal of temperature change from the high latitudes. Away from ice sheet regions, where stronger ice sheet/sea-ice albedo feedbacks are expected in response to changes in insolation, the magnitude of surface temperature variability due to Milankovitch cycles would have been the same, or very similar, in the Pliocene (compared to the Quaternary). Pleistocene and Holocene surface temperatures have not been generalised in the same way as the Pliocene and studies concentrate on reconstructing, modelling and understanding discrete climate events, as well as critical climate transitions. It is appreciated that whilst an event, or events, may have a similar signature in terms of the magnitude of any benthic oxygen isotope (or ice core) excursion, they may still display unique surface temperature characteristics that distinguish one glacial or interglacial from another. This realisation has been possible due to the number of high resolution surface temperature records available. Compared to the Quaternary there are relatively few high-resolution surface temperature records to help constrain the nature of local to regional Pliocene surface temperature variability, although new records are emerging quickly. Regardless of this, our current understanding of Pliocene surface temperature variability at a regional as well as global scale is still emerging. Here we use Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model version 3 (HadCM3) to explore the nature of Pliocene surface temperature variability and to explore the premise that individual benthic oxygen isotope events in the

  9. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  10. Publications of the Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2005 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2005 as well as additional 2002, 2003, and 2004 publications that were not included in the previous lists (USGS Open-File Reports 03-363, 2004- 1267, 2005-1362). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod/, or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey's web

  11. Climatic change by cloudiness linked to the spatial variability of sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    An active role in modifying the earth's climate is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface temperatures, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean temperature patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the climate. Photographs are included.

  12. Night side lunar surface potential in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Motohisa; Nishino, Masaki; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    In the Earth's magnetotail, Kaguya repeatedly encountered the plasmoid or plasma sheet. The low energy ion signatures including lobe cold ions, cold ion acceleration in the plasma sheet-lobe boundaries, and hot plasma sheet ions or fast flowing ions associated with plasmoids characterized the encounters. On the dayside of the Moon, tailward flowing cold ions and their acceleration were observed. However, on the night side, tailward flowing cold ions could not be observed since the Moon blocked them. In stead, ion acceleration by the spacecraft potential and the electron beam accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were simultaneously observed. Similar night side ion/electron signatures were often observed at low altitude <~50km when Kaguya was in the magnetotail lobe. When Kaguya stayed in the hemisphere where lobe plasma convection direction was from lobe toward the night side of the Moon, MAP-PACE ion sensors found that the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon. The ExB drift motion by the dawn-to-dusk electric field facilitated the intrusion of the lobe cold ions. In addition, very cold ions flowing towards the Earth (towards the Moon) were observed in the opposite hemisphere. It was also found that the flow direction of the lobe cold ions intruded into the night side of the Moon gradually changed from tailward to Earthward (Moonward) while slightly increasing their energy. Acceleration of the intruded cold ions by the electrostatic potential distributed on the night side of the Moon could explain the characteristics of the ions. The electron beams accelerated by the potential difference between lunar surface and spacecraft were also simultaneously observed. These electron and ion data enabled us to determine both the night side lunar surface potential and spacecraft potential only from the observed data.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  14. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  15. UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2000-01-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects

  16. High-temperature desulfurization of gasifier effluents with rare earth and rare earth/transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Kerry M.; Kalakota, Vikram; Adusumilli, Sumana

    2011-02-11

    We have improved the application of mixed rare-earth oxides (REOs) as hot gas desulfurization adsorbents by impregnating them on stable high surface area supports and by the inclusion of certain transition metal oxides. We report comparative desulfurization experiments at high temperature (900 K) using a synthetic biomass gasifier effluent containing 0.1 vol % H2S, along with H2, CO2, and water. More complex REO sorbents outperform the simpler CeO2/La2O3 mixtures, in some cases significantly. Supporting REOs on Al2O3 (~20 wt % REO) or ZrO2 actually increased the sulfur capacities found after several cycles on a total weight basis. Another major increase in sulfur capacity took place when MnOx or FeOx is incorporated. Apparently most of the Mn or Fe is dispersed on or near the surface of the mixed REOs because the capacities with REOs greatly exceeded those of Al2O3-supported MnOx or FeOx alone at these conditions. In contrast, incorporating Cu has little effect on sulfur adsorption capacities. Both the REO and transition metal/REO adsorbents could be regenerated completely using air for at least five repetitive cycles.

  17. A map of the large day-night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet.

    PubMed

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; de Wit, Julien; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bolmont, Emeline; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole; Hu, Renyu; Krick, Jessica; Stamenković, Vlada; Benneke, Björn; Kane, Stephen; Queloz, Didier

    2016-04-14

    Over the past decade, observations of giant exoplanets (Jupiter-size) have provided key insights into their atmospheres, but the properties of lower-mass exoplanets (sub-Neptune) remain largely unconstrained because of the challenges of observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe the spectra of super-Earths--exoplanets with masses of one to ten times that of Earth--have so far revealed only featureless spectra. Here we report a longitudinal thermal brightness map of the nearby transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e (refs 4, 5) revealing highly asymmetric dayside thermal emission and a strong day-night temperature contrast. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the infrared revealed a modulation of the thermal flux as 55 Cancri e revolves around its star in a tidally locked configuration. These observations reveal a hot spot that is located 41 ± 12 degrees east of the substellar point (the point at which incident light from the star is perpendicular to the surface of the planet). From the orbital phase curve, we also constrain the nightside brightness temperature of the planet to 1,380 ± 400 kelvin and the temperature of the warmest hemisphere (centred on the hot spot) to be about 1,300 kelvin hotter (2,700 ± 270 kelvin) at a wavelength of 4.5 micrometres, which indicates inefficient heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside. Our observations are consistent with either an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside, or a planet devoid of atmosphere with low-viscosity magma flows at the surface.

  18. Spatial correlations of interdecadal variation in global surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed spatial correlation patterns of interdecadal global surface temperature variability from an empirical perspective. Using multitaper coherence estimates from 140-yr records, we find that correlations between hemispheres are significant at about 95 percent confidence for nonrandomness for most of the frequency band in the 0.06-0.24 cyc/yr range. Coherence estimates of pairs of 100-yr grid-point temperature data series near 5-yr period reveal teleconnection patterns consistent with known patterns of ENSO variability. Significant correlated variability is observed near 15 year period, with the dominant teleconnection pattern largely confined to the Northern Hemisphere. Peak-to-peak Delta-T is at about 0.5 deg, with simultaneous warming and cooling of discrete patches on the earth's surface. A global average of this pattern would largely cancel.

  19. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  20. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II; Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  1. Observations of TEC fluctuations from an explosion on the Earth`s surface

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, R.S.; Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, G.

    1994-09-01

    The authors report observations of perturbations in the ionosphere total electron content (TEC) caused by acoustic waves propagating from a large chemical explosion in souther New Mexico at the earth`s surface. Fluctuations in TEC were measured by two arrays of receivers that monitor the phase of the 136 MHz beacons on two geostationary satellites. One array, located in northern New Mexico, observed fluctuations in the region where acoustic waves from the blast impinged directly on the ionosphere, while the second array, in Texas, was located to observe fluctuations caused by ducted acoustic waves. The TEC disturbance at the New Mexico array had an amplitude of about 2 {times} 10{sup 14} m{sup {minus}2} (more than 10 times the array noise level), while the amplitude at the Texas array, at a range of 900 km, was only a few times the instrumental noise level. Noise background analysis shows that the probability that a comparable or larger response at the New Mexico array might have been caused by a background noise event was less than 1%. The corresponding probability for the Texas array was 3%.

  2. A Study of Surface Temperatures, Clouds and Net Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans

    1996-01-01

    This study focused on the seasonal relationships and interactions of climate parameters such as the surface temperatures, net radiation, long wave flux, short wave flux, and clouds on a global basis. Five years of observations (December 1984 to November 1989) from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) were used to study both seasonal variations and interannual variations by use of a basic radiation budget equation. In addition, the study was extended to include an analysis of the cloud forcing due El-Nino's impact on the ERBE parameters.

  3. Different Topography and Composition of Earth- and Mars-Type Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Tanosaki, T.

    2016-05-01

    Mars shows different location and shape of higher lands compared with global water planet Earth, together with possible carbon concentration process of global surface on Earth and Mars with more detailed exploration on Mars.

  4. Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Christy, John R.; Hurrell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.

  5. Climate variability and relationships between top-of-atmosphere radiation and temperatures on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Zhang, Yongxin; Fasullo, John T.; Taguchi, Shoichi

    2015-05-01

    The monthly global and regional variability in Earth's radiation balance is examined using correlations and regressions between atmospheric temperatures and water vapor with top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave (OLR), absorbed shortwave (ASR), and net radiation (RT = ASR - OLR). Anomalous global mean monthly variability in the net radiation is surprisingly large, often more than ±1 W m-2, and arises mainly from clouds and transient weather systems. Relationships are strongest and positive between OLR and temperatures, especially over land for tropospheric temperatures, except in the deep tropics where high sea surface temperatures are associated with deep convection, high cold cloud tops and thus less OLR but also less ASR. Tropospheric vertically averaged temperatures (surface = 150 hPa) are thus negatively correlated globally with net radiation (-0.57), implying 2.18 ± 0.10 W m-2 extra net radiation to space for 1°C increase in temperature. Water vapor is positively correlated with tropospheric temperatures and thus also negatively correlated with net radiation; however, when the temperature dependency of water vapor is statistically removed, a significant positive feedback between water vapor and net radiation is revealed globally with 0.87 W m-2 less OLR to space per millimeter of total column water vapor. The regression coefficient between global RT and tropospheric temperature becomes -2.98 W m-2 K-1 if water vapor effects are removed, slightly less than expected from blackbody radiation (-3.2 W m-2 K-1), suggesting a positive feedback from clouds and other processes. Robust regional structures provide additional physical insights. The observational record is too short, weather noise too great, and forcing too small to make reliable estimates of climate sensitivity.

  6. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titan’s atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313°, 335°, 0°, 28° and 53° degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  7. Sensitivity of surface temperature and atmospheric temperature to perturbations in the stratospheric concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B.; Boughner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A radiative-convective model is proposed for estimating the sensitivity of the atmospheric radiative heating rates and atmospheric and surface temperatures to perturbations in the concentration of O3 and NO2 in the stratosphere. Contribution to radiative energy transfer within the atmosphere from H2O, CO2, O3, and NO2 is considered. It is found that the net solar radiation absorbed by the earth-atmosphere system decreases with a reduction in O3; if the reduction of O3 is accompanied by an increase in NO2, there is a compensating effect due to solar absorption by NO2. The surface temperature and atmospheric temperature decrease with decreasing stratospheric O3. Another major conclusion is the strong sensitivity of surface temperature to the vertical distribution of O3 within the atmosphere. The results should be considered as reflecting the sensitivity of the proposed model rather than the sensitivity of the actual earth-atmosphere system.

  8. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  9. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  10. Earthquake Lights: Time-dependent Earth Surface - Ionosphere Coupling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    ) relaxation toward the steady state conditions when the earth-air surface charge is maintained by balance of the current induced by stressed rock and ambient atmospheric current [Kuo et al., 2011]; and (3) a 2 min duration model episode in which the stressed rock current reaches value of 0.4 μA/m2 producing electric fields at the ground on the order of 0.5 kV/cm leading to an additional injection of positive corona current. One of the interesting results of this modeling is that the reduced electric field (i.e., field normalized by air density) remains low at the ground-air interface due to the injection of the positive corona charge and at high altitudes due to the naturally high conductivity of the Earth's atmosphere. At the intermediate altitudes in clear air above earthquake region the reduced electric field can dynamically reach values exceeding both relativistic (~2 kV/cm when scaled to the ground level) and conventional (~30 kV/cm ground value) breakdown thresholds. The exact geometry would depend on the spatial extent of the earthquake active region, ambient atmospheric conductivity and the time dynamics of the driving stress rock current. We suggest that the enhancements of the reduced electric field in clear air at high altitudes in the Earth atmosphere is a likely scenario leading to transient (sub-second duration) flashes some time observed during earthquakes [Herauld and Lira, 2011].

  11. Spacecraft ram glow and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Space shuttle glow intensity measurements show large differences when the data from different missions are compared. In particular, on the 41-G mission the space shuttle ram glow was observed to display an unusually low intensity. Subsequent investigation of this measurement and earlier measurements suggest that there was a significant difference in temperature of the glow producing ram surfaces. The highly insulating properties coupled with the high emissivity of the shuttle tile results in surfaces that cool quickly when exposed to deep space on the night side of the orbit. The increased glow intensity is consistent with the hypothesis that the glow is emitted from excited NO2. The excited NO2 is likely formed through three body recombination (OI + NO + M = NO2*) where ramming of OI interacts with weakly surface bound NO. The NO is formed from atmospheric OI and NI which is scavenged by the spacecraft moving through the atmosphere. It is postulated that the colder surfaces retain a thicker layer of NO thereby increasing the probability of the reaction. It has been found from the glow intensity/temperature data that the bond energy of the surface bound precursor, leading to the chemical recombination producing the glow, is approximately 0.14 eV. A thermal analysis of material samples of STS-8 was made and the postulated temperature change of individual material samples prior to the time of glow measurements above respective samples are consistent with the thermal effect on glow found for the orbiter surface.

  12. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  13. Effect of temperature on surface noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Wasserbauer, C.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental work is discussed whose objective was to obtain data that show the effect of temperature and temperature fluctuations on surface noise. This was accomplished experimentally by immersing a small chord airfoil in the turbulent airstream of a hot jet. The theory and experiment reported by Olsen (1976) provided a guide for designing and validating the hot jet experiment and for interpreting the data. It is shown that increased temperature causes a small decrease in the sound levels; at the same time it causes a shift in the spectra that is smaller but similar to the shift observed with subsonic hot jet noise.

  14. Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, N. K.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the

  15. Trends in Surface Temperature at High Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The earliest signal of a climate change is expected to be found in the polar regions where warming is expected to be amplified on account of ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the high reflectivity of snow and ice. Because of general inaccessibility, there is a general paucity of in situ data and hence the need to use satellite data to observe the large-scale variability and trends in surface temperature in the region. Among the most important sensors for monitoring surface temperature has been the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which was first launched in 1978 and has provided continuous thermal infrared data since 1981. The top of the atmosphere data are converted to surface temperature data through various schemes that accounts for the unique atmospheric and surface conditions in the polar regions. Among the highest source of error in the data is cloud masking which is made more difficult in the polar region because of similar Signatures of clouds and snow lice covered areas. The availability of many more channels in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on board Terra satellite in December 1999 and on board Aqua in May 2002 (e.g., 36 visible and infrared channels compared to 5 for AVHRR) made it possible to minimize the error. Further capabilities were introduced with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) which has the appropriate frequency channels for the retrieval of sea surface temperature (SST). The results of analysis of the data show an amplified warming in the Arctic region, compared with global warming. The spatial distribution of warming is, however, not uniform and during the last 3 decades, positive temperature anomalies have been most pronounced in North America, Greenland and the Arctic basin. Some regions of the Arctic such as Siberia and the Bering Sea surprisingly show moderate cooling but this may be because these regions were anomalously warm in the 1980s when the satellite record

  16. Response of Soil Temperature to Climate Change in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Predictions of soil temperature changes are as critical to policy development and climate change adaptation as predictions of air temperature, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil temperature determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report does not report soil temperature predictions, but focuses instead on surface air temperatures, despite the fact that mean annual soil temperatures and mean surface air temperatures are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil temperature and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C temperature threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air temperature

  17. Characterization and Correction of Aquarius Long Term Calibration Drift Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature Refernces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Misra, Sidharth

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission was launched on June 10, 2011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Aquarius consists of an L-band radiometer and scatterometer intended to provide global maps of sea surface salinity. One of the main mission objectives is to provide monthly global salinity maps for climate studies of ocean circulation, surface evaporation and precipitation, air/sea interactions and other processes. Therefore, it is critical that any spatial or temporal systematic biases be characterized and corrected. One of the main mission requirements is to measure salinity with an accuracy of 0.2 psu on montly time scales which requires a brightness temperature stability of about 0.1K, which is a challenging requirement for the radiometer. A secondary use of the Aquarius data is for soil moisture applications, which requires brightness temperature stability at the warmer end of the brightness temperature dynamic range. Soon after launch, time variable drifts were observed in the Aquarius data compared to in-situ data from ARGO and models for the ocean surface salinity. These drifts could arise from a number of sources, including the various components of the retrieval algorithm, such as the correction for direct and reflected galactic emission, or from the instrument brightness temperature calibration. If arising from the brightness temperature calibration, they could have gain and offset components. It is critical that the nature of the drifts be understood before a suitable correction can be implemented. This paper describes the approach that was used to detect and characterize the components of the drift that were in the brightness temperature calibration using on-Earth reference targets that were independent of the ocean model.

  18. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  19. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  20. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  1. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  2. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  3. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles; Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http

  4. Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with

  5. Global modeling of fresh surface water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Eikelboom, T.; van Vliet, M. T.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature determines a range of water physical properties, the solubility of oxygen and other gases and acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and the presence or absence of pathogens. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism, tolerance to parasites, diseases and pollution and life history. Compared to statistical approaches, physically-based models of surface water temperature have the advantage that they are robust in light of changes in flow regime, river morphology, radiation balance and upstream hydrology. Such models are therefore better suited for projecting the effects of global change on water temperature. Till now, physically-based models have only been applied to well-defined fresh water bodies of limited size (e.g., lakes or stream segments), where the numerous parameters can be measured or otherwise established, whereas attempts to model water temperature over larger scales has thus far been limited to regression type of models. Here, we present a first attempt to apply a physically-based model of global fresh surface water temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modelled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by short and long-wave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice-formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We used the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global fresh surface water temperature at daily time steps on a 0.5x0.5 degree grid for the period 1970-2000. Meteorological forcing was obtained from the CRU data set, downscaled to daily values with ECMWF

  6. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  7. Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A.; Gallo, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  9. Hot as You Like It: Models of the Long-term Temperature History of Earth Under Different Geological Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, S.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    The long-term temperature history of the Earth is a subject of continued, vigorous debate. Past models of the climate of early Earth that utilize paleosol contraints on carbon dioxide struggle to maintain temperatures significantly greater than 0°C. In these models, the incoming stellar radiation is much lower than today, consistent with an expectation that the Sun was significantly fainter at that time. In contrast to these models, many proxies for ancient temperatures suggest much warmer conditions. The surface of the planet seems to have been generally free of glaciers throughout this period, other than a brief glaciation at ~2.9 billion years ago and extensive glaciation at ~2.4 billion years ago. Such glacier-free conditions suggest mean surface temperatures greater than 15°C. Measurements of oxygen isotopes in phosphates are consistent with temperatures in the range of 20-30°C; and similar measurements in cherts suggest temperatures over 50°C. This sets up a paradox. Models constrained by one set of geological proxies cannot reproduce the warm temperatures consistent with another set of geological proxies. In this presentation, we explore several potential resolutions to this paradox. First, we model the early Earth under modern-day conditions, but with the lower solar luminosity expected at the time. The next simulation allows carbon dioxide concentrations to increase up to the limits provided by paleosol constraints. Next, we lower the planet's surface albedo in a manner consistent with greater ocean coverage prior to the complete growth of continents. Finally, we remove all constraints on carbon dioxide and attempt to maximize surface temperatures without any geological constraints on model parameters. This set of experiments will allow us to set up potential resolutions to the paradox, and to drive a conversation on which solutions are capable of incorporating the greatest number of geological and geochemical constraints.

  10. Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Trenberth, K.E.; Hurrell, J.W. ); Christy, J.R. )

    1992-12-01

    An assessment is made of how well the monthly mean surface temperatures for the decade of the 1980s are known. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to see how reproducible they are. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit (MSU) temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. Very distincitve patterns are seen in the correlation coefficients, which range from high (> 0.8) over the extratropical continents of the Northern Hemisphere, to moderate ([approximately] 0.5) over tropical and subtropical land areas, to very low over the southern oceans and tropical western Pacific. The physical difference between the two temperature measurements is one factor in these patterns. The correlation coefficient is a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio, and largest values are found where the climate signal is largest, but the spatial variation in the inherent noise in the surface observations over the oceans is the other major factor in accounting for the pattern. 42 refs., 12 figs., 4 tab.

  11. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  12. Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.

    2005-08-11

    The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation climatology of the Earth`s surface and lower atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Madronich, S.; Stamnes, K.

    1999-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the driving force of tropospheric chemistry and is furthermore detrimental to most living tissues. A three year modeling program was carried out to characterize the UV radiation in the lower atmosphere, with the objective of development a climatology of UV biologically active radiation, and of photo-dissociation reaction rates that are key to tropospheric chemistry. A comprehensive model, the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model, was developed and made available to the scientific community. The model incorporates updated spectroscopic data, recent advances in radiative transfer theory, and allows flexible customization for the needs of different users. The TUV model has been used in conjunction with satellite-derived measurements of total atmospheric ozone and cloud amount, to develop a global climatology of UV radiation reaching the surface of the Earth. Initial validation studies are highly encouraging, showing that model predictions agree with direct measurements to ca. 5--10% at times when environmental conditions are well known, and to 10--30% for monthly averages when local environmental conditions can only be estimated remotely from satellite-based measurements. Additional validation studies are continuing.

  14. Radon progeny in hydrometeors at the earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, M

    2012-07-01

    During atmospheric thermal inversions, dew and hoarfrost concentrate gamma emitting radionuclides of the short-lived (222)Rn progeny ((214)Pb and (214)Bi), causing an increase in the total natural gamma background from the ground. To highlight this phenomenon, a volcanic zone of high (222)Rn flux was studied during the winter season 2010-11. High-specific short-lived radon progeny activities up to 122 Bq g(-1) were detected in hydrometeors forming at the earth's surface (ESHs), corresponding to a mean increase of up to 17 % of the normal gamma background value. A theoretical model, depending on radon flux from soil and predicting the radon progeny concentrations in hydrometeors forming at the ESHs is presented. The comparison between model and field data shows a good correspondence. Around nuclear power plants or in nuclear facilities that use automatic NaI or CsI total gamma spectroscopy systems for monitoring radioactive contamination, hydrometeors forming at the ESHs in sites with a high radon flux could represent a relevant source of false alarms of radioactive contamination.

  15. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  16. Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

    2012-12-01

    The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that

  17. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  18. MODIS Surface Temperatures for Cryosphere Studies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.; Riggs, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have used Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) and ice-surface temperature (IST) products for several applications in studies of the cryosphere. A climate-quality climate data record (CDR) of the IST of the Greenland ice sheet has been developed and was one of the data sources used to monitor the extreme melt event covering nearly the entire Greenland ice sheet on 11 - 12 July 2012. The IST CDR is available online for users to employ in models, and to study temperature distributions and melt trends on the ice sheet. We continue to assess accuracy of the IST product through comparative analysis with air temperature data from the NOAA Logan temperature sensor at Summit Station, Greenland. We find a small offset between the air temperature and the IST with the IST being slightly lower which is consistent with findings of other studies. The LST data product has been applied in studies of snow melt in regions where snow is a significant water resource. We have used LST data in seasonally snow-covered areas such as the Wind River Range, Wyoming, to monitor the relationship between LST and seasonal streamflow. A close association between a sudden and sustained increase in LST and complete snowmelt, and between melt-season maximum LST and maximum daily streamflow has been documented. Use of LST and MODIS snow-cover and products in hydrological models increases the accuracy of the modeled prediction of runoff. The IST and LST products have also been applied to study of sea ice, e.g. extent and concentration, and lake ice, such as determining ice-out dates, and these efforts will also be described.

  19. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOEpatents

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  20. Impact hot spots on the cold surface of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, L. M.; Pimenov, K. Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The cooling rates for a thin upper layer of impact-melted material on the surface of the growing Earth were calculated using the experimental data for convective heat transfer coefficient. The presence of an atmosphere on the Earth embryo leads to very high cooling rates of the surface layer of impact crater. We find that during Safronov's type of accretion more than 90% of the Earth's surface was below the freezing point of water and the blanketing effect of greenhouse gases was unable to maintain a global magma ocean on Earth.

  1. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Both observations have unique advantages, however, when combined, introduced are challenges related to inhomogeneity of the resulting information. NASA has identified a major need for developing long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are consistent across multiple missions and satellite sensors. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such an effort is underway. In this presentation we will describe part of that effort, dealing with the generation of an approach to derive LST information from the GOES satellites from 2000 and onward. Since implementation of the well-established split window approach is not possible after mid-2003 (will be possible again after the launch of GOES-R in October of 2016), there is a need to focus on retrievals from a single thermal channel in order to provide continuity in the LST record. The methodology development requires the generation of consistently calibrated GOES observations, identification of clear sky radiances, and development of retrieval algorithms that benefit from most recent advances in related fields that provide auxiliary information required for driving the inference schemes. Results will be presented from two approaches. One is based on a regression approach that utilizes a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and. The second approach uses MERRA-2 reanalysis fields with the RTTOV radiative transfer model approach to derive LST from the LEO satellites, adjusted for the GEO characteristics. The advantage of this latter approach is in the consistency between this retrieval approaches and those used at JPL

  2. A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth radiation management has been suggested as a way to rapidly counteract global warming in the face of a lack of mitigation efforts, buying time and avoiding potentially catastrophic warming. We compare six different radiation management schemes that use surface, troposphere, and stratosphere interventions in a single climate model in which we projected future climate from 2020 to 2099 based on RCP4.5. We analyze the surface air temperature responses to determine how effective the schemes are at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology and analyze precipitation responses to compare side effects. We find crop albedo enhancement is largely ineffective at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology. Desert albedo enhancement causes excessive cooling in the deserts and severe shifts in tropical precipitation. Ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection have the potential to cool more uniformly, but cirrus cloud thinning may not be able to cool by much more than 1 K globally. We find that of the schemes potentially able to return surface air temperature to 1986-2005 climatology under future greenhouse gas warming, none has significantly less severe precipitation side effects than other schemes. Despite different forcing patterns, ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection all result in large scale tropical precipitation responses caused by Hadley cell changes and land precipitation changes largely driven by thermodynamic changes. Widespread regional scale changes in precipitation over land are significantly different from the 1986-2005 climatology and would likely necessitate significant adaptation despite geoengineering.

  3. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  4. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block D, The Earth's Changing Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for the study of three general topic areas in earth science and a list of 22 science processes. Following this information is a listing of concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas: (1) the earth's surface--surface features, rock…

  5. High-Temperature Sprayable Phosphor Coating Developed for Measuring Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of phosphor thermography for noncontact temperature measurements in harsh environments has been proven over the last decade, but it has suffered from difficult application procedures such as vapor deposition or sputtering techniques. We have developed a high-temperature-sensitive paint that is easily applied with commercially available paint-spraying equipment and have successfully demonstrated it to temperatures up to 1500 C. Selected phosphors have also shown measurable signals to 1700 C, thus allowing a combination of phosphors to be used in high-temperature binders to make surface temperature measurements from ambient to over 1500 C. Phosphor thermography is an optical technique that measures the time response of fluorescence light, which is a function of the phosphor temperature. The phosphors are excited with short wavelength light (ultraviolet or blue), and they emit light at a longer wavelength. This technique has a benefit over other temperature measurements, such as thermocouples and infrared thermography, in difficult environments such as high blackbody backgrounds, vibration, flames, high electromagnetic noise, or where special windows may be needed. In addition, the sprayable phosphor paints easily cover large or complicated structures, providing full-surface information with a single measurement. Oak Ridge National Laboratories developed and tested the high-temperature binders and phosphors under the direction of the NASA Glenn Research Center. Refractory materials doped with rare earth metals were selected for their performance at high temperature. Survivability, adhesion, and material compatibility tests were conducted at high temperatures in a small furnace while the fluorescent response from the phosphors was being measured. A painted sample in a furnace with a clearly visible fluorescing dot excited by a pulsed laser is shown. Measuring the decay time of this fluorescence yields the surface temperature. One new paint was recently tested

  6. The Breath of Planet Earth: Atmospheric Circulation. Assimilation of Surface Wind Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert; Bloom, Stephen; Otterman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Differences in air pressure are a major cause of atmospheric circulation. Because heat excites the movement of atoms, warm temperatures cause, air molecules to expand. Because those molecules now occupy a larger space, the pressure that their weight exerts is decreased. Air from surrounding high-pressure areas is pushed toward the low-pressure areas, creating circulation. This process causes a major pattern of global atmosphere movement known as meridional circulation. In this form of convection, or vertical air movement, heated equatorial air rises and travels through the upper atmosphere toward higher latitudes. Air just above the equator heads toward the North Pole, and air just below the equator moves southward. This air movement fills the gap created where increased air pressure pushes down cold air. The ,cold air moves along the surface back toward the equator, replacing the air masses that rise there. Another influence on atmospheric. circulation is the Coriolis force. Because of the Earth's rotation, large-scale wind currents move in the direction of this axial spin around low-pressure areas. Wind rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. just as the Earth's rotation affects airflow, so too does its surface. In the phenomenon of orographic lifting, elevated topographic features such as mountain ranges lift air as it moves up their surface.

  7. Five Years of Monitoring Mars' Daytime Surface Temperatures (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Animation

    This movie shows the daytime temperature of the surface of Mars as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. These temperatures clearly show the growth and retreat of the martian northern and southern polar ice caps. The caps grow in winter and are composed of carbon dioxide ice with temperatures as low as minus 125 degrees Celsius (minus 195 degrees Fahrenheit). In the summer the caps retreat to relatively small areas around the poles. The movie also demonstrates the large difference in temperatures between the northern hemisphere's summer (beginning when solar longitude, or Ls, is 90 degrees) and the southern hemisphere's summer (beginning when Ls is 270 degrees). This difference is because the orbit of Mars around the Sun is more elliptical than Earth's orbit. As on Earth, a hemisphere's summer is when that hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, but on Mars, the planet's distance from the Sun varies much more than on Earth. Mars is closest to the Sun, and therefore warmest, during the southern summer season. In northern summer, when Mars' northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun, the planet is farther from the Sun.

    Seasons on Mars are determined by the position of Mars in its orbit around the Sun. The position is measured in degrees of solar longitude (Ls) around the orbit, beginning at 0 degrees Ls at the northern spring equinox, progressing to 90 degrees Ls at the start of northern summer, 180 degrees Ls at the fall equinox, 270 degrees Ls at the start of northern winter, and finally back to 360 degrees, or 0 degrees, Ls at the spring equinox.

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by a team led at Arizona State University, Tempe. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and began orbiting Mars on Sept. 12, 1997. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages Mars Global Surveyor for

  8. Gravitational large bolides influence on the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Khazanovitch-Wulff, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    The authors consider the zones of elongate negative gravity anomalies that accompany some astroblemes and conclude that the formation of such "tails" associated with the energy influence of the asteroids. After analyzing the morphological elements of Popigai crater and concluding that the ballistic trajectory of Popigai cosmic body (CB) had orientation from SE to NW [1], the authors found that this direction corresponds to the position of the linear zone of negative gravity anomalies [2]. Earlier, in the analysis of this zone with using a gravity model EGM08, Czech researchers concluded that it was formed by the fall of three satellites of Popigai CB. However, traces of large impact events here are unknown and unlikely to be detected. Earlier analysis of the Russian Gravity maps 2010, scale 1:2500,000 [2], showed the presence of gravity tails for all large craters (D ≥ 15 km) produced by bodies for which we can assume a trajectory with a relatively low angle to the Earth's surface. However, the proven structures of large diameter are quite few in Russia. That is why it is important to check this pattern on a global scale. Indeed, the gravity imprints of CB trajectories show up in the new shaded model of "Global marine gravity" [3] for hundreds of astroblemes not specified in [2]. The data obtained can be an additional basis for definition of the CB trajectory direction along with other morphological elements of astroblemes considered by the authors earlier [4]. Furthermore, gravity can be useful to prove the impact origin of many less certain structures, such as submerged structures. Visual observation of submerged craters is difficult, and analysis of geophysical evidence in this case is simpler than the analysis of morphology. The surface gravity anomalies mimic round shape of craters and it can be assigned to the impact category in the presence of tails, even if in the absence of data, which can reveal rootless anomalies. Question "what are the linear tail

  9. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  10. Long-term changes in net radiation at the Earth's surface: uncertainties and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin; Coccia, Gabriele; Siemann, Amanda; Wood, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Net radiation at the earth's surface plays a key role in terrestrial water, energy and carbon fluxes, but there is large uncertainty in its variation over decadal time scales. Globally, surface and satellite measurements indicate global dimming in solar radiation over many regions since the mid-20th century and then brightening over recent decades due to changes in cloudiness and aerosols. Changes in longwave radiation are driven by long-term increases in greenhouse gases and inter-annual variations in short-lived constituents such as dust and black carbon. These increases are partially offset, however, by increases in surface temperature. Current estimates of these components of the net radiation balance from satellite remote sensing are inconsistent because of inhomogeneities from changes in satellites, sensor calibration, retrieval algorithms, and so on, in addition to systematic biases. Estimates from direct ground observations are hampered by sparse spatial networks and often short-term records, and estimates based on denser networks of meteorological data are affected by errors in empirical radiation models. Some of the largest uncertainties are in the characterization of the global distribution and temporal changes in surface shortwave albedo and infrared emissivity, especially in regions with seasonal and patchy snow cover. This paper presents comparisons of legacy satellite-derived datasets (e.g. ISCCP, GEWEX/SRB) and recently developed datasets based on updated algorithms and homogenized data sources (e.g. NASA Princeton-Measures, HIRS) in the context of long-term changes in the net radiation balance at the earth's surface. We compare these with ground observations and empirical estimates based on meteorological data from in-situ sources and reanalysis. In particular we focus on the uncertainties in the magnitude and variation in surface albedo and emissivity, and their contribution to uncertainties in net radiation. We discuss the implications of these

  11. The international surface temperature initiative's global land surface databank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrimore, J. H.; Rennie, J.; Gambi de Almeida, W.; Christy, J.; Flannery, M.; Gleason, B.; Klein-Tank, A.; Mhanda, A.; Ishihara, K.; Lister, D.; Menne, M. J.; Razuvaev, V.; Renom, M.; Rusticucci, M.; Tandy, J.; Thorne, P. W.; Worley, S.

    2013-09-01

    The International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI) consists of an end-to-end process for land surface air temperature analyses. The foundation is the establishment of a global land surface Databank. This builds upon the groundbreaking efforts of scientists in the 1980s and 1990s. While using many of their principles, a primary aim is to improve aspects including data provenance, version control, openness and transparency, temporal and spatial coverage, and improved methods for merging disparate sources. The initial focus is on daily and monthly timescales. A Databank Working Group is focused on establishing Stage-0 (original observation forms) through Stage-3 data (merged dataset without quality control). More than 35 sources of data have already been added and efforts have now turned to development of the initial version of the merged dataset. Methods have been established for ensuring to the extent possible the provenance of all data from the point of observation through all intermediate steps to final archive and access. Databank submission procedures were designed to make the process of contributing data as easy as possible. All data are provided openly and without charge. We encourage the use of these data and feedback from interested users.

  12. The surface temperature of free evaporating drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodulin, V. Y.; Letushko, V. N.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Sterlyagov, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Complex experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes was performed at evaporation of free liquid drops. For theoretical calculation the emission-diffusion model was proposed. This allowed taking into account the characteristics of evaporation of small droplets, for which heat and mass transfer processes are not described in the conventional diffusion model. The calculation results of evaporation of droplets of different sizes were compared using two models: the conventional diffusion and emission-diffusion models. To verify the proposed physical model, the evaporation of droplets suspended on a polypropylene fiber was experimentally investigated. The form of droplets in the evaporation process was determined using microphotographing. The temperature was measured on the surfaces of evaporating drops using infrared thermography. The experimental results have showed good agreement with the numerical data for the time of evaporation and the temperature of evaporating drops.

  13. High temperature surface protection. [10 gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Alloys of the MCrAlX type are the basis for high temperature surface protection systems in gas turbines. M can be one or more of Ni, Co, or Fe and X denotes a reactive metal added to enhance oxide scale adherence. The selection and formation as well as the oxidation, hot corrosion and thermal fatigue performance of MCrAlX coatings are discussed. Coatings covered range from simple aluminides formed by pack cementation to the more advanced physical vapor deposition overlay coatings and developmental plasma spray deposited thermal barrier coatings.

  14. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Dennis J.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Reynolds, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.

  15. Sea Surface Temperature and Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a composite MODIS image showing the 'green wave' of spring in North America and sea surface temperature in the ocean, collected over an 8-day period during the first week in April 2000. On land, the darker green pixels show where the most green foliage is being produced due to photosynthetic activity. Yellows on land show where there is little or no productivity and red is a boundary zone. In the ocean, orange and yellows show warmer waters and blues show colder values.

  16. Atmosphere-only GCM (ACCESS1.0) simulations with prescribed land surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Dommenget, Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are valuable tools for understanding how the global ocean-atmosphere-land surface system interacts and are routinely evaluated relative to observational data sets. Conversely, observational data sets can also be used to constrain GCMs in order to identify systematic errors in their simulated climates. One such example is to prescribe sea surface temperatures (SSTs) such that 70 % of the Earth's surface temperature field is observationally constrained (known as an Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, AMIP, simulation). Nevertheless, in such simulations, land surface temperatures are typically allowed to vary freely, and therefore any errors that develop over the land may affect the global circulation. In this study therefore, a method for prescribing the land surface temperatures within a GCM (the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator, ACCESS) is presented. Simulations with this prescribed land surface temperature model produce a mean climate state that is comparable to a simulation with freely varying land temperatures; for example, the diurnal cycle of tropical convection is maintained. The model is then developed further to incorporate a selection of "proof of concept" sensitivity experiments where the land surface temperatures are changed globally and regionally. The resulting changes to the global circulation in these sensitivity experiments are found to be consistent with other idealized model experiments described in the wider scientific literature. Finally, a list of other potential applications is described at the end of the study to highlight the usefulness of such a model to the scientific community.

  17. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  18. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  19. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  20. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  1. 16 CFR 1505.7 - Maximum acceptable surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum acceptable surface temperatures... ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.7 Maximum acceptable surface temperatures. The maximum acceptable surface temperatures for electrically operated toys shall be as follows: Surface...

  2. Comparison of the Mantle Potential Temperature of Ancient Mars and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiberto, Justin; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2016-04-01

    Basaltic igneous rocks shed light onto the chemistry, tectonic, and thermal state of planetary interiors. For the purpose of comparative planetology, therefore, it is critical to fully utilize the compositional diversity of basaltic rocks for different terrestrial planets. For Mars, basaltic compositions have been analyzed in situ on the surface at three different landing sites, from orbit providing global geochemistry, and in the laboratory for specific Martian meteorites [1-4]. This provides a range in chemistry and age of Martian rocks. Terrestrial mafic to ultramafic igneous rocks have a range in chemistry across different tectonic regimes and different ages [5-8]. These differences in chemistry and age of planetary basalts may reflect changes in the conditions of partial melting in the planetary interiors. Therefore, here we compare estimates of basalt genesis conditions for Mars with rocks from the Noachian (Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, Gale Crater, and a clast in the NWA 7034 meteorite [9, 10]), Hesperian (surface volcanics [11]), and Amazonian (surface volcanics and shergottites [11-14]), to calculate an average mantle potential temperature for different Martian epochs and investigate how the interior of Mars has changed through time. We also calculate formation conditions for terrestrial komatiites and Archean basalts to calculate an average mantle potential temperature during the Archean. Finally, we compare Martian mantle potential temperatures with petrologic estimate of cooling for the Earth to compare the cooling history for Mars and the Earth. References: [1] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR. doi:10.1029/2005je002562. [2] Schmidt M.E., et al. (2014) JGRP. doi:2013JE004481. [3] Zipfel J. et al. (2011) MaPS. 46(1): 1-20. [4] Treiman A.H. and Filiberto J. (2015) MaPS. DOI:10.1111/maps.12363. [5] Putirka K.D.(2005) G-cubed. DOI:10.1029/2005gc000915. [6] Putirka K.D. et al. (2007) ChemGeo. 241(3-4): 177-206. [7] Courtier A.M. et al. (2007) EPSL. 264

  3. Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular

  4. Evidence for a high temperature differentiation in a molten earth: A preliminary appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. Rama

    1992-01-01

    If the earth were molten during its later stages of accretion as indicated by the present understanding of planetary accretion process, the differentiation that led to the formation of the core and mantle must have occurred at high temperatures in the range of 3000-5000 K because of the effect of pressure on the temperature of melting in the interior of the earth. This calls into question the use of low-temperature laboratory measurements of partition coefficients of trace elements to make inferences about earth accretion and differentiation. The low temperature partition coefficients cannot be directly applied to high temperature fractionations because partition coefficients refer to an equilibrium specific to a temperature for a given reaction, and must change in some proportion to exp 1/RT. There are no laboratory data on partition coefficients at the high temperatures relevant to differentiation in the interior of the earth, and an attempt to estimate high temperature distribution coefficients of siderophile elements was made by considering the chemical potential of a given element at equilibrium and how this potential changes with temperature, under some specific assumptions.

  5. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  6. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  7. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  8. Applying Parallel Adaptive Methods with GeoFEST/PYRAMID to Simulate Earth Surface Crustal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Lyzenga, Greg; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Donnellan, Andrea; Li, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in simulating the Crustal Dynamics of Earth's Surface. AMR simultaneously improves solution quality, time to solution, and computer memory requirements when compared to generating/running on a globally fine mesh. The use of AMR in simulating the dynamics of the Earth's Surface is spurred by future proposed NASA missions, such as InSAR for Earth surface deformation and other measurements. These missions will require support for large-scale adaptive numerical methods using AMR to model observations. AMR was chosen because it has been successful in computation fluid dynamics for predictive simulation of complex flows around complex structures.

  9. The effect of Mars surface and Phobos propellant production on Earth launch mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Gus R.; Stump, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel and oxidizer produced on the surface of Mars and on the Martian Moon Phobos can reduce the cumulative mass of fuel and oxidizer which must be launched to low Earth orbit for Mars exploration missions. A scenario in which ten conjunction class trajectory missions over a twenty year period land a surface base and propellant production facilities on the Martian surface and on Phobos was examined. Production of oxygen on Phobos provides the greatest benefit. If all the propellant for Mars operations and Earth return is produced at Phobos and on Mars, a 30% reduction in cumulative low Earth orbit mass can be achieved at the end of the 20 year period.

  10. A map of the large day-night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; de Wit, Julien; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bolmont, Emeline; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole; Hu, Renyu; Krick, Jessica; Stamenković, Vlada; Benneke, Björn; Kane, Stephen; Queloz, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, observations of giant exoplanets (Jupiter-size) have provided key insights into their atmospheres, but the properties of lower-mass exoplanets (sub-Neptune) remain largely unconstrained because of the challenges of observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe the spectra of super-Earths—exoplanets with masses of one to ten times that of Earth—have so far revealed only featureless spectra. Here we report a longitudinal thermal brightness map of the nearby transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e (refs 4, 5) revealing highly asymmetric dayside thermal emission and a strong day-night temperature contrast. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the infrared revealed a modulation of the thermal flux as 55 Cancri e revolves around its star in a tidally locked configuration. These observations reveal a hot spot that is located 41 ± 12 degrees east of the substellar point (the point at which incident light from the star is perpendicular to the surface of the planet). From the orbital phase curve, we also constrain the nightside brightness temperature of the planet to 1,380 ± 400 kelvin and the temperature of the warmest hemisphere (centred on the hot spot) to be about 1,300 kelvin hotter (2,700 ± 270 kelvin) at a wavelength of 4.5 micrometres, which indicates inefficient heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside. Our observations are consistent with either an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside, or a planet devoid of atmosphere with low-viscosity magma flows at the surface.

  11. Imaging the earth's magnetosphere - Effects of plasma flow and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. S.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Doppler shifting on the line centers of the magnetospheric O(+) cross section are investigated, and the resulting structure of the scattering rate as a function of bulk density is explained. Whereas the Doppler shifting frequently results in a decrease of the scattering rate, it is demonstrated that for certain drift speeds the overlap of the cross section and the solar intensity profile can lead to an increased rate, thus enhancing the relative brightness of the image above that obtained when v(p) is zero. Simulated images of the magnetosphere are obtained which are used to show quantitively how the magnetospheric image responds to variations in plasma drift speed and temperature. Changes in the brightness of the magnetospheric images also depend on the variability of the solar flux at 83.4 nm. In regions where there are plasma drifts, the brightness in the image is governed by the structure of the scattering rate, assuming a fixed temperature.

  12. Ground surface temperature simulation for different land covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, William R.; Janke, Ben; Mohseni, Omid; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryA model for predicting temperature time series for dry and wet land surfaces is described, as part of a larger project to assess the impact of urban development on the temperature of surface runoff and coldwater streams. Surface heat transfer processes on impervious and pervious land surfaces were investigated for both dry and wet weather periods. The surface heat transfer equations were combined with a numerical approximation of the 1-D unsteady heat diffusion equation to calculate pavement and soil temperature profiles to a depth of 10 m. Equations to predict the magnitude of the radiative, convective, conductive and evaporative heat fluxes at a dry or wet surface, using standard climate data as input, were developed. A model for the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer was included for vegetated land surfaces. Given suitable climate data, the model can simulate the land surface and sub-surface temperatures continuously throughout a six month time period or for a single rainfall event. Land surface temperatures have been successfully simulated for pavements, bare soil, short and tall grass, a forest, and two agricultural crops (corn and soybeans). The simulations were run for three different locations in US, and different years as imposed by the availability of measured soil temperature and climate data. To clarify the effect of land use on surface temperatures, the calibrated coefficients for each land use and the same soil coefficients were used to simulate surface temperatures for a six year climate data set from Albertville, MN. Asphalt and concrete give the highest surface temperatures, as expected, while vegetated surfaces gave the lowest. Bare soil gives surface temperatures that lie between those for pavements and plant-covered surfaces. The soil temperature model predicts hourly surface temperatures of bare soil and pavement with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 1-2 °C, and hourly surface temperatures of vegetation-covered surfaces

  13. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth-Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  14. Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of sea surface temperature (SST) based upon foraminifer, diatom, and ostracod assemblages from ocean cores reveal a warm phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Ma. Pollen records and plant megafossils, although not as well dated, show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport are the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. Despite being a period of global warmth, this interval encompasses considerable variability. Two new SST reconstructions are presented that are designed to provide a climatological error bar for warm peak phases of the Pliocene and to document the spatial distribution and magnitude of SST variability within the mid-Pliocene warm period. These data suggest long-term stability of low-latitude SST and document greater variability in regions of maximum warming. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Sea surface temperatures from VAS MSI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure is developed for estimating sea surface temperatures from multispectral image data acquired from the VISSR atmospheric sounder on the geostationary GOES satellites. Theoretical regression equations for two and three infrared window channels are empirically tuned using clear field of view satellite radiances matched with reports of SST from NOAA fixed environmental buoys. The empirical regression equations are then used to produce daily regional analyses of SST. Monthly mean SST's for the western North Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific during March and July 1982 were produced for use in the SST Intercomparison Workshop Series. Workshop results showed VAS SST's have a scatter of 0.8-1.0 C and a slight warm bias with respect to the other measurements of SST. The VAS SST's show no discernible bias in the region of El Chichon volcanic aerosol cloud.

  16. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  19. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984

  20. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS

  1. Mars encounters cause fresh surfaces on some near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Lockhart, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    All airless bodies are subject to the space environment, and spectral differences between asteroids and meteorites suggest many asteroids become weathered on very short (<1 Myr) timescales. The spectra of some asteroids, particularly Q-types, indicate surfaces that appear young and fresh, implying they have been recently been exposed. Previous work found that Earth encounters were the dominant freshening mechanism and could be responsible for all near-Earth object (NEO) Q-types. In this work we increase the known NEO Q-type sample of by a factor of three. We present the orbital distributions of 64 Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and seek to determine the dominant mechanisms for refreshing their surfaces. Our sample reveals two important results: (i) the relatively steady fraction of Q-types with increasing semi-major axis and (ii) the existence of Q-type near-Earth asteroids with Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOID) that do not have orbit solutions that cross Earth. Both of these are evidence that Earth-crossing is not the only scenario by which NEO Q-types are freshened. The high Earth-MOID asteroids represent 10% of the Q-type population and all are in Amor orbits. While surface refreshing could also be caused by Main Belt collisions or mass shedding from YORP spinup, all high Earth-MOID Q-types have the possibility of encounters with Mars indicating Mars could be responsible for a significant fraction of NEOs with fresh surfaces.

  2. Impact of Atlantic sea surface temperatures on the warmest global surface air temperature of 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Riyu

    2005-03-01

    The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface air temperature anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface air temperature (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface air temperature anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.

  3. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  4. Laws, Place, History and the Interpretation of Earth Surface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The state of an Earth surface system (ESS is determined by three sets of factors: Laws, place, and history. Laws (L = L1, L2, . . . , Ln) are the n general principles, relationships, and representations applicable to any such system at any time. Place factors (P = P1, P2, . . . , Pm) are the m relevant properties or characteristics of the local or regional environment - e.g., climate, tectonic setting, geology, traits of the local biota, etc. History factors (H = H1 , H2, . . . , Hq) include the previous evolutionary pathway of the ESS, its stage of development, past disturbance, and in some contexts initial conditions. Geoscience investigation may be focused on laws (e.g., theoretical deductions, process modeling, laboratory experiments), place (e.g., regional geology or geography, soil-landscape studies), or history (e.g., paleoenvironmental studies, environmental history, historical geology or geography). Ultimately, however, all three sets of factors are necessary to fully understand and explain ESS. Beyond providing a useful checklist (analogous to the factorial models often used in pedology and ecology), the LPH framework gives us analytical traction to some difficult research problems. For example, studies of the avulsions of three southeast Texas rivers showed substantial differences in avulsion regimes and resulting alluvial morphology, despite the proximity and superficial similarity of the systems. Avulsion dynamics are governed by the same laws in all three cases [L(A) = L(B) = L(C)], and the three rivers, once part of a single system at lower sea-levels, have undergone the same sea-level, climate, and tectonic histories, as well as the same general types of anthropic impacts [H(A) ≈ H(B) ≈ H(C)]. Though the regional-scale environmental controls are similar, local details such as the location of the modern main channel relative to Pleistocene meander channels differ, and thus these place factors explain the differences between the rivers. The LPH

  5. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Richard L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasad, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. A standardized scale for reporting UV to the public has gained wide acceptance. There has been increased use of satellite data to estimate geographic variability and trends in UV. Progress has been made in assessing the utility of satellite retrievals of UV radiation by comparison with measurements at the Earth's surface. Global climatologies of UV radiation are now available on the Internet. Anthropogenic aerosols play a more important role in attenuating UV irradiances than has been assumed previously, and this will have implications for the accuracy of UV retrievals from satellite data. Progress has been made inferring historical levels of UV radiation using measurements of ozone (from satellites or from ground-based networks) in conjunction with measurements of total solar radiation obtained from extensive meteorological networks. We cannot yet be sure whether global ozone has reached a minimum. Atmospheric chlorine concentrations are beginning to decrease. However, bromine concentrations are still increasing. While these halogen concentrations remain high, the ozone layer remains vulnerable to further depletion from events such as volcanic eruptions that inject material into the stratosphere. Interactions between global warming and

  6. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  7. Remote Sensing of Earth's Surface and Atmosphere: Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission A of the COSPAR Plenary Meeting, 29th, Washington, DC, 28 Aug. - 5 Sep., 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B. (Editor); Njoku, E. J. (Editor); Palluroni, F. D. (Editor); Gillespie, A. R. (Editor); Hook, S. J. (Editor); Hayden, C. M. (Editor); Tsuchiya, K. (Editor); Dozier, J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This conference reviewed the recent developments in remote monitoring of surface temperatures, which will be significant in future global change studies. Various techniques to derive surface temperature from existing and future remote sensing systems such as earth observing system (EOS) are discussed. Five sessions were held: (1) The nature of the problem of remote sensing of surface temperatures; (2) Surface temperature measurements from current satellites; (3) Modeling and surface observations of various techniques to measure temperature and/or emissivity, modeling of vegetation; (4) The effects of variable spectral emissivity from the determination of surface kinetic temperature using multispectral thermal infrared measurements; and (5) Future satellite systems including EOS/ASTER, EOS/MODIS-N, and EOS/AIRS.

  8. Thermal algorithms analysis. [programming tasks supporting the development of a thermal model of the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, T.

    1981-01-01

    The programming and analysis methods to support the development of a thermal model of the Earth's surface from detailed analysis of day/night registered data sets from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission satellite are briefly described.

  9. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  10. Microwave emission and scattering from Earth surface and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Lee, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear Electromagnetic (EM) wave interactions with the upper atmosphere were investigated during the period 15 December 1985 to 15 June 1986. Topics discussed include: the simultaneous excitation of ionospheric density irregularities and Earth's magnetic field fluctuations; the electron acceleration by Langmuir wave turbulence; and the occurrence of artificial spread F. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by Whistler waves, intense Quasi-DC electric fields, atmospheric gravity waves, and electrojets was investigated. A model was developed to explain the discrete spectrum of the resonant ultralow frequency (ULF) waves that are commonly observed in the magnetosphere.

  11. A comparison of Argo nominal surface and near-surface temperature for validation of AMSR-E SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Xingrong; Sun, Chaohui; Wu, Xiaofen; Lu, Shaolei

    2016-06-01

    Satellite SST (sea surface temperature) from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is compared with in situ temperature observations from Argo profiling floats over the global oceans to evaluate the advantages of Argo NST (near-surface temperature: water temperature less than 1 m from the surface). By comparing Argo nominal surface temperature (~5 m) with its NST, a diurnal cycle caused by daytime warming and nighttime cooling was found, along with a maximum warming of 0.08±0.36°C during 14:00-15:00 local time. Further comparisons between Argo 5-m temperature/Argo NST and AMSR-E SST retrievals related to wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud water indicate warming biases at low wind speed (<5 m/s) and columnar water vapor >28 mm during daytime. The warming tendency is more remarkable for AMSR-E SST/Argo 5-m temperature compared with AMSR-E SST/Argo NST, owing to the effect of diurnal warming. This effect of diurnal warming events should be excluded before validation for microwave SST retrievals. Both AMSR-E nighttime SST/Argo 5-m temperature and nighttime SST/Argo NST show generally good agreement, independent of wind speed and columnar water vapor. From our analysis, Argo NST data demonstrated their advantages for validation of satellite-retrieved SST.

  12. Coupled Deep Earth and surface processes and their impact on geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Tibaldi, Alessandro; Burov, Evgenii

    2012-06-01

    Better understanding of coupled Deep Earth and surface processes is the key for resolving the evolution of the continental lithosphere and its surface topography. The thermo-mechanical structure of the lithosphere exerts a prime control on the interaction of mantle instabilities and tectonic forces operating on the lithosphere. These processes are fundamental for differential vertical motions at or near the Earth's surface and have a strong impact in the domains of geohazards and geo-energy. Stress fields exert a main control on volcano dynamics and in the conduits of fluids and melts. Integrated Solid Earth sciences intrinsically link different spatial and temporal scales and involve an interdisciplinary approach, with strong feedbacks between observational studies and imaging of Earth structure, reconstruction of the geological record and process-modelling.

  13. Effect of the Earth's surface topography on the quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    For quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations (ECSs) using BIEM, we have developed a method of calculating slip response function (SRF) in a homogeneous elastic medium with an arbitrary shaped Earth's surface topography (Ohtani and Hirahara, 2013; Paper1). In this study, we report the improvement in our method. Following Hok and Fukuyama (2011), we set the Earth's surface as a free surface, in addition to the fault interface, in a homogeneous full-space medium. Then, using the analytic solution in full-space, we can calculate the Earth's surface deformation, then the SRF change. The surface cell setting determines the accuracy. For reducing the computational amount, we use the different sizes of the surface region and its divided subfault cells, depending on the fault depth. Paper1 used the uniform size for surface cells. Here, we improved our method where the Earth's surface cells closer to the trench have the finer sizes for achieving more accuracy. With such numerical SRF, we performed the quasi-dynamic ECS on a model, where the Earth's surface is convex upward. Basically, with this topography, the slip behavior approaches the full-space case, from the half-space with flat surface case. This is because the distance from the Earth's surface to the fault becomes large. When we set two asperities with negative A - B in the positive A - B background at 10km and 35km depths, the two asperities rupture independently. The recurrence time of the shallow asperity is Trshalf = 34.95, Trsflat = 34.89, and Trsactual =32.82 years, when using analytic SRF in half-space, and numerical SRF with flat surface and with actual topography, respectively. For each case, the recurrence time of the deep asperity is Tr1_dhalf = 26.80, Tr1_dflat = 26.89, and Tr1_dactual =26.69 years. Thus, the shallower asperity is more affected by the Earth's surface topography than the deeper one, because the distance change rate from the surface to the fault is larger. On the other hand, when we set

  14. How can we understand the global distribution of the solar cycle signal on the Earth's surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Kunihiko; Thiéblemont, Rémi; Yukimoto, Seiji; Matthes, Katja

    2016-10-01

    To understand solar cycle signals on the Earth's surface and identify the physical mechanisms responsible, surface temperature variations from observations as well as climate model data are analysed to characterize their spatial structure. The solar signal in the annual mean surface temperature is characterized by (i) mid-latitude warming and (ii) no overall tropical warming. The mid-latitude warming during solar maxima in both hemispheres is associated with a downward penetration of zonal mean zonal wind anomalies from the upper stratosphere during late winter. During the Northern Hemisphere winter this is manifested by a modulation of the polar-night jet, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere, the upper stratospheric subtropical jet plays the major role. Warming signals are particularly apparent over the Eurasian continent and ocean frontal zones, including a previously reported lagged response over the North Atlantic. In the tropics, local warming occurs over the Indian and central Pacific oceans during high solar activity. However, this warming is counterbalanced by cooling over the cold tongue sectors in the southeastern Pacific and the South Atlantic, and results in a very weak zonally averaged tropical mean signal. The cooling in the ocean basins is associated with stronger cross-equatorial winds resulting from a northward shift of the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation during solar maxima. To understand the complex processes involved in the solar signal transfer, results of an idealized middle atmosphere-ocean coupled model experiment on the impact of stratospheric zonal wind changes are compared with solar signals in observations. Model integration of 100 years of strong or weak stratospheric westerly jet condition in winter may exaggerate long-term ocean feedback. However, the role of ocean in the solar influence on the Earth's surface can be better seen. Although the momentum forcing differs from that of solar radiative forcing, the model results

  15. Relating Major Surface Processes to the Deep Earth — The Importance of the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, P. E.; Szatmari, P.

    2012-12-01

    water ocean into our present cooler, more fragmented system with a cooler atmosphere. Higher plateaus and uplifted mountains deflected jet streams, expanded rain shadows promoting desertification, favored initial mountain glaciation, and helped cool air temperatures. Upwelling was enhanced on both sides of the Pacific basin, silica production shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, more mud and sand were brought to the ocean causing many passive margins to prograde, and hemipelagic mud became more abundant off continental margins. At the very end of the Miocene even the Mediterranean dried up, as it was isolated by the Alpine orogeny at Gibraltar. Onshore, epeirogenic uplift was widespread both in the interiors of the continents and along many of their margins. Active convergent margins changed continental tilts, completely altered some rivers, and formed new ones with new deltas, some on the other side of a continent. The above changes greatly altered the surface environment and induced many significant changes in flora and fauna and their distribution and have great economic importance. Many of the major geochemical cycles of the ocean and atmosphere also experienced major changes at this time. We posit that the generalizations ultimately emerging from the Miocene will apply to all the Phanerozoic and far back into the Precambrian and that are all tied to Deep Earth.

  16. Visible to infrared low temperature photoluminescence of rare earth doped bismuth germanate crystals.

    PubMed

    Canimoglu, A; Ayvacikli, M; Karabulut, Y; Karali, T; Can, N

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the influence of a series of rare earth (Eu, Tm, Nd) and Cr ion doping on the optical properties of BGO was investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) from visible to IR region in the 10-300K temperature range using different types of detectors, namely, photomultiplier tube (PMT), InGaAs (IGA), and Si. Several samples were investigated having dopants concentrations of 0.3wt%Nd, 0.4wt%Tm, 0.06wt% Cr and 3ppm Eu. The PL spectra of the samples showed different luminescence behaviour which is assigned to the 4f intra shell transition from rare earth ions. The temperature dependence of the PL from rare earth doped BGO crystals is also examined.

  17. Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Schartner, Erik P.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a point temperature sensor, based on monitoring upconversion emission from erbium:ytterbium-doped tellurite coatings on the tips of optical fibres. The dip coating technique allows multiple sensors to be fabricated simultaneously, while confining the temperature-sensitive region to a localised region on the end-face of the fibre. The strong response of the rare earth ions to changing temperature allows a resolution of 0.1–0.3 °C to be recorded over the biologically relevant range of temperatures from 23–39 °C. PMID:25407907

  18. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals.

  19. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  20. A protocol for validating Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC).Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. The Sentinel-3 Cal-Val Plan for evaluating the level-2 SL_2_LST product builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for SLSTR which is designed around biome-based coefficients, thus emphasizing the importance of

  1. Planetary Temperatures : Early Estimates, Lowell, and the Albedo of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    While it was recognized by Huygens, as soon as the architecture of the solar system was understood, that outer planets would be much cooler than Earth, quantitative estimation of planetary temperatures only became possible with understanding of radiant heat, and specifically the Stefan law relating heat flux to the fourth power of absolute temperature. This relation appears to have been first applied to planetary temperatures by the Danish physicist Christiansen in 1885, and he derived results for Mars and Saturn of -40 and -180C, rather reasonable values. However, the separate values of the solar constant, absolute planetary albedos (including that of the Earth) and the short- and long-wave transparency of planetary atmospheres were not known, although mountaintop measurements by Langley made some first steps to quantifying these effects. Lowell recognized that the Martian atmosphere was thinner than ours, but had more carbon dioxide, and so considered these factors to cancel out. However, he suggested that the Earth had a reflectivity of some 75%, such that darker Mars would absorb a larger fraction of incident sunlight than the Earth, compensating for Mars' greater distance from the sun and thus allowing clement temperatures. It is difficult not to see this as pushing the numbers to obtain a desired result, and indeed a robust refutation of his calculations swiftly followed by Poynting and Alfred Russel Wallace. I present a brief review of these early days of planetary climate modeling.

  2. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of...

  3. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of...

  4. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of...

  5. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of...

  6. 30 CFR 18.23 - Limitation of external surface temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation of external surface temperatures. 18.23 Section 18.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.23 Limitation of external surface temperatures. The temperature of...

  7. A multispectral method of determining sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral method for determining sea surface temperatures is discussed. The specifications of the equipment and the atmospheric conditions required for successful multispectral data acquisition are described. Examples of data obtained in the North Atlantic Ocean are presented. The differences between the actual sea surface temperatures and the equivalent blackbody temperatures as determined by a radiometer are plotted.

  8. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Ma, H.A.; Jia, X.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  9. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  10. Technique for the estimation of surface temperatures from embedded temperature sensing for rapid, high energy surface deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, highenergy surface deposition process can be di cult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves tting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature 20 C.

  11. Camshaft surface temperatures in fired-gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect

    McGeehan, J.A.; Graham, J.P.; Yamaguchi, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper measured camshaft surface temperatures in to different gasoline engines: a Ford 2.3-litter overhead-camshaft engine with finger-follower and an Oldsmobile V-8 5.7-liter engine with rotating tappets and pushrods. Using unique surface thermocouples in the cam-lobes, we found that maximum cam-lob temperature occur at the cam-nose and increase linearly with speed and oil temperature. At high speed, the rotating tappet produced lower temperatures that the finger-follower. In addition, at maximum speed the cam-lobe temperatures in the ASTM Sequence V-D and IIID tests were similar--200{degrees} C. The similarity in these surface temperatures explains why both engines require similar zinc dithiophosphates (SnDTP) for wear control. The surface temperature controls the surface chemistry.

  12. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Smith, L.; Moosdorf, N.; Hartmann, J.; Durr, H.H.; Manning, A.H.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of ???5 ?? 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Smith, Leslie; Moosdorf, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Durr, Hans H.; Manning, Andrew H.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Jellinek, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Permeability, the ease of fluid flow through porous rocks and soils, is a fundamental but often poorly quantified component in the analysis of regional-scale water fluxes. Permeability is difficult to quantify because it varies over more than 13 orders of magnitude and is heterogeneous and dependent on flow direction. Indeed, at the regional scale, maps of permeability only exist for soil to depths of 1-2 m. Here we use an extensive compilation of results from hydrogeologic models to show that regional-scale (>5 km) permeability of consolidated and unconsolidated geologic units below soil horizons (hydrolithologies) can be characterized in a statistically meaningful way. The representative permeabilities of these hydrolithologies are used to map the distribution of near-surface (on the order of 100 m depth) permeability globally and over North America. The distribution of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent. The near-surface mean permeability is of the order of -5 x 10-14 m2. The results provide the first global picture of near-surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and modeling the influence of climate-surface-subsurface interactions on global climate change.

  14. Thermodynamics of Minerals Stable Near the Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2003-02-01

    OAK B262 Research & Education Activities We are working on developing calorimetric techniques for sulfide minerals. We have completed calorimetric studies of (Na, K, H3O) jarosites, of Na and K jarosite -alunite solid solutions, and of Cr6+ - containing jarosites. We are now working on phases containing As and Pb. These studies are important to issues of heavy metal pollution in the environment. A number of postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads have participated in the research. We have active collaboration with Dirk Baron, faculty at California State University, Bakersfield. In a collaboration with Peter Burns, Notre Dame University, we are working on thermochemistry of U6+ minerals. Navrotsky has participated in a number of national workshops that are helping to define the interfaces between nanotechnology and earth/environmental science. Major Findings Our first finding on uranyl minerals shows that studtite, a phase containing structural peroxide ion, is thermodynamically unstable in the absence of a source of aqueous peroxide ion but is thermodynamically stable in contact with a solution containing peroxide concentrations expected for the radiolysis of water in contact with spent nuclear fuel. This work is in press in Science. We have a consistent thermodynamic data set for the (Na, K, H3O) (Al, Fe) jarosite, alunite minerals and for Cr6+ substituting for S6+ in jarosite. The latter phases represent one of the few solid sinks for trapping toxic Cr6+ in groundwater. Contributions within Discipline Better understanding of thermodynamic driving for and constraints on geochemical and environmental processes.

  15. Surface Temperature Assimilation in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.

  16. Temperature dependent mobility measurements of alkali earth ions in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Riediger, O.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zühlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Mobility measurements of impurity ions in superfluid helium are reported. Alkali earth ions were produced with a laser sputtering technique and were drawn inside the liquid by an electric field. The experiments were carried out in the temperature region from 1.27 up to 1.66 K. The temperature dependence of the mobility of Be^+-ions (measured here for the first time) differs from that of the other alkali earth ions Mg^+, Ca^+, Sr^+ and Ba^+, but behaves similar to that of He^+ (M. Foerste, H. Günther, O. Riediger, J. Wiebe, G. zu Putlitz, Z. Phys. B) 104, 317 (1997). Theories of Atkins (A. Atkins, Phys. Rev.) 116, 1339 (1959) and Cole (M.W. Cole, R.A. Bachmann Phys. Rev. B) 15, 1388 (1977) predict a different defect structure for He^+ and the alkali earth ions: the helium ion is assumed to form a snowball like structure whereas for the alkali earth ions a bubble structure is assumed. If the temperature dependence is a characteristic feature for the different structures, then it seems likely that the Be^+ ion builds a snowball like structure.

  17. Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

  18. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Weary, David J.; Young, John A.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  19. Predicting the occurrence of cave-inhabiting fauna based on features of the earth surface environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christman, Mary C.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Weary, David J.; Young, John A.; Zigler, Kirk S.; Culver, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  20. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mary C; Doctor, Daniel H; Niemiller, Matthew L; Weary, David J; Young, John A; Zigler, Kirk S; Culver, David C

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  1. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  2. Low-temperature thermoluminescence spectra of rare-earth-doped lanthanum fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Townsend, P. D.; Rowlands, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    Lanthanum fluoride consistently shows two strong thermoluminescence glow peaks at low temperature in pure material near 90 and 128 K. A model is proposed in which these thermoluminescence peaks arise from the annealing of halogen defect sites, similar to the H and Vk centers of the alkali halides. Relaxation and decay of these defects in the pure LaF3 lattice results in broad-band intrinsic luminescence. Addition of rare-earth-impurity ions has two effects. First, the broad-band emission is replaced by narrow-band line emission defined by the trivalent rare-earth dopants. Second, it preferentially determines the formation of the halogen defect sites at impurity lattice sites and such sites appear to increase in thermal stability since the glow peak temperature increases from 128 K in the intrinsic material up to 141 K through the sequence of rare-earth dopants from La to Er. The temperature movement directly correlates with the changes in ionic size of the rare-earth ions, when allowance is made for differences in effective coordination number of the impurity ions. The data suggest two alternative lattice sites can be occupied. The model emphasizes that the intense thermoluminescence signals arise from internal charge rearrangements and annealing of defect complexes, rather than through the more conventional model of separated charge traps and recombination centers. At higher temperatures there is a complex array of glow peaks which depend not only on the dopant concentration but also are specific to each rare earth. Such effects imply defect models giving thermoluminescence within localized complexes and possible reasons are mentioned.

  3. Low-temperature thermoluminescence spectra of rare-earth-doped lanthanum fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Townsend, P.D.; Rowlands, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Lanthanum fluoride consistently shows two strong thermoluminescence glow peaks at low temperature in pure material near 90 and 128 K. A model is proposed in which these thermoluminescence peaks arise from the annealing of halogen defect sites, similar to the H and V{sub k} centers of the alkali halides. Relaxation and decay of these defects in the pure LaF{sub 3} lattice results in broad-band intrinsic luminescence. Addition of rare-earth-impurity ions has two effects. First, the broad-band emission is replaced by narrow-band line emission defined by the trivalent rare-earth dopants. Second, it preferentially determines the formation of the halogen defect sites at impurity lattice sites and such sites appear to increase in thermal stability since the glow peak temperature increases from 128 K in the intrinsic material up to 141 K through the sequence of rare-earth dopants from La to Er. The temperature movement directly correlates with the changes in ionic size of the rare-earth ions, when allowance is made for differences in effective coordination number of the impurity ions. The data suggest two alternative lattice sites can be occupied. The model emphasizes that the intense thermoluminescence signals arise from internal charge rearrangements and annealing of defect complexes, rather than through the more conventional model of separated charge traps and recombination centers. At higher temperatures there is a complex array of glow peaks which depend not only on the dopant concentration but also are specific to each rare earth. Such effects imply defect models giving thermoluminescence within localized complexes and possible reasons are mentioned. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  5. The influence of global sea surface temperature variability on the large-scale land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike

    2015-04-01

    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual variability of is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural variability. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural variability based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea temperature contrast in interannual variability is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST variability is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level temperature variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate variability, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST variability affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.

  6. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  7. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  8. AATSR Land Surface Temperature Product Validation Using Ground Measurements in China and Implications for SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji; Zmuda, Andy; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Ma, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most important parameters at the interface between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. It acts as a sensitive indicator of climate change and is an essential input parameter for land surface models. Because of the intense variability at different spatial and temporal scales, satellite remote sensing provides the sole opportunity to acquire LSTs over large regions. Validation of the LST products is an necessary step before their applications conducted by scientific community and it is essential for the developers to improve the LST products.

  9. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  10. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  11. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Qiang; Zheng, Haixing

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  12. Titanium carbide modified hardfacing for use on bearing surfaces of earth boring bits

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.; Barnard, L.H.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a method of manufacturing an earth boring bit of the type having a rotatable cutter secured to a bearing shaft on a head of the bit and at least one friction bearing surface. The improvement comprises; forming a hardfacing composition by combining a particulate titanium carbide with a hard metal alloy, the particulate titanium carbide having a particle size less than about 10 micron; applying the hardfacing composition to the friction bearing surface of a selected one of the bearing shaft and rotatable cut of the earth boring bit.

  13. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  14. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  15. Thermodynamics of minerals stable near the Earth`s surface. Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Navrotsky, A.

    1999-07-01

    High temperature oxide melt calorimetry is a well established method for determining enthalpies of formation of anhydrous silicates. In this approach, a given phase or phase assemblage is dissolved in a molten oxide solvent, typically 2PbO{center_dot}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 700 C. The difference is heat of solution between reactants and products (e.g. stoichiometric mixture of 2MgO and SiO{sub 2} versus Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) gives the enthalpy of formation. At the end of each dissolution experiment, the oxides are present in the solvent in a state essentially represented by Henry`s Law dilute solution behavior. To apply those methods to phases containing volatiles, the final state of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} on dissolution of the crystalline volatile-bearing phase must be determined. The author describes his proven method for volatile bearing phases. He is applying it to micas, amphiboles, carbonates, and zeolites.

  16. GHG Effect on Surface Temperature in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, W. E.

    The increasing of green house gas emissons into the atmosphere could influence the Climate and Earth Ecosystem. The increasing CO_2 emmision in developed countries and developing countries are influenced by economic growth factor, cheaped price fuel without tax and there is not regulation yet for making arrangement energy efficiency. The result of inventarisation CO_2 emmision related to energy sector between 1990 until 2000 in Indonesia are having increased trend, and the CO_2 emmision percapita is still lower then OECD countries. The green house gas concentrations are measured continously in Bandung, Jakarta, and the others place. The CO_2 and CH_4 concentration ever had results higher than globally mean. The fluctuation of green house gas concentrations are influenced by activities of surounding research location.

  17. Impact of aerosol radiative effects on 2000-2010 surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. F.

    2015-10-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing from direct and indirect effects of aerosols is examined over the recent past (last 10-15 years) using updated sulfate aerosol emissions in two Earth System Models with very different surface temperature responses to aerosol forcing. The hypothesis is that aerosol forcing and in particular, the impact of indirect effects of aerosols on clouds (Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, or ACI), explains the recent `hiatus' in global mean surface temperature increases. Sulfate aerosol emissions increase globally from 2000 to 2005, and then decrease slightly to 2010. Thus the change in anthropogenic sulfate induced net global radiative forcing is small over the period. Regionally, there are statistically significant forcings that are similar in both models, and consistent with changes in simulated emissions and aerosol optical depth. Coupled model simulations are performed to look at impacts of the forcing on recent surface temperatures. Temperature response patterns in the models are similar, and reflect the regional radiative forcing. Pattern correlations indicate significant correlations between observed decadal surface temperature changes and simulated surface temperature changes from recent sulfate aerosol forcing in an equilibrium framework. Sulfate ACI might be a contributor to the spatial patterns of recent temperature forcing, but not to the global mean `hiatus' itself.

  18. Clouds not important for control of short-term surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers, R. W. Spencer and W. D. Braswell (Remote Sens., 3(8), 1603- 1613, doi:10.3390/rs3081603, 2011) (SB) and R. S. Lindzen and Y.-S. Choi (Asia Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 47(4), 377-390, doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0023-x, 2011) (LC) argue that clouds act as a primary initiator of surface temperature changes in Earth's climate system. The two sets of authors reached this conclusion by developing a method that tries to determine the Earth's surface temperature by calculating how much energy is stored in the ocean's upper layers, how much of this heat is transferred to the rest of the climate system, how clouds affect the rate at which energy escapes Earth's atmosphere, and how the surface's energy flux changes with temperature. Both studies spurred substantial debate within the media and the public, with the research by SB causing the editor of the journal in which it was published to resign, claiming it should not have been accepted by the journal. Assessing the two studies, Dessler found what he suggests are a number of methodological errors.

  19. Surface-atmosphere interactions on Titan compared with those on the pre-biotic Earth.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J I; McKay, C P

    1995-03-01

    The surface and atmosphere of Titan constitute a system which is potentially as complex as that of the Earth, with the possibility of precipitation, surface erosion due to liquids, chemistry in large surface or subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs, surface expressions of internal activity, and occasional major impacts leading to crustal melting. While none of the above have been observed as yet, the composition, density and thermal properties of Titan's atmosphere make it uniquely suited in the outer solar system as a place where such processes may occur. The one attribute of the Earth not expected on Titan is biological activity, which has had a profound effect on the evolution of the Earth's surface-atmosphere system. The earliest environment of Titan could have been warm enough for liquid ammonia-water solutions to exist on or near surface; pre-biotic organic processes may have taken place in such an environment. After a few hundred million years surface ammonia-water would have disappeared. Therefore, study of Titan through the Cassini-Huygens mission, planned for launch in 1997, primarily affords the opportunity to understand planet-wide surface-atmosphere interactions in the presence of fluids but in the absence of life. More speculative is the possibility that endogenic and exogenic heating continue to provide short-lived environments on Titan wherein pre-biotic organic processes in the presence of water happen.

  20. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the σ and π channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  1. Age-surface temperature estimation model: When will oil palm plantation reach the same surface temperature as natural forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushayati, S. B.; Hermawan, R.; Meilani, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm plantation has often been accused as the cause of global warming. However, along with its growth, it would be able to decrease surface temperature. The question is ‘when will the plantation be able to reach the same surface temperature as natural forest’. This research aimed to estimate the age of oil palm plantation that create similar surface temperature to those in natural forest (land cover before the opening and planting of oil palm). The method used in this research was spatial analysis of land cover and surface temperature distribution. Based on the spatial analysis of surface temperature, five points was randomly taken from each planting age (age 1 15 years). Linear regression was then employed in the analysis. The linear regression formula between surface temperature and age of oil palm plantation was Y = 26.002 – 0.1237X. Surface temperature will decrease as much as 0.1237 ° C with one year age growth oil palm. Surface temperature that was similar to the initial temperature, when the land cover was natural forest (23.04 °C), was estimated to occur when the oil palm plantation reach the age 24 year.

  2. Estimation of soil moisture from diurnal surface temperature observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Camillo, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to determine the thermal inertia of a grass covered top soil under different meteorological conditions. Relations between thermal inertia and soil moisture were established using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity to relate soil moisture and thermal inertia as a function of soil type. A sensitivity study of the surface roughness length and thermal inertia on diurnal surface temperature shows the necessity of focusing on the night time surface temperature rather than on the day time surface temperature, in order to estimate the soil moisture content of the top soil.

  3. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

    PubMed Central

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D.; Maberly, Stephen C.; French, Jon R.; Livingstone, David M.; Monteith, Donald T.; Simpson, Gavin L.; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Battarbee, Richard W.; DeGasperi, Curtis L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P.; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C.; Rusak, James A.; Ryves, David B.; Scott, Daniel R.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Smyth, Robyn L.; Staehr, Peter A.; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  4. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size.

    PubMed

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; French, Jon R; Livingstone, David M; Monteith, Donald T; Simpson, Gavin L; Thackeray, Stephen J; Andersen, Mikkel R; Battarbee, Richard W; DeGasperi, Curtis L; Evans, Christopher D; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C; Rusak, James A; Ryves, David B; Scott, Daniel R; Shilland, Ewan M; Smyth, Robyn L; Staehr, Peter A; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.

  5. Numerical modeling of solar irradiance on earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, E.; Gutierez, L.; Da Silva, L.; Miranda, E.

    2016-05-01

    Modeling studies and estimation of solar radiation in base area, touch from the problems of estimating equation of time, distance equation solar space, solar declination, calculation of surface irradiance, considering that there are a lot of studies you reported the inability of these theoretical equations to be accurate estimates of radiation, many authors have proceeded to make corrections through calibrations with Pyranometers field (solarimeters) or the use of satellites, this being very poor technique last because there a differentiation between radiation and radiant kinetic effects. Because of the above and considering that there is a weather station properly calibrated ground in the Susques Salar in the Jujuy Province, Republic of Argentina, proceeded to make the following modeling of the variable in question, it proceeded to perform the following process: 1. Theoretical Modeling, 2. graphic study of the theoretical and actual data, 3. Adjust primary calibration data through data segmentation on an hourly basis, through horizontal and adding asymptotic constant, 4. Analysis of scatter plot and contrast series. Based on the above steps, the modeling data obtained: Step One: Theoretical data were generated, Step Two: The theoretical data moved 5 hours, Step Three: an asymptote of all negative emissivity values applied, Solve Excel algorithm was applied to least squares minimization between actual and modeled values, obtaining new values of asymptotes with the corresponding theoretical reformulation of data. Add a constant value by month, over time range set (4:00 pm to 6:00 pm). Step Four: The modeling equation coefficients had monthly correlation between actual and theoretical data ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  6. Surface tension of low-temperature aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Horibe, A.; Fukusako, S.; Yamada, M.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the surface tension have been carried out to determine the effects of both temperature and concentration on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. A differential capillary-rise method was employed for the measurements. The results show that the surface tension of the ethylene glycol solution and the propylene glycol solution increases as the concentration of the solution decreases, while for the sodium chloride solution the surface tension increases monotonically as the concentration increases. The surface tension of the liquids was found to be an almost-linear function of temperature from 20{degrees}C to just above the freezing temperature. Equations for the surface tension of the three binary aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration are presented.

  7. Martian Meteorites Record Surface Temperatures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2005-07-01

    Using published data for argon (Ar) released when Martian meteorites are heated, David Shuster (California Institute of Technology, now at Berkeley Geochronology Center, Berkeley, CA) and Benjamin Weiss (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) show that the nakhlite group of Martian meteorites and unique Martian meteorite ALH 84001 were probably not heated above about 0 degree C for most of their histories. This indicates that the surface of Mars has been cold for almost four billion years. If a warm, wet environment existed on Mars (inferred from previous studies of surface features and geochemical parameters), it occurred before four billion years ago.

  8. Possible rainfall reduction through reduced surface temperatures due to overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Surface temperature reduction in terrain denuded of vegetation (as by overgrazing) is postulated to decrease air convection, reducing cloudiness and rainfall probability during weak meteorological disturbances. By reducing land-sea daytime temperature differences, the surface temperature reduction decreases daytime circulation of thermally driven local winds. The described desertification mechanism, even when limited to arid regions, high albedo soils, and weak meteorological disturbances, can be an effective rainfall reducing process in many areas including most of the Mediterranean lands.

  9. 30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101... temperature tests. The test for determination of exhaust gas cooling efficiency described in § 7.102 may be... the rated horsepower specified in § 7.97(a)(2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring...

  10. 30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101... temperature tests. The test for determination of exhaust gas cooling efficiency described in § 7.102 may be... the rated horsepower specified in § 7.97(a)(2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring...

  11. 30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101... temperature tests. The test for determination of exhaust gas cooling efficiency described in § 7.102 may be... the rated horsepower specified in § 7.97(a)(2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring...

  12. 30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101... temperature tests. The test for determination of exhaust gas cooling efficiency described in § 7.102 may be... the rated horsepower specified in § 7.97(a)(2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring...

  13. 30 CFR 7.101 - Surface temperature tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface temperature tests. 7.101 Section 7.101... temperature tests. The test for determination of exhaust gas cooling efficiency described in § 7.102 may be... the rated horsepower specified in § 7.97(a)(2). (ii) Install sufficient temperature measuring...

  14. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency

  15. Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Wojciech; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREE) between natural waters and oxide mineral surfaces depends on adsorption reactions, which in turn depend on the specific way in which YREE are coordinated to mineral surfaces. Recent X-ray studies have established that Y 3+ is adsorbed to the rutile (1 1 0) surface as a distinctive tetranuclear species. However, the hydrolysis state of the adsorbed cation is not known from experiment. Previous surface complexation models of YREE adsorption have suggested two to four cation hydrolysis states coexisting on oxide surfaces. In the present study, we investigate the applicability of the X-ray results to rare earth elements and to several oxides in addition to rutile using the extended triple-layer surface complexation model. The reaction producing a hydrolyzed tetranuclear surface species 4>SOH+M+2HO=(>SOH)2_M(OH)2++4H was found to account for a significant fraction of the adsorbed Y 3+, La 3+, Nd 3+, Gd 3+, and Yb 3+ on rutile, hematite, alumina and silica over wide ranges of pH and ionic strength. Where adsorption data were available as a function of surface coverage for hematite and silica, an additional reaction involving a mononuclear species could be used to account for the higher surface coverages. However, it is also possible that some of the higher surface coverage data refer to surface precipitation rather than adsorption. The results of the present study provide an internally consistent basis for describing YREE adsorption which could be used to investigate more complex systems in which YREE compete both in aqueous solution and on mineral surfaces with alkaline earths and ligands such as carbonate, sulfate, chloride and organic species, in order to build a predictive adsorption model applicable to natural waters.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Relationship Between Surface Temperature and NDVI Using Remotely Sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Yasser; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kabiri, Keivan

    2016-07-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a significant factor to analyze the global climate changes, and LULC (Land use/Land cover) changes, as well as urban thermal behavior. Land surface temperature exhibit the surface atmosphere in relation with energy flux between earth and atmosphere. This paper intended to examine the evaluation of LST and assessment of relationship between LST and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with associated different LULC. Al- Hawizeh wetland located in the Iraq-Iran border was selected as a study area. Two Landsat satellite thermal infrared (TIR) images of October 26, 1998, thematic mapper (TM), and October 26, 2002 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) were used. Both images were corrected geometrically and atmospherically before carried out any analysis. NDVI was estimated from reflectance values of the visible band (band 3, Red) and the near infrared band (band 4, VNIR). Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) was applied to determine the different LULC. Plank equation was utilized to extract land surface temperature over the study region. The results provide information about the spatial distribution of LST over different LULC during mentioned date. The highest mean temperature was observed over the rangeland and the lowest mean temperature was found in water bodies. The results of regression analysis exhibited that the LST and NDVI has an inverse correlation except for water bodies. The negative correlation coefficient was observed over vegetation (-0.733, R2=0.66). Keywords-component; Land Surface Temperature, Remote Sensing, Al-Havizeh wetland, Regression Analysis, NDVI, GIS

  17. Sea Ice Surface Temperature Product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Riggs, George A.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2003-01-01

    Global sea ice products are produced from the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Daily sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST) products are available at 1- and 4-km resolution. Validation activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the MODIS IST product at the South Pole station in Antarctica and in the Arctic Ocean using near-surface air-temperature data from a meteorological station and drifting buoys. Results from the study areas show that under clear skies, the MODIS ISTs are very close to those of the near-surface air temperatures with a bias of -1.1 and -1.2 K, and an uncertainty of 1.6 and 1.7 K, respectively. It is shown that the uncertainties would be reduced if the actual temperature of the ice surface were reported instead of the near-surface air temperature. It is not possible to get an accurate IST from MODIS in the presence of even very thin clouds or fog, however using both the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and the MODIS on the Aqua satellite, it may be possible to develop a relationship between MODIS-derived IST and ice temperature derived from the AMSR-E. Since the AMSR-E measurements are generally unaffected by cloud cover, they may be used to complement the MODIS IST measurements.

  18. From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, Martin F.; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Forgan, B. W.; Kallis, A.; Russak, V.; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

    2005-05-06

    Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems.

  19. From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Wild, Martin; Gilgen, Hans; Roesch, Andreas; Ohmura, Atsumu; Long, Charles N; Dutton, Ellsworth G; Forgan, Bruce; Kallis, Ain; Russak, Viivi; Tsvetkov, Anatoly

    2005-05-06

    Variations in solar radiation incident at Earth's surface profoundly affect the human and terrestrial environment. A decline in solar radiation at land surfaces has become apparent in many observational records up to 1990, a phenomenon known as global dimming. Newly available surface observations from 1990 to the present, primarily from the Northern Hemisphere, show that the dimming did not persist into the 1990s. Instead, a widespread brightening has been observed since the late 1980s. This reversal is reconcilable with changes in cloudiness and atmospheric transmission and may substantially affect surface climate, the hydrological cycle, glaciers, and ecosystems.

  20. Estimation of Lunar Surface Temperatures: a Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Helbert, J.

    2009-04-01

    About 40 years after the Apollo and other lunar missions, several nations return to the Moon. Indian, Chinese, Japanese and American missions are already in orbit or will soon be launched, and the possibility of a "Made in Germany" mission (Lunar Exploration Orbiter - LEO) looms on the horizon [1]. In preparation of this mission, which will include a thermal infrared spectrometer (SERTIS - SElenological Radiometer and Thermal infrared Imaging Spectrometer), accurate temperature maps of the lunar surface are required. Because the orbiter will be imaging the Moon's surface at different times of the lunar day, an accurate estimation of the thermal variations of the surface with time is necessary to optimize signal-to-noise ratios and define optimal measurement areas. In this study we present new global temperature estimates for sunrise, noontime and sunset. This work provides new and updated research on the temperature variations of the lunar surface, by taking into account the surface and subsurface bulk thermophysical properties, namely their bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, emissivity and albedo. These properties have been derived from previous spacecraft-based observations, in-situ measurements and returned samples [e.g. 2-4]. In order to determine surface and subsurface temperatures, the one-dimensional heat conduction equation is solved for a resolution of about 0.4°, which is better by a factor of 2 compared to the Clementine measurement and temperature modeling described in [2]. Our work expands on the work of Lawson et al. [2], who calculated global brightness temperatures of subsolar points from the instantaneous energy balance equation assuming the Moon to be a spherical object [2]. Surface daytime temperatures are mainly controlled by their surface albedo and angle of incidence. On the other hand nighttime temperatures are affected by the thermal inertia of the observed surface. Topographic effects are expected to cause earlier or later

  1. Earth surface dynamics - dispatches from the flats (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovius, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Earth's surface is shaped by the physical, chemical and biological processes operating on it and the interactions amongst them. No single discipline can lay claim to this surface, nor offer a full explanation of its dynamics. Only interdisciplinary approaches can unlock answers to key questions such as how do erosion and tectonics interact to build mountains, how do landscapes respond to climate change, how can we read processes from the sedimentary record, what is the role of erosion in Earth's carbon cycle, and how can we give reliable early warning of damaging earth surface process events? The wastelands between established academic fields are rich and bountiful and replete with steep learning curves and pitfalls for the naïve. In this lecture, I shall scour the interfaces of geophysics, geochemistry and geomorphology for understanding of the mechanisms, controls and impacts of mass wasting in steep mountain settings, ending up in remarkably flat places to find new insight into the dynamics of Earth's surface.

  2. Reconstructing Variations of Global Sea-Surface Temperature during the Last Interglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.; He, F.; Parnell, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The last interglaciation (LIG; ~130-116 ka) was the most recent period in Earth history with higher-than-present global sea level (≥6 m) under similar-to-preindustrial concentrations of atmospheric CO2, suggesting additional feedbacks related to albedo, insolation, and ocean circulation in generating the apparent climatic differences between the LIG and present Holocene. However, our understanding of how much warmer the LIG sea surface was relative to the present interglaciation remains uncertain, with current estimates suggesting from 0°C to 2°C warmer than late-20thcentury average global temperatures. Moreover, the timing, spatial expression, and amplitude of regional and global sea surface temperature variability related to other climate forcing during the LIG are poorly constrained, largely due to uncertainties in age control and proxy temperature reconstructions. An accurate characterization of global and regional temperature change during the LIG can serve as a benchmark for paleoclimate modeling intercomparison projects and help improve understanding of sea-level sensitivity to temperature change. We will present a global compilation (~100 published records) of sea surface temperature (SST) and other climate reconstructions spanning the LIG. Using a Monte Carlo-enabled cross-correlation maximization algorithm to climatostratigraphically align proxy records and then account for both the resulting chronologic and proxy calibration uncertainties with Bayesian statistical inference, our results quantify the spatial timing, amplitude, and uncertainty in estimates of global and regional sea surface temperature change during the LIG and its relation to potential forcings.

  3. Application of radiometric surface temperature for surface energy balance estimation: John Monteith's contributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 25 years ago, Huband and Monteith paper’s investigating the radiative surface temperature and the surface energy balance of a wheat canopy, highlighted the key issues in computing fluxes with radiometric surface temperature. These included the relationship between radiometric and aerodynamic s...

  4. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Zhong, Sheng; Shang, Wen; Li, Ri; Ruud, James; Yamada, Masako; Ge, Liehui; Dhinojwala, Ali; Sohal, Manohar

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling, and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially on hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures combined with an increased work of adhesion can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve as a starting point to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-surface interaction at various temperatures.

  5. Comparison of two methods for contactless surface temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Michalski, Dariusz; Strąk, Kinga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the temperature filed of the heating surface on the basis of temperature measurements taken by liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography applied in boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 flow in minichannels, and to compare them. The essential part of the experimental stand is the test section with two parallel rectangular minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. It is possible to observe the channel surfaces through panes: of the first minichannel allows observing foil temperature changes on the plain side due to liquid crystal thermography (LCT), which required treating the foil surface with thermochromic liquid crystals, of the other minichannel enables detecting outer glass or foil surface temperature changes due to infrared thermography (IRT). Comparison of the results of the measurements are presented in graphical form as thermographs and as heating surface temperature vs. minichannel length. The differences between two sets of measurement data concerning the temperature of the heating surface obtained with LCT and IRT, were analyzed using: Pearson linear correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, Experimental Method Error and Method Accuracy. The comparative data analysis shows that similar values and distributions of the surface temperature were obtained from both techniques.

  6. Mass Redistribution in the Core and Time-varying Gravity at the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The Earth's liquid outer core is in convection, as suggested by the existence of the geomagnetic field in much of the Earth's history. One consequence of the convection is the redistribution of mass resulting from relative motion among fluid parcels with slightly different densities. This time dependent mass redistribution inside the core produces a small perturbation on the gravity field of the Earth. With our numerical dynamo solutions, we find that the mass redistribution (and the resultant gravity field) symmetric about the equator is much stronger than that anti-symmetric about the equator. In particular, J(sub 2) component is the strongest. In addition, the gravity field variation increases with the Rayleigh number that measures the driving force for the geodynamo in the core. With reasonable scaling from the current dynamo solutions, we could expect that at the surface of the Earth, the J(sub 2) variation from the core is on the order of l0(exp -16)/year relative to the mean (i.e. spherically symmetric) gravity field of the Earth. The possible shielding effect due to core-mantle boundary pressure variation loading is likely much smaller and is therefore negligible. Our results suggest that time-varying gravity field perturbation due to core mass redistribution may be measured with modem space geodetic observations, which will result a new means of detecting dynamical processes in the Earth's deep interior.

  7. Impact of sea surface temperature on satellite retrieval of sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xuchen; Zhu, Qiankun; He, Xianqiang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Difeng; Hao, Zengzhou; Huang, Haiqing

    2016-10-01

    Currently, global sea surface salinity (SSS) can be retrieved by the satellite microwave radiometer onboard the satellite, such as the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity(SMOS) and the Aqurius. SMOS is an Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission from the European Space Agency(ESA). It was launched at a sun-synchronous orbit in 2009 and one of the payloads is called MIRAS(Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis), which is the first interferometric microwave radiometer designed for observing SSS at L-band(1.41 GHz).The foundation of the salinity retrieval by microwave radiometer is that the sea surface radiance at L-band has the most suitable sensitivity with the variation of the salinity. It is well known that the sensitivity of brightness temperatures(TB) to SSS depends on the sea surface temperature (SST), but the quantitative impact of the SST on the satellite retrieval of the SSS is still poorly known. In this study, we investigate the impact of the SST on the accuracy of salinity retrieval from the SMOS. First of all, The dielectric constant model proposed by Klein and Swift has been used to estimate the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures(TV and TH) of a smooth sea water surface at L-band and derive the derivatives of TV and TH as a function of SSS to show the relative sensitivity at 45° incident angle. Then, we use the GAM(generalized additive model) method to evaluate the association between the satellite-measured brightness temperature and in-situ SSS at different SST. Moreover, the satellite-derived SSS from the SMOS is validated using the ARGO data to assess the RMSE(root mean squared error). We compare the SMOS SSS and ARGO SSS over two regions of Pacific ocean far from land and ice under different SST. The RMSE of retrieved SSS at different SST have been estimated. Our results showed that SST is one of the most significant factors affecting the accuracy of SSS retrieval. The satellite-measured brightness temperature has a

  8. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  9. Total ozone and surface temperature correlations during 1972 - 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ten years of Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone measurements and surface temperature observations were used to construct monthly mean values of the two parameters. The variability of both parameters is greatest in the months of January and February. Indeed, in January there is an apparent correlation between high total ozone values and abnormally low surface temperatures. However, the correlation does not hold in February. By reviewing the history of stratospheric warmings during this period, it is argued that the ozone and surface temperature correlation is influenced by the advection or lack of advection of ozone rich arctic air resulting from sudden stratospheric warmings.

  10. Linking Surface Urban Heat Islands with Groundwater Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Goettsche, Frank M; Olesen, Folke S; Blum, Philipp

    2016-01-05

    Urban temperatures are typically, but not necessarily, elevated compared to their rural surroundings. This phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) exists both above and below the ground. These zones are coupled through conductive heat transport. However, the precise process is not sufficiently understood. Using satellite-derived land surface temperature and interpolated groundwater temperature measurements, we compare the spatial properties of both kinds of heat islands in four German cities and find correlations of up to 80%. The best correlation is found in older, mature cities such as Cologne and Berlin. However, in 95% of the analyzed areas, groundwater temperatures are higher than land surface temperatures due to additional subsurface heat sources such as buildings and their basements. Local groundwater hot spots under city centers and under industrial areas are not revealed by satellite-derived land surface temperatures. Hence, we propose an estimation method that relates groundwater temperatures to mean annual land-surface temperatures, building density, and elevated basement temperatures. Using this method, we are able to accurately estimate regional groundwater temperatures with a mean absolute error of 0.9 K.

  11. Effect of milling temperatures on surface area, surface energy and cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umang V; Wang, Zihua; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2015-11-10

    Particle bulk and surface properties are influenced by the powder processing routes. This study demonstrates the effect of milling temperatures on the particle surface properties, particularly surface energy and surface area, and ultimately on powder cohesion. An active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of industrial relevance (brivanib alaninate, BA) was used to demonstrate the effect of two different, but most commonly used milling temperatures (cryogenic vs. ambient). The surface energy of powders milled at both cryogenic and room temperatures increased with increasing milling cycles. The increase in surface energy could be related to the generation of surface amorphous regions. Cohesion for both cryogenic and room temperature milled powders was measured and found to increase with increasing milling cycles. For cryogenic milling, BA had a surface area ∼ 5× higher than the one obtained at room temperature. This was due to the brittle nature of this compound at cryogenic temperature. By decoupling average contributions of surface area and surface energy on cohesion by salinization post-milling, the average contribution of surface energy on cohesion for powders milled at room temperature was 83% and 55% at cryogenic temperature.

  12. On The Possible Biological Nature of Climate Stability On Earth: Implications From Study of Temperature Dependence of The Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V.; Makarieva, A.

    Due to the exponential positive feedback between sea surface temperature and satu- rated water vapour concentration, the dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content is critical for stability of a climate with extensive liq- uid hydrosphere. On the basis of the law of energy conservation we develop a simple physically transparent approach to description of radiative transfer in an atmosphere containing greenhouse substances. It is shown that the analytical solution of the equa- tion thus derived coincides with the exact solution of the well-known radiative transfer equation to the accuracy of 20% for all values of atmospheric optical depth. The de- rived equation makes it possible to easily take into account the non-radiative thermal fluxes (convection and latent heat) and obtain an analytical dependence of the green- house effect on atmospheric concentrations of a set of greenhouse substances with arbitrary absorption intervals. The established dependence is used to analyse stabil- ity of the modern climate of Earth. It is shown that the modern value of global mean surface temperature, which corresponds to the liquid state of the terrestrial hydro- sphere, is physically unstable. The observed stability of modern climate over geologi- cal timescales is therefore likely to be due to dynamic singularities in the temperature- dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We quantify these singularities from the empirical global data on greenhouse effect. We hypothesise that such singulari- ties may appear due to controlling functioning of the natural global biota and discuss major arguments in support of this conclusion.

  13. Fourier power spectra of the geomagnetic field for circular paths on the Earth's surface.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.; Benton, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Fourier power spectra of geomagnetic component values, synthesized from spherical harmonic models, have been computed for circular paths on the Earth's surface. They are not found to be more useful than is the spectrum of magnetic energy outside the Earth for the purpose of separating core and crustal sources of the geomagnetic field. The Fourier power spectra of N and E geomagnetic components along nearly polar great circle paths exhibit some unusual characteristics that are explained by the geometric perspective of Fourier series on spheres developed by Yee. -Authors

  14. Estimation of subsurface thermal structure using sea surface height and sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yong Q. (Inventor); Jo, Young-Heon (Inventor); Yan, Xiao-Hai (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining a subsurface temperature in a body of water is disclosed. The method includes obtaining surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data of the body of water for a region of interest, and also obtaining subsurface temperature anomaly data for the region of interest at a plurality of depths. The method further includes regressing the obtained surface temperature anomaly data and surface height anomaly data for the region of interest with the obtained subsurface temperature anomaly data for the plurality of depths to generate regression coefficients, estimating a subsurface temperature at one or more other depths for the region of interest based on the generated regression coefficients and outputting the estimated subsurface temperature at the one or more other depths. Using the estimated subsurface temperature, signal propagation times and trajectories of marine life in the body of water are determined.

  15. Radiometric Calibration of an Airborne CO2 Pulsed Doppler Lidar Using a Natural Earth Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, Dean R.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Tratt, David M.; Srivastava, Vandana; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar has been accomplished using surface retro-reflection signals from the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Two circular passes were made at altitudes of 6.26 and 9.26 km. The computed calibration factors for both altitudes are in excellent agreement with the value derived from standard ground-based measurements involving a fixed sandpaper target of known reflectance. This finding corroborates a previous study that successfully calibrated an airborne continuous-wave Doppler lidar using a variety of natural Earth surfaces. The present results indicate that relatively uniform Earth-surface targets can be used for in-flight calibration of pulsed airborne, and, in principal, spaceborne lidars.

  16. Laser Induced Temperature Field on Surfaces: Application to SAM Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadnam, Mohammad Reza; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2004-03-01

    Laser is used to thermally desorb a self assembeled monolayer (SAM) from a gold substrate. This process is a key step in making patterned surfaces. In many applications making curvilinear features is useful. Heating of a surface by a CW laser along a nonlinear trajectory is considered using Green's functions. Temperature profiles are calculated for heating along circular-arc trajectories of different curvatures. The effect of heating trajectory's radius of curvature and heating spot's velocity (Laser scanning rate) on resulting surface temperature is studied. It is shown that within the range of parameters considered, the induced surface temperature profiles are symmetric. It is also shown that change of heating trajectory's radius of curvature by one order of magnitude at heating velocity of 0.1 mm/s changes the induced surface temperatures by 12 K; this temperature increase will be 36 K at 1 mm/s. The effect of such temperature increases are discussed in terms of laser processing of SAM coated surfaces. For a case of heating along straight line, the kinetics of SAM desorption is coupled with heat diffusion equation to predict the percentage of SAM desorped and determine the feature size. The resulting surface chemical composition profiles are compared with experimental measurements and good agreement is reported.

  17. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  18. A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Remedios, J.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013

  19. A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2014-05-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013

  20. Surface temperatures and glassy state investigations in tribology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The research in this report is divided into two categories: (1) lubricant rheological behavior, and (2) thermal behavior of a simulated elastohydrodynamic contact. The studies of the lubricant rheological behavior consists of high pressure, low shear rate viscosity measurements, viscoelastic transition measurements, by volume dilatometry, dielectric transitions at atmospheric pressure and light scattering transitions. Lubricant shear stress-strain behavior in the amorphous glassy state was measured on several fluids. It appears clear from these investigations that many lubricants undergo viscoplastic transitions in typical EHD contacts and that the lubricant has a limiting maximum shear stress it can support which in turn will determine the traction in the contact except in cases of very low slide-roll ratio. Surface temperature measurements were made for a naphthenic mineral oil and a polyphenyl ether. The maximum surface temperature in these experiments was approximately symmetrical about the zero slide-roll ration except for absolute values of slide-roll ratio greater than about 0.9. Additional surface temperature measurements were made in contacts with rough surfaces where the composite surface roughness was approximately equal to the EHD film thickness. A regression analysis was done to obtain a predictive equation for surface temperatures as a function of pressure, sliding speed, and surface roughness. A correction factor for surface roughness effects to the typical flash temperature analysis was found.

  1. Role of Surface Temperature Inversions in Arctic Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesins, G. B.; Duck, T. J.; Drummond, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic surface temperatures are warming at a rate several times larger than the global average in a phenomenon called Arctic Amplification. Although a number of feedback mechanisms, including sea ice reduction, enhanced meridional heat transport and changing aerosol and cloud properties, have been proposed to explain the amplification, the role of low level atmospheric stability has not received as much attention. The Arctic atmospheric boundary layer typically possesses a surface-based temperature inversion that is particularly stable and deep during the winter half of the year. The presence of the inversion stratifies the boundary layer inhibiting the vertical transport of sensible and latent heats. Hence the surface temperature response to a perturbation in the downward radiative forcing is enhanced by the presence of a stable surface layer. By using the operational surface weather observations and tropospheric soundings it was found that the magnitude of the surface temperature warming from 1984 to 2007 at Eureka (80N, 86.2W), in the Canadian High Arctic, has a large seasonal dependence that is linked to the strength of the surface-based temperature inversion. The Arctic Amplification Factor at Eureka in this time period is ~5x. The enhanced warming in the presence of a stronger inversion is an important contributor to the Arctic amplification phenomenon. The inversion augments the amplification caused by forcing and feedback mechanisms associated with regional climate change. Partitioning the data set according to cloud cover and surface wind speeds helps to demonstrate more clearly the role of the inversion.

  2. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  3. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  4. Topography, surface properties, and tectonic evolution. [of Venus and comparison with earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, G. E.; Warner, J. L.; Malin, M. C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Eliason, E.; Nozette, S.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Differences in atmospheric composition, atmospheric and lithospheric temperature, and perhaps mantle composition, suggest that the rock cycle on Venus is not similar to the earth's. While radar data are not consistent with a thick, widespread and porous regolith like that of the moon, wind-transported regolith could be cemented into sedimentary rock that would be indistinguishable from other rocks in radar returns. The elevation spectrum of Venus is strongly unimodal, in contrast to the earth. Most topographic features of Venus remain enigmatic. Two types of tectonic model are proposed: a lithosphere too thick or buoyant to participate in convective flow, and a lithosphere which, in participating in convective flow, implies the existence of plate tectonics. Features consistent with earth-like plate tectonics have not been recognized.

  5. Mapping the body surface temperature of cattle by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Salles, Marcia Saladini Vieira; da Silva, Suelen Corrêa; Salles, Fernando André; Roma, Luiz Carlos; El Faro, Lenira; Bustos Mac Lean, Priscilla Ayleen; Lins de Oliveira, Celso Eduardo; Martello, Luciane Silva

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) is an alternative non-invasive method that has been studied as a tool for identifying many physiological and pathological processes related to changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the body surface temperature of Jersey dairy cattle in a thermoneutral environment in order to contribute to the determination of a body surface temperature pattern for animals of this breed in a situation of thermal comfort. Twenty-four Jersey heifers were used over a period of 35 days at APTA Brazil. Measurements were performed on all animals, starting with the physiological parameters. Body surface temperature was measured by IRT collecting images in different body regions: left and right eye area, right and left eye, caudal left foreleg, cranial left foreleg, right and left flank, and forehead. High correlations were observed between temperature and humidity index (THI) and right flank, left flank and forehead temperatures (0.85, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively). The IRT variables that exhibited the five highest correlation coefficients in principal component 1 were, in decreasing order: forehead (0.90), right flank (0.87), left flank (0.84), marker 1 caudal left foreleg (0.83), marker 2 caudal left foreleg (0.74). The THI showed a high correlation coefficient (0.88) and moderate to low correlations were observed for the physiological variables rectal temperature (0.43), and respiratory frequency (0.42). The thermal profile obtained indicates a surface temperature pattern for each region studied in a situation of thermal comfort and may contribute to studies investigating body surface temperature. Among the body regions studied, IRT forehead temperature showed the highest association with rectal temperature, and forehead and right and left flank temperatures are strongly associated with THI and may be adopted in future studies on thermoregulation and body heat production.

  6. Surface Tension Gradients Induced by Temperature: The Thermal Marangoni Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos; Baptisto, Mauricio S.; Politi, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    Surface tensions gradients were generated in a thin liquid film because of the local increase in temperature, for demonstration purposes. This is performed using a simple experiment and allows different alternatives for heat generation to be used.

  7. Understanding and predicting changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, S. G.

    The mechanisms associated with sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic are explored using observation-based reconstructions of the historical surface states of the atmosphere and ocean as well as simulations run with the Community Earth System Model, version 1 (CESM1). The relationship between air-sea heat flux and SST between 1948 and 2009 yields evidence of a positive heat flux feedback at work in the subpolar gyre region on quasi-decadal timescales. Warming of the high latitude Atlantic precedes an atmospheric response which resembles a negative NAO state. The historical flux data set is used to estimate temporal variations in North Atlantic deep water formation which suggest that NAO variations drove strong decadal changes in thermohaline circulation strength in the last half century. Model simulations corroborate the observation-based inferences that substantial changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) ensued as a result of NAO-driven water mass perturbations, and that changes in the large-scale ocean circulation played a significant role in modulating North Atlantic SST. Surface forcing perturbation experiments show that the simulated low-frequency AMOC variability is mainly driven by turbulent buoyancy forcing over the Labrador Sea region, and that the decadal ocean variability, in uncoupled experiments, derives from low-frequency variability in the overlying atmospheric state. Surface momentum forcing accounts for most of the interannual variability in AMOC at all latitudes, and also most of the decadal AMOC variability south of the Equator. We show that the latter relates to the trend in wind stress forcing of the Southern Ocean, but that Southern Ocean forcing explains very little of the North Atlantic signal. The sea surface height in the Labrador Sea is identified as a strongly buoyancy-forced observable which supports its use as a monitor of AMOC strength. The dynamics which characterize the

  8. Fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface trench closed to the Wenchuan Earthquake Surface Rupture Zone imply the different slip dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. This giant earthquake had caused great human and financial loss. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. In this study, the fault-rocks in the two trenches close to the two Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to discuss the earthquake slip dynamics, including the Bajiaomiao and Jiulong trenches along the Y-B F. and G-A F. earthquake surface rupture zones, respectively. This study also combined with the recent fault-rock magnetism from the earth surface and WFSD-1. The rock magnetism, from the Bajiaomiao trench and other previous researches, shows that the high susceptibility of the fault gouge along the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault zone was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The rock magnetism from the Jiulong trench implied that the slightly low average susceptibility of fault gouge was caused by high content of Fe-sulfides than that of fault breccia and Jurassic sandstones, which was possibly induced by earthquake process or earth surface process after the fault rocks exposed to the surface. If the high content of Fe-sulfides was induced by earthquake process, the G-A F. had experienced the low temperature and slow speed machanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was

  9. Temperature Distribution Measurement of The Wing Surface under Icing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isokawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kimura, Shigeo; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Morita, Katsuaki; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration; Univ of Notre Dame Collaboration; Kanagawa Institute of Technology Collaboration; Univ of Electro-(UEC) Team, Comm

    2016-11-01

    De- or anti-icing system of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Icing is a phenomenon which is caused by a collision of supercooled water frozen to an object. For the in-flight icing, it may cause a change in the wing cross section that causes stall, and in the worst case, the aircraft would fall. Therefore it is important to know the surface temperature of the wing for de- or anti-icing system. In aerospace field, temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) has been widely used for obtaining the surface temperature distribution on a testing article. The luminescent image from the TSP can be related to the temperature distribution. (TSP measurement system) In icing wind tunnel, we measured the surface temperature distribution of the wing model using the TSP measurement system. The effect of icing conditions on the TSP measurement system is discussed.

  10. Surface temperature changes following the six major volcanic episodes between 1780 and 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, J. K.; Korshover, J.

    1985-09-01

    The effects produced by volcanic eruptions on the surface temperature have been a matter of controversy for decades. The present investigation has the objective to examine volcanic eruptions individually to find out which eruptions have been followed by a cooling and which have not, taking into account possible reasons for this difference. The six volcanic episodes between 1780 and 1980 with the largest dust-veil indexes have been chosen. The variation in mean-annual surface temperature from ten years before to ten years after the eruption are considered. The events selected include the eruptions of Asama and Laki in 1783, Tambora in 1815, Coseguina in 1835, Krakatoa in 1883, Santa Maria, Soufriere, and Pelee in 1902, and Agung in 1963). It is found that, while volcanic eruptions certainly do not cause a warming of the earth's surface, the evidence that they cause cooling is not overly impressive either.

  11. Interpreting differential temperature trends at the surface and in the lower troposphere

    PubMed

    Santer; Wigley; Gaffen; Bengtsson; Doutriaux; Boyle; Esch; Hnilo; Jones; Meehl; Roeckner; Taylor; Wehner

    2000-02-18

    Estimated global-scale temperature trends at Earth's surface (as recorded by thermometers) and in the lower troposphere (as monitored by satellites) diverge by up to 0.14 degrees C per decade over the period 1979 to 1998. Accounting for differences in the spatial coverage of satellite and surface measurements reduces this differential, but still leaves a statistically significant residual of roughly 0.1 degrees C per decade. Natural internal climate variability alone, as simulated in three state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean models, cannot completely explain this residual trend difference. A model forced by a combination of anthropogenic factors and volcanic aerosols yields surface-troposphere temperature trend differences closest to those observed.

  12. Surface temperature variations as measured by the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The AEM-1 satellite, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, has acquired high-quality thermal infrared data at times of day especially suited for studying the earth's surface and the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Selected imagery illustrates the considerable variability of surface temperature in and around cities, in the dry southwestern United States, in the Appalachian Mountains, and in agricultural areas. Through simplifying assumptions, an analytic experience is derived that relates day/night temperature differences to the near-surface layer (thermal inertia) and to meteorological factors. Analysis of the result suggests that, in arid regions, estimates of relative thermal inertia may be inferred, whereas, in agricultural areas, a hydrologic interpretation is possible.

  13. High temperature photoelectron emission and surface photovoltage in semiconducting diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. T.; Cooil, S. P.; Roberts, O. R.; Evans, S.; Langstaff, D. P.; Evans, D. A.

    2014-08-01

    A non-equilibrium photovoltage is generated in semiconducting diamond at above-ambient temperatures during x-ray and UV illumination that is sensitive to surface conductivity. The H-termination of a moderately doped p-type diamond (111) surface sustains a surface photovoltage up to 700 K, while the clean (2 × 1) reconstructed surface is not as severely affected. The flat-band C 1s binding energy is determined from 300 K measurement to be 283.87 eV. The true value for the H-terminated surface, determined from high temperature measurement, is (285.2 ± 0.1) eV, corresponding to a valence band maximum lying 1.6 eV below the Fermi level. This is similar to that of the reconstructed (2 × 1) surface, although this surface shows a wider spread of binding energy between 285.2 and 285.4 eV. Photovoltage quantification and correction are enabled by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy applied during annealing cycles between 300 K and 1200 K. A model is presented that accounts for the measured surface photovoltage in terms of a temperature-dependent resistance. A large, high-temperature photovoltage that is sensitive to surface conductivity and photon flux suggests a new way to use moderately B-doped diamond in voltage-based sensing devices.

  14. TOPO-EUROPE: An integrated solid earth approach to Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.

    2012-04-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities (e.g. EPOS) and know-how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists.

  15. TOPO-EUROPE: An integrated solid earth approach to Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities (e.g. EPOS) and know-how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists.

  16. Assessment of model land skin temperature and surface-atmosphere coupling using remotely sensed estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Isabel; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Viterbo, Pedro; Beljaars, Anton; Sandu, Irina

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is a key feature in Earth System Modelling for exploiting the predictability of slowly evolving geophysical variables (e.g., soil moisture or vegetation state), and for correctly representing rapid variations within the diurnal cycle, particularly relevant in data assimilation applications. Land Surface Temperature (LST) routinely estimated from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) by the LandSAF is used to assess the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) skin temperature. LST can be interpreted as a radiative temperature of the model surface, which is close to the ECMWF modelled skin temperature. It is shown that the model tends to slightly overestimate skin temperature during night-time and underestimate daytime values. Such underestimation of daily amplitudes is particularly pronounced in (semi-)arid regions, suggesting a misrepresentation of surface energy fluxes in those areas. The LST estimated from MSG is used to evaluate the impact of changes in some of the ECMWF model surface parameters. The introduction of more realistic model vegetation is shown to have a positive, but limited impact on skin temperature: long integration leads to an equilibrium state where changes in the latent heat flux and soil moisture availability compensate each other. Revised surface roughness lengths for heat and momentum, however, lead to overall positive impact on daytime skin temperature, mostly due to a reduction of sensible heat flux. This is particularly relevant in non-vegetated areas, unaffected by model vegetation. The reduction of skin conductivity, a parameter which controls the heat transfer to ground by diffusion, is shown to further improve the model skin temperature. A revision of the vertical soil discretization is also expected to improve the match to the LST, particularly over sparsely vegetated areas. The impact of a finer discretization (10-layer soil) is currently ongoing; preliminary

  17. Regionalized temperature variations in the upper 400 km of the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralli, David M.; Ita, Joel J.

    Tectonically regionalized variations in the temperature of the upper 400 km of the Earth's mantle are estimated from analysis of global seismic travel-time data cataloged by the International Seismological Centre (ISC). Seismic parameter profiles are determined from estimates of P and S velocities obtained by tau inversion. Summary phase diagrams for the olivine and pyroxene-garnet subsystems are constructed in conjunction with a thermodynamic potential formulation that allows self-consistent determination of density, bulk modulus and adiabats throughout the pressure and temperature regimes of the mantle. Perturbations in estimated seismic parameters are expressed in terms of variations in temperature using the model temperature derivatives of the bulk modulus and density at a given temperature and pressure. Confidence bounds on the velocity estimates are used to place corresponding bounds on the constructed seismic parameters. A simple differential relationship is solved iteratively to obtain a temperature variation for a given variation in seismic parameter. This approach allows the estimation of a range of seismically determined temperature variations by employing a given compositional model. Results indicate that whereas the P and S velocity variations in the upper mantle are consistent with the tectonic regionalization, variations in V p/V s ratios are irregular. This leads to unstable estimates of the seismic parameters and thus estimates of mean temperature anomalies, typically within 600°C of the weighted mean, that are inconsistent with the regionalized seismic data. A comparison of two compositional models is used to show the trade-off with estimated temperature variations. A refined regionalization and analysis of a larger ISC data set are suggested to stabilize the S velocity inversion, reduce statistical uncertainties on the seismic parameters, and thus improve constraints on estimated temperature variations.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature from EUMETSAT Including Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, Anne; Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Tomazic, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of sea surface temperature (SST) activities at EUMETSAT including information on SST planned from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). Operational oceanography activities within the Marine Applications group at EUMETSAT continue with a focus on SST, sea surface winds, sea-ice products, radiative fluxes, significant wave height and sea surface topography. These are achieved through the mandatory, optional and third-party programmes, and for some products with the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea-Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF). Progress towards products from sea-ice surface temperature, ocean colour products, turbidity and aerosol optical depth over water continue. Information on oceanography products from EUMETSAT can be found through the product navigator (http://navigator.eumetsat.int). EUMETSAT have been collaborating with ESA for a number of years on the development of SST for SLSTR.

  19. Variations in the corneal surface temperature with contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Ooi, E H; Ng, E Y K; Purslow, C; Acharya, R

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the two-dimensional simulation of heat propagation in the human eye model during contact lens wear with finite element analysis. Three types of contact lens are studied: Lotrafilcon A, Balafilcon A, and Etafilcon A. The models are solved for both steady and transient solutions. The corneal surface temperature during contact lens wear is found to decrease (average, 0.52 +/- 0.05 degrees C compared with a bare cornea for all lens types). A contact lens with a higher water content has a lower steady state temperature than a contact lens with a lower water content does. Various initial temperatures for the contact lens are found to affect the first 400 s of the temperature variation. When the initial temperature is lower than the corneal temperature, a reduction in temperature is observed during contact lens insertion while the opposite is observed when the initial temperature is higher than the corneal temperature. The increase in evaporation rate when a contact lens is worn increases the cooling effect on the ocular surface. This is suggested to be the cause of lower corneal surface temperature when wearing a contact lens.

  20. Surface Temperatures on Titan During Northern Winter and Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde ,V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E.; Mamoutkine, A.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004-2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 plus or minus 0.3 to 89.7 plus or minus 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 plus or minus 0.5 to 91.5 plus or minus 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the subsolar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 plus or minus 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north-south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  1. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E.; Mamoutkine, A.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  2. Temperature-induced collapse of alkaline Earth cation-polyacrylate anion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lages, Sebastian; Schweins, Ralf; Huber, Klaus

    2007-09-06

    Polyacrylate anions are used to inhibit CaCO3 precipitation and may be a promising additive to control formation of inorganic nanoparticles. The origin of this applicability lies in specific interactions between the alkaline earth cations and the carboxylate functions along the polyacrylate chains. In the absence of CO32- anions, these interactions eventually cause precipitation of polyelectrolytes. Extended investigation of dilute sodium polyacrylate solutions approaching this precipitation threshold revealed a dramatic shrinking of the PA coil dimensions once the threshold is reached (Eur. Phys. J. E 2001, 5, 117). Recent isothermal calorimetric titration experiments by Antonietti et al. (Macromolecules 2004, 37, 3444) indicated that the driving force of this precipitation is entropic in nature. In the present work, we investigated the impact of temperature on the structural changes of dissolved polyacrylate chains decorated with alkaline earth cations. To this end, large polyacrylate chains were brought close to the precipitation threshold by the addition of distinct amounts of Ca2+ or Sr2+ cations. The resulting structural intermediates were then subjected to temperature variations in the range of 15 degrees C temperature, respectively.

  3. Higher Flux from the Young Sun as an Explanation for Warm Temperatures for Early Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Earth was at least warm enough for liquid water to exist as far back as 4 Gyr ago, namely, as early as half a billion years after the formation of the Earth; in fact, there is evidence suggesting that Earth may have been even warmer then than it is now. These relatively warm temperatures required on early Earth are in apparent contradiction to the dimness of the early Sun predicted by the standard solar models. This problem has generally been explained by assuming that Earth's early atmosphere contained huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in a large enough greenhouse effect to counteract the effect of a dimmer Sun. However, recent work places an upper limit of 0.04 bar on the partial pressure of CO2 in the period from 2.75 to 2.2 Gyr ago, based on the absence of siderite in paleosols; this casts doubt on the viability of a strong CO2 greenhouse effect on early Earth. The existence of liquid water on early Mars has been even more of a puzzle; even the maximum possible CO2 greenhouse effect cannot yield warm enough Martian surface temperatures. These problems can be resolved simultaneously for both Earth and Mars, if the early Sun was brighter than predicted by the standard solar models. This could be accomplished if the early Sun was slightly more massive than it is now, i.e., if the solar wind was considerably stronger in the past than at present. A slightly more massive young Sun would have left fingerprints on the internal structure of the present Sun. Today, helioseismic observations exist that can measure the internal structure of the Sun with very high precision. The task undertaken here was to compute solar models with the highest precision possible at this time, starting with slightly greater initial masses. These were evolved to the present solar age, where comparisons with the helioseismic observations could be made. Our computations also yielded the time evolution of the solar flux at the planets - a key input to

  4. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  5. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sami; Azimi, Gisele; Yildiz, Bilge; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-02-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth oxides (REOs) is intrinsically hydrophobic. The unique electronic structure of the rare-earth metal atom inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules resulting in a hydrophobic hydration structure where the surface oxygen atoms are the only hydrogen bonding sites. Hence, the presence of excess surface oxygen can lead to increased hydrogen bonding and thereby reduce hydrophobicity of REOs. Herein, we demonstrate how surface stoichiometry and surface relaxations can impact wetting properties of REOs. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and wetting measurements, we show that freshly sputtered ceria is hydrophilic due to excess surface oxygen (shown to have an O/Ce ratio of ˜3 and a water contact angle of ˜15°), which when relaxed in a clean, ultra-high vacuum environment isolated from airborne contaminants reaches close to stoichiometric O/Ce ratio (˜2.2) and becomes hydrophobic (contact angle of ˜104°). Further, we show that airborne hydrocarbon contaminants do not exclusively impact the wetting properties of REOs, and that relaxed REOs are intrinsically hydrophobic. This study provides insight into the role of surface relaxation on the wettability of REOs.

  6. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Sami; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Azimi, Gisele; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-02-09

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth oxides (REOs) is intrinsically hydrophobic. The unique electronic structure of the rare-earth metal atom inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules resulting in a hydrophobic hydration structure where the surface oxygen atoms are the only hydrogen bonding sites. Hence, the presence of excess surface oxygen can lead to increased hydrogen bonding and thereby reduce hydrophobicity of REOs. Herein, we demonstrate how surface stoichiometry and surface relaxations can impact wetting properties of REOs. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and wetting measurements, we show that freshly sputtered ceria is hydrophilic due to excess surface oxygen (shown to have an O/Ce ratio of ∼3 and a water contact angle of ∼15°), which when relaxed in a clean, ultra-high vacuum environment isolated from airborne contaminants reaches close to stoichiometric O/Ce ratio (∼2.2) and becomes hydrophobic (contact angle of ∼104°). Further, we show that airborne hydrocarbon contaminants do not exclusively impact the wetting properties of REOs, and that relaxed REOs are intrinsically hydrophobic. This study provides insight into the role of surface relaxation on the wettability of REOs.

  7. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong -Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu; Voisin, Nathalie; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie; Wu, Huan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-10-29

    A new large-scale stream temperature model has been developed within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model is coupled with the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing and a water management model (WM) that represents the effects of reservoir operations and water withdrawals on flow regulation. The coupled models allow the impacts of reservoir operations and withdrawals on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models have been applied to the Contiguous United States driven by observed meteorological forcing. It is shown that the model is capable of reproducing stream temperature spatiotemporal variation satisfactorily by comparison against the observed streamflow from over 320 USGS stations. Including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow at a large number of stream gauge stations. Both climate and water management are found to have important influence on the spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature. More interestingly, it is quantitatively estimated that reservoir operation could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season (August – October) by as much as 1~2oC over many places, as water management generally mitigates low flow, which has important implications to aquatic ecosystems. In conclusion, sensitivity of the simulated stream temperature to input data and reservoir operation rules used in the WM model motivates future directions to address some limitations in the current modeling framework.

  8. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Ruby Leung, L.; Tesfa, Teklu; Voisin, Nathalie; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie; Wu, Huan; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-12-01

    A new large-scale stream temperature model has been developed within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model is coupled with the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing and a water management model (WM) that represents the effects of reservoir operations and water withdrawals on flow regulation. The coupled models allow the impacts of reservoir operations and withdrawals on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models have been applied to the Contiguous United States driven by observed meteorological forcing. Including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow at a large number of stream gauge stations. It is then shown that the model is capable of reproducing stream temperature spatiotemporal variation satisfactorily by comparing against the observed data from over 320 USGS stations. Both climate and water management are found to have important influence on the spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature. Furthermore, it is quantitatively estimated that reservoir operation could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season (August-October) by as much as 1˜2°C due to enhanced low-flow conditions, which have important implications to aquatic ecosystems. Sensitivity of the simulated stream temperature to input data and reservoir operation rules used in the WM model motivates future directions to address some limitations in the current modeling framework.

  9. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hong -Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu; ...

    2015-10-29

    A new large-scale stream temperature model has been developed within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model is coupled with the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing and a water management model (WM) that represents the effects of reservoir operations and water withdrawals on flow regulation. The coupled models allow the impacts of reservoir operations and withdrawals on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models have been applied to the Contiguous United States driven by observed meteorological forcing. It is shown that the model ismore » capable of reproducing stream temperature spatiotemporal variation satisfactorily by comparison against the observed streamflow from over 320 USGS stations. Including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow at a large number of stream gauge stations. Both climate and water management are found to have important influence on the spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature. More interestingly, it is quantitatively estimated that reservoir operation could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season (August – October) by as much as 1~2oC over many places, as water management generally mitigates low flow, which has important implications to aquatic ecosystems. In conclusion, sensitivity of the simulated stream temperature to input data and reservoir operation rules used in the WM model motivates future directions to address some limitations in the current modeling framework.« less

  10. Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO) - A pioneering research facility in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Teller, Amit; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Philimis, Panayiotis; Lelieveld, Jos; Levin, Zev

    2010-05-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) has increased dramatically in the recent decades. UASs are widely used for different civil applications such as land management, earth sciences, contaminant detection and monitoring and commercial use. The Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute is aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the Mediterranean. The APAESO UAS platforms will provide the unique ability to produce 3D measurements for determining: physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into: surface morphology, vegetation and land use patterns, archaeological site reconnaissance, contaminant detection and ocean surface properties (biology, waves, currents) at high spatial resolution. Through a modular design philosophy, APAESO will be very adaptable for a variety of scientific investigations enabling scientific collaborations between the Cyprus Institute and national and international research organizations. The Cyprus Institute is currently procuring the "Cruiser", which is a medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is capable of carrying a payload of up to 10 kg, fly to altitude of 5000 m AGL with an endurance of up to 10 hours. Within the next phase of the project, the "Cruiser" will be equipped with instruments for atmospheric and earth surface observations. The poster will present the different components of the project: the UAS platform, payload to be integrated and scientific challenges that we are about to tackle and solve.

  11. The impact of screening on road surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogren, J.; Gustavsson, T.; Karlsson, M.; Postgård, U.

    2000-06-01

    The effect of screening on road surface temperatures is analysed using data from the Swedish road weather information system (RWIS) together with data from thermal mapping. The study deals with the analysis of temperature variations caused by shading of the road surface during clear daytime conditions and focuses on the relation between solar elevation and magnitude of road surface temperature differences between screened and sun-exposed areas. Also included is an analysis of how the temperature differences during the day affect the establishment of temperature variations after sunset and the time it takes after sunset for temperature differences caused by shading to decline. The results show that the magnitude of road surface temperature differences between sun exposed and screened sites (RSTdiff) that develop during clear day conditions can be attributed to solar elevation ([beta]) and can be expressed by the equation: RSTdiff=[minus sign]2.7+0.46([beta]). A relationship between the daily maximum temperature difference andthe preservation of the screening effect after sunset is observed. The effect after sunset can be described by: RSTdiff=A[minus sign]Bh+Ch2[minus sign]Dh3[minus sign]Eh4+Fh5, where h is the time in hours after sunset and A to F are constants related to the time of the year at the actual site.

  12. Thermographic analysis of body surface temperature of mammals.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2013-02-01

    Among mammals, the similarity in body temperature indicates that body size differences in heat loss must match the body size differences in heat production. This study tested the possibility that body surface temperature (Tbs), responsible for heat loss through radiation and convection, may vary systematically with the animal's body mass (M). Tbs was measured by whole body thermography in 53 specimens from 37 eutherian mammals ranging in M from a few grams to several tons. Numerous thermographs were taken from all angles, indoor, with the animals standing still in absence of air convection and of external radiant sources, at the ambient temperature of 20-22°C, 22-25°C, or 25-27°C. Data were analysed as whole body surface average, as average of the "effective" body surface area (those regions with temperatures exceeding ambient temperature by > 1.5°C or by > 5°C), as the peak histogram distribution and as average of the regions with the top 20% temperature values. For all modes of data analysis and at all ambient temperatures Tbs was independent of the animal's M. From these data, the heat loss by radiation and natural convection combined was estimated to vary to the 2/3 power of M. It is concluded that, for the same ambient conditions, the surface temperature responsible for radiation and convection is essentially body-size independent among mammals.

  13. Surface Gravity and Hawking Temperature from Entropic Force Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kietzman, B.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramanov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Rutherford, B.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    We consider a freely falling holographic screen for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes and evaluate the entropic force à la Verlinde. When the screen crosses the event horizon, the temperature of the screen agrees to the Hawking temperature and the entropic force gives rise to the surface gravity for both of the black holes.

  14. STAR Concept for Passive Microwave Temperature Sounding from Middle Earth Orbit (MeoSTAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Ruf, Chris S.

    2004-01-01

    A future mission for a new microwave atmospheric temperature sounder radiometer in a Middle Earth Orbit (MEO) at 11,000 km altitude is described. The MeoSTAR design uses a stationary l-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer in the 50-60 GHz microwave sounding band, to provide a 'pushbroom' image as the satellite orbits. The advantage of this concept is an image with a high spatial resolution and a wide swath with no scanning antenna to disturb the visual and IR sensors on the same satellite.

  15. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  16. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. Hydromagnetic Steady Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface with Prescribed Surface Temperature and Prescribed Surface Heat Flux

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmad; Hayat, Tasawar

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady hydromagnetic three-dimensional boundary layer flow of Maxwell fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Both cases of prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF) are considered. Computations are made for the velocities and temperatures. Results are plotted and analyzed for PST and PHF cases. Convergence analysis is presented for the velocities and temperatures. Comparison of PST and PHF cases is given and examined. PMID:23874523

  18. Field spectroscopy sampling strategies for improved measurement of Earth surface reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, A.; Alonso, L.; Malthus, T. J.; Moreno, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades extensive networks of research sites have been established to measure the flux of carbon compounds and water vapour between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere using eddy covariance (EC) techniques. However, contributing Earth surface components cannot be determined and (as the ';footprints' are spatially constrained) these measurements cannot be extrapolated to regional cover using this technique. At many of these EC sites researchers have been integrating spectral measurements with EC and ancillary data to better understand light use efficiency and carbon dioxide flux. These spectroscopic measurements could also be used to assess contributing components and provide support for imaging spectroscopy, from airborne or satellite platforms, which can provide unconstrained spatial cover. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in ';smart' database and information retrieval systems such as that proposed by EcoSIS and OPTIMISE to store, analyse, QA and merge spectral and biophysical measurements and provide information to end users. However, as Earth surfaces are spectrally heterogeneous and imaging and field spectrometers sample different spatial extents appropriate field sampling strategies require to be adopted. To sample Earth surfaces spectroscopists adopt either single; random; regular grid; transect; or 'swiping' point sampling strategies, although little comparative work has been carried out to determine the most appropriate approach; the work by Goetz (2012) is a limited exception. Mac Arthur et al (2012) demonstrated that, for two full wavelength (400 nm to 2,500 nm) field spectroradiometers, the measurement area sampled is defined by each spectroradiometer/fore optic system's directional response function (DRF) rather than the field-of-view (FOV) specified by instrument manufacturers. Mac Arthur et al (2012) also demonstrated that each reflecting element within the sampled area was not weighted equally in the integrated

  19. Multiple sulfur isotopes and the evolution of Earth's surface sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, David T.

    2011-05-01

    The distribution of sulfur isotopes in geological materials reveals information about Earth history and biogeochemical processes. Research during the last several decades has used sulfur isotope geochemistry as a tool to better understand microbial processes ( Harrison and Thode, 1958; Kaplan, 1975; Monster et al., 1979; Peck, 1959, 1962; Rees, 1973) and sediment diagenesis ( Berner, 1969, 1982; Canfield et al., 1993b). Earth historians also realized this potential, as there exists a rich record of environmental change within the sedimentary records ( Canfield and Teske, 1996; Claypool et al., 1980; Goodwin et al., 1976; Habicht et al., 2002; Kah et al., 2004; Monster et al., 1979; Shen et al., 2001; Strauss, 1993; Thode and Goodwin, 1983). These applications have championed the use of the two most abundant sulfur isotopes [ 32S and 34S], and provide a rich introduction to what the sulfur isotope record has to offer [see ( Canfield, 2004; Canfield and Raiswell, 1999)]. Within the last decade, this information has been supplemented by new data derived from the less abundant isotopes [ 33S and 36S]. The measurement of all four stable sulfur isotopes - multiple sulfur isotope geochemistry - has expanded our understanding of biological evolution and activity, atmospheric chemistry and transport, crustal recycling, and many more fields related to Earth surface processes [see ( Farquhar and Wing, 2003)]. Here, I present a review of recent works in multiple sulfur isotope geochemistry with a focus on results that inform our understanding of biogeochemical processes and Earth surface evolution.

  20. Thermal inertia as an indicator of rockiness variegation on near-Earth asteroid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Lagoa, Victor; Delbo, Marco; Hanus, Josef

    2016-10-01

    Determining key physical properties of asteroids such as sizes and albedos or reflectance spectra is crucial to understand their origins and the processes that they have undergone during their evolution. In particular, one of the aims of NEOShield-2 project, funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme, is to physically characterize small near Earth asteroids (NEA) in an effort to determine effective mitigation strategies in case of impact with our planet [Harris et al. 2013 2013AcAau,90,80H].We performed thermophysical modelling of NEAs, such as (1685) Toro, and potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), such as (33342) 1998 WT24. In addition to size, thermophysical models (TPM) of asteroids can constrain the surface thermal inertia, which is related to the material composition and physical nature, namely its "rockiness" or typical size of the particles on its surface. These have observable effects on the surface temperature distribution as a function of time and thus on the thermal infrared fluxes we observe, to which we can fit our model.In the case of WT24, its thermal inertia has been previously constrained to be in the range 100-300 SI units [Harris et al. 2007, Icarus 188, 414H]. But this was based on a spherical shape model approximation since no shape model was available by the time. Such a low thermal inertia value seems in disagreement with a relatively high metal content of the enstatite chondrites, the meteorite type to which WT24, classified as an E-type [Lazzarin et al. 2004 A&A 425L, 25L], has been spectrally associated. Using a three-dimensional model and spin vector based on radar observations [Busch et al. 2008 Icarus 197, 375B], our TPM produces a higher best-fitting value of the thermal inertia. We also find the intriguing possibility that the hemisphere of WT24 dominated by concave terrains, possibly be the result of an impact crater, has a higher thermal inertia. This would be similar to the case of our Moon

  1. Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than

  2. Atmospheric corrections of passive microwave data for estimating land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeng-Lin; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Qiu, Shi; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of the atmospheric effects on observations made by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) has been performed. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and at the bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed using a database of simulated observations, which were configured to replicate AMSR-E data. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and land surface-emitted brightness temperatures were also computed. Quantitative results show that the atmosphere has different effects on brightness temperatures in different AMSR-E channels. Atmospheric effects can be neglected at 6.925 and 10.65 GHz, when the standard deviation is less than 1 K. However, at other frequencies and polarizations, atmospheric effects on observations should not be neglected. An atmospheric correction algorithm was developed at 18.7 GHz vertical polarization, based on the classic split-window algorithm used in thermal remote sensing. Land surface emission can be estimated with RMSE = 0.99 K using the proposed method. Using the known land surface emissivity, Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be retrieved. The RMSE of retrieved LST is 1.17 K using the simulated data.

  3. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World

  4. Earth-atmosphere system and surface reflectivities in arid regions from LANDSAT multispectral scanner measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for computing atmospheric transmission and scattering solar radiation were used to compute the ratios of the Earth-atmosphere system (space) directional reflectivities in the vertical direction to the surface reflectivity, for the four bands of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS). These ratios are presented as graphs for two water vapor levels, as a function of the surface reflectivity, for various sun elevation angles. Space directional reflectivities in the vertical direction are reported for selected arid regions in Asia, Africa and Central America from the spectral radiance levels measured by the LANDSAT MSS. From these space reflectivities, surface vertical reflectivities were computed applying the pertinent graphs. These surface reflectivities were used to estimate the surface albedo for the entire solar spectrum. The estimated albedos are in the range 0.34-0.52, higher than the values reported by most previous researchers from space measurements, but are consistent with laboratory measurements.

  5. Mesoscale mapping of available solar energy at the earth's surface by use of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, H. W.; Senn, H. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for use of cloud images in the visual spectrum from the SMS/GOES geostationary satellites to determine the hourly distribution of sunshine on the mesoscale. Cloud coverage and density as a function of time of day and season are evaluated through the use of digital data processing techniques. Seasonal geographic distributions of cloud cover/sunshine are converted to joules of solar radiation received at the earth's surface through relationships developed from long-term measurements of these two parameters at six widely distributed stations. The technique can be used to generate maps showing the geographic distribution of total solar radiation on the mesoscale which is received at the earth's surface.

  6. Rare-earth silicide thin films on the Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Dues, C.; Schmidt, W. G.; Timmer, F.; Wollschläger, J.; Franz, M.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.

    2016-05-01

    Rare-earth induced layered structures on the Si(111) surface are investigated by a combined approach consisting of ab initio thermodynamics, electron and x-ray diffraction experiments, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our density functional theory calculations predict the occurrence of structures with different periodicity, depending on the rare-earth availability. Microscopic structural models are assigned to the different silicide phases on the basis of stability criteria. The thermodynamically stable theoretical models are then employed to interpret the experimental results. The agreement between the simulated and measured scanning tunneling microscopy images validates the proposed structural models. The electronic properties of the surfaces are discussed on the basis of the calculated electronic band structure and photoelectron spectroscopy data.

  7. Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and North Atlantic Hurricane Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Mahani, S.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2006-05-01

    People of United States from Maine to Texas in the years 1995 to 2005 experienced the highest level of North Atlantic hurricane activity in the reliable collected data and reports in compare with the generally low activity of the previous two decays (1970 to 1994). The greater activity might be a consequence of instantaneous changes in North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and air temperature. This thermal energy of increased Sea Surface Temperature (warm water) is known as tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) partly powers a hurricane and has been called hurricane fuel. In primary steps of this research we are trying to examine the association of variation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and air temperature in the past decades with changes in hurricane number, duration and intensity. Preliminary analysis demonstrated that there is correlation between global warming and the occurrence of hurricanes because of the anticipated enhancement of energy available to the storms due to higher sea surface temperatures. The goal is to characterize and specify significant factors on tropical storms to improve the capability of predicting a hurricane and its damages to human lives and the economy. This information can be used to advise strategies for warning and also minimizing the magnitude of hurricane destruction, damages, and life losses.

  8. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A. Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  9. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  10. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynek, Jaroslav Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  11. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  12. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  13. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  14. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  15. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  16. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This ismore » followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  17. Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

  18. Diurnal variations of Titan's surface temperatures from Cassini - CIRS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 micron (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface.

  19. Influence of Annealing Temperature on CZTS Thin Film Surface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenmei; Han, Junfeng; Ge, Jun; Peng, Xianglin; Liu, Yunong; Jian, Yu; Yuan, Lin; Xiong, Xiaolu; Cha, Limei; Liao, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) films were deposited by direct current sputtering and the samples were annealed in different oven-set temperatures and atmosphere (Ar and H2S). The surface evolution was investigated carefully by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface of the as-sputtered precursor contained little Cu and large amounts of Zn and Sn. The metallic precursor was continuous and compact without pinholes or cracks. With the increase of the temperature from room temperature to 250°C, Cu atoms diffused to the film surface to form Cu1- x S and covered other compounds. Some small platelets were smaller than 500 nm spreading randomly in the holes of the film surfaces. When the temperature reached 350°C, Zn and Sn atoms began to diffuse to the surface and react with S or Cu1- x S. At 400°C, SEM showed the melting of large particles and small particles with a size from 100 nm to 200 nm in the background of the film surface. Excess Zn segregated towards the surface regions and formed ZnS phase on the surface. In addition, the signal of sodium in the CZTS surface was observed above 400°C. At 600°C, a large amount of regular structures with clear edges and corners were observed in the film surface in SEM images. A clear recrystallized process on the surface was assumed from those observations.

  20. Surface Temperature Measurements of Heterogeneous Explosives by IR Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, B. F.; Funk, D. J.; Laabs, G. W.; Asay, B. W.

    1997-07-01

    Solid phase temperature is a key observable for understanding chemical and physical properties of energetic materials. Material decomposition during prolonged heating and the rate and mechanism of energy release during explosive ignition are both strongly coupled to the temperature field in the solid. Toward the end of addressing these issues we are pursuing the remote measurement of temperature by the quantitative collection of IR emission from the material surface. We present measurements of the integrated IR emission (1-5 mm) from both the heterogeneous explosive PBX 9501 and pure components at calibrated temperatures from 100C to 250C. The IR power emitted as a function of temperature is that expected of a black body, attenuated by a unique temperature-independent constant for each component which we report as the thermal emissivity of that component in this spectral region. In addition, we report preliminary measurements of the thermal transients from the unconfined surface of both PBX9501 and pressed HMX during ignition after periods of prolonged heating. We demonstrate that the measurement of IR emission in this spectral region provides both a reliable probe of static surface temperature and a unique observable of dynamic temperature change during ignition.

  1. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff

  2. Inverse estimation of near-field temperature and surface heat flux via single point temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Wu; Shu, Yong-Hua; Xie, Ji-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Zheng; Fan, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A concept was developed to inversely estimate the near-field temperature as well as the surface heat flux for the transient heat conduction problem with boundary condition of the unknown heat flux. The mathematical formula was derived for the inverse estimation of the near-field temperature and surface heat flux via a single point temperature measurement. The experiments were carried out in a vacuum chamber and the theoretically predicted temperatures were justified in specific positions. The inverse estimation principle was validated and the estimation deviation was evaluated for the present configuration.

  3. Temperature of surface waters in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakey, James F.

    1966-01-01

    Temperature is probably the most important, but least discussed, parameter in determining water quality. The purpose of this report is to present the average or most probable temperatures of surface waters in the conterminous United States and to cite factors that affect and are affected by water temperature. Temperature is related, usually directly, to all the chemical, physical, and biological properties of water. The ability of water to dissolve or precipitate materials is temperature dependent, the ability of water to transport or deposit suspended material is temperature dependent, and the aquatic life of a lake or stream may thrive or die because of the water temperature.Everyone is concerned, though often unknowingly, about water temperature. The amount and type of treatment necessary for a municipal supply are temperature dependent; therefore it affects the consumer cost. Temperature determines the volume of cooling water needed for industrial processes and steampower generation. Conservation and recreation practices are affected by water temperature, and the farmers' irrigation practices and livestock production may be affected by the water temperature.

  4. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  5. Microwave Imager Measures Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired over Tropical Atlantic and U.S. East Coast regions on Aug. 22 - Sept. 23, 1998. Cloud data were collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data were collected aboard the NASA/NASDA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite by The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). TMI is the first satellite microwave sensor capable of accurately measuring sea surface temperature through clouds, as shown in this scene. For years scientists have known there is a strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. In this scene, clouds have been made translucent to allow an unobstructed view of the surface. Notice Hurricane Bonnie approaching the Carolina Coast (upper left) and Hurricane Danielle following roughly in its path (lower right). The ocean surface has been falsely colored to show a map of water temperature--dark blues are around 75oF, light blues are about 80oF, greens are about 85oF, and yellows are roughly 90oF. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found at tropical latitudes. In this image we see Hurricane Bonnie cross the Atlantic, leaving a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle followed in Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm dropped markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm dropped off. But when Danielle left Bonnie's wake, wind speeds increased due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. As a hurricane churns up the ocean, it's central vortex draws surface heat and water into the storm. That suction at the surface causes an upwelling of deep water. At depth, tropical ocean waters are significantly colder than water found near the surface. As they're pulled up to meet the storm, those colder waters essentially leave a footprint in the storm's wake

  6. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    PubMed Central

    Musin, Frédéric; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible. PMID:27483271

  7. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference.

    PubMed

    Musin, Frédéric; Mégret, Patrice; Wuilpart, Marc

    2016-07-28

    Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  8. Revised Atmospheric Angular Momentum Series Related to Earth's Variable Rotation under Consideration of Surface Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Salstein, D. A.; Chen, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric angular momentum is closely related to variations in the Earth rotation. The atmospheric excitation function (AEF), or namely atmospheric effective angular momentum function, is introduced in studying the atmospheric excitation of the Earth's variable rotation. It may be separated into two portions, i.e, the "wind" terms due to the atmospheric motion relative to the mantle and the "pressure" terms due to the variations of atmospheric mass distribution evident through surface pressure changes. The AEF wind terms during the period of 1948-2004 are re-processed from the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis 6-hourly wind and pressure fields. Some previous calculations were approximate, in that the wind terms were integrated from an isobaric lower boundary of 1000 hPa. To consider the surface topography effect, however, the AEF is computed by integration using the winds from the Earth's surface to 10 hPa, the top atmospheric model level, instead of from 1000 hPa. For these two cases, only a minor difference, equivalent to approx. 0.004 milliseconds in length-of-day variation, exists with respect to the axial wind term. However, considerable differences, equivalent to 5-6 milliarcseconds in polar motion, are found regarding equatorial wind terms. We further compare the total equatorial AEF (with and without the topographic effect) with the polar motion excitation function (PMEF) during the period of 1980-2003. The equatorial AEF gets generally closer to the PMEF, and improved coherences are found between them when the topography effect is included. Keywords: Atmospheric angular momentum, Atmospheric excitation function, Earth rotation, Topography, Wind, Pressure.

  9. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-08-23

    Potential future changes in air temperature drivers were consistently upward regardless of General Circulation Model and emission scenario selected; thus, simulated stream temperatures are forecast to increase appreciably with future climate. However, the amount of temperature increase was variable. Such uncertainty is reflected in temperature model results, along with uncertainty in the groundwater/surface-water interaction itself. The estimated increase in annual average temperature ranged from approximately 3 to 6 degrees Celsius by 2100 in the upper reaches of Black Earth Creek and 2 to 4 degrees Celsius in reaches farther downstream. As with all forecasts that rely on projections of an unknowable future, the results are best considered to approximate potential outcomes of climate change given the underlying uncertainty.

  10. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  11. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Performance and Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Bird, M. K.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Olkin, C.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft payload contained the Radio Science Experiment (REX) for determining key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the July 14, 2015, flyby of the Pluto/Charon system. The REX flight equipment augments the NH X-band radio transceiver by providing a high precision, narrow band recording of high power uplink transmissions from Earth stations, as well as a record of broadband radiometric power. This presentation will review the performance and initial results of two high- priority observations. First, REX received two pair of 20-kW signals, one pair per polarization, transmitted from the DSN at 4.2-cm wavelength during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. REX recorded these uplink signals and determined precise measurement of the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius of Pluto. The ingress portion of one polarization was played back from the spacecraft in July and processed to obtain the pressure and temperature structure of Pluto's atmosphere. Second, REX measured the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2- cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the night side are visible. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of one-tenth Pluto's disk and temperature resolution of 0.1 K. Occultation and radiometric temperature results presented here will encompass additional data scheduled for playback in September.

  12. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  13. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal

  14. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  15. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB

  16. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO

  17. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code

  18. Global fields of soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration derived from observed precipitation and surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Y.; Walker, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential evapotranspiration is derived from the observed surface air temperature with the empirical regression equation of Thornthwaite (1954). It is shown that at locations where the net surface radiation flux has been measured, the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation is in good agreement with those obtained with the radiation-based formulations of Priestley and Taylor (1972), Penman (1948), and Budyko (1956-1974), and this provides the justification for the use of the Thornthwaite equation. After deriving the global fields of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, the assumption is made that the potential evapotranspiration given by the Thornthwaite equation and by the Priestley-Taylor equation will everywhere be about the same; the inverse of the Priestley-Taylor equation is used to obtain the normal monthly global fields of net surface radiation flux minus ground heat storage. This and the derived evapotranspiration are then used in the equation for energy conservation at the surface of the earth to obtain the global fields of normal monthly sensible heat flux from the land surface to the atmosphere.

  19. An active thermal control surfaces experiment. [spacecraft temperature determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.; Brown, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    An active flight experiment is described that has the objectives to determine the effects of the low earth natural environment and the Shuttle induced environment on selected thermal control and optical surfaces. The optical and thermal properties of test samples will be measured in-situ using an integrating sphere reflectrometer and using calorimetric methods. This experiment has been selected for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight which will be carried to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The LDEF will remain in orbit to be picked up by a later Shuttle mission and returned for postflight evaluation.

  20. Optical pyrometer for the measurement of turbine blade surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpenel, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    An optical pyrometer with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed to allow the determination of turbine blade surface temperature distributions in studies of blade cooling. The pyrometer is based on a water cooled metallic tube with a deflecting prism placed in front of a circular aperture which receives the infrared radiation emitted by a blade surface region as it passes by the probe. Blade temperature is determined from the measurement of the intensity of the sampled radiation, and the probe may be placed between turbine stages. The temperature field is reconstructed from averaged infrared intensity signals by computer, taking into account the emissivity of the surface examined as well as parasitic reflections of radiation from adjacent blades. The pyrometer has been applied to the determination of local transport coefficients on moving blades following the cutoff of blade cooling, and has been found simpler to use than techniques employing thermocouples.

  1. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  2. Low-Temperature Oxidation Reactions and Cool Flames at Earth and Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Non-isothermal studies of cool flames and low temperature oxidation reactions in unstirred closed vessels are complicated by the perturbing effects of natural convection at earth gravity. Buoyant convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus specie concentration fields due to the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Such complexities have never been quantitatively modeled and were the primary impetus for the development of CSTR's (continuously stirred tank reactors) 30 years ago. While CSTR's have been widely adopted since they offer the advantage of spatial uniformity in temperature and concentration, all gradients are necessarily destroyed along with any structure that may otherwise develop. Microgravity offers a unique environment where buoyant convection can be effectively minimized and the need for stirring eliminated. Moreover, eliminating buoyancy and the need for stirring eliminates complications associated with the induced hydrodynamic field whose influence on heat transport and hot spot formation, hence explosion limits, is not fully realized. The objective of this research is to quantitatively determine and understand the fundamental mechanisms that control the onset and evolution of low temperature reactions and cool flames in both static and flow reactors. Microgravity experiments will be conducted to obtain benchmark data on the structure (spatio-temporal temperature, concentration, flow fields), the dynamics of the chemical fronts, and the ignition diagrams (pressure vs. temperature). Ground-based experiments will be conducted to ascertain the role of buoyancy. Numerical simulations including detailed kinetics will be conducted and compared to experiment.

  3. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  4. Measuring the angular and seasonal dependence of the cosmic ray flux at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depoian, Amanda; Bellis, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The angular dependence of cosmic rays hitting the Earth's surface is affected by solar winds, the Earth's magnetic field, attenuation factors, and other effects. The overall flux can be affected by the height and density of the atmosphere, which can vary seasonally. This seasonal modulation can affect the analyses of dark matter direct detection experiments, which also look for a modulation in dark matter recoils. We have constructed a standard cosmic ray telescope, consisting of two scintillating paddles, the associate photomultiplier tubes, and some older electronics. We will be pushing the sensitivity and stability of this detector to measure angular and temporal rates over the winter and spring and look for any seasonal variations that can be correlated with environmental conditions. While the location at the Earth's surface in Albany, NY is quite different than the underground laboratories where many dark matter experiments take place, we run this experiment as a proof-of-principle to see what seasonal effects can be measured with the basic equipment available in some undergraduate labs.

  5. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  6. The reliability of global and hemispheric surface temperature records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Philip

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this review article is to discuss the development and associated estimation of uncertainties in the global and hemispheric surface temperature records. The review begins by detailing the groups that produce surface temperature datasets. After discussing the reasons for similarities and differences between the various products, the main issues that must be addressed when deriving accurate estimates, particularly for hemispheric and global averages, are then considered. These issues are discussed in the order of their importance for temperature records at these spatial scales: biases in SST data, particularly before the 1940s; the exposure of land-based thermometers before the development of louvred screens in the late 19th century; and urbanization effects in some regions in recent decades. The homogeneity of land-based records is also discussed; however, at these large scales it is relatively unimportant. The article concludes by illustrating hemispheric and global temperature records from the four groups that produce series in near-real time.

  7. Method for Accurate Surface Temperature Measurements During Fast Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larregain, Benjamin; Vanderesse, Nicolas; Bridier, Florent; Bocher, Philippe; Arkinson, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    A robust method is proposed for the measurement of surface temperature fields during induction heating. It is based on the original coupling of temperature-indicating lacquers and a high-speed camera system. Image analysis tools have been implemented to automatically extract the temporal evolution of isotherms. This method was applied to the fast induction treatment of a 4340 steel spur gear, allowing the full history of surface isotherms to be accurately documented for a sequential heating, i.e., a medium frequency preheating followed by a high frequency final heating. Three isotherms, i.e., 704, 816, and 927°C, were acquired every 0.3 ms with a spatial resolution of 0.04 mm per pixel. The information provided by the method is described and discussed. Finally, the transformation temperature Ac1 is linked to the temperature on specific locations of the gear tooth.

  8. Land surface temperature measurements from EOS MODIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1994-01-01

    A generalized split-window method for retrieving land-surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR and MODIS data has been developed. Accurate radiative transfer simulations show that the coefficients in the split-window algorithm for LST must depend on the viewing angle, if we are to achieve a LST accuracy of about 1 K for the whole scan swath range (+/-55.4 deg and +/-55 deg from nadir for AVHRR and MODIS, respectively) and for the ranges of surface temperature and atmospheric conditions over land, which are much wider than those over oceans. We obtain these coefficients from regression analysis of radiative transfer simulations, and we analyze sensitivity and error by using results from systematic radiative transfer simulations over wide ranges of surface temperatures and emissivities, and atmospheric water vapor abundance and temperatures. Simulations indicated that as atmospheric column water vapor increases and viewing angle is larger than 45 deg it is necessary to optimize the split-window method by separating the ranges of the atmospheric column water vapor and lower boundary temperature, and the surface temperature into tractable sub-ranges. The atmospheric lower boundary temperature and (vertical) column water vapor values retrieved from HIRS/2 or MODIS atmospheric sounding channels can be used to determine the range where the optimum coefficients of the split-window method are given. This new LST algorithm not only retrieves LST more accurately but also is less sensitive than viewing-angle independent LST algorithms to the uncertainty in the band emissivities of the land-surface in the split-window and to the instrument noise.

  9. Earth survey applications division: Research leading to the effective use of space technology in applications relating to the Earth's surface and interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and future plans are described for the following areas: (1) geology - geobotanical indicators and geopotential data; (2) modeling magnetic fields; (3) modeling the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust; (4) global and regional motions of the Earth's crust and earthquake occurrence; (5) modeling geopotential from satellite tracking data; (6) modeling the Earth's gravity field; (7) global Earth dynamics; (8) sea surface topography, ocean dynamics; and geophysical interpretation; (9) land cover and land use; (10) physical and remote sensing attributes important in detecting, measuring, and monitoring agricultural crops; (11) prelaunch studies using LANDSAT D; (12) the multispectral linear array; (13) the aircraft linear array pushbroom radiometer; and (14) the spaceborne laser ranging system.

  10. High-Temperature Surface-Acoustic-Wave Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft-engine rotating equipment usually operates at high temperature and stress. Non-invasive inspection of microcracks in those components poses a challenge for the non-destructive evaluation community. A low-profile ultrasonic guided wave sensor can detect cracks in situ. The key feature of the sensor is that it should withstand high temperatures and excite strong surface wave energy to inspect surface/subsurface cracks. As far as the innovators know at the time of this reporting, there is no existing sensor that is mounted to the rotor disks for crack inspection; the most often used technology includes fluorescent penetrant inspection or eddy-current probes for disassembled part inspection. An efficient, high-temperature, low-profile surface acoustic wave transducer design has been identified and tested for nondestructive evaluation of structures or materials. The development is a Sol-Gel bismuth titanate-based surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) sensor that can generate efficient surface acoustic waves for crack inspection. The produced sensor is very thin (submillimeter), and can generate surface waves up to 540 C. Finite element analysis of the SAW transducer design was performed to predict the sensor behavior, and experimental studies confirmed the results. One major uniqueness of the Sol-Gel bismuth titanate SAW sensor is that it is easy to implement to structures of various shapes. With a spray coating process, the sensor can be applied to surfaces of large curvatures. Second, the sensor is very thin (as a coating) and has very minimal effect on airflow or rotating equipment imbalance. Third, it can withstand temperatures up to 530 C, which is very useful for engine applications where high temperature is an issue.

  11. Assessing the radiative impacts of precipitating clouds on winter surface air temperatures and land surface properties in general circulation models using observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Richardson, Mark; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Suhas, E.; Fetzer, Eric; Lo, Min-Hui; Yue, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Using CloudSat-CALIPSO ice water, cloud fraction, and radiation; Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation; and long-term station-measured surface air temperature (SAT), we identified a substantial underestimation of the total ice water path, total cloud fraction, land surface radiative flux, land surface temperature (LST), and SAT during Northern Hemisphere winter in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. We perform sensitivity experiments with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) in fully coupled modes to identify processes driving these biases. We found that biases in land surface properties are associated with the exclusion of downwelling longwave heating from precipitating ice during Northern Hemisphere winter. The land surface temperature biases introduced by the exclusion of precipitating ice radiative effects in CESM1 and CMIP5 both spatially correlate with winter biases over Eurasia and North America. The underestimated precipitating ice radiative effect leads to colder LST, associated surface energy-budget adjustments, and cooler SAT. This bias also shifts regional soil moisture state from liquid to frozen, increases snow cover, and depresses evapotranspiration (ET) and total leaf area index in Northern Hemisphere winter. The inclusion of the precipitating ice radiative effects largely reduces the model biases of surface radiative fluxes (more than 15 W m-2), SAT (up to 2-4 K), and snow cover and ET (25-30%), compared with those without snow-radiative effects.

  12. Temperature Dependent Mössbauer Spectra of Aluminous Perovskite and Implications for the Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mysen, B. O.; Fei, Y.; Mao, H.; Hemley, R. J.; Li, J.

    2011-12-01

    Perovskite in the Earth's lower mantle contains 4.0~5.3 weight % Al (Wood and Rubie, Science. 1996). To date Mössbauer data on Al-PV under cryogenic conditions have not been reported. In this study, we measured Mössbauer spectra of an Al-PV sample at 65 to 300 K and 1 bar. The temperature dependence of the center shift, fitted by Debye model, gives recoil-free fractions of fFe2+ and fFe3+, which are critical for calculating Fe3+/⊙Fe ratio. The high relative concentration of Fe3+ of our Al-PV sample is consistent with previous studies on Al-PV samples containing a similar amount of aluminum (Lauterbach et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol. 2000). However, it cannot be attributed to disproportionation of Fe2+ (Frost et al., Nature. 2004), because neither metallic iron nor wüstite was observed in the Mössbauer spectra or electron probe analysis. In comparison to other capsule materials used in previous studies, such as graphite, iron, or rhenium, the gold capsule used in our synthesis is chemically inert, and does not influence the oxidation environment. A likely candidate to oxidize Fe2+ into Fe3+ in PV structure is H2O trapped as moisture. Earth's lower mantle may contain 2.5~5 times H2O of the present ocean's mass (Murakami et al., Science. 2002; Litasov et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 2003), a high Fe3+/⊙Fe ratio in lower mantle Al-PV can be achieved without disproportionation of Fe2+. Recent studies (McCammon et al., Nature Geosci. 2008; Lin et al., Nature Geosci. 2008) found a high quadrupole splitting (QS) (~4 mm s-1) component in Al-free PV at pressures above 30 GPa, and assigned it to intermediate-spin ferrous iron. The high QS component in our Al-PV sample has similar hyperfine parameters. Its relative concentration changes with temperature, possibly due to a temperature-induced change in the degree of lattice distortion (Bengtson et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 2009).

  13. Sensible Heat Flux from the Earth's Surface under Natural Convective Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Junsei; Ishida, Sachinobu

    1997-02-01

    A value for the exchange speed of sensible heat CHU under natural convective conditions was determined by both indoor and field experiments. Regardless of the type of experiment, the relationships for the CHU were obtained as CHU = b(TS T)1/3. For a wet surface, Tv should be substituted for (TS T). Here, TS is the ground surface temperature, T the air temperature, and Tv the virtual temperature difference. In addition, b is a coefficient having a value of 0.0011 m s1 K1/3 for a smooth surface and 0.0038 m s1 K1/3 over a rough surface. From the field observation data, it was concluded that under strongly unstable conditions (1 > > 477) the best pair of stability profile functions was proposed.

  14. Japanese Whaling Ships' Sea Surface Temperatures 1946-84.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzejewska, Anna W.; Wu, Zhongxiang; Newell, Reginald E.; Miyashita, Tomio

    1997-03-01

    Japanese whaling ship data, a homogeneous dataset mainly covering the southern high-latitude oceans, may be used to fill in gaps in recent sea surface temperature datasets, contributing a fair number of additional observations in this area. The Japanese whaling ship data are treated separately here for the period 1946-84, and they show no significant temperature changes during this period in the main fishing region of 60°-70°S or in the west Pacific warm pool.

  15. Surface temperature measurements using a thin film thermal array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, P. B.; Ash, R. L.; Daryabeigi, K.; Whipple, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A thin film device was designed and fabricated to measure surface temperatures. An array of eight integrated thermal sensors are mounted on a 0.002 inch (0.05 mm) Kapton film and multiplexed to obtain an area thermal measurement. The device was tested on a flat plate airfoil and demonstrated a temperature variation of 0.55 C maximum and 0.05 C minimum compared to embedded thermocouples. Future improvements are also discussed.

  16. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales.

  17. Diurnal Variations of Titan's Surface Temperatures From Cassini -CIRS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor; Jennings, Don; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 m (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the in-strument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature pro-file by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). The application of our methodology over wide areas has increased the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. In particular we had the chance to look for diurnal variations in surface temperature around the equator: a trend with slowly increasing temperature toward the late afternoon reveals that diurnal temperature changes are present on Titan surface. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp

  18. An Analytic Function of Lunar Surface Temperature for Exospheric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Grava, Cesare; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Retherford, Kurt D.; Siegler, Matthew; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Paige, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression to represent the lunar surface temperature as a function of Sun-state latitude and local time. The approximation represents neither topographical features nor compositional effects and therefore does not change as a function of selenographic latitude and longitude. The function reproduces the surface temperature measured by Diviner to within +/-10 K at 72% of grid points for dayside solar zenith angles of less than 80, and at 98% of grid points for nightside solar zenith angles greater than 100. The analytic function is least accurate at the terminator, where there is a strong gradient in the temperature, and the polar regions. Topographic features have a larger effect on the actual temperature near the terminator than at other solar zenith angles. For exospheric modeling the effects of topography on the thermal model can be approximated by using an effective longitude for determining the temperature. This effective longitude is randomly redistributed with 1 sigma of 4.5deg. The resulting ''roughened'' analytical model well represents the statistical dispersion in the Diviner data and is expected to be generally useful for future models of lunar surface temperature, especially those implemented within exospheric simulations that address questions of volatile transport.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of rare-earth-doped nanostructures on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Wei; El-khouri, Rita J; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Patten, Timothy E; Liu, Gang-yu

    2011-08-23

    This article presents a simple and practical means to produce rare-earth-based nanostructures, as well as a combined characterization of structure and optical properties in situ. A nanosphere lithography strategy combined with surface chemistry enables the production of arrays of β-NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanorings inlaid in an octadecyltrichlorosilane matrix. These arrays of nanorings are produced over the entire support, such as a 1 cm(2) glass coverslip. The dimension of nanorings can be varied by changing the deposition conditions. A home-constructed, multifunctional microscope integrating atomic force microscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and far-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy is utilized to characterize the nanostructures. This in situ and combined characterization is important for rare-earth-containing nanomaterials in order to correlate local structure with upconversion photoluminescence. Knowledge gained from the investigation should facilitate materials design and optimization, for instance, in the context of photovoltaic devices and biofluorescent probes.

  20. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  1. Evolution of the Specific Surface Area of Snow in a High Temperature Gradient Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Baker, I.

    2014-12-01

    The structural evolution of low-density snow under a high temperature gradient over a short period usually takes place in the surface layers during diurnal recrystallization or on a clear, cold night. To relate snow microstructures with their thermal properties, we combined X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) observations with numerical simulations. Different types of snow were tested over a large range of TGs (100 K m-1- 500 K m-1). The Specific Surface Area (SSA) was used to characterize the temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM). The magnitude of the temperature gradient and the initial snow type both influence the evolution of SSA. The SSA evolution under TGM was dominated by grain growth and the formation of complex surfaces. Fresh snow experienced a logarithmic decrease of SSA with time, a feature been observed previously by others [Calonne et al., 2014; Schneebeli and Sokratov, 2004; Taillandier et al., 2007]. However, for initial rounded and connected snow structures, the SSA will increase during TGM. Understanding the SSA increase is important in order to predict the enhanced uptake of chemical species by snow or increase in snow albedo. Calonne, N., F. Flin, C. Geindreau, B. Lesaffre, and S. Rolland du Roscoat (2014), Study of a temperature gradient metamorphism of snow from 3-D images: time evolution of microstructures, physical properties and their associated anisotropy, The Cryosphere Discussions, 8, 1407-1451, doi:10.5194/tcd-8-1407-2014. Schneebeli, M., and S. A. Sokratov (2004), Tomography of temperature gradient metamorphism of snow and associated changes in heat conductivity, Hydrological Processes, 18(18), 3655-3665, doi:10.1002/hyp.5800. Taillandier, A. S., F. Domine, W. R. Simpson, M. Sturm, and T. A. Douglas (2007), Rate of decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow: Isothermal and temperature gradient conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003-2012), 112(F3), doi: 10.1029/2006JF000514.

  2. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-10-01

    Pyroprocessing is are processing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the glass matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  3. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  4. Daytime sensible heat flux estimation over heterogeneous surfaces using multitemporal land-surface temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellví, F.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Rossi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Equations based on surface renewal (SR) analysis to estimate the sensible heat flux (H) require as input the mean ramp amplitude and period observed in the ramp-like pattern of the air temperature measured at high frequency. A SR-based method to estimate sensible heat flux (HSR-LST) requiring only low-frequency measurements of the air temperature, horizontal mean wind speed, and land-surface temperature as input was derived and tested under unstable conditions over a heterogeneous canopy (olive grove). HSR-LST assumes that the mean ramp amplitude can be inferred from the difference between land-surface temperature and mean air temperature through a linear relationship and that the ramp frequency is related to a wind shear scale characteristic of the canopy flow. The land-surface temperature was retrieved by integrating in situ sensing measures of thermal infrared energy emitted by the surface. The performance of HSR-LST was analyzed against flux tower measurements collected at two heights (close to and well above the canopy top). Crucial parameters involved in HSR-LST, which define the above mentioned linear relationship, were explained using the canopy height and the land surface temperature observed at sunrise and sunset. Although the olive grove can behave as either an isothermal or anisothermal surface, HSR-LST performed close to H measured using the eddy covariance and the Bowen ratio energy balance methods. Root mean square differences between HSR-LST and measured H were of about 55 W m-2. Thus, by using multitemporal thermal acquisitions, HSR-LST appears to bypass inconsistency between land surface temperature and the mean aerodynamic temperature. The one-source bulk transfer formulation for estimating H performed reliable after calibration against the eddy covariance method. After calibration, the latter performed similar to the proposed SR-LST method.

  5. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  6. Infrared thermography on ocular surface temperature: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jen-Hong; Ng, E. Y. K.; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Chee, C.

    2009-07-01

    Body temperature is a good indicator of human health. Thermal imaging system (thermography) is a non-invasive imaging procedure used to record the thermal patterns using Infrared (IR) camera. It provides visual and qualitative documentation of temperature changes in the vascular tissues, and is beginning to play an important role in the field of ophthalmology. This paper deals with the working principle, use and advantages of IR thermography in the field of ophthalmology. Different algorithms to acquire the ocular surface temperature (OST), that can be used for the diagnosis of ocular diseases are discussed.

  7. Alkaline earth silicate wools - A new generation of high temperature insulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert C; Harrison, Paul T C

    2012-11-01

    Intensive study of the natural asbestiform minerals that cause human diseases, and the consequent understanding of their hazardous characteristics, has enabled the development of manufactured fibres whose physical and/or chemical properties, in particular as they relate to biopersistence, have been adjusted to minimize possible harm to health. A strong driver for the developmentof new high temperature insulation materials wasthe perception of the toxicity of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF)and their classification in the EU as a category 2 carcinogen under Directive 67/548/EEC. Such classification carries with it the requirement for substitution by less hazardous materials. This paper focuses on the development of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wools as a new class of high temperature insulation with the capability of such substitution in a number of applications. These wools have only a low potential to cause harm because they do not persist in lung tissue once deposited, and have produced minimal effects in experimental test systems. AES wools are increasingly being used in a wide range of high temperature applications.

  8. Processing of Transparent Rare Earth Doped Zirconia for High Temperature Light Emission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    The high fracture toughness of stabilized zirconia makes it one of the most widely applicable high temperature structural materials. However, it is not typicality considered for optical applications since the microstructure achieved by traditional processing makes it opaque. The aim of this dissertation is to develop processing methods for the introducing new functionalities of light transparency and light emission (photoluminescence) and to understand the nanostructure-property relationships that make these functionalities possible. A processing study of rare-earth (RE) doped Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2, zirconia) via Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) is presented. The role of processing temperature and dopant concentration on the crystal structure, microstructure and properties of the RE: ZrO2 is studied. Microstructural shows sub-100 nm grain size and homogeneous dopant distribution. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis show that with increased dopant concentration the material changes from monoclinic to tetragonal. Structural analysis shows the material shows high hardness and toughness values 30% greater than similarly processed yttria-stabilized zirconia. Despite birefringence in the tetragonal phase, optical characterization is presented showing the samples are both highly transparent and photo-luminescent. Special attention is paid to analyzing structural and photoluminescence development during densification, as well as the role of oxygen vacancies on the optical properties of the densified material. This material is shown to be a promising candidate for a number of applications including luminescence thermometry and high temperature light emission.

  9. Estimation of centerline temperature of the waste form for the rare earth waste generated from pyrochemical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Han, Seung-Youb; Jeon, Min-Ku; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of centerline temperature of nuclear glass waste form for each waste stream is very essential in the period of storage because the centerline temperature being over its glass transition temperature results in the increase of leaching rate of radioactive nuclides due to the devitrification of glass waste form. Here, to verify the effects of waste form diameter and transuranic element content in the rare earth waste on the centerline temperature of the waste form, the surrogate rare earth glass waste generated from pyrochemical process was immobilized with SiO2sbnd Al2O3sbnd B2O3 glass frit system, and thermal properties of the rare earth glass waste form were determined by thermomechanical analysis and thermal conductivity analysis. The estimation of centerline temperature was carried out using the experimental thermal data and steady-state conduction equation in a long and solid cylinder type waste form. It was revealed that thermal stability of waste form in case of 0.3 m diameter was not affected by the TRU content even in the case of 80% TRU recovery ratio in the electrowinning process, meaning that the waste form of 0.3 m diameter is thermally stable due to the low centerline temperature relative to its glass transition temperature of the rare earth glass waste form.

  10. Reintroducing radiometric surface temperature into the Penman-Monteith formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Boegh, Eva; Trebs, Ivonne; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Kustas, William P.; Prueger, John H.; Niyogi, Dev; Das, Narendra; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jarvis, Andrew J.

    2015-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel method to physically integrate radiometric surface temperature (TR) into the Penman-Monteith (PM) formulation for estimating the terrestrial sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and λE) in the framework of a modified Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC). It combines TR data with standard energy balance closure models for deriving a hybrid scheme that does not require parameterization of the surface (or stomatal) and aerodynamic conductances (gS and gB). STIC is formed by the simultaneous solution of four state equations and it uses TR as an additional data source for retrieving the "near surface" moisture availability (M) and the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α). The performance of STIC is tested using high-temporal resolution TR observations collected from different international surface energy flux experiments in conjunction with corresponding net radiation (RN), ground heat flux (G), air temperature (TA), and relative humidity (RH) measurements. A comparison of the STIC outputs with the eddy covariance measurements of λE and H revealed RMSDs of 7-16% and 40-74% in half-hourly λE and H estimates. These statistics were 5-13% and 10-44% in daily λE and H. The errors and uncertainties in both surface fluxes are comparable to the models that typically use land surface parameterizations for determining the unobserved components (gS and gB) of the surface energy balance models. However, the scheme is simpler, has the capabilities for generating spatially explicit surface energy fluxes and independent of submodels for boundary layer developments. This article was corrected on 27 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. Titan's Surface Temperatures Maps from Cassini - CIRS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, are providing us with the ability to detect the surface temperature of the planet by studying its outgoing radiance through a spectral window in the thermal infrared at 19 μm (530 cm-1) characterized by low opacity. Since the first acquisitions of CIRS Titan data the instrument has gathered a large amount of spectra covering a wide range of latitudes, longitudes and local times. We retrieve the surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature profile by modeling proper zonally averaged spectra of nadir observations with radiative transfer computations. Our forward model uses the correlated-k approximation for spectral opacity to calculate the emitted radiance, including contributions from collision induced pairs of CH4, N2 and H2, haze, and gaseous emission lines (Irwin et al. 2008). The retrieval method uses a non-linear least-squares optimal estimation technique to iteratively adjust the model parameters to achieve a spectral fit (Rodgers 2000). We show an accurate selection of the wide amount of data available in terms of footprint diameter on the planet and observational conditions, together with the retrieved results. Our results represent formal retrievals of surface brightness temperatures from the Cassini CIRS dataset using a full radiative transfer treatment, and we compare to the earlier findings of Jennings et al. (2009). In future, application of our methodology over wide areas should greatly increase the planet coverage and accuracy of our knowledge of Titan's surface brightness temperature. References: Irwin, P.G.J., et al.: "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool" (2008). JQSRT, Vol. 109, pp. 1136-1150, 2008. Rodgers, C. D.: "Inverse Methods For Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice". World Scientific, Singapore, 2000. Jennings, D.E., et al.: "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures." Ap. J. L., Vol. 691, pp. L103-L

  12. Theoretical studies of the crystal structure of rare earths and actinides at zero temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.M.; Eriksson, O.

    1993-07-01

    Accurate total energy electronic structure calculations have recently been carried out over a range of volumes for selected rare-earth and actinide elements in crystal structures, experimentally observed in these elements. Correct zero temperature crystal structures are obtained, and calculated equilibrium properties are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Results of these calculations indicate that the interactions underlying crystal structure stability are similar in itinerant f-electron metals and transition metals. The stable crystal structure at a particular volume is determined by a balance between one-electron bandwidths and band fillings and the electrostatic energy of the crystal lattice. Broad bands favor high-symmetry, close-packed structures while narrow bands favor low-symmetry, open structures; allowing for expansion as well as contraction, both transition and actinide elements can be stabilized in both low- and high-symmetry crystal structures.

  13. Theoretical studies of the crystal structure of rare earths and actinides at zero temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.M. ); Eriksson, O. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Accurate total energy electronic structure calculations have recently been carried out over a range of volumes for selected rare-earth and actinide elements in crystal structures, experimentally observed in these elements. Correct zero temperature crystal structures are obtained, and calculated equilibrium properties are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Results of these calculations indicate that the interactions underlying crystal structure stability are similar in itinerant f-electron metals and transition metals. The stable crystal structure at a particular volume is determined by a balance between one-electron bandwidths and band fillings and the electrostatic energy of the crystal lattice. Broad bands favor high-symmetry, close-packed structures while narrow bands favor low-symmetry, open structures; allowing for expansion as well as contraction, both transition and actinide elements can be stabilized in both low- and high-symmetry crystal structures.

  14. Surface temperature measurements of heterogeneous explosives by IR emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, B. F.; Funk, D. J.; Dickson, P. M.; Fugard, C. S.; Asay, B. W.

    1998-07-01

    We present measurements of the integrated IR emission (1-5 μm) from both the heterogeneous explosive PBX 9501 and pure HMX at calibrated temperatures from 30 °C to 250 °C. The IR power emitted as a function of temperature is that expected of a black body, attenuated by a unique temperature independent constant which we report as the thermal emissivity. We have utilized this calibration of IR emission in measurements of the surface temperature from PBX 9501 subject to 1 GPa, two dimensional impact, and spontaneous ignition in unconfined cookoff. We demonstrate that the measurement of IR emission in this spectral region provides a temperature probe of sufficient sensitivity to resolve the thermal response from the solid explosive throughout the range of weak mechanical perturbation, prolonged heating to ignition, and combustion.

  15. Surface temperature measurements of heterogeneous explosives by IR emission

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, B.F.; Funk, D.J.; Dickson, P.M.; Fugard, C.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-03-01

    The authors present measurements of the integrated IR emission (1--5 {micro}m) from both the heterogeneous explosive PBX 9501 and pure HMX at calibrated temperatures from 300 C to 2,500 C. The IR power emitted as a function of temperature is that expected of a black body, attenuated by a unique temperature independent constant which the authors report as the thermal emissivity. The authors have utilized this calibration of IR emission in measurements of the surface temperature from PBX 9501 subject to 1 GPa, two dimensional impact, and spontaneous ignition in unconfined cookoff. They demonstrate that the measurement of IR emission in this spectral region provides a temperature probe of sufficient sensitivity to resolve the thermal response from the solid explosive throughout the range of weak mechanical perturbation, prolonged heating to ignition, and combustion.

  16. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel. PMID:23353141

  17. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  18. Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface temperature (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality air temperature data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m air temperature sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between air and surface temperatures at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.

  19. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  20. Two Surface Temperature Retrieval Methods Compared Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Andrew N.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Jacob, Frederic; Ogawa, Kenta; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Accurate, spatially distributed surface temperatures are required for modeling evapotranspiration (ET) over agricultural fields under wide ranging conditions, including stressed and unstressed vegetation. Modeling approaches that use surface temperature observations, however, have the burden of estimating surface emissivities. Emissivity estimation, the subject of much recent research, is facilitated by observations in multiple thermal infrared bands. But it is nevertheless a difficult task. Using observations from a multiband thermal sensor, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), estimated surface emissivities and temperatures are retrieved in two different ways: the temperature emissivity separation approach (TES) and the normalized emissivity approach (NEM). Both rely upon empirical relationships, but the assumed relationships are different. TES relies upon a relationship between the minimum spectral emissivity and the range of observed emissivities. NEM relies upon an assumption that at least one thermal band has a pre-determined emissivity (close to 1.0). The benefits and consequences of each approach will be demonstrated for two different landscapes: one in central Oklahoma, USA and another in southern New Mexico.

  1. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme.

  2. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-01-01

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy–entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy–entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:27354533

  3. Applications of Land Surface Temperature from Microwave Observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes. Yet, it remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observation...

  4. Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.

    1991-01-01

    The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface temperature (SST) on the air-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface temperature front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-warm and warm-to-cold surface temperatures occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.

  5. Progress in Projecting Solar Radiation at the Earth's Surface in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W.; Fildier, B.; Feldman, D.

    2015-12-01

    Projecting changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface in futureclimates is a critical input to forecast surface irradiance for solarenergy. We demonstrate the current state of the art using theensemble of opportunity assembled for the Coupled ModelIntercomparison Project (CMIP5) and the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The reliability of these projections depends upon the accuracy of theunderlying radiation codes, the fidelity of these codes to themeasured optical properties of key radiatively active atmosphericconstituents, and the realism of future projections of theseatmospheric constituents. These constituents include aerosols,clouds, water vapor, greenhouse gases that absorb near-infraredsunlight. Since the realism of future projections of anthropogenicaerosol species is contingent on the underlying scenario, we focus onthe other challenges in forecasting surface irradiance. Regarding accuracy, we demonstrate that current GCM shortwaveparameterizations often exhibit quite small errors relative tobenchmark radiative transfer codes. In addition, recent work hasbracketed the uncertainties in solar irradiance associated withcomplex cloud geometries. There is also an emerging consensus howcloud radiative effects will evolve in a warmer climate. However,there is evidence that current GCM codes still exhibit systematicerrors in the near-infrared water vapor bands, particularly for moistsub-tropical atmospheres. These errors will become more acute aswater vapor feedbacks, combined with global warming, increase thetotal precipitable water in the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  7. Surface and Atmospheric Contributions to Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Benjamin T.

    2010-01-01

    Physically-based passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms require a set of relationships between satellite observed brightness temperatures (TB) and the physical state of the underlying atmosphere and surface. These relationships are typically non-linear, such that inversions are ill-posed especially over variable land surfaces. In order to better understand these relationships, this work presents a theoretical analysis using brightness temperature weighting functions to quantify the percentage of the TB resulting from absorption/emission/reflection from the surface, absorption/emission/scattering by liquid and frozen hydrometeors in the cloud, the emission from atmospheric water vapor, and other contributors. The results are presented for frequencies from 10 to 874 GHz and for several individual precipitation profiles as well as for three cloud resolving model simulations of falling snow. As expected, low frequency channels (<89 GHz) respond to liquid hydrometeors and the surface, while the higher frequency channels become increasingly sensitive to ice hydrometeors and the water vapor sounding channels react to water vapor in the atmosphere. Low emissivity surfaces (water and snow-covered land) permit energy downwelling from clouds to be reflected at the surface thereby increasing the percentage of the TB resulting from the hydrometeors. The slant path at a 53deg viewing angle increases the hydrometeor contributions relative to nadir viewing channels and show sensitivity to surface polarization effects. The TB percentage information presented in this paper answers questions about the relative contributions to the brightness temperatures and provides a key piece of information required to develop and improve precipitation retrievals over land surfaces.

  8. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  9. A model of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, Richard; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the climatological mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Pacific Ocean is developed. The upper ocean response is computed using a time dependent, linear, reduced gravity model, with the addition of a constant depth frictional surface layer. The full three-dimensional temperature equation and a surface heat flux parameterization that requires specification of only wind speed and total cloud cover are used to evaluate the SST. Specification of atmospheric parameters, such as air temperature and humidity, over which the ocean has direct influence, is avoided. The model simulates the major features of the observed tropical Pacific SST. The seasonal evolution of these features is generally captured by the model. Analysis of the results demonstrates the control the ocean has over the surface heat flux from ocean to atmosphere and the crucial role that dynamics play in determining the mean SST in the equatorial Pacific. The sensitivity of the model to perturbations in the surface heat flux, cloud cover specification, diffusivity, and mixed layer depth is discussed.

  10. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Measuring the Body Temperature of the Intertidal Mussel Species, Mytilus californianus using NASA MODIS Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is an ecologically important species in the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific coast. During low tides, times of emersion, Mytilus californianus is exposed to aerial conditions and its body temperature can vary drastically depending on the amount of solar radiation they experience. Thermal stress from high temperatures during emersion sometimes can lead to mortality of individuals. Conversely, during high tides, times of submersion, body temperatures depend on the temperature of the water that surrounds them. This study used remotely sensed surface temperature observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra to predict the body temperatures of Mytilus californianus. Mussel body temperatures were provided by the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and de-tided. This technique divided the mussel body temperatures into times of emersion and times of submersion. During times of emersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LST) and in-situ air temperatures. During times of submersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SST) and in-situ water temperatures. To identify spatial variation in temperatures, eight different study sites ranging in latitude along the coast of Oregon were analyzed. Additionally, to better understand the temporal variation in temperatures, fourteen years (2000-2013) were analyzed for each study site. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass and Terra overpass were strongly correlated with mussel body temperatures but varied by study site. Our results show that remotely sensed temperature could predict average daily mussel temperature within 1°C on average during times of submersion. Being able to use remotely sensed surface temperatures to predict the body

  11. Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R L; Aucamp, P J; Bais, A F; Björn, L O; Ilyas, M

    2007-03-01

    patterns. The changes can be in both directions: ozone changes can affect climate, and climate change can affect ozone. The observational evidence suggests that stratospheric ozone (and therefore UV-B) has responded relatively quickly to changes in ozone-depleting substances, implying that climate interactions have not delayed this process. Model calculations predict that at mid-latitudes a return of ozone to pre-1980 levels is expected by the mid 21st century. However, it may take a decade or two longer in polar regions. Climate change can also affect UV radiation through changes in cloudiness and albedo, without involving ozone and since temperature changes over the 21st century are likely to be about 5 times greater than in the past century. This is likely to have significant effects on future cloud, aerosol and surface reflectivity. Consequently, unless strong mitigation measures are undertaken with respect to climate change, profound effects on the biosphere and on the solar UV radiation received at the Earth's surface can be anticipated. The future remains uncertain. Ozone is expected to increase slowly over the decades ahead, but it is not known whether ozone will return to higher levels, or lower levels, than those present prior to the onset of ozone depletion in the 1970s. There is even greater uncertainty about future UV radiation, since it will be additionally influenced by changes in aerosols and clouds.

  12. Earth-based remote sensing of planetary surfaces and atmospheres at radio wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two reasons for remote sensing from the Earth are given: (1) space exploration, particularly below the surfaces or underneath cloud layers, is limited to only a very few planets; and (2) a program of regular monitoring, currently impractical with a limited number of space probes, is required. Reflected solar and nonthermal radiation are discussed. Relativistic electrons, trapped in large magnetospheres on Saturn and Jupiter, are discussed. These electrons produce synchrotron radiation and also interact with the ionosphere to produce bursts of low frequency emission. Because most objects are black-bodies, continuum radiometry is emphasized. Spectroscopic techniques and the measurement of nonthermal emission are also discussed.

  13. Photoelectron emission analysis of surface elements of the International Sun Earth Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The photoemission was measured of engineering materials (aluminum; copper, plain; copper, abraded; copper-beryllium; magnesium; silver; In2O3 on silica; reflective coating on silica; teflon; kapton; and Pyre ML) associated with the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) Satellite. The procedures used are described, including the experimental equipment; results of the program, the conclusions reached, and areas for further work are presented. Data regarding the measured yield of the 11 materials whose surface emission was determined is included in the form of plots of photoelectric yield versus incident light wavelength.

  14. Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer: An 800-meter Michelson interferometer monitors the earth's strain field on the surface of the ground.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Lovberg, R H

    1970-10-16

    The development of the laser as a source of coherent optical radiation has permitted the application of interferometric techniques to the problem of earth strain measurement. By use of this technology, an 800-meter laser strain meter has been developed which operates above the surface of the ground. The instrument has a strain least count of 10(-10), requires no calibration, and has a flat and linear response from zero frequency to 1 megahertz. The linearity and large dynamic range of the laser strain meter offer unprecedented versatility in the recording of seismic strains associated with earthquakes and nuclear blasts. The extremely wide bandwidth opens new areas of the strain spectrum to investigation. A key to the understanding of the state of stress of the earth and the association phenomona of tectonic activity and earthquakes is a knowledge of the spatial distribution of the earth strain. Measurements of secular strain and earth tides indicate that, even at these long periods, surface strain measurements are valid representations of earth strain at depth. The LSM thus provides a means of making crustal strain measurements at points selected for maximum geophysical interest and ultimately allow the mapping of strain field distributions.

  15. A Titan atmosphere with a surface temperature of 200K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The brightness temperature of Titan at 3 mm wavelength is around 200 K according to Ulich, Conklin, and Dickel (1978). Although an earlier measurement by Briggs is much colder, 200 K as the surface temperature was used to build an atmospheric model with a surface pressure of 21 bars. CH4 clouds form between 100 and 120 km altitude. The visual limb is near 200 km. The methane mixing ratio is 0.25 percent above the clouds and 7 percent below; the dominant gas is assumed to be N2. The thermal opacity is due to pressure-induced absorption in N2 and a trace (0.5 percent) of H2, with some help from cloud particles; unit opacity is reached at 600 mbar, 110 km from the surface. The radius of the solid body in this model is 2700 km, in reasonable agreement with 2600 km obtained if the density is the same as that of Ganymede and Callisto.

  16. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of parameters for microwave heating of rare earth carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaohua; Lin, Guo; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-09-01

    Microwave heating has been applied in the field of drying rare earth carbonates to improve drying efficiency and reduce energy consumption. The effects of power density, material thickness and drying time on the weight reduction (WR) are studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that RSM is feasible to describe the relationship between the independent variables and weight reduction. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the model is in accordance with the experimental data. The optimum experiment conditions are power density 6 w/g, material thickness 15 mm and drying time 15 min, resulting in an experimental weight reduction of 73%. Comparative experiments show that microwave drying has the advantages of rapid dehydration and energy conservation. Particle analysis shows that the size distribution of rare earth carbonates after microwave drying is more even than those in an oven. Based on these findings, microwave heating technology has an important meaning to energy-saving and improvement of production efficiency for rare earth smelting enterprises and is a green heating process.

  17. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  18. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  19. Effects of temperature and surface orientation on migration behaviours of helium atoms near tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dependence of migration behaviours of single helium atoms near tungsten surfaces on the surface orientation and temperature. For W{100} and W{110} surfaces, He atoms can quickly escape out near the surface without accumulation even at a temperature of 400 K. The behaviours of helium atoms can be well-described by the theory of continuous diffusion of particles in a semi-infinite medium. For a W{111} surface, the situation is complex. Different types of trap mutations occur within the neighbouring region of the W{111} surface. The trap mutations hinder the escape of He atoms, resulting in their accumulation. The probability of a He atom escaping into vacuum from a trap mutation depends on the type of the trap mutation, and the occurrence probabilities of the different types of trap mutations are dependent on the temperature. This finding suggests that the escape rate of He atoms on the W{111} surface does not show a monotonic dependence on temperature. For instance, the escape rate at T = 1500 K is lower than the rate at T = 1100 K. Our results are useful for understanding the structural evolution and He release on tungsten surfaces and for designing models in other simulation methods beyond molecular dynamics.

  20. Room temperature wafer direct bonding of smooth Si surfaces recovered by Ne beam surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashima, Yuichi; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Takagi, Hideki

    2013-06-01

    We examined the applicability of a Ne fast atom beam (FAB) to surface activated bonding of Si wafers at room temperature. With etching depth more than 1.5 nm, the bonding strength comparable to Si bulk strength was attained. Moreover, we found the improvement of the bonding strength by surface smoothing effect of the Ne FAB. Silicon surface roughness decreased from 0.40 to 0.17 nm rms by applying a Ne FAB of 30 nm etching depth. The bonding strength between surfaces recovered by Ne FAB surface smoothing was largely improved and finally became equivalent to Si bulk strength.

  1. Thoracic surface temperature rhythms as circadian biomarkers for cancer chronotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Véronique Pasquale; Mohamad-Djafari, Ali; Innominato, Pasquale Fabio; Karaboué, Abdoulaye; Gorbach, Alexander; Lévi, Francis Albert

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of the temperature circadian rhythm has been associated with cancer progression, while its amplification resulted in cancer inhibition in experimental tumor models. The current study investigated the relevance of skin surface temperature rhythms as biomarkers of the Circadian Timing System (CTS) in order to optimize chronotherapy timing in individual cancer patients. Baseline skin surface temperature at four sites and wrist accelerations were measured every minute for 4 days in 16 patients with metastatic gastro-intestinal cancer before chronotherapy administration. Temperature and rest-activity were recorded, respectively, with wireless skin surface temperature patches (Respironics, Phillips) and an actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring). Both variables were further monitored in 10 of these patients during and after a 4-day course of a fixed chronotherapy protocol. Collected at baseline, during and after therapy longitudinal data sets were processed using Fast Fourier Transform Cosinor and Linear Discriminant Analyses methods. A circadian rhythm was statistically validated with a period of 24 h (p<0.05) for 49/61 temperature time series (80.3%), and 15/16 rest-activity patterns (93.7%) at baseline. However, individual circadian amplitudes varied from 0.04 °C to 2.86 °C for skin surface temperature (median, 0.72 °C), and from 16.6 to 146.1 acc/min for rest-activity (median, 88.9 acc/min). Thirty-nine pairs of baseline temperature and rest-activity time series (75%) were correlated (r>|0.7|; p<0.05). Individual circadian acrophases at baseline were scattered from 15:18 to 6:05 for skin surface temperature, and from 12:19 to 15:18 for rest-activity, with respective median values of 01:10 (25–75% quartiles, 22:35–3:07) and 14:12 (13:14–14:31). The circadian patterns in skin surface temperature and rest-activity persisted or were amplified during and after fixed chronotherapy delivery for 5/10 patients. In contrast, transient or sustained disruption

  2. Temperature-dependent structures and chemical bonding states of the calcium chlorapatite powders doped with rare-earth-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Kyong-Soo; Yang, Ho-Soon

    2017-02-01

    Calcium chlorapatite powd