Science.gov

Sample records for earth system content

  1. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  2. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  3. Partnering and teamwork to create content for spherical display systems to enhance public literacy in earth system and ocean sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.

  4. Alignment of Content and Pedagogy in an Earth Systems Course for Pre-Service Middle School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, T.; Teed, R.; Slattery, W.

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Ohio Department of Education developed the Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards. These new science standards substantially tracked the goals and objectives of The National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. The Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards followed the National Standards in the content areas of Physical Science, Life Science and Earth and Space Science. At the same time, the state's K-12 schools were gearing up for a new high school graduation requirement, the successful passing of a high-stakes Ohio Graduation Test, given during a student's tenth grade year. Earth and Space science questions make up approximately one third of the science test items. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite science content knowledge Ohio has recently changed from certification of K-12 teachers to a more content rich licensure standard. This new licensure requirement splits the older certification designation of K-8 into the elementary and middle school licensure areas. Under the new licensure requirements middle school licensure candidates wishing to earn a science concentration now have to take 15 semester hours of content class work in Science. The Ohio Department of Education has strongly suggested that teacher preparation institutions develop new courses for middle school educators in all four areas of concentration, including science. In response to this call for new courses science education faculty in all science areas worked together to develop a comprehensive suite of courses that would target the science content standards guidelines in the state and national standards. The newly developed Earth and Space science course is titled Earth Systems. The course carries 4.5quarter hours of credit and is intended expressly for pre-service middle school (grades 4- 9) science teachers. The content is structured around three modules of study that are designed to develop interdisciplinary science content within the context of past

  5. Earth Science Content Guidelines Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA.

    Teams of teachers, other science educators, and scientists selected from a national search for project writers have proposed using the following set of questions to guide the inclusion of earth science content into the kindergarten through grade 12 curriculum. The Essential Questions are organized in a K-12 sequence by six content areas: (1) Solid…

  6. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  7. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-05-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software system in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We also develop the earth science application metadata; geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing; and some other tools. In this paper, we will describe software architecture and components of the data grid system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  8. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  9. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  10. integrated Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andew; Di Vittorio, Alan; Collins, William

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems.« less

  11. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  12. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  13. Engineering the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The post-war growth of the earth sciences has been fueled, in part, by a drive to quantify environmental insults in order to support arguments for their reduction, yet paradoxically the knowledge gained is grants us ever greater capability to deliberately engineer environmental processes on a planetary scale. Increased capability can arises though seemingly unconnected scientific advances. Improvements in numerical weather prediction such as the use of adjoint models in analysis/forecast systems, for example, means that weather modification can be accomplished with smaller control inputs. Purely technological constraints on our ability to engineer earth systems arise from our limited ability to measure and predict system responses and from limits on our ability to manage large engineering projects. Trends in all three constraints suggest a rapid growth in our ability to engineer the planet. What are the implications of our growing ability to geoengineer? Will we see a reemergence of proposals to engineer our way out of the climate problem? How can we avoid the moral hazard posed by the knowledge that geoengineering might provide a backstop to climate damages? I will speculate about these issues, and suggest some institutional factors that may provide a stronger constraint on the use of geoengineering than is provided by any purely technological limit.

  14. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  15. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  16. Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  17. Earth System Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  18. Earth orbiting Sisyphus system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurkevich, I.; Krause, K. W.; Neste, S. L.; Soberman, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of employing an optical meteoroid detecting system, known as Sisyphus, to measure the near-earth particulates from an earth orbiting vehicle, is considered. A Sisyphus system can discriminate between natural and man-made particles since the system measures orbital characteristics of particles. A Sisyphus system constructed for the Pioneer F/G missions to Jupiter is used as the baseline, and is described. The amount of observing time which can be obtained by a Sisyphus instrument launched into various orbits is determined. Observation time is lost when, (1) the Sun is in or near the field of view, (2) the lighted Earth is in or near the field of view, (3) the instrument is eclipsed by the Earth, and (4) the phase angle measured at the particle between the forward scattering direction and the instrument is less than a certain critical value. The selection of the launch system and the instrument platform with a dedicated, attitude controlled payload package is discussed. Examples of such systems are SATS and SOLRAD 10(C) vehicles, and other possibilities are AVCO Corp. S4 system, the OWL system, and the Delta Payload Experiment Package.

  19. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  20. Experimental constraints on the sulfur content in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.; Huang, H.; Leng, C.; Hu, X.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Any core formation models would lead to the incorporation of sulfur (S) into the Earth's core, based on the cosmochemical/geochemical constraints, sulfur's chemical affinity for iron (Fe), and low eutectic melting temperature in the Fe-FeS system. Preferential partitioning of S into the melt also provides petrologic constraint on the density difference between the liquid outer and solid inner cores. Therefore, the center issue is to constrain the amount of sulfur in the core. Geochemical constraints usually place 2-4 wt.% S in the core after accounting for its volatility, whereas more S is allowed in models based on mineral physics data. Here we re-examine the constraints on the S content in the core by both petrologic and mineral physics data. We have measured S partitioning between solid and liquid iron in the multi-anvil apparatus and the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, evaluating the effect of pressure on melting temperature and partition coefficient. In addition, we have conducted shockwave experiments on Fe-11.8wt%S using a two-stage light gas gun up to 211 GPa. The new shockwave experiments yield Hugoniot densities and the longitudinal sound velocities. The measurements provide the longitudinal sound velocity before melting and the bulk sound velocity of liquid. The measured sound velocities clearly show melting of the Fe-FeS mix with 11.8wt%S at a pressure between 111 and 129 GPa. The sound velocities at pressures above 129GPa represent the bulk sound velocities of Fe-11.8wt%S liquid. The combined data set including density, sound velocity, melting temperature, and S partitioning places a tight constraint on the required sulfur partition coefficient to produce the density and velocity jumps and the bulk sulfur content in the core.

  1. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Zedef, Veysel, E-mail: vzedef@selcuk.edu.tr; Russell, Michael

    We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.

  2. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  3. Towards a Preservation Content Standard for Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Lowe, Dawn; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Information from Earth observing missions (remote sensing with airborne and spaceborne instruments, and in situ measurements such as those from field campaigns) is proliferating in the world. Many agencies across the globe are generating important datasets by collecting measurements from instruments on board aircraft and spacecraft, globally and constantly. The data resulting from such measurements are a valuable resource that needs to be preserved for the benefit of future generations. These observations are the primary record of the Earths environment and therefore are the key to understanding how conditions in the future will compare to conditions today. Earth science observational data, derived products and models are used to answer key questions of global significance. In the near-term, as long as the missions data are being used actively for scientific research, it continues to be important to provide easy access to the data and services commensurate with current information technology. For the longer term, when the focus of the research community shifts toward new missions and observations, it is essential to preserve the previous mission data and associated information. This will enable a new user in the future to understand how the data were used for deriving information, knowledge and policy recommendations and to repeat the experiment to ascertain the validity and possible limitations of conclusions reached in the past and to provide confidence in long term trends that depended on data from multiple missions. Organizations that collect, process, and utilize Earth observation data today have a responsibility to ensure that the data and associated content continue to be preserved by them or are gathered and handed off to other organizations for preservation for the benefit of future generations. In order to ensure preservation of complete content necessary for understanding and reusing the data and derived digital products from todays missions, it is

  4. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  5. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  6. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  7. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  8. Fire in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  9. Fire in the Earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J.; Carlson, Jean M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Doyle, John C.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Johnston, Fay H.; Keeley, Jon E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kull, Christian A.; Marston, J. Brad; Moritz, Max A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Roos, Christopher I.; Scott, Andrew C.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Pyne, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  10. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  11. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  12. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  13. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  14. Earth Observing System Data Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe; Amrhein, James; Sefert, Ed; Marsans, Lorena; Solomon, Mark; Nestler, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data Gateway (EDG) software provides a "one-stop-shopping" standard interface for exploring and ordering Earth-science data stored at geographically distributed sites. EDG enables a user to do the following: 1) Search for data according to high-level criteria (e.g., geographic location, time, or satellite that acquired the data); 2) Browse the results of a search, viewing thumbnail sketches of data that satisfy the user s criteria; and 3) Order selected data for delivery to a specified address on a chosen medium (e.g., compact disk or magnetic tape). EDG consists of (1) a component that implements a high-level client/server protocol, and (2) a collection of C-language libraries that implement the passing of protocol messages between an EDG client and one or more EDG servers. EDG servers are located at sites usually called "Distributed Active Archive Centers" (DAACs). Each DAAC may allow access to many individual data items, called "granules" (e.g., single Landsat images). Related granules are grouped into collections called "data sets." EDG enables a user to send a search query to multiple DAACs simultaneously, inspect the resulting information, select browseable granules, and then order selected data from the different sites in a seamless fashion.

  15. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  16. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  17. Using the earth system for integrating the science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Victor J.

    Content and process instruction from the earth sciences has gone unrepresented in the world's science curricula, especially at the secondary level. As a result there is a serious deficiency in public understanding of the planet on which we all live. This lack includes national and international leaders in politics, business, and science. The earth system science effort now engaging the research talent of the earth sciences provides a firm foundation from the sciences for inclusion of earth systems content into the evolving integrated science curricula of this country and others. Implementing integrated science curricula, especially at the secondary level where potential leaders often have their only exposure to science, can help to address these problems. The earth system provides a conceptual theme as opposed to a disciplinary theme for organizing such integrated curricula, absent from prior efforts. The end of the cold war era is resulting in a reexamination of science and the influence it has had on our planet and society. In the future, science and the curricula that teach about science must seriously address the environmental and social problems left in the wake of over 100 years of preparation for military and economic war. The earth systems education effort provides one such approach to the modernization of science curricula. Earth science educators should assume leadership in helping to establish such curricula in this country and around the world.

  18. Earth and ocean dynamics satellites and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the present state of satellite and ground systems making observations of the dynamics of the solid earth and the oceans. Emphasis is placed on applications of space technology for practical use. Topics discussed include: satellite missions and results over the last two decades in the areas of earth gravity field, polar motions, earth tides, magnetic anomalies, and satellite-to-satellite tracking; laser ranging systems; development of the Very Long Baseline Interferometer; and Skylab radar altimeter data applications.

  19. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  20. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R.; Botti, J.

    2002-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  1. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. J.; Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  2. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, P.; Muhlhaus, H.; Lister, G.; Dyskin, A.; Place, D.; Appelbe, B.; Nimmervoll, N.; Abramson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the physics and dynamics of the entire earth system offers an outstanding opportunity for advancing earth system science and technology but represents a major challenge due to the range of scales and physical processes involved, as well as the magnitude of the software engineering effort required. However, new simulation and computer technologies are bringing this objective within reach. Under a special competitive national funding scheme to establish new Major National Research Facilities (MNRF), the Australian government together with a consortium of Universities and research institutions have funded construction of the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS). The Simulator or computational virtual earth will provide the research infrastructure to the Australian earth systems science community required for simulations of dynamical earth processes at scales ranging from microscopic to global. It will consist of thematic supercomputer infrastructure and an earth systems simulation software system. The Simulator models and software will be constructed over a five year period by a multi-disciplinary team of computational scientists, mathematicians, earth scientists, civil engineers and software engineers. The construction team will integrate numerical simulation models (3D discrete elements/lattice solid model, particle-in-cell large deformation finite-element method, stress reconstruction models, multi-scale continuum models etc) with geophysical, geological and tectonic models, through advanced software engineering and visualization technologies. When fully constructed, the Simulator aims to provide the software and hardware infrastructure needed to model solid earth phenomena including global scale dynamics and mineralisation processes, crustal scale processes including plate tectonics, mountain building, interacting fault system dynamics, and micro-scale processes that control the geological, physical and dynamic

  3. The Hydrogen Content of a Rocky Earth-Size Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zach

    2016-10-01

    The composition of a terrestrial planet's atmosphere results from a complex interplay of accretion, escape, and outgassing. We have little data on how such processes proceed for planets around stars other than our Sun. The warm, Earth-size planet GJ1132b transits a late M dwarf and offers a unique opportunity for studying the atmospheric composition of a rocky exoplanet. Thanks to this transiting planet's proximity (12pc) and large transit depth (0.3%), possible scenarios for GJ1132b's atmospheric transmission spectrum can be observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. Here, we propose to use WFC3/IR to observe five transits of GJ1132b, to search for absorption features from a cloud-free, hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Such an atmosphere could potentially arise from late outgassing of volatiles from the planetary interior. The detection of molecular absorption in GJ1132b's atmosphere is an important step toward the long-term goal of characterizing the atmospheres of cooler habitable planets, and GJ1132b is a favorable target for JWST observations. The results of this Hubble/WFC3 investigation would inform the optimal strategy to observe GJ1132b with JWST. If we detect deep absorption features with WFC3, JWST should observe GJ1132b across its entire wavelength range. If we do not, JWST may first need to focus more intensely on smaller individual wavelength windows. This planet provides the first chance for WFC3 to study the atmosphere of an exoplanet that almost resembles terrestrial worlds in our own Solar System.

  4. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  5. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; ...

    2017-12-28

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  6. Earth System Science: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)

  7. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system -- for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events -- volcanic eruptions

  8. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J.; Myers, R.

    2002-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational Technologiestm at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system-for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions

  9. 1993 Earth Observing System reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem (Editor); Dokken, David Jon (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a NASA-sponsored concept that uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components of MTPE will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. Sustained observations will allow researchers to monitor climate variables overtime to determine trends; however, space-based monitoring alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive data and information system, a community of scientists performing research with the data acquired, and extensive ground campaigns are all important components. Brief descriptions of the various elements that comprise the overall mission are provided. The Earth Observing System (EOS) - a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans - is the centerpiece of MTPE. The elements comprising the EOS mission are described in detail.

  10. Content of system design descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all themore » attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.« less

  11. System of HPC content archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A.; Ivashchenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work is aimed to develop a system, that will effectively solve the problem of storing and analyzing files containing text data, by using modern software development tools, techniques and approaches. The main challenge of storing a large number of text documents defined at the problem formulation stage, have to be resolved with such functionality as full text search and document clustering depends on their contents. Main system features could be described with notions of distributed multilevel architecture, flexibility and interchangeability of components, achieved through the standard functionality incapsulation in independent executable modules.

  12. The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.

  13. Fluoride content of clay minerals and argillaceous earth materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Josephus; Glass, H.D.; White, W.A.; Trandel, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable method, utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode, is described for the determination of fluoride in clays and shales. Interference by aluminum and iron is minimal. The reproducibility of the method is about ±5% at different levels of fluoride concentration.Data are presented for various clay minerals and for the <2-µm fractions of marine and nonmarine clays and shales. Fluoride values range from 44 ppm (0.0044%) for nontronite from Colfax, WA, to 51,800 ppm (5.18%) for hectorite from Hector, CA. In general, clays formed under hydrothermal conditions are relatively high in fluoride content, provided the hydrothermal waters are high in fluoride content. Besides hectorite, dickite from Ouray, CO, was found to contain more than 50 times as much fluoride (6700 ppm) as highly crystalline geode kaolinite (125 ppm). The clay stratum immediately overlying a fluorite mineralized zone in southern Illinois was found to have a higher fluoride content than the same stratum in a nonmineralized zone approximately 1 mile away. Nonmarine shales in contact with Australian coals were found to be lower in fluoride content than were marine shales in contact with Illinois coals.It is believed that, in certain instances, peak shifts on DTA curves of similar clay minerals are the result of significant differences in their fluoride content.

  14. The UK Earth System Model project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  15. Overview of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science

  16. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  17. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  18. Ontology of Earth's nonlinear dynamic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2017-04-01

    As a complex system, Earth and its major integrated and dynamically interacting subsystems (e.g., hydrosphere, atmosphere) display nonlinear behavior in response to internal and external influences. The Earth Nonlinear Dynamic Complex Systems (ENDCS) ontology formally represents the semantics of the knowledge about the nonlinear system element (agent) behavior, function, and structure, inter-agent and agent-environment feedback loops, and the emergent collective properties of the whole complex system as the result of interaction of the agents with other agents and their environment. It also models nonlinear concepts such as aperiodic, random chaotic behavior, sensitivity to initial conditions, bifurcation of dynamic processes, levels of organization, self-organization, aggregated and isolated functionality, and emergence of collective complex behavior at the system level. By incorporating several existing ontologies, the ENDCS ontology represents the dynamic system variables and the rules of transformation of their state, emergent state, and other features of complex systems such as the trajectories in state (phase) space (attractor and strange attractor), basins of attractions, basin divide (separatrix), fractal dimension, and system's interface to its environment. The ontology also defines different object properties that change the system behavior, function, and structure and trigger instability. ENDCS will help to integrate the data and knowledge related to the five complex subsystems of Earth by annotating common data types, unifying the semantics of shared terminology, and facilitating interoperability among different fields of Earth science.

  19. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  20. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: Conceptual Frameworks of Earth Systems and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Hannah H.; Holder, Lauren; Herbert, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in authentic problem solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves both developing student conceptualization of Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge using techniques that model those used by professionals. In this first paper of a two-part series, we review the state of…

  1. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  2. Global Change and the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2004-08-01

    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  3. Earth Observing System (EOS) advanced altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the post-TOPEX era, satellite radar altimeters will be developed with the capability of measuring the earth's surface topography over a wide swath of coverage, rather than just at the satellite's nadir. The identification of potential spacecraft flight missions in the future was studied. The best opportunity was found to be the Earth Observing System (EOS). It is felt that an instrument system that has a broad appeal to the earth sciences community stands a much better chance of being selected as an EOS instrument. Consequently, the Topography and Rain Radar Imager (TARRI) will be proposed as a system that has the capability to profile the Earth's topography regardless of the surface type. The horizontal and height resolutions of interest are obviously significantly different over land, ice, and water; but, the use of radar to provide an all-weather observation capability is applicable to the whole earth. The scientific guidance for the design and development of this instrument and the eventual scientific utilization of the data produced by the TARRI will be provided by seven science teams. The teams are formed around scientific disciplines and are titled: Geology/Geophysics, Hydrology/Rain, Oceanography, Ice/Snow, Geodesy/Orbit/Attitude, Cartography, and Surface Properties/Techniques.

  4. Project Copernicus: An Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation is presenting this proposal for Project Copernicus to fulfill the need for space-based remote sensing of Earth. Concentration is on data acquisition. Copernicus is designed to be a flexible system of spacecraft in a low near-polar orbit. The goal is to acquire data so that the scientists may begin to understand many Earth processes and interactions. The mission objective of Copernicus is to provide a space-based, remote-sensing measurement data acquisition and transfer system for 15 years. A description of the design project is presented.

  5. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  6. The Earth System (ES-DOC) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Murphy, Sylvia; Treshansky, Allyn; DeLuca, Cecilia; Guilyardi, Eric; Denvil, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    ESSI1.3 New Paradigms, Modelling, and International Collaboration Strategies for Earth System Sciences Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software and places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages emerging documentation standards and supports the following projects: Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and demonstrate the range of tools and services currently available for use. It will also demonstrate how international collaborative efforts are essential to the success of ES-DOC.

  7. Detrital zircons and Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.

    2016-12-01

    Zircon is a mineral commonly produced in silicic magmatism. Therefore, due to its resilience and exceedingly long residence times in the continental crust, detrital zircon records can be used to track processes associated with silicic magmatism throughout Earth history. In this contribution I will address the potential role of preservational biases in zircon record, and further discuss how zircon datasets can be used to help better understand the relationship between lithospheric and Earth system evolution. I will use large compilations of zircon data to trace the composition and weatherability of the continental crust, to evaluate temporal rates of crustal recycling, and finally to track spatiotemporal variation in continental arc magmatism and volcanic CO2 outgassing throughout Earth history. These records demonstrate that secular changes in plate tectonic regimes played a prominent role in modulating conditions of the ocean+atmosphere system and long-term climate state for the last 3 billion years.

  8. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  9. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  10. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  11. [Rare earth elements contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Lan, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lingzhen; Xiao, Fufu; Zhong, Zhaoming; Ye, Guilin; Li, Zong; Li, Shaojin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the rare earth elements(REEs) contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) tissue in Gannan region. Thirty patients of NPC in Gannan region were included in this study. The REEs contents were measured by tandem mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS/MS) in 30 patients, and the REEs contents and distribution were analyzed. The average standard deviation value of REEs in lung cancer and normal lung tissues was the minimum mostly. Light REEs content was higher than the medium REEs, and medium REEs content was higher than the heavy REEs content. REEs contents changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were variable obviously, the absolute value of Nd, Ce, Pr, Gd and other light rare earth elements were variable widely. The degree of changes on Yb, Tb, Ho and other heavy rare earth elements were variable widely, and there was presence of Eu, Ce negative anomaly(δEu=0. 385 5, δCe= 0. 523 4). The distribution characteristic of REEs contents in NPC patients is consistent with the parity distribution. With increasing atomic sequence, the content is decline wavy. Their distribution patterns were a lack of heavy REEs and enrichment of light REEs, and there was Eu , Ce negative anomaly.

  12. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  13. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  14. Modeling Earth system changes of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutzbach, John E.

    1992-01-01

    This review outlines some of the challenging problems to be faced in understanding the causes and mechanisms of large climatic changes and gives examples of initial studies of these problems with climate models. The review covers climatic changes in three main periods of earth history: (1) the past several centuries; (2) the past several glacial-interglacial cycles; and (3) the past several million years. The review will concentrate on studies of climate but, where possible, will mention broader aspects of the earth system.

  15. Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

  16. Pedotransfer functions in Earth system science: challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Looy, K.; Minasny, B.; Nemes, A.; Verhoef, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    We make a stronghold for a new generation of Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) that is currently developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science, offering strong perspectives for improvement of integrated process-based models, from local to global scale applications. PTFs are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we highlight how PTF development needs to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly capture the spatial heterogeneity of soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration and organic carbon content, root density and vegetation water uptake. We present an outlook and stepwise approach to the development of a comprehensive set of PTFs that can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques and soil information availability provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary in three domains: 1) the determining of unknown relationships and dealing with uncertainty in Earth system modeling; 2) the step of spatially deploying this knowledge with PTF validation at regional to global scales; and 3) the integration and linking of the complex model parameterizations (coupled parameterization). Integration is an achievable goal we will show.

  17. The CICT Earth Science Systems Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Coughlan, Joe; Biegel, Bryan; Stevens, Ken; Hansson, Othar; Hayes, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Computing Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Systems Analysis. Our modeling approach: a 3-part schematic investment model of technology change, impact assessment and prioritization. A whirlwind tour of our model. Lessons learned.

  18. Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, R. M.

    2002-12-01

    Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

  19. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  20. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; Koestel, John; Minasny, Budiman; Mishra, Umakant; Montzka, Carsten; Nemes, Attila; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Padarian, José; Schaap, Marcel G.; Tóth, Brigitta; Verhoef, Anne; Vanderborght, Jan; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zacharias, Steffen; Zhang, Yonggen; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-12-01

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. In this paper, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.

  1. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  2. Urban fifth graders' connections-making between formal earth science content and their lived experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples—the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples—which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students—ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools who may have never traveled farther from home than the corner store. In this paper, I explore the use of a place-based educational framework in teaching earth science concepts to urban fifth graders and explore the connections they make between formal earth science content and their lived experiences using participant-driven photo elicitation techniques. I argue that students are able to gain a sounder understanding of earth science concepts when they are able to make direct observations between the content and their lived experiences and that when such direct observations are impossible they make analogies of appearance, structure, and response to make sense of the content. I discuss additionally the importance of expanding earth science instruction to include man-made materials, as these materials are excluded traditionally from the curriculum yet are most immediately available to urban students for examination.

  3. Integrated Earth System Model (iESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter Edmond; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-12-02

    The iESM is a simulation code that represents the physical and biological aspects of Earth's climate system, and also includes the macro-economic and demographic properties of human societies. The human aspect of the simulation code is focused in particular on the effects of human activities on land use and land cover change, but also includes aspects such as energy economies. The time frame for predictions with iESM is approximately 1970 through 2100.

  4. 2016 Earth System Grid Federation Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) experienced a major setback in June 2015, when it experienced a security incident that brought all systems to a halt for more than half a year. However, federation developers and management committee members turned the incident into an opportunity to dramatically upgrade the system security and functionality and to develop planning and policy documents to guide ESGF evolution and success. Moreover, despite the incident, ESGF developer working teams continue to make strong and significant progress on various enhancement projects that will help ensure ESGF can meet the needs of the climate community in themore » coming years.« less

  5. The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, and the Earth Explorations Video Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, a complete overview of the theoretical basics of Earth Science in 64 episodes, was completed in 2009, but has continued to serve the worldwide community as evidenced by listener feedback (e.g. "I am a 65 year old man. I have been retired for awhile and thought that retirement would be nothing more than waiting for the grave. However I want to thank you for your geo podcasts. They have given me a new lease on life and taught me a great deal." - FP, 2015). My current project is a video series on the practical basics of Earth Science titled "Earth Explorations". Each video is under 12 minutes long and tackles a major Earth Science concept. These videos go beyond a talking head, or even voice-over with static pictures or white-board graphics. Moving images are combined with animations created with Adobe After Effects, and aerial shots using a UAV. The dialog is scripted in a way to make it accessible at many levels, and the episodes as they currently stand have been used in K-12, and Freshman college levels with success. Though these videos are made to be used at this introductory level, they are also designed as remedial episodes for upper level classes, freeing up time given to review for new content. When completed, the series should contain close to 200 episodes, and this talk will cover the full range of resources I have produced, plan to produce, and how to access these resources. Both resources are available on iTunesU, and the videos are also available on YouTube.

  6. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  7. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  8. Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, K. A.; Langendijk, G.; Bahar, F.; Huang-Lachmann, J. T.; Osman, M.; Mirsafa, M.; Sonntag, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) community is compiled of early career researchers (including students) coming from a range of scientific backgrounds, spanning both natural and social sciences. YESS unifies young researchers in an influential network to give them a collective voice and leverage within the geosciences community, while supporting career development. The YESS community has used its powerful network to provide a unified perspective on the future of Earth system science (Rauser et al. 2017), to be involved in the organization of international conferences, and to engage with existing international structures that coordinate science. Since its founding in Germany in 2010, the YESS community has grown extensively across the globe, with currently almost 1000 members from over 80 countries, and has become truly interdisciplinary. Recently, the organization has carried elections for Regional Representatives and the Executive Committee as part of its self-sustained governance structure. YESS is ready to continue pioneering crucial areas of research which provide solutions to benefit society for the long-term advancement of Earth system science.

  9. Photosynthesis, Earth System Models and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Sloan, V. L.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the huge carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is the largest of these fluxes, and is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity (GPP). One of the key parameters required by the FvCB model is an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Although Arctic GPP a small flux relative to global GPP, uncertainty is large. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we examined the derivation of Vc,max in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max for 12 species representing both dominant vegetation and key PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Separate measurements of CO2 assimilation (A) made at ambient conditions were compared with A modeled using the Vc,max values we measured in Barrow and those used by the ESMs. The A modeled with the Vc,max values used by the ESMs was 80% lower than the observed A. When our measured Vc,max values were used, modeled A was within 5% of observed A. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Here

  10. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  11. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  12. Critical Thresholds in Earth-System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The history of the Earth system is a story of change. Some changesare gradual and benign, but others, especially those associated withcatastrophic mass extinction, are relatively abrupt and destructive.What sets one group apart from the other? Here I hypothesize thatperturbations of Earth's carbon cycle lead to mass extinction if theyexceed either a critical rate at long time scales or a critical sizeat short time scales. By analyzing 31 carbon-isotopic events duringthe last 542 million years, I identify the critical rate with a limitimposed by mass conservation. Further analysis identifies thecrossover timescale separating fast from slow events with thetimescale of the ocean's homeostatic response to a change in pH. Theproduct of the critical rate and the crossover timescale then yieldsthe critical size. The modern critical size for the marine carboncycle is roughly similar to the mass of carbon that human activitieswill likely have added to the oceans by the year 2100.

  13. The 1990 Reference Handbook: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System (EOS) including goals and requirements is given. Its role in the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the International--Biosphere Program is addressed. The EOS mission requirements, science, fellowship program, data and information systems architecture, data policy, space measurement, and mission elements are presented along with the management of EOS. Descriptions of the facility instruments, instrument investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations are also present. The role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the mission is mentioned.

  14. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  15. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  16. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  17. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  18. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  19. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  20. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    EOSDIS is a data system created by NASA to manage its collection of Earth Science data. This presentation is a brief description of the data system provided to the general user community. The presentation reviews the data types, management and software development techniques in use to organize the system.

  1. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-02-12

    The term "tipping point" commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term "tipping element" to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  2. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tipping element” to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points. PMID:18258748

  3. Tested Tools You Can Use: Evaluating Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. P.; Prakash, A.; Reider, D.; Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) has created a public access on-line evaluation resource available at http://esse21.usra.edu/evaltoolkit in collaboration with the ESSE 21 institutions, PIs, and evaluators. The purpose of the ESSE toolkit is to offer examples of how evaluation and assessment are/have been used in Earth System Science courses and programs. Our goal is to help instructors recognize different types of assessment and evaluation tools and uses that have proved useful in these courses and provide models for designing assessments in new courses. We have included actual examples of evaluations used by ESSE institution faculty in their own courses. This is not a comprehensive toolkit on educational evaluation and assessment, but it does provide several examples of evaluations that have been used successfully in Earth System Science courses and links to many good web resources on course evaluation. We have provided examples of assessments that are designed to collect information from students before, during and after courses. Some, presented in different formats, are designed to assess what students learn, others are designed to provide course instructors with information they can use to revise their courses. These assessments range from content tests to portfolios, from feedback forms to interviews, and from concept maps to attitude surveys.

  4. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  5. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  6. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  7. Earth system modelling: a GAIM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C.

    2003-04-01

    For over a decade the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Integration (formerly Interepretation) and Modelling (GAIM) has facilitated international, interdisciplinary research. The focus has been development, comparison and evaluation of models describing Earth system components, especially terrestrial and ocean carbon cycling and atmospheric transport. GAIM also sponsored the BIOME 6000 project, which produced snapshots of world vegetation patterns for the last glacial maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene, and experiments in coupled atmosphere-biosphere modelling that used these results. The most successful achievements have brought together modellers and data experts so that model comparisons could be made “with open eyes”. The need to bring together different communities (such as data experts and modellers; ecologists and atmospheric scientists; economists and ecologists...) only increases, and is a major rationale for the continuation of GAIM. GAIM has recently set out 23 overarching questions which could define future directions in Earth system science. Many have a “human dimension”, reflecting the fact that the societal context is poorly defined. Natural scientists often appeal to societal reasons to study global change, but typically don’t incorporate human science perspectives in their research strategies. Other questions have a “physical dimension” as biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and physical climate science merge. As IGBP II begins, GAIM faces the challenge of tackling large gaps in our knowledge of how the coupled Earth system works, with and without human interfence. On the natural science side, the Vostok ice-core record dramatically illustrates our current state of ignorance. Vostok established that the Earth system’s response to orbital forcing is characterized by strong non-linear interactions between atmospheric greenhouse-gas and aerosol constituents and climate. The problem is that we don’t understand most of these

  8. Preservation of Earth Science Data History with Digital Content Repository Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Pan, J.; Shrestha, B.; Cook, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    An increasing need for derived and on-demand data product in Earth Science research makes the digital content more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, this increasing need presents additional challenges in managing data processing history information and delivering such information to end users. For example, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) chose a modified SYNMAP land cover data as one of the input driver data for participating terrestrial biospheric models. The global 1km resolution SYNMAP data was created by harmonizing 3 remote sensing-based land cover products: GLCC, GLC2000, and the MODIS land cover product. The original SYNMAP land cover data was aggregated into half and quarter degree resolution. It was then enhanced with more detailed grassland and cropland types. Currently, there lacks an effective mechanism to convey this data processing information to different modeling teams for them to determine if a data product meets their needs. It still highly relies on offline human interaction. The NASA-sponsored ORNL DAAC has leveraged the contemporary digital object repository technology to promote the representation, management, and delivery of data processing history and provenance information. Within digital object repository, different data products are managed as objects, with metadata as attributes and content delivery and management services as dissemination methods. Derivation relationships among data products can be semantically referenced between digital objects. Within the repository, data users can easily track a derived data product back to its origin, explorer metadata and documents about each intermediate data product, and discover processing details involved in each derivation step. Coupled with Drupal Web Content Management System, the digital repository interface was enhanced to

  9. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  10. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  11. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  12. Enhancing the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Chong, E.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore has a long tradition of geography education at the secondary and Junior College levels (ages 12-18). Although most geography teachers teach both human and physical geography, many of them have received more extensive university training in human geography. The Earth Obervatory of Singapore (EOS), a newly established research institute at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), is building an education and outreach program to integrate its research across formal and informal education. We are collaborating with the Singapore Ministry of Education to enhance the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore classrooms. EOS is providing input to national curriculum, textbook materials, and teaching resources, as well as providing inquiry-based field seminars and workshops for inservice teachers. An upcoming 5-year "Our Dynamic Earth" exhibit at the Science Centre Singapore will be a centerpoint of outreach to younger students, their teachers and parents, and to the community at large. On a longer time scale, the upcoming undergraduate program in earth science at NTU, the first of its kind in Singapore, will provide a stream of earth scientists into the geography teaching workforce. Developing ties between EOS and the National Institute of Education will further enhance teacher training. With a highly centralized curriculum, small land area, high-performing student population, and key stakeholders eager to collaborate with EOS, Singapore presents an unusual opportunity to impact classrooms on a national scale.

  13. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  14. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  15. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  16. Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) IPY Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, L. S.; Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is a National Science Foundation-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service, middle, and high school teachers. ESSEA increases teachers' access to quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. With additional support from NASA, the ESSEA program is being enhanced to reflect emphasis on the International Polar Year. From 1999-2005 the ESSEA program was based on a trio of online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers), the courses have been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 teachers in Earth system science. Program evaluation of original course participants indicated that the courses had significant impact on teachers Earth system content knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning. Seventeen of the original participating institutions have continued to use the courses and many have developed new programs that incorporate the courses in Earth science education opportunities for teachers. Today the ESSEA program lists nearly 40 colleges and universities as participants. With NASA support, the K-4 course and modules have been revised to include topics and resources focusing on the International Polar Year. Additional modules examining the changes in black carbon, ice sheets and permafrost have been added for middle and high school levels. The new modules incorporate geoscience data and analysis tools into classroom instruction. By exploring IPY related topics and data, participating teachers and their students will develop new understandings about the interactions and dependencies of the Earth spheres and our polar regions. Changes in climate, air, water, and land quality and animal and plant populations make the news everyday. The ESSEA IPY modules will help teachers inform rather than frighten their students as they learn

  17. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D.; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near‐real‐time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)‐based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided. PMID:29497478

  18. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Creating an Internal Content Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennema, Greg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an internal content management system that they have created at Calvin College. It is a hybrid of CMS and intranet that organizes Web site content and a variety of internal tools to help librarians complete their daily tasks. Hobbes is a Web-based tool that uses Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts written…

  20. Thresholds of catastrophe in the Earth system

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    The history of the Earth system is a story of change. Some changes are gradual and benign, but others, especially those associated with catastrophic mass extinction, are relatively abrupt and destructive. What sets one group apart from the other? Here, I hypothesize that perturbations of Earth’s carbon cycle lead to mass extinction if they exceed either a critical rate at long time scales or a critical size at short time scales. By analyzing 31 carbon isotopic events during the past 542 million years, I identify the critical rate with a limit imposed by mass conservation. Identification of the crossover time scale separating fast from slow events then yields the critical size. The modern critical size for the marine carbon cycle is roughly similar to the mass of carbon that human activities will likely have added to the oceans by the year 2100. PMID:28948221

  1. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  2. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): Effective Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web-based tool, under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. It contains features geared toward a range of applications, spanning research and outreach. It offers an intuitive user interface, in which model inputs are changed using sliders and other interactive components. Current capabilities include simulation of polar ice sheet responses to climate forcing, based on NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We believe that the visualization of data is most effective when tailored to the target audience, and that many of the best practices for modern Web design/development can be applied directly to the visualization of data: use of negative space, color schemes, typography, accessibility standards, tooltips, etc cetera. We present our prototype website, and invite input from potential users, including researchers, educators, and students.

  3. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  4. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  5. Increasing participation in the Earth sciences through engagement of K-12 educators in Earth system science analysis, inquiry and problem- based learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, S.

    2012-12-01

    Given low course enrollment in geoscience courses, retention in undergraduate geoscience courses, and granting of BA and advanced degrees in the Earth sciences an effective strategy to increase participation in this field is necessary. In response, as K-12 education is a conduit to college education and the future workforce, Earth science education at the K-12 level was targeted with the development of teacher professional development around Earth system science, inquiry and problem-based learning. An NSF, NOAA and NASA funded effort through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies led to the development of the Earth System Science Educational Alliance (ESSEA) and dissemination of interdisciplinary Earth science content modules accessible to the public and educators. These modules formed the basis for two teacher workshops, two graduate level courses for in-service teachers and two university course for undergraduate teacher candidates. Data from all three models will be presented with emphasis on the teacher workshop. Essential components of the workshop model include: teaching and modeling Earth system science analysis; teacher development of interdisciplinary, problem-based academic units for implementation in the classroom; teacher collaboration; daily workshop evaluations; classroom observations; follow-up collaborative meetings/think tanks; and the building of an on-line professional community for continued communication and exchange of best practices. Preliminary data indicate increased understanding of Earth system science, proficiency with Earth system science analysis, and renewed interest in innovative delivery of content amongst teachers. Teacher-participants reported increased student engagement in learning with the implementation of problem-based investigations in Earth science and Earth system science thinking in the classroom, however, increased enthusiasm of the teacher acted as a contributing factor. Teacher feedback on open

  6. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  7. Keeping Earth at work: Using thermodynamics to develop a holistic theory of the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The Earth system is unique among terrestrial planets in that it is maintained in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Practically all processes are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy, and these would act to destroy this state of disequilibrium. In order to maintain disequilibrium in steady state, driving forces are required that perform the work to maintain the Earth system in a state far from equilibrium. To characterize the functioning of the Earth system and the interactions among its subsystems we need to consider all terms of the first and second law of thermodynamics. While the global energy balance is well established in climatology, the global entropy and work balances receive little, if any, attention. Here I will present first steps in developing a holistic theory of the Earth system including quantifications of the relevant terms that is based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This theory allows us to compare the significance of different processes in driving and maintaining disequilibrium, allows us to explore interactions by investigating the role of power transfer among processes, and specifically illustrate the significance of life in driving planetary disequilibrium. Furthermore, the global work balance demonstrates the significant impact of human activity and it provides an estimate for the availability of renewable sources of free energy within the Earth system. Hence, I conclude that a holistic thermodynamic theory of the Earth system is not just some academic exercise of marginal use, but essential for a profound understanding of the Earth system and its response to change.

  8. Peptide synthesis in early earth hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemke, K.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260??C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160??C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ ?? mol-1) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. Astrobiology 9, 141-146. ?? 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009.

  9. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  10. A Desktop Virtual Reality Earth Motion System in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih Hung; Yang, Jie Chi; Shen, Sarah; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality principles. A study was conducted to observe the influences of the proposed system in learning.…

  11. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  12. College and University Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Ruzek, M.; Schweizer, D.

    2002-12-01

    The NASA/USRA Cooperative University-based Program in Earth System Science Education (ESSE), initiated over a decade ago through NASA support, has led in the creation of a nationwide collaborative effort to bring Earth system science into the undergraduate classroom. Forty-five ESSE institutions now offer over 120 Earth system courses each year, reaching thousands of students annually with interdisciplinary content. Through the course offerings by faculty from different disciplines and the organizational infrastructure of colleges and universities emphasizing cross disciplinary curricula, programs, degrees and departments, the ESSE Program has led in systemic change in the offering of a holistic view of Earth system science in the classroom. Building on this successful experience and collaborative infrastructure within and among colleges, universities and NASA partners, an expanded program called ESSE 21 is being supported by NASA to extend the legacy established during the last decade. Through its expanded focus including partnerships with under represented colleges and universities, the Program seeks to further develop broadly based educational resources, including shared courses, electronic learning materials and degree programs that will extend Earth system science concepts in both undergraduate and graduate classrooms and laboratories. These resources emphasizing fundamentals of Earth system science advance the nation's broader agenda for improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics competency. Overall the thrust within the classrooms of colleges and universities is critical to extending and solidifying courses of study in Earth system and global change science. ESSE 21 solicits proposals from undergraduate institutions to create or adopt undergraduate and graduate level Earth system science content in courses, curricula and degree programs. The goal for all is to effect systemic change through developing Earth system science learning materials

  13. Design of Moisture Content Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. C.; Wang, L.

    In this paper, a method for measuring the moisture content of grain was presented based on single chip microcomputer and capacitive sensor. The working principle of measuring moisture content is introduced and a concentric cylinder type of capacitive sensor is designed, the signal processing circuits of system are described in details. System is tested in practice and discussions are made on the various factors affecting the capacitive measuring of grain moisture based on the practical experiments, experiment results showed that the system has high measuring accuracy and good controlling capacity.

  14. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-06-01

    This paper proposes a new transportation system for travel between Earth and Moon. This transportation system uses mechanical energy transfer and requires only minimal energy, using an engine located on Earth. A cable directly connects a pole of the Earth through a drive station to the lunar surface_ The equation for an optimal equal stress cable for complex gravitational field of Earth-Moon has been derived that allows significantly lower cable masses. The required strength could be provided by cables constructed of carbon nanotubes or carbon whiskers. Some of the constraints on such a system are discussed.

  15. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe.

  16. Solar system ice: Source of Earth's water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The contribution of carbanaceous chondrites in the water providing of the Earth has been discussed. It could be much more important than previously assumed. A comparison is made with the contribution by Comets.

  17. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  18. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  19. Altimetric system: Earth observing system. Volume 2h: Panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Born, George; Chase, Robert R. P.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Parsons, Chester; Tapley, Byron

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an altimetric system aboard the Earth observing system (Eos) spacecraft is provided. In keeping with the recommendations of the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, a complete altimetric system is defined that is capable of perpetuating the data set to be derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, enabling key scientific questions to be addressed. Since the scientific utility and technical maturity of spaceborne radar altimeters is well documented, the discussion is limited to highlighting those Eos-specific considerations that materially impact upon radar altimetric measurements.

  20. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  1. Direct and indirect capture of near-Earth asteroids in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Near-Earth asteroids have attracted attention for both scientific and commercial mission applications. Due to the fact that the Earth-Moon L1 and L2 points are candidates for gateway stations for lunar exploration, and an ideal location for space science, capturing asteroids and inserting them into periodic orbits around these points is of significant interest for the future. In this paper, we define a new type of lunar asteroid capture, termed direct capture. In this capture strategy, the candidate asteroid leaves its heliocentric orbit after an initial impulse, with its dynamics modeled using the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem until its insertion, with a second impulse, onto the L2 stable manifold in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. A Lambert arc in the Sun-asteroid two-body problem is used as an initial guess and a differential corrector used to generate the transfer trajectory from the asteroid's initial obit to the stable manifold associated with Earth-Moon L2 point. Results show that the direct asteroid capture strategy needs a shorter flight time compared to an indirect asteroid capture, which couples capture in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem and subsequent transfer to the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. Finally, the direct and indirect asteroid capture strategies are also applied to consider capture of asteroids at the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system.

  2. Charting a Course to Earth System Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Koch, L.; Ridky, R.; Wei, M.; Ladue, N.

    2008-12-01

    Public literacy of fundamental ideas in Earth System Science (ESS) is immensely important, both because of its relevance to the daily lives of individual citizens and the role played by informed policy decisions related to water, energy, climate change, and hazards in securing our Nation's well-being and prosperity. The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) argued that topics which comprise ESS also have tremendous value in providing context and meaning for the teaching of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics concepts and their applications, thereby serving the goals of the America COMPETES Act. Yet, as documented in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, the U.S. continues to lag significantly behind other developed nations in science literacy. A major obstacle to improving public ESS literacy, specifically, and strengthening science literacy, in general, is the fact that fewer than 30% of students in U.S. high schools take any courses related to ESS. Often, these courses are taught by teachers with limited preparation in this content area. A new grass-roots movement within the geoscience research and education communities, fueled by interagency collaboration, is seeking to overcome these obstacles and steer a new course for ESS education in the Nation. The Earth System Science Literacy Initiative (ESSLI) builds on recent efforts within portions of the geosciences community to reach consensus on what defines scientific literacy within their fields. Individual literacy frameworks now exist for the ocean, atmospheric science, Earth science, and climate topic areas, and others are under development. The essential principles and fundamental concepts articulated in these frameworks provide consistent core messages that can be delivered and reinforced not only through formal education channels, but also through informal education activities and the media, thereby avoiding the inherent obstacles of the formal education setting

  3. Value analysis of neodymium content in shredder feed: toward enabling the feasibility of rare earth magnet recycling.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M Dhammika; Darcy, Julia W; Apelian, Diran; Emmert, Marion H

    2014-06-17

    In order to facilitate the development of recycling technologies for rare earth magnets from postconsumer products, we present herein an analysis of the neodymium (Nd) content in shredder scrap. This waste stream has been chosen on the basis of current business practices for the recycling of steel, aluminum, and copper from cars and household appliances, which contain significant amounts of rare earth magnets. Using approximations based on literature data, we have calculated the average Nd content in the ferrous shredder product stream to be between 0.13 and 0.29 kg per ton of ferrous scrap. A value analysis considering rare earth metal prices between 2002 and 2013 provides values between $1.32 and $145 per ton of ferrous scrap for this material, if recoverable as pure Nd metal. Furthermore, we present an analysis of the content and value of other rare earths (Pr, Dy, Tb).

  4. Data Preservation -Progress in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been operational since August 1994, processing, archiving and distributing data from a variety of Earth science missions. The data sources include instruments on-board satellites and aircraft and field campaigns. In addition, EOSDIS manages socio-economic data. The satellite missions whose data are managed by EOSDIS range from the Nimbus series of the 1960s and 1970s to the EOS series launched during 1997 through 2004 to the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) launched in October 2011. Data from future satellite missions such as the Decadal Survey missions will also be archived and distributed by EOSDIS. NASA is not legislatively mandated to preserve data permanently as are other agencies such as USGS, NOAA and NARA. However, NASA must preserve all the data and associated content beyond the lives of NASA's missions to meet NASA's near-term objective of supporting active scientific research. Also, NASA must ensure that the data and associated content are preserved for transition to permanent archival agencies. The term preservation implies ensuring long-term protection of bits, readability, understandability, usability and reproducibility of results. To ensure preservation of bits, EOSDIS makes sure that data are backed-up adequately. Periodically, the risk of data loss is assessed and corrective action is taken as needed. Data are copied to more modern media on a routine basis to ensure readability. For some of the oldest data within EOSDIS, we have had to go through special data rescue efforts. Data from very old media have been restored and film data have been scanned and digitized. For example, restored data from the Nimbus missions are available for ftp access at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The Earth Science Data and Information System Project, which is responsible for EOSDIS, has been active within the Data Stewardship and Preservation

  5. ACCESS Earth: Promoting Accessibility to Earth System Science for Students with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, S. M.; Cohen, L.; Lightbody, N.

    2001-05-01

    ACCESS Earth is an intensive summer institute for high school students with disabilities and their teachers that is designed to encourage students with disabilities to consider careers in earth system science. Participants study earth system science concepts at a Maine coastal estuary, using Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and field observations to evaluate the impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and development on coastal systems. Teachers, students, and scientists work together to adapt field and laboratory activities for persons with disabilities, including those with mobility and visual impairments. Other sessions include demonstrations of assistive technology, career discussions, and opportunities for students to meet with successful scientists with disabilities from throughout the U.S. The summer institute is one of several programs in development at the University of Southern Maine to address the problem of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the earth sciences. Other projects include a mentoring program for high school students, a web-based clearinghouse of resources for teaching earth sciences to students with disabilities, and guidebooks for adaptation of popular published earth system science curricula for disabled learners.

  6. Vocabulary and Content Learning in Grade 9 Earth Science: Effects of Vocabulary Preteaching, Rational Cloze Task, and Reading Comprehension Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Siok H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines strategies for supporting vocabulary and content learning in 5 grade 9 Earth Science classes that are part of a SDAIE program (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) in an urban California high school. Students received vocabulary and content instruction during a unit on Earthquakes. One group of students performed…

  7. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  8. Re-Examining the Way We Teach: The Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J. A.; Myers, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade thanks in large part to the technology of the Internet, opening up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators worldwide to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is one positive offshoot of this reform effort. This developing partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA semester-long courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school educators. After three weeks of introductory content, teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, rainforest destruction-on Earth's lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere, using "jigsaw" to study the interactions between events, spheres, and positive and negative feedback loops. The high school course uses problem-based learning to examine critical areas of global change, such as coral reef degradation, ozone depletion, and climate change. This ESSEA presentation provides examples of learning environments from each of the three courses.

  9. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  10. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  11. Stratigraphic and Earth System approaches to defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Will; Leinfelder, Reinhold; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Williams, Mark; Summerhayes, Colin; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Crutzen, Paul; Edgeworth, Matt; Ellis, Erle C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Galuszka, Agnieszka; Grinevald, Jacques; Haywood, Alan; Ivar do Sul, Juliana; Jeandel, Catherine; McNeill, J. R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB.; Syvitski, James; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    Stratigraphy provides insights into the evolution and dynamics of the Earth System over its long history. With recent developments in Earth System science, changes in Earth System dynamics can now be observed directly and projected into the near future. An integration of the two approaches provides powerful insights into the nature and significance of contemporary changes to Earth. From both perspectives, the Earth has been pushed out of the Holocene Epoch by human activities, with the mid-20th century a strong candidate for the start date of the Anthropocene, the proposed new epoch in Earth history. Here we explore two contrasting scenarios for the future of the Anthropocene, recognizing that the Earth System has already undergone a substantial transition away from the Holocene state. A rapid shift of societies toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals could stabilize the Earth System in a state with more intense interglacial conditions than in the late Quaternary climate regime and with little further biospheric change. In contrast, a continuation of the present Anthropocene trajectory of growing human pressures will likely lead to biotic impoverishment and a much warmer climate with a significant loss of polar ice.

  12. Modeling the Earth system in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unninayar, Sushel; Bergman, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A broad overview is made of global earth system modeling in the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) era for the multidisciplinary audience encompassed by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Time scales of global system fluctuation and change are described in Section 2. Section 3 provides a rubric for modeling the global earth system, as presently understood. The ability of models to predict the future state of the global earth system and the extent to which their predictions are reliable are covered in Sections 4 and 5. The 'engineering' use of global system models (and predictions) is covered in Section 6. Section 7 covers aspects of an increasing need for improved transform algorithms and better methods to assimilate this information into global models. Future monitoring and data requirements are detailed in Section 8. Section 9 covers the NASA-initiated concept 'Mission to Planet Earth,' which employs space and ground based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. Section 10 concludes this review with general remarks concerning the state of global system modeling and observing technology and the need for future research.

  13. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  14. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  15. Supporting Inquiry-based Earth System Science Instruction with Middle and High School Earth Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, L.; Varner, R.; Froburg, E.; Smith, M.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Laura, G.; Brown, D.; Bryce, J.; Darwish, A.; Furman, T.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project, a partnership between faculty at the University of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State University, Elizabeth City State University and Dillard University, is designed to enrich the professional development of in-service and pre-service Earth science teachers. One goal of this effort is to help teachers use an inquiry-based approach to teaching Earth system science in their classrooms. As a part of the TESSE project, 42 pre-service and in-service teachers participated in an intensive two-week summer institute at UNH taught by Earth scientists and science educators from TESSE partnership institutions. The institute included instruction about a range of Earth science system topics as well as an introduction to teaching Earth science using an inquiry-based approach. In addition to providing teachers with information about inquiry-based science teaching in the form of sample lesson plans and opportunities to revise traditional lessons and laboratory exercises to make them more inquiry-based, TESSE instructors modeled an inquiry- based approach in their own teaching as much as possible. By the end of the Institute participants had developed lesson plans, units, or year-long course overviews in which they were expected to explain the ways in which they would include an inquiry-based approach in their Earth science teaching over the course of the school year. As a part of the project, graduate fellows (graduate students in the earth sciences) will work with classroom teachers during the academic year to support their implementation of these plans as well as to assist them in developing a more comprehensive inquiry-based approach in the classroom.

  16. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  17. Earth resources ground data handling systems for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.

  18. Earth-moon system: Dynamics and parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical development of the equations of motion governing the earth-moon system is presented. The earth and moon were treated as finite rigid bodies and a mutual potential was utilized. The sun and remaining planets were treated as particles. Relativistic, non-rigid, and dissipative effects were not included. The translational and rotational motion of the earth and moon were derived in a fully coupled set of equations. Euler parameters were used to model the rotational motions. The mathematical model is intended for use with data analysis software to estimate physical parameters of the earth-moon system using primarily LURE type data. Two program listings are included. Program ANEAMO computes the translational/rotational motion of the earth and moon from analytical solutions. Program RIGEM numerically integrates the fully coupled motions as described above.

  19. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  20. Advancing coupled human-earth system models: The integrated Earth System Model Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Thornton, P. E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Mao, J.; Chini, L. P.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Shi, X.

    2012-12-01

    As human and biogeophysical models develop, opportunities for connections between them evolve and can be used to advance our understanding of human-earth systems interaction in the context of a changing climate. One such integration is taking place with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). A multi-disciplinary, multi-institution team has succeeded in integrating the GCAM integrated assessment model of human activity into CESM to dynamically represent the feedbacks between changing climate and human decision making, in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. The first applications of this capability have focused on the feedbacks between climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and human decisions affecting future land use change, which are in turn connected to human decisions about energy systems and bioenergy production. These experiments have been conducted in the context of the RCP4.5 scenario, one of four pathways of future radiative forcing being used in CMIP5, which constrains future human-induced greenhouse gas emissions from energy and land activities to stabilize radiative forcing at 4.5 W/m2 (~650 ppm CO2 -eq) by 2100. When this pathway is run in GCAM with the climate feedback on terrestrial productivity from CESM, there are implications for both the land use and energy system changes required for stabilization. Early findings indicate that traditional definitions of radiative forcing used in scenario development are missing a critical component of the biogeophysical consequences of land use change and their contribution to effective radiative forcing. Initial full coupling of the two global models has important implications for how climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems changes the dynamics of future land use change for agriculture and forestry, particularly in the context of a climate mitigation policy designed to reduce emissions from land use as well as energy systems

  1. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  2. Design definition study of the Earth radiation budget satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Wallschlaeger, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments for measuring the radiation budget components are discussed, and the conceptual design of instruments for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) are reported. Scanning and nonscanning assemblies are described. The ERBSS test program is also described.

  3. A new program in earth system science education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  4. Approaches for Improving Earth System Science Education in Middle Schools and High Schools in the United States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Earth system science is an often neglected subject in the US science curriculum. The state of Kansas State Department of Education, for example, has provided teachers with a curriculum guide for incorporating earth system science as an ancillary topic within the subjects of physics, chemistry, and the biological sciences. While this does provide a means to have earth system science within the curriculum, it relegates earth system science topics to a secondary status. In practice, earth system science topics are considered optional or only taught if there is time within an already an overly crowded curriculum. Given the importance of developing an educated citizenry that is capable of understanding, coping, and deciding how to live in a world where climate change is a reality requires a deeper understanding of earth system science. The de-emphasis of earth system science in favor of other science disciplines makes it imperative to seek opportunities to provide teachers, whose primary subject is not earth system science, with professional development opportunities to develop content knowledge understanding of earth system science, and pedagogical content knowledge (i.e. effective strategies for teaching earth system science). This is a noble goal, but there is no single method. At Fort Hays State University we have developed multiple strategies from face-to-face workshops, on-line coursework, and academic year virtual and face-to-face consultations with in-service and pre-service teachers. A review of the techniques and measures of effectiveness (based on teacher and student performance), and strengths and limitations of each method will be presented as an aid to other institutions and programs seeking to improve the teaching and learning of earth system science in their region.

  5. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  6. Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) - a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Sander, R.; Kerkweg, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.

    2005-02-01

    The development of a comprehensive Earth System Model (ESM) to study the interactions between chemical, physical, and biological processes, requires coupling of the different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, ...). One strategy is to link existing domain-specific models with a universal coupler, i.e. an independent standalone program organizing the communication between other programs. In many cases, however, a much simpler approach is more feasible. We have developed the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy). It comprises (1) a modular interface structure to connect to a , (2) an extendable set of such for miscellaneous processes, and (3) a coding standard. MESSy is therefore not a coupler in the classical sense, but exchanges data between a and several within one comprehensive executable. The internal complexity of the is controllable in a transparent and user friendly way. This provides remarkable new possibilities to study feedback mechanisms (by two-way coupling). Note that the MESSy and the coupler approach can be combined. For instance, an atmospheric model implemented according to the MESSy standard could easily be coupled to an ocean model by means of an external coupler. The vision is to ultimately form a comprehensive ESM which includes a large set of submodels, and a base model which contains only a central clock and runtime control. This can be reached stepwise, since each process can be included independently. Starting from an existing model, process submodels can be reimplemented according to the MESSy standard. This procedure guarantees the availability of a state-of-the-art model for scientific applications at any time of the development. In principle, MESSy can be implemented into any kind of model, either global or regional. So far, the MESSy concept has been applied to the general circulation model ECHAM5 and a number of process boxmodels.

  7. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  8. Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Project Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D.

    The E3SM project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.

  9. Syllabus for Weizmann Course: Earth System Science 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This course aims for an understanding of Earth System Science and the interconnection of its various "spheres" (atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.) by adopting the view that "the microcosm mirrors the macrocosm". We shall study a small set of microcosims, each residing primarily in one sphere, but substantially involving at least one other sphere, in order to illustrate the kinds of coupling that can occur and gain a greater appreciation of the complexity of even the smallest Earth System Science phenomenon.

  10. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  11. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  12. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area.

    PubMed

    Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2002-01-01

    Stream waters draining an old mining area present very high rare earth element (REE) contents, reaching 928 microg/l as the maximum total value (sigmaREE). The middle rare earth elements (MREEs) are usually enriched with respect to both the light (LREEs) and heavy (HREEs) elements of this group, producing a characteristic "roof-shaped" pattern of the shale Post-Archean Australian Shales-normalized concentrations. At the Fenice Capanne Mine (FCM), the most important base metal mine of the study area, the REE source coincides with the mine tailings, mostly the oldest ones composed of iron-rich materials. The geochemical history of the REEs released into Noni stream from wastes in the FCM area is strictly determined by the pH, which controls the REE speciation and in-stream processes. The formation of Al-rich and mainly Fe-rich flocs effectively scavenges the REEs, which are readily and drastically removed from the solution when the pH approaches neutrality. Leaching experiments performed on flocs and waste materials demonstrate that Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides play a key role in the release of lanthanide elements into stream waters. The origin of the "roof-shaped" REE distribution pattern as well as the peculiar geochemical behavior of some lanthanide elements in the aqueous system are discussed.

  13. Optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Loecherbach, E.

    1991-10-01

    The current development status of optical communication engineering in comparison to the conventional microwave systems and the different configurations of the optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems are described. An outlook to future optical communication satellite systems is given. During the last decade Earth observation became more and more important for the extension of the knowledge about our planet and the human influence on nature. Today pictures taken by satellites are used, for example, to discover mineral resources or to predict harvest, crops, climate, and environment variations and their influence on the population. A new and up to date application for Earth observation satellites can be the verification of disarmament arrangements and the control of crises areas. To solve these tasks a system of Earth observing satellites with sensors tailored to the envisaged mission is necessary. Besides these low Earth orbiting satellites, a global Earth observation system consists of at least two data relay satellites. The communication between the satellites will be established via Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) and Inter-Orbit Links (IOL). On these links, bitrates up to 1 Gbit/s must be taken into account. Due to the increasing scarcity of suitable frequencies, higher carrier frequencies must probably be considered, and possible interference with terrestrial radio relay systems are two main problems for a realization in microwave technique. One important step to tackle these problems is the use of optical frequencies for IOL's and ISL's.

  14. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  15. Earth System Grid and EGI interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciazek, J.; Petitdidier, M.; Gemuend, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science data centers have developed a data grid called Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF) to give the scientific community world wide access to CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5) climate data. The CMIP5 data will permit to evaluate the impact of climate change in various environmental and societal areas, such as regional climate, extreme events, agriculture, insurance… The ESGF grid provides services like searching, browsing and downloading of datasets. At the security level, ESGF data access is protected by an authentication mechanism. An ESGF trusted X509 Short-Lived EEC certificate with the correct roles/attributes is required to get access to the data in a non-interactive way (e.g. from a worker node). To access ESGF from EGI (i.e. by earth science applications running on EGI infrastructure), the security incompatibility between the two grids is the challenge: the EGI proxy certificate is not ESGF trusted nor it contains the correct roles/attributes. To solve this problem, we decided to use a Credential Translation Service (CTS) to translate the EGI X509 proxy certificate into the ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate (the CTS will issue ESGF certificates based on EGI certificate authentication). From the end user perspective, the main steps to use the CTS are: the user binds his two identities (EGI and ESGF) together in the CTS using the CTS web interface (this steps has to be done only once) and then request an ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate every time is needed, using a command-line tools. The implementation of the CTS is on-going. It is based on the open source MyProxy software stack, which is used in many grid infrastructures. On the client side, the "myproxy-logon" command-line tools is used to request the certificate translation. A new option has been added to "myproxy-logon" to select the original certificate (in our case, the EGI one). On the server side, MyProxy server operates in Certificate Authority mode, with a new module

  16. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  17. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  18. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  19. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the earth-moon system with implications for the geology of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Established facts regarding the basic features of the earth and the moon are reviewed, and some important problems involving the moon are discussed (extent of melting, time of crustal differentiation and nature of bombardment, bulk chemical composition, and nature and source of mare basins), with attention given to the various existing theories concerning these problems. Models of the development of the earth-moon system from the solar nebula are examined, with particular attention focused on those that use the concept of capture with disintegration. Impact processes in the early crust of the earth are briefly considered, with attention paid to Green's (1972) suggestion that Archaean greenstone belts may be the terrestrial equivalent of lunar maria.

  1. Partitioning experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell: volatile content in the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Jephcoat, Andrew P; Bouhifd, M Ali; Porcelli, Don

    2008-11-28

    The present state of the Earth evolved from energetic events that were determined early in the history of the Solar System. A key process in reconciling this state and the observable mantle composition with models of the original formation relies on understanding the planetary processing that has taken place over the past 4.5Ga. Planetary size plays a key role and ultimately determines the pressure and temperature conditions at which the materials of the early solar nebular segregated. We summarize recent developments with the laser-heated diamond anvil cell that have made possible extension of the conventional pressure limit for partitioning experiments as well as the study of volatile trace elements. In particular, we discuss liquid-liquid, metal-silicate (M-Sil) partitioning results for several elements in a synthetic chondritic mixture, spanning a wide range of atomic number-helium to iodine. We examine the role of the core as a possible host of both siderophile and trace elements and the implications that early segregation processes at deep magma ocean conditions have for current mantle signatures, both compositional and isotopic. The results provide some of the first experimental evidence that the core is the obvious replacement for the long-sought, deep mantle reservoir. If so, they also indicate the need to understand the detailed nature and scale of core-mantle exchange processes, from atomic to macroscopic, throughout the age of the Earth to the present day.

  2. Orbital Noise in the Earth System and Climate Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Frequency noise in the variations of the Earth's obliquity (tilt) can modulate the insolation signal for climate change. Including this frequency noise effect on the incoming solar radiation, we have applied an energy balance climate model to calculate the climate fluctuations for the past one million years. Model simulation results are in good agreement with the geologically observed paleoclimate data. We conclude that orbital noise in the Earth system may be the major cause of the climate fluctuation cycles.

  3. The Water Content of Exo-earths in the Habitable Zone around Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs Dirk; Ciesla, Fred; Pascucci, Ilaria; apai, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of low-mass M dwarf stars have become the focus of many astronomical studies: they are more easily accessible to detection and characterization than their counterparts around sunlike stars. The habitability of these planets, however, faces a number of challenges, including inefficient or negligible water delivery during accretion. To understand the water content of planets in and around the habitable zone, simulations of the final stages of planet formation are necessary.We present detailed accretion simulations of wet and dry planetary embryos around a range of stellar masses. We focus on different pathways of delivering water from beyond the snow line to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. We explore the impact of using either asteroid-like or comet-like bodies, and the effects of a dispersion in snow line locations. We derive the probability distribution of water abundances for terrestrial sized planets in the habitable zone.While these models predict that the bulk of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M stars will be dry, a small fraction receives earth-like amounts of water. Given their larger numbers and higher planet occurrence rates, this population of water-enriched worlds in the habitable zone of M stars may equal that around sun-like stars in numbers.References:Ciesla, Mulders et al. 2015Mulders et al. ApJ subm.

  4. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  5. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  6. Earth System Stability Through Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions haveresulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species.Each of these events is associated with significant environmentalchange recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentaryrocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologicrecord that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes themdifferent? Two factors appear important: the size of theenvironmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs.We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during thepast 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change overtwo orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate isconsistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., nearsteady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate withmarginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast,unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest thatthe great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a"sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, arecharacterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  7. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  8. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  9. Holistic Approach to Secondary Earth Science Teacher Professional Development: the Triad of Project-based Instruction, Earth Science Content, and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino-Hare, L.; Sample, J. C.; Fredrickson, K.; Claesgens, J.; Bloom, N.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Manone, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011. The NAz-POD project (funded by Arizona Department of Education and administered by Science Foundation Arizona) provided similar PD experiences, but the institutes occurred during weekends in the academic year. The institutes were led by a team with expertise in Earth science content, professional development and pedagogy, and GIS. The teachers developed learning modules using the project based learning instructional model. Pedagogy, content, and GIS skills were combined throughout the professional development activities. Academic year follow up by NAU personnel included classroom observations and technical support. For assessing student work we provided a rubric, but learned that teachers were not prepared to assess GIS products in order to determine the level of student understanding. In year two of the project we incorporated strategies for assessment of student products into the professional development. Teacher-participants and their students completed several pre- and post- assessments. Teacher assessments included a geospatial performance assessment, classroom observations, and content tests. Student data collection included attitude and efficacy questionnaires, content tests, and authentic assessments including products using GIS. Content tests were the same for teachers and students and included spatial reasoning, data analysis, and Earth science content. Data was also collected on teacher perception of professional development delivery and self-reported confidence in teaching with PBI and geospatial technology. Student assessments show that improvement occurred in all areas on the content test. Possible factors

  10. Supporting Instruction By Defining Conceptual Relevance Of Materials: Alignment Of Resources To An Earth Systems Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC

  11. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  12. EarthTutor: An Interactive Intelligent Tutoring System for Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.

    2005-12-01

    Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual

  13. Radiometric calibration of the Earth observing system's imaging sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    Philosophy, requirements, and methods of calibration of multispectral space sensor systems as applicable to the Earth Observing System (EOS) are discussed. Vicarious methods for calibration of low spatial resolution systems, with respect to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), are then summarized. Finally, a theoretical introduction is given to a new vicarious method of calibration using the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the Earth's surfaces as the key input. This may provide an additional independent method for in-flight calibration.

  14. Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.

  15. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  16. Electromagnetic Calculation of Combined Earthing System with Ring Earth Electrode and Vertical Rods for Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    With the worldwide spread of wind turbine installations, various problems such as landscape issues, bird strikes and grid connections have arisen. Protection of wind turbines from lightning is cited as one of the main problems. Wind turbines are often struck by lightning because of their open-air locations, such as in mountainous areas, and their special configuration and very-high construction. Especially, low-voltage and control circuits can fail or suffer burnout while blades can incur serious damage if struck by lightning. Wind turbine failures caused by lightning strikes account for approximately 25% of all failures. The problem is regarded as a global one that needs immediate resolution. It is important to understand the impedance characteristics of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC TR61400-24 recommends a “ring earth electrode”. This was originally defined in IEC 61024 (currently revised and re-numbered as IEC 62305), where such an electrode is recommended to reduce touch and step voltages in households and buildings. IEC TR61400-24 also recommended additional electrodes of vertical or horizontal rods. However, these concepts have not been fully discussed from the viewpoint of its application to wind turbines. To confirm the effect of a combination of a ring earth electrode and additional vertical rods for protection of a wind turbine, this report uses the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to present an electromagnetic transient analysis on such a wind turbine earthing system. The results show that an optimal combination can be arranged from viewpoints of lightning protection and construction cost. Thus, this report discusses how to establish a quantitative design methodology of the wind turbine earthing system to provide effective lightning protection.

  17. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  18. Solar System Portrait - Earth as Pale Blue Dot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-12

    This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed Pale Blue Dot, is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by NASA’s Voyager 1. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. From Voyager's great distance Earth is a mere point of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size. Coincidentally, Earth lies right in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun. This blown-up image of the Earth was taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color image. The background features in the image are artifacts resulting from the magnification. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00452

  19. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  20. Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) Enables Comparative Climatology with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Lunine, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.; Lebreton, J.

    2009-09-01

    Titan is a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on Earth. Its geology, from lakes and seas to broad river valleys and mountains, while carved in ice is, in its balance of processes, again most like Earth. Beneath this panoply of Earth-like processes an ice crust floats atop what appears to be a liquid water ocean. The Titan Saturn System Mission would seek to understand Titan as a system, in the same way that one would ask this question about Venus, Mars, and the Earth. How are distinctions between Titan and other worlds in the solar systems understandable in the context of the complex interplay of geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy? Is Titan an analogue for some aspect of Earth's history, past or future? Why is Titan endowed with an atmosphere when Ganymede is not? Titan is also rich in organic molecules_more so in its surface and atmosphere than anyplace in the solar system, including Earth (excluding our vast carbonate sediments). These molecules were formed in the atmosphere, deposited on the surface and, in coming into contact with liquid water may undergo an aqueous chemistry that could replicate aspects of life's origins. The second goal of the proposed TSSM mission is to understand the chemical cycles that generate and destroy organics and assess the likelihood that they can tell us something of life's origins. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  1. Communicating the Science of the Earth System Through Arts and Culture to Reach Broad Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Johnson, R.; Foster, S.; Hatheway, B.; Russell, R.

    2008-12-01

    Links between the science of Earth and the visual and literary arts, cultures, and human history provides important context and connections for learners of all ages. Several new features that foster a multidisciplinary approach to learning about our planet are now available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an educational Web site that includes over 6000 pages of content and is used by over 20 million people each year. The Clouds in Art interactive encourages users to identify cloud types depicted in well-known landscape paintings. Examples of poems by historic poets describe weather phenomena and link to information about the science of weather. A new feature allows users to post their original poetry about an image of weather phenomena. Historic image collections emphasize human connections to the Earth system. For example, a collection of images that visually describes Inuit traditions is linked to Web content about Earth's polar regions and the impact of climate change in the Arctic. To support K-12 classroom learning of Earth system concepts and engage visual learners, several new classroom activities make use of photographs, satellite images, and animations of remote sensing data. In one activity, students learn about the impact of climate change in the Arctic by working with photographs of Alaskan glaciers taken over the past century. These new interdisciplinary features on Windows to the Universe, combined with a wealth of existing content on the site about the history of science and mythology, provide other ways to appreciate science phenomena as well as alternate avenues into science for the general public, teachers and students. Windows to the Universe, a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach, provides users with content about the Earth and space sciences at three levels of instruction in both English and Spanish.

  2. Digital Earth system based river basin data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Wanqing; Lin, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Digital Earth is an integrated approach to build scientific infrastructure. The Digital Earth systems provide a three-dimensional visualization and integration platform for river basin data which include the management data, in situ observation data, remote sensing observation data and model output data. This paper studies the Digital Earth system based river basin data integration technology. Firstly, the construction of the Digital Earth based three-dimensional river basin data integration environment is discussed. Then the river basin management data integration technology is presented which is realized by general database access interface, web service and ActiveX control. Thirdly, the in situ data stored in database tables as records integration is realized with three-dimensional model of the corresponding observation apparatus display in the Digital Earth system by a same ID code. In the next two parts, the remote sensing data and the model output data integration technologies are discussed in detail. The application in the Digital Zhang River basin System of China shows that the method can effectively improve the using efficiency and visualization effect of the data.

  3. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  4. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  5. Comments on 'The origin of the earth-moon system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, P.; Teleki, G.

    1986-10-01

    A new hypothesis for the origin of the earth-moon system is developed on the basis of Savic's (1961) theory of the origin of rotation of celestial bodies. According to the theory, the cooling off and contraction due to gravitational attraction on vast particle systems, with the pushing out of electrons from atom shells, results in the continually increasing density of a planet; the expulsion of electrons causes formation of a magnetic field by which a rotational motion is brought about. It is argued that these conditions are consistent with the formation of the earth and the moon from a unique protoplanet which, in course of the rotation, has taken shape of a large Jacobi ellipsoid. New condensation forming along the edge of the ellipsoid led to the creation of the dual earth-moon system.

  6. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  7. Coupling population dynamics with earth system models: the POPEM model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Moreno, Raúl; Jiménez-Alcázar, Alfonso; Tapiador, Francisco J

    2017-09-16

    Precise modeling of CO 2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO 2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations. The module, dubbed POPEM (from Population Parameterization for Earth Models), is compared with current emission inventories and validated against UN aggregated data. Finally, it is shown that the module can be used to advance toward fully coupling the social and natural components of the Earth system, an emerging research path for environmental science and pollution research.

  8. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  9. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  10. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  11. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  12. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  13. Small asteroids temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Patterson, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    We present an update on our work on understanding the population of natural objects that are temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system like the 2-3 meter diameter, 2006 RH120, that was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. We use the term `minimoon' to refer to objects that are gravitationally bound to the Earth-Moon system, make at least one revolution around the barycenter in a co-rotating frame relative to the Earth-Sun axis, and are within 3 Earth Hill-sphere radii. There are one or two 1 to 2 meter diameter minimoons in the steady state population at any time, and about a dozen larger than 50 cm diameter. `Drifters' are also bound to the Earth-Moon system but make less than one revolution about the barycenter. The combined population of minimoons and drifters provide a new opportunity for scientific exploration of small asteroids and testing concepts for in-situ resource utilization. These objects provide interesting challenges for rendezvous missions because of their limited lifetime and complicated trajectories. Furthermore, they are difficult to detect because they are small, available for a limited time period, and move quickly across the sky.

  14. Small asteroids temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Patterson, Geoff

    2015-08-01

    We will present an update on our work on understanding the population of natural objects that are temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system, such as the 2-3 meter diameter 2006 RH120 that was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. We use the term 'minimoon' to refer to objects that are gravitationally bound to the Earth-Moon system, make at least one revolution around the barycenter in a co-rotating frame relative to the Earth-Sun axis, and are within 3 Earth Hill-sphere radii. There are one or two 1 to 2 meter diameter minimoons in the steady state population at any time, and about a dozen larger than 50 cm diameter. `Drifters' are also bound to the Earth-Moon system but make less than one revolution about the barycenter. The combined population of minimoons and drifters provide a new opportunity for scientific exploration of small asteroids and testing concepts for in-situ resource utilization. These objects provide interesting challenges for rendezvous missions because of their limited lifetime and complicated trajectories. Furthermore, they are difficult to detect because they are small, available for a limited time period, and move quickly across the sky.

  15. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of GENIE Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrew R; Myerscough, Richard J; Voutchkov, Ivan I; Marsh, Robert; Cox, Simon J

    2009-07-13

    The tuning of parameters in climate models is essential to provide reliable long-term forecasts of Earth system behaviour. We apply a multi-objective optimization algorithm to the problem of parameter estimation in climate models. This optimization process involves the iterative evaluation of response surface models (RSMs), followed by the execution of multiple Earth system simulations. These computations require an infrastructure that provides high-performance computing for building and searching the RSMs and high-throughput computing for the concurrent evaluation of a large number of models. Grid computing technology is therefore essential to make this algorithm practical for members of the GENIE project.

  17. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  18. Report to Congress on the restructuring of the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: (1) The Science Objectives of EOS; (2) New Spacecraft Configurations; (3) The Impact of the Restructured EOS on Understanding the Climate; (4) The Impact of EOS on Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies; (5) EOS Data and Information System; (6) Interdisciplinary Investigations; (7) Missions in Advance of EOS; (8) The Role of the Departments of Energy and Defense; (9) Summary of the Mission to Planet Earth; and (10) Funding Requirement.

  19. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Embodying Earth's Place in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Elementary students find it difficult to connect the apparent motion of objects in the sky with how celestial objects actually move in the solar system. As a university astronomy education researcher, the author has been investigating methods to help children learn astronomy through workshops and summer camps at science museums and planetariums.…

  1. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  2. Occurrence of Earth-like bodies in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1991-08-02

    Present theories of terrestrial planet formation predict the rapid ;;runaway formation'' of planetary embryos. The sizes of the embryos increase with heliocentric distance. These embryos then merge to form planets. In earlier Monte Carlo simulations of the merger of these embryos it was assumed that embryos did not form in the asteroid belt, but this assumption may not be valid. Simulations in which runaways were allowed to form in the asteroid belt show that, although the initial distributions of mass, energy, and angular momentum are different from those observed today, during the growth of the planets these distributions spontaneously evolve toward those observed, simply as a result of known solar system processes. Even when a large planet analogous to ;;Jupiter'' does not form, an Earth-sized planet is almost always found near Earth's heliocentric distance. These results suggest that occurrence of Earth-like planets may be a common feature of planetary systems.

  3. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  4. Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Digital Object Identifier Registration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented a fully automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system over last 7 years has been the incorporation of community input from three focus groups under the NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving the user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. The ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 5,000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 200 DOIs being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited.

  5. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System - Near-Term Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne; Mitchell, Andrew; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of the NASA Earth observation program since the 1990's. EOSDIS manages data covering a wide range of Earth science disciplines including cryosphere, land cover change, polar processes, field campaigns, ocean surface, digital elevation, atmosphere dynamics and composition, and inter-disciplinary research, and many others. One of the key components of EOSDIS is a set of twelve discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) distributed across the United States. Managed by NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center, these DAACs serve over 3 million users globally. The ESDIS Project provides the infrastructure support for EOSDIS, which includes other components such as the Science Investigator-led Processing systems (SIPS), common metadata and metrics management systems, specialized network systems, standards management, and centralized support for use of commercial cloud capabilities. Given the long-term requirements, and the rapid pace of information technology and changing expectations of the user community, EOSDIS has evolved continually over the past three decades. However, many challenges remain. Challenges addressed in this paper include: growing volume and variety, achieving consistency across a diverse set of data producers, managing information about a large number of datasets, migration to a cloud computing environment, optimizing data discovery and access, incorporating user feedback from a diverse community, keeping metadata updated as data collections grow and age, and ensuring that all the content needed for understanding datasets by future users is identified and preserved.

  6. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  7. A New Model of the Earth System Nitrogen Cycle: How Plates and Life Affect the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed an Earth system N cycle model, including biologic and geologic fluxes and key nutrients such as phosphorus. The atmosphere can change mass significantly over Earth history, and the solid Earth contains most of the planet's N.

  8. Activities for the Changing Earth System. Earth Systems Education, Middle School and High School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Research Foundation.

    This book is intended to help teachers fulfill the need for children and future leaders to understand issues of global change and the science that lies behind them. Important changes are occurring in several of the earth's subsystems. The changes are thought to be the result from the expanding use of technology for the improvement of living…

  9. The needs of digital games content rating system in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Ros Syammimi; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies revealed that playing digital games with adverse contents can lead to negative effects. Therefore, this article presents a review of the harmful contents and the detrimental effects of playing digital games. Violent and sexual contents of digital games, digital games scenarios in Malaysia, and review of existing content rating system are covered. The review indicates that Malaysia should have its own digital games content ratings system to control the contents and inform the users about the contents of the games that they wish to consume.

  10. EarthCube - Earth System Bridge: Spanning Scientific Communities with Interoperable Modeling Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.; DeLuca, C.; Gochis, D. J.; Arrigo, J.; Kelbert, A.; Choi, E.; Dunlap, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand and predict environmental hazards of weather/climate, ecology and deep earth processes, geoscientists develop and use physics-based computational models. These models are used widely both in academic and federal communities. Because of the large effort required to develop and test models, there is widespread interest in component-based modeling, which promotes model reuse and simplified coupling to tackle problems that often cross discipline boundaries. In component-based modeling, the goal is to make relatively small changes to models that make it easy to reuse them as "plug-and-play" components. Sophisticated modeling frameworks exist to rapidly couple these components to create new composite models. They allow component models to exchange variables while accommodating different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and units. Modeling frameworks have arisen in many modeling communities. CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) serves the academic earth surface process dynamics community, while ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) serves many federal Earth system modeling projects. Others exist in both the academic and federal domains and each satisfies design criteria that are determined by the community they serve. While they may use different interface standards or semantic mediation strategies, they share fundamental similarities. The purpose of the Earth System Bridge project is to develop mechanisms for interoperability between modeling frameworks, such as the ability to share a model or service component. This project has three main goals: (1) Develop a Framework Description Language (ES-FDL) that allows modeling frameworks to be described in a standard way so that their differences and similarities can be assessed. (2) Demonstrate that if a model is augmented with a framework-agnostic Basic Model Interface (BMI), then simple, universal adapters can go from BMI to a

  11. Educator Perspectives on Earth System Science Literacy: Challenges and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…

  12. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science

    Treesearch

    Lilian Alessa; F. Stuart Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  13. Native America: American Indian Geoscientists & Earth System Science Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands across the Americas. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all Tribal societies. These changes have accelerated the momentum to ensure the future of American Indian Geoscientists and Earth Systems Science Leaders. The presentation will bring to prominence the unique recruitment and mentoring necessary to achieve success that emerged through working with Tribal people. The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on recruitment and mentoring of Native/Tribal students in geoscience and earth systems science; 2) current Native leadership and research development; 3) unique collaborations "bridging" Native people across geographic areas (International) in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive geoscience and earth systems science knowledge of Tribal peoples throughout the Americas. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native geoscientists and earth systems science leaders.

  14. Orbital Boom Sensor System with a cloudy Earth limb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    S114-E-5712 (28 July 2005) --- This view of the Orbital Boom Sensor System, backdropped by clouds and Earth’s limb, was taken by the STS-114 crew during approach and docking operations with the international space station.

  15. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  16. Comparison of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Composite Thermal Barrier Coatings with Equal Total Rare-Earth Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2018-04-01

    Rare-earth zirconates have been the focus of advanced thermal barrier coating research for nearly two decades; however, their lack of toughness prevents a wide-scale adoption due to lack of erosion and thermal cyclic durability. There are generally two methods of improving toughness: intrinsic modification of the coating chemistry and extrinsic modification of the coating structure. This study compares the efficacy of these two methods for a similar overall rare-earth content via the air plasma spray process. The extrinsically toughened coatings were comprised of a two-phase composite containing 30 wt.% Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) combined with 70 wt.% of a tougher t' low-k material (ZrO2-2Y2O3-1Gd2O3-1Yb2O3; mol.%), while a single-phase fluorite with the overall rare-earth content equivalent to the two-phase composite (13 mol.% rare-earth) was utilized to explore intrinsically toughened concept. The coatings were then characterized via x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and their performance was evaluated via erosion, thermal conductivity, thermal annealing (500 h), and thermal cycling. It was shown that the extrinsic method provided an improved erosion and thermal conductivity response over the single phase, but at the expense of high-temperature stability and cyclic life.

  17. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): A Virtual Research Environment for The Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web application, under continued development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. As with any project of its size, we have encountered both successes and challenges during the course of development. Our principal point of success is the fact that VESL users can interact seamlessly with our earth science simulations within their own Web browser. Some of the challenges we have faced include retrofitting the VESL Web application to respond to touch gestures, reducing page load time (especially as the application has grown), and accounting for the differences between the various Web browsers and computing platforms.

  18. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  19. Tidal-friction theory of the earth-moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Serious errors contained in Jeffreys' (1952, 1959, 1970, 1976) discussion of tidal friction in the earth-moon system are identified and their consequences are discussed. A direct solution of the dynamical tidal equations for the couple from the earth acting upon the moon and the couple from the earth acting upon the sun, which were left unsolved by Jeffreys, is found to be incompatible with observations and the predictions of linear or quadratic friction theory, due to his failure to take into account the possible change of the moment of inertia of the earth with time in the derivation of the dynamical equations. Consideration of this factor leads to the conclusion that the earth must be contracting at a rate of 14.7 x 10 to the -11th/year, which can be accounted for only by the Ramsey theory, in which the terrestrial core is considered as a phase change rather than a change in chemical composition. Implications of this value for the rates of changes in day length and lunar distance are also indicated.

  20. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  1. Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

    2007-12-01

    University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an

  2. New tools for linking human and earth system models: The Toolbox for Human-Earth System Interaction & Scaling (THESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Kauffman, B.; Lawrence, P.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated analysis of questions regarding land, water, and energy resources often requires integration of models of different types. One type of integration is between human and earth system models, since both societal and physical processes influence these resources. For example, human processes such as changes in population, economic conditions, and policies govern the demand for land, water and energy, while the interactions of these resources with physical systems determine their availability and environmental consequences. We have begun to develop and use a toolkit for linking human and earth system models called the Toolbox for Human-Earth System Integration and Scaling (THESIS). THESIS consists of models and software tools to translate, scale, and synthesize information from and between human system models and earth system models (ESMs), with initial application to linking the NCAR integrated assessment model, iPETS, with the NCAR earth system model, CESM. Initial development is focused on urban areas and agriculture, sectors that are both explicitly represented in both CESM and iPETS. Tools are being made available to the community as they are completed (see https://www2.cgd.ucar.edu/sections/tss/iam/THESIS_tools). We discuss four general types of functions that THESIS tools serve (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Properties, Consistency, and Outcome Evaluation). Tools are designed to be modular and can be combined in order to carry out more complex analyses. We illustrate their application to both the exposure of population to climate extremes and to the evaluation of climate impacts on the agriculture sector. For example, projecting exposure to climate extremes involves use of THESIS tools for spatial population, spatial urban land cover, the characteristics of both, and a tool to bring urban climate information together with spatial population information. Development of THESIS tools is continuing and open to the research community.

  3. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  4. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at a... system security plan; and (e) Document the rail transit agency's process for making its system security...

  5. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  6. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (approx.185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. There are four major systems or spheres of Earth. They are: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphe, and

  7. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  8. EARTH SYSTEM ATLAS: A Platform for Access to Peer-Reviewed Information about process and change in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Prentice, C.

    2004-12-01

    A great deal of time, effort and resources have been expended on global change research to date, but dissemination and visualization of the key pertinent data sets has been problematical. Toward that end, we are constructing an Earth System Atlas which will serve as a single compendium describing the state of the art in our understanding of the Earth system and how it has responded to and is likely to respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The Atlas is an interactive web-based system of data bases and data manipulation tools and so is much more than a collection of pre-made maps posted on the web. It represents a tool for assembling, manipulating, and displaying specific data as selected and customized by the user. Maps are created "on the fly" according to user-specified instructions. The information contained in the Atlas represents the growing body of data assembled by the broader Earth system research community, and can be displayed in the form of maps and time series of the various relevant parameters that drive and are driven by changes in the Earth system at various time scales. The Atlas is designed to display the information assembled by the global change research community in the form of maps and time series of all the relevant parameters that drive or are driven by changes in the Earth System at various time scales. This will serve to provide existing data to the community, but also will help to highlight data gaps that may hinder our understanding of critical components of the Earth system. This new approach to handling Earth system data is unique in several ways. First and foremost, data must be peer-reviewed. Further, it is designed to draw on the expertise and products of extensive international research networks rather than on a limited number of projects or institutions. It provides explanatory explanations targeted to the user's needs, and the display of maps and time series can be customize by the user. In general, the Atlas is

  9. Teleconnections in complex human-Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J.

    2017-12-01

    Human systems and physical Earth systems are closely coupled and interact in complex ways that are sometimes surprising. This presentation discusses a few examples of system interactions. We consider the coupled energy-water-land-economy systems. We show how reductions in fossil fuel emissions are inversely coupled to land rents, food prices and deforestation. We discuss how water shortages in one part of the world is propagated to other distant parts of the world. We discuss the sensitivity of international trade patterns to energy and land systems technology and markets, and the potentially unanticipated results that can emerge.

  10. User Metrics in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This presentation the collection and use of user metrics in NASA's Earth Science data systems. A variety of collection methods is discussed, with particular emphasis given to the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ASCI). User sentiment on potential use of cloud computing is presented, with generally positive responses. The presentation also discusses various forms of automatically collected metrics, including an example of the relative usage of different functions within the Giovanni analysis system.

  11. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; ...

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  12. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    State, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management were investigated as potential users of satellite remotely sensed data. This group's needs are assessed and alternative data management systems serving some of those needs are outlined. It is concluded that an operational earth observation data management system will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  13. Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyongyong

    The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  14. Earth System Science: Problem-based Learning Courses for Teachers Through ESSEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, E.; Witiw, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    science education courses to middle and high school teachers. Teachers who complete the course are eligible for Continuing Education Units or graduate credit through Seattle Pacific University. Both three-credit and five-credit courses will be offered. All tuition costs will be paid by the grant. The courses will be offered in a hybrid online-classroom format. Future plans include offering an Earth system science course for pre-service teachers. In this talk we will describe the structure and content of the ESSEA modules with examples from currently available modules. We will also outline the development and planned implementation of a five-credit ESSEA course for area high school teachers to be offered at Seattle Pacific University in spring of 2008.

  15. Electrochemistry of Prebiotic Early Earth Hydrothermal Chimney Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermis, N.; Barge, L. M.; Chin, K. B.; LeBlanc, G.; Cameron, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal chimneys are self-organizing chemical garden precipitates generated from geochemical disequilibria within sea-vent environments, and have been proposed as a possible setting for the emergence of life because they contain mineral catalysts and transect ambient pH / Eh / chemical gradients [1]. We simulated the growth of hydrothermal chimneys in early Earth vent systems by using different hydrothermal simulants such as sodium sulfide (optionally doped with organic molecules) which were injected into an early Earth ocean simulant containing dissolved ferrous iron, nickel, and bicarbonate [2]. Chimneys on the early Earth would have constituted flow-through reactors, likely containing Fe/Ni-sulfide catalysts that could have driven proto-metabolic electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical activity of the chimney system was characterized non-invasively by placing electrodes at different locations across the chimney wall and in the ocean to analyze the bulk properties of surface charge potential in the chimney / ocean / hydrothermal fluid system. We performed in-situ characterization of the chimney using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) which allowed us to observe the changes in physio-chemical behavior of the system through electrical spectra of capacitance and impedance over a wide range of frequencies during the metal sulfide chimney growth. The electrochemical properties of hydrothermal chimneys in natural systems persist due to the disequilibria maintained between the ocean and hydrothermal fluid. When the injection in our experiment (analogous to fluid flow in a vent) stopped, we observed a corresponding decline in open circuit voltage across the chimney wall, though the impedance of the precipitate remained lor. Further work is needed to characterize the electrochemistry of simulated chimney systems by controlling response factors such as electrode geometry and environmental conditions, in order to simulate electrochemical reactions

  16. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  17. A Course in Earth System Science: Developed for Teachers by Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Read, K.; Charlevoix, D.; Tomkin, J.; Hug, B.; Williams, M.; Pianfetti, E.

    2008-12-01

    ESES 202 is a new general education course in physical science at the University of Illinois's School of Earth, Society and Environment, designed for pre-service K-8 teachers. The goal of the course is to help future classroom teachers become confident with teaching earth science content. The designers of this course include a faculty expert in earth system science, a pre-service teacher and a former middle school science teacher. The goal of the in the curriculum design was to utilize the unique perspectives and experiences of our team. Our poster will highlight the unique nature of the curriculum development outlining the challenges and successes of designing the course. The general format of the class will be a combination of discussions, hands on experiences, and opportunities for students to design their own lessons. Class meetings will be once per week in a three-hour block, allowing students to immediately transfer new content knowledge into classroom activities. The end goal is that they can use these same activities with their students once they are practicing teachers. The content of the course shall be taught using an earth systems approach by showing the relationships among the four spheres: biosphere, hydrosphere, atmospheric, and anthrosphere. There are five units in the course: Introduction to Earth Systems, Carbon Cycle, Water Quality, El Niño and Climate Change. In addition to the science portion of the course, students will spend time reflecting on the classroom activities from the perspective of future educators. Activities will be presented at a late elementary school level; however, time will be devoted to discussing methods to adapt the lesson to different grade levels and differentiation needs within a classroom. Additionally, students in this course will be instructed on how to utilize a multitude of resources from stream tables to science education databases to prepare them for the dynamic nature of the classroom. By the end of the class

  18. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  19. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  1. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high quality tools and services in support of Earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation ecosystem that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages the emerging Common Information Model (CIM) metadata standard, which has supported the following projects: ** Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); ** Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP-2012); ** National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms (NCPP) Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop (QED-2013). This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and will demonstrate the current production level capabilities of the eco-system: ** An ESM documentation Viewer embeddable into any website; ** An ESM Questionnaire configurable on a project by project basis; ** An ESM comparison tool reusable across projects; ** An ESM visualization tool reusable across projects; ** A search engine for speedily accessing published documentation; ** Libraries for streamlining document creation, validation and publishing pipelines.

  2. Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunt, D.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Schmidt, G.A.; Salzmann, U.; Valdes, P.J.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the equilibrium response of global temperatures to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is one of the cornerstones of climate research. Components of the Earths climate system that vary over long timescales, such as ice sheets and vegetation, could have an important effect on this temperature sensitivity, but have often been neglected. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to simulate the climate of the mid-Pliocene warm period (about three million years ago), and analyse the forcings and feedbacks that contributed to the relatively warm temperatures. Furthermore, we compare our simulation with proxy records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature. Taking these lines of evidence together, we estimate that the response of the Earth system to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is 30-50% greater than the response based on those fast-adjusting components of the climate system that are used traditionally to estimate climate sensitivity. We conclude that targets for the long-term stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations aimed at preventing a dangerous human interference with the climate system should take into account this higher sensitivity of the Earth system. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Equation of State of Fe3C and Implications for the Carbon Content of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A.; Brauser, N.; Thompson, E. C.; Chidester, B.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon is a common component in protoplanetary cores, as represented by iron meteorites. Therefore, along with silicon, oxygen, and other light elements, it is likely to be an alloying component with iron in Earth's core. Previous studies of the densities of iron carbides have not reached the combined pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Earth's core. To better understand the geophysical implications of carbon addition to Earth's core, we report P-V-T measurements of Fe3C to pressures and temperatures exceeding 110 GPa and 2500 K, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in a laser heated diamond anvil cell. Fitting these measurements to an equation of state and assuming 1.5% density change upon melting and a 4000 K core-mantle boundary temperature, we report a value of 6 wt% carbon necessary to match the PREM density in the outer core. This value should be considered an upper bound due to the likely presence of other light elements.

  4. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  5. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  6. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan shall...

  7. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan shall...

  8. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan shall...

  9. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan shall...

  10. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan shall...

  11. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  12. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  13. Initial Results of On-Line Earth System Science Course Offerings at the University of Nebraska-Omaha Through the Earth System Science Education Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.; Schnase, W. L.; Hamersky, S.; Moshman, R.

    2008-12-01

    The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been offering on-line Earth System Science coursework to teachers in Nebraska since 2002. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with nearly 200 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. Our experiences in delivering this coursework have involved both teachers who have received a stipend to take the course and those who have paid their own tuition and fees and received graduate credit for the course. We will report on the online behavior of teachers from both populations and also discuss pros and cons of each approach. UNO has also experimented with different approaches in the support and management of the course, including using undergraduate majors as content experts. This improves access of teachers to content-related feedback and is a positive experience for the undergraduate major. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one focusing on the global amphibian crisis.

  14. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  15. From the Ground Up: Building an Undergraduate Earth Systems Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, W. D.; Alexander, S. E.; Moore, S. W.; Melton, F. S.

    2006-12-01

    It is rare that an interdisciplinary group of educators has the opportunity to design a science curriculum without the constraints of pre-existing academic departments. In 1994, California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) acquired 1,387 acres from the U.S. Department of the Army and began construction of a new campus. CSUMB was developed as a four-year undergraduate university distinctive in its mission to serve the diverse people of California. Inspired by the Earth System Science Education program initiated by NASA and the University Space Research Association, CSUMB embarked upon the development of an interdisciplinary Earth systems curriculum that placed a strong emphasis on experience-based learning, integration of science, policy, and technology, outreach to minority students, and partnerships with the local community. Our cornerstone program is the Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems Science & Policy. It is built on a pyramid- style framework that includes integration, systems approach, and applied technologies (base of the pyramid); junior entry course, case studies, concentrations, service learning, student internships, and research experiences (middle of the pyramid); and senior capstone projects (apex of the pyramid). However, to succeed, new and innovative programs must constantly evaluate where they have been, where they are, and where they need to go to meet the needs of their students today and their students of the future.

  16. The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

  17. UNH Data Cooperative: A Cyber Infrastructure for Earth System Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B. H.; Fekete, B. M.; Prusevich, A.; Gliden, S.; Magill, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth system scientists and managers have a continuously growing demand for a wide array of earth observations derived from various data sources including (a) modern satellite retrievals, (b) "in-situ" records, (c) various simulation outputs, and (d) assimilated data products combining model results with observational records. The sheer quantity of data, and formatting inconsistencies make it difficult for users to take full advantage of this important information resource. Thus the system could benefit from a thorough retooling of our current data processing procedures and infrastructure. Emerging technologies, like OPeNDAP and OGC map services, open standard data formats (NetCDF, HDF) data cataloging systems (NASA-Echo, Global Change Master Directory, etc.) are providing the basis for a new approach in data management and processing, where web- services are increasingly designed to serve computer-to-computer communications without human interactions and complex analysis can be carried out over distributed computer resources interconnected via cyber infrastructure. The UNH Earth System Data Collaborative is designed to utilize the aforementioned emerging web technologies to offer new means of access to earth system data. While the UNH Data Collaborative serves a wide array of data ranging from weather station data (Climate Portal) to ocean buoy records and ship tracks (Portsmouth Harbor Initiative) to land cover characteristics, etc. the underlaying data architecture shares common components for data mining and data dissemination via web-services. Perhaps the most unique element of the UNH Data Cooperative's IT infrastructure is its prototype modeling environment for regional ecosystem surveillance over the Northeast corridor, which allows the integration of complex earth system model components with the Cooperative's data services. While the complexity of the IT infrastructure to perform complex computations is continuously increasing, scientists are often forced

  18. Embracing Open Source for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baynes, Katie; Pilone, Dan; Boller, Ryan; Meyer, David; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The overarching purpose of NASAs Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a system. Scientific knowledge is most robust and actionable when resulting from transparent, traceable, and reproducible methods. Reproducibility includes open access to the data as well as the software used to arrive at results. Additionally, software that is custom-developed for NASA should be open to the greatest degree possible, to enable re-use across Federal agencies, reduce overall costs to the government, remove barriers to innovation, and promote consistency through the use of uniform standards. Finally, Open Source Software (OSS) practices facilitate collaboration between agencies and the private sector. To best meet these ends, NASAs Earth Science Division promotes the full and open sharing of not only all data, metadata, products, information, documentation, models, images, and research results but also the source code used to generate, manipulate and analyze them. This talk focuses on the challenges to open sourcing NASA developed software within ESD and the growing pains associated with establishing policies running the gamut of tracking issues, properly documenting build processes, engaging the open source community, maintaining internal compliance, and accepting contributions from external sources. This talk also covers the adoption of existing open source technologies and standards to enhance our custom solutions and our contributions back to the community. Finally, we will be introducing the most recent OSS contributions from NASA Earth Science program and promoting these projects for wider community review and adoption.

  19. Remote Access to Earth Science Data by Content, Space and Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobinson, E.; Raskin, G.

    1998-01-01

    This demo presents the combination on an http-based client/server application that facilitates internet access to Earth science data coupled with a Java applet GUI that allows the user to graphically select data based on spatial and temporal coverage plots and scientific parameters.

  20. Occurrence of earth-like bodies in planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Present theories of terrestrial planet formation predict the rapid 'runaway formation' of planetary embryos. The sizes of the embryos increase with heliocentric distance. These embryos then emerge to form planets. In earlier Monte Carlo simulations of the merger of these embryos it was assumed that embryos did not form in the asteroid belt, but this assumption may not be valid. Simulations in which runaways were allowed to form in the asteroid belt show that, although the initial distributions of mass, energy, and angular momentum are different from those observed today, during the growth of the planets these distributions spontaneously evolve toward those observed, simply as a result of known solar system processes. Even when a large planet analogous to 'Jupiter' does not form, an earth-sized planet is almost always found near earth's heliocentric distance. These results suggest that occurrence of earthlike planets may be a common feature of planetary systems.

  1. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  2. EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

  3. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  4. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  5. Progress in Earth System Modeling since the ENIAC Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.

    2009-05-01

    The success of the first numerical weather prediction experiment on the ENIAC computer in 1950 was hinged on the expansion of the meteorological observing network, which led to theoretical advances in atmospheric dynamics and subsequently the implementation of the simplified equations on the computer. This paper briefly reviews the progress in Earth System Modeling and climate observations, and suggests a strategy to sustain and expand the observations needed to advance climate science and prediction.

  6. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  7. On the development of earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Subsequent to the launching of the first LANDSAT by NASA, Japan has recognized the importance of data from earth observation satellites, has conducted studies, and is preparing to develop an independent system. The first ocean observation satellite will be launched in 1983, the second in 1985. The first land observation satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1987 and by 1990 Japan intends to have both land and ocean observation systems in regular operation. The association reception and data processing systems are being developed.

  8. Biological and geophysical feedbacks with fire in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S.; Lehmann, C. E. R.; Belcher, C. M.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R. A.; Daniau, A.-L.; Dexter, K. G.; Forrestel, E. J.; Greve, M.; He, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Lamont, B. B.; McGlinn, D. J.; Moncrieff, G. R.; Osborne, C. P.; Pausas, J. G.; Price, O.; Ripley, B. S.; Rogers, B. M.; Schwilk, D. W.; Simon, M. F.; Turetsky, M. R.; Van der Werf, G. R.; Zanne, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Roughly 3% of the Earth’s land surface burns annually, representing a critical exchange of energy and matter between the land and atmosphere via combustion. Fires range from slow smouldering peat fires, to low-intensity surface fires, to intense crown fires, depending on vegetation structure, fuel moisture, prevailing climate, and weather conditions. While the links between biogeochemistry, climate and fire are widely studied within Earth system science, these relationships are also mediated by fuels—namely plants and their litter—that are the product of evolutionary and ecological processes. Fire is a powerful selective force and, over their evolutionary history, plants have evolved traits that both tolerate and promote fire numerous times and across diverse clades. Here we outline a conceptual framework of how plant traits determine the flammability of ecosystems and interact with climate and weather to influence fire regimes. We explore how these evolutionary and ecological processes scale to impact biogeochemical and Earth system processes. Finally, we outline several research challenges that, when resolved, will improve our understanding of the role of plant evolution in mediating the fire feedbacks driving Earth system processes. Understanding current patterns of fire and vegetation, as well as patterns of fire over geological time, requires research that incorporates evolutionary biology, ecology, biogeography, and the biogeosciences.

  9. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  11. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Burrows, Susannah M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Elbert, Wolfgang; Su, Hang; Hoor, Peter; Thines, Eckhard; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the interactions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The sources, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbiome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap in the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research, highlights recent advances, and outlines future perspectives in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transformation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focusing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.

  12. Integrating Intelligent Systems Domain Knowledge Into the Earth Science Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    High-volume heterogeneous datasets are becoming ubiquitous, migrating to center stage over the last ten years and transcending the boundaries of computationally intensive disciplines into the mainstream, becoming a fundamental part of every science discipline. Despite the fact that large datasets are now pervasive across industries and academic disciplines, the array of skills is generally absent from earth science programs. This has left the bulk of the student population without access to curricula that systematically teach appropriate intelligent-systems skills, creating a void for skill sets that should be universal given their need and marketability. While some guidance regarding appropriate computational thinking and pedagogy is appearing, there exist few examples where these have been specifically designed and tested within the earth science domain. Furthermore, best practices from learning science have not yet been widely tested for developing intelligent systems-thinking skills. This research developed and tested evidence based computational skill modules that target this deficit with the intention of informing the earth science community as it continues to incorporate intelligent systems techniques and reasoning into its research and classrooms.

  13. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the in-teractions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The actual formation, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbi-ome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap inmore » the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research and highlights recent advances in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transfor-mation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focus-ing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.« less

  14. Using Earth System Science as Basis for Sustainability Education in an Undergraduate Environmental Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Undergraduate programs in Environmental Science (ES) have progressively grown over the past decades. One of the many challenges of providing an effective curriculum is deciding what content and which skills are included in such a wide ranging field. Certainly geoscience needs to be included as part of the content but how is this best executed? More precisely, what should ES majors know about how the earth, oceans, and atmosphere work? One possible approach is to include existing undergraduate geology or atmospheric science courses as part of the required core, but this has potential pitfalls. For example, courses may be geared toward general education requirements or may be designed more for geology majors. A better solution is to offer a course or set of courses that are specifically tailored for ES majors. I propose that Earth System Science (ESS) is an excellent approach as it incorporates the earth as a whole system and can be taught within the context of environmental sustainability. My approach to ESS is to focus on the movement/cycles of matter (e.g., carbon, calcium, nitrogen) and energy. By referring back to this focus throughout the semester, students are provided with a structure to begin to make sense of a complex problem. In support of this, lab exercises provide practice in collecting and analyzing data using a variety resources.

  15. Giving Students Control over Their Learning; from Self-guided Museum Visits and Field Trips to Using Scanning Technology to Link Content to Earth Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Phipps, M.

    2011-12-01

    practice pattern recognition of earth materials even before they begin to check their properties. As importantly, scanning systems allow students to select a physical earth material sample and link that sample with web page content about its origin, geologic setting, economic uses, or its social and historical relevance. With scanning systems, students are not dependent on instructors for clarification or confirmation, so they can explore earth materials at their own pace and in ways that fit their individual learning style. Despite a greatly reduced emphasis on sample identification in laboratory activities, students who integrated scanning technology and web content with earth material samples did better on unannounced end-of-term identification quizzes than students taught traditional identification methods. Integrating scanning technologies into earth material study represents the first transformative change in how geoscientists have taught introductory sample identification since the 1800's.

  16. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Sloan, V. L.; Wyatt, R. A.; Kubien, D. S.; Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small - relative to global carbon fluxes - uncertainty is large. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we are examining the photosynthetic parameterization of the Arctic plant functional type (PFT) in ESMs. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given PFT. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for 7 species representing both dominant vegetation and key Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax for all PFTs. We found that the JVratio of

  17. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaprian, Hampapuram K.; Moses, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  18. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  19. Live Interrogation and Visualization of Earth Systems (LIVES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.; Anderson, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Twenty tablet PCs and associated peripherals acquired through a HP Technology for Teaching grant are being used to redesign two freshman laboratory courses as well as a sophomore geobiology course in Geology and Geophysics at Louisiana State University. The two introductory laboratories serve approximately 750 students per academic year including both majors and non-majors; the geobiology course enrolls about 35 students/year and is required for majors in the department's geology concentration. Limited enrollments and 3 hour labs make it possible to incorporate hands-on visualization, animation, GIS, manipulation of data and images, and access to geological data available online. Goals of the course redesigns include: enhancing visualization of earth materials, physical/chemical/biological processes, and biosphere/geosphere history; strengthening student's ability to acquire, manage, and interpret multifaceted geological information; fostering critical thinking, the scientific method, and earth-system science/perspective in ancient and modern environments (such as coastal erosion and restoration in Louisiana or the Snowball Earth hypothesis); improving student communication skills; and increasing the quantity, quality, and diversity of students pursuing Earth Science careers. IT resources available in the laboratory provide students with sophisticated visualization tools, allowing them to switch between 2-D and 3-D reconstructions more seamlessly, and enabling them to manipulate larger integrated data- sets, thus permitting more time for critical thinking and hypothesis testing. IT resources also enable faculty and students to simultaneously work with simulation software to animate earth processes such as plate motions or groundwater flow and immediately test hypothesis formulated in the data analysis. Finally, tablet PCs make it possible for data gathering and analysis outside a formal classroom. As a result, students will achieve fluency in using visualization

  20. University of Rhode Island Regional Earth Systems Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, Lewis; Cornillon, P.

    The primary objective of this program was to establish the URI Regional Earth System Center (“Center”) that would enhance overall societal wellbeing (health, financial, environmental) by utilizing the best scientific information and technology to achieve optimal policy decisions with maximum stakeholder commitment for energy development, coastal environmental management, water resources protection and human health protection, while accelerating regional economic growth. The Center was to serve to integrate existing URI institutional strengths in energy, coastal environmental management, water resources, and human wellbeing. This integrated research, educational and public/private sector outreach Center was to focus on local, state and regional resources. Themore » centerpiece activity of the Center was in the development and implementation of integrated assessment models (IAMs) that both ‘downscaled’ global observations and interpolated/extrapolated regional observations for analyzing the complexity of interactions among humans and the natural climate system to further our understanding and, ultimately, to predict the future state of our regional earth system. The Center was to begin by first ‘downscaling’ existing global earth systems management tools for studying the causes of local, state and regional climate change and potential social and environmental consequences, with a focus on the regional resources identified above. The Center would ultimately need to address the full feedbacks inherent in the nonlinear earth systems by quantifying the “upscaled” impacts of those regional changes on the global earth system. Through an interacting suite of computer simulations that are informed by observations from the nation’s evolving climate observatories, the Center activities integrates climate science, technology, economics, and social policy into forecasts that will inform solutions to pressing issues in regional climate change science,

  1. Effects of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant chloroplast ATP synthase and element contents at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    Combined rare earth and acid rain pollution has become a new environmental problem, seriously affecting plant survival. The effects of these two kinds of pollutants on plant photosynthesis have been reported, but the micro mechanisms are not very clear. In this research, we studied the effects of lanthanum [La(III), 0.08, 1.20 and 2.40 mM] and acid rain (pH value = 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) on the ATPase activity and gene transcription level and the functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts. The results showed that the combined 0.08 mM La(III) and pH 4.5 acid rain increased the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as contents of some functional elements. But other combined treatments of acid rain and La(III) reduced the ATPase activity and gene transcription level as well as functional element contents. The change magnitude of the above indexes at rice booting stage was greater than that in seedling stage or grain filling stage. These results reveal that effects of La(III) and acid rain on ATPase activity and functional element contents in rice leaf chloroplasts are related to the combination of La(III) dose and acid rain intensity and the plant growth stage. In addition, the changes in the ATPase activity were related to ATPase gene transcription level. This study would provide a reference for understanding the microcosmic mechanism of rare earth and acid rain pollution on plant photosynthesis and contribute to evaluate the possible environmental risks associated with combined La(III) and acid rain pollution. The effects of La(III) and acid rain on activity and gene transcription level of rice chloroplast ATPase and contents of functional elements were different at different growth stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-09-23

    Rare earth element measurements for thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California. Samples were collected in acid washed HDPE bottles and acidified with concentrated trace element clean (Fisher Scientific) nitric acid. Samples were pre-concentratated by a factor of approximately 10 using chelating resin with and IDA functional group and measured on magnetic sector ICP-MS. Samples include Seyferth Hot Springs, Surprise Valley Resort Mineral Well, Leonard's Hot Spring, and Lake City Mud Volcano Boiling Spring.

  3. Sustainable Multilingual Communication: Managing Multilingual Content Using Free and Open Source Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Todd

    2011-01-01

    It is often too complicated or expensive for most educators, non-profits and individuals to create and maintain a multilingual Web site, because of the technological hurdles, and the logistics of working with content in different languages. But multilingual content management systems, combined with streamlined processes and inexpensive…

  4. Assessment of an On-Line Earth System Science Course for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N.

    2009-12-01

    The University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) has been offering on-line Earth System Science coursework to in-service teachers in Nebraska since 2002 through the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). The goal of this course is to increase teacher content knowledge in Earth Science, introduce them to Earth System Science, and have them experience cooperative learning. We have offered three different ESSEA courses, with nearly 200 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. This effort represents a close collaboration between faculty and students from the Colleges of Arts & Sciences and Education, with periodic assistance of the local schools. In a follow-up study related to ESSEA coursework, UNO examined the perceptions of teachers who have taken the course and the potential benefits of the ESSEA courses for their own educational settings. The study was descriptive in design and included an online survey and a focus group. The results of these assessments indicated that the teachers felt very positive about what they learned in these courses, and in particular, how they could incorporate cooperative learning, inquiry based activities, and Earth System Science interconnections in their own classrooms. Problems identified by the teachers included a perceived lack of time to be able to integrate the learned material into their science curriculua and a lack of computer and/or technological resources in their educational settings. In addition, this Fall, we will conduct two teacher case studies, where we will interview two teachers, visit their classrooms, acquire work samples and talk with students. All of the results of our survey and focus group will be presented.

  5. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Short-term capture of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; de Ruiter, Anton

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the short-term capture (STC) of an asteroid in the Earth-Moon system is proposed and investigated. First, the space condition of STC is analysed and five subsets of the feasible region are defined and discussed. Then, the time condition of STC is studied by parameter scanning in the Sun-Earth-Moon-asteroid restricted four-body problem. Numerical results indicate that there is a clear association between the distributions of the time probability of STC and the five subsets. Next, the influence of the Jacobi constant on STC is examined using the space and time probabilities of STC. Combining the space and time probabilities of STC, we propose a STC index to evaluate the probability of STC comprehensively. Finally, three potential STC asteroids are found and analysed.

  7. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnoe, S. H.

    2018-06-01

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  8. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores.

    PubMed

    Curnoe, S H

    2018-06-13

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  9. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  10. Rare earth element contents and multiple mantle sources of the transform-related Mount Edgecumbe basalts, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Brew, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pleistocene basalt of the Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field (MEF) is subdivided into a plagioclase type and an olivine type. Th/La ratios of plagioclase basalt are similar to those of mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB), whereas those of olivine basalt are of continental affinity. Rare earth element (REE) contents of the olivine basalt, which resemble those of transitional MORB, are modelled by 10-15% partial melting of fertile spinel-plagioclase lherzolite followed by removal of 8-13% olivine. It is concluded that olivine basalt originated in subcontinental spinel lherzolite and that plagioclase basalt may have originated in suboceanic lithosphere of the Pacific plate. -from Authors

  11. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  13. Re-Evaluating Satellite Solar Power Systems for Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite System is a concept to collect solar power in space, and then transport it to the surface of the Earth by microwave (or possibly laser) beam, where if is converted into electrical power for terrestrial use. The recent increase in energy costs, predictions of the near-term exhaustion of oil, and prominence of possible climate change due to the "greenhouse effect" from burning of fossil fuels has again brought alternative energy sources to public attention, and the time is certainly appropriate to reexamine the economics of space based power. Several new concepts for Satellite Power System designs were evaluated to make the concept more economically feasible.

  14. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alex; Gunter, Dan; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-03-10

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

  15. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  16. Earth observing system. Data and information system. Volume 2A: Report of the EOS Data Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (Eos), defined by the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the Earth as a system. The Eos data and information system is conceived as a complete research information system that would transcend the traditional mission data system, and include additional capabilties such as maintaining long-term, time-series data bases and providing access by Eos researchers to relevant non-Eos data. The Working Group recommends that the Eos data and information system be initiated now, with existing data, and that the system evolve into one that can meet the intensive research and data needs that will exist when Eos spacecraft are returning data in the 1990s.

  17. The interactive contents authoring system for terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Won-Sik; Ahn, Sangwoo; Cha, Jihun; Moon, Kyung Ae

    2007-02-01

    This paper introduces an interactive contents authoring system which can easily and conveniently produce interactive contents for the Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB). For interactive broadcasting service, T-DMB adopted MPEG-4 Systems technology. In order to the interactive service becomes flourishing on the market, various types of interactive contents should be well provided prior to the service. In MPEG-4 Systems specification, broadcasting contents are described by the combination of a large number of nodes, routes and descriptors. In order to provide interactive data services through the T-DMB network, it is essential to have an interactive contents authoring system which allows contents authors to compose interactive contents easily and conveniently even if they lack any background on MPEG-4 Systems technology. The introduced authoring system provides powerful graphical user interface and produces interactive broadcasting contents in the forms of binary and textual format. Therefore, the interactive contents authoring system presented in this paper would vastly contribute to the flourishing interactive service.

  18. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Acquisition Activities Karen Holness, Assistant Professor, NPS Update on the Department of the Navy Systems Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford...systems engineering toolkit . Having a common analysis tool that is easy to use would support the feedback of observed system performance trends from the

  20. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  1. Intermediate phases in some rare earth-ruthenium systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharifrazi, P.; Raman, A.; Mohanty, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The phase equilibria and crystal structures of intermediate phases were investigated in eight representative RE-Ru systems using powder X-ray diffraction and metallographic techniques. The Fe3C, Mn5C2 and Er5Ru3 structures occur in all but the Ce-Ru systems. Phases analogous to Er5Ru3 possess an unknown crystal structure similar to Er5Rh3(I). MgCu2 and MgZn2 type Laves phases are encountered in the light rare earth and heavy rare earth systems, respectively, and RERu2 phases, where RE = Nd and Sm, possess both the Laves phase structures. An intermediate phase, NdRu, with an unknown structure, occurs only in the Nd-Ru system. A bcc structure with 40 atoms per unit cell is encountered in the phases Er3Ru2 and Y3Ru2. The behavior of cerium in Ce-Ru alloys is unique in that four unidentified structures, not encountered in other RE-Ru systems, have been encountered. Also a phase designated as Ce3Ru is found with the Th7Fe3 type structure.

  2. Solar System Portrait - View of the Sun, Earth and Venus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-13

    This color image of the sun, Earth and Venus was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft Feb. 14, 1990, when it was approximately 32 degrees above the plane of the ecliptic and at a slant-range distance of approximately 4 billion miles. It is the first -- and may be the only -- time that we will ever see our solar system from such a vantage point. The image is a portion of a wide-angle image containing the sun and the region of space where the Earth and Venus were at the time with two narrow-angle pictures centered on each planet. The wide-angle was taken with the camera's darkest filter (a methane absorption band), and the shortest possible exposure (5 thousandths of a second) to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large in the sky as seen from Voyager's perspective at the edge of the solar system but is still eight million times brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The image of the sun you see is far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. The result of the brightness is a bright burned out image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera. The "rays" around the sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide angle lens. The two narrow-angle frames containing the images of the Earth and Venus have been digitally mosaiced into the wide-angle image at the appropriate scale. These images were taken through three color filters and recombined to produce a color image. The violet, green and blue filters were used; exposure times were, for the Earth image, 0.72, 0.48 and 0.72 seconds, and for the Venus frame, 0.36, 0.24 and 0.36, respectively. Although the planetary pictures were taken with the narrow-angle camera (1500 mm focal length) and were not pointed directly at the sun, they show the effects of the glare from the nearby sun, in the form of long linear streaks resulting from the scattering of sunlight off parts of the camera and its sun

  3. Solar System Portrait - View of the Sun, Earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the sun, Earth and Venus was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft Feb. 14, 1990, when it was approximately 32 degrees above the plane of the ecliptic and at a slant-range distance of approximately 4 billion miles. It is the first -- and may be the only -- time that we will ever see our solar system from such a vantage point. The image is a portion of a wide-angle image containing the sun and the region of space where the Earth and Venus were at the time with two narrow-angle pictures centered on each planet. The wide-angle was taken with the camera's darkest filter (a methane absorption band), and the shortest possible exposure (5 thousandths of a second) to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large in the sky as seen from Voyager's perspective at the edge of the solar system but is still eight million times brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The image of the sun you see is far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. The result of the brightness is a bright burned out image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera. The 'rays' around the sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide angle lens. The two narrow-angle frames containing the images of the Earth and Venus have been digitally mosaiced into the wide-angle image at the appropriate scale. These images were taken through three color filters and recombined to produce a color image. The violet, green and blue filters were used; exposure times were, for the Earth image, 0.72, 0.48 and 0.72 seconds, and for the Venus frame, 0.36, 0.24 and 0.36, respectively. Although the planetary pictures were taken with the narrow-angle camera (1500 mm focal length) and were not pointed directly at the sun, they show the effects of the glare from the nearby sun, in the form of long linear streaks resulting from the scattering of sunlight off parts of the camera and its sun

  4. The Earth System CoG Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, C.; Murphy, S.; Cinquini, L.; Treshansky, A.; Wallis, J. C.; Rood, R. B.; Overeem, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth System CoG supports collaborative Earth science research and product development in virtual organizations that span multiple projects and communities. It provides access to data, metadata, and visualization services along with tools that support open project governance, and it can be used to host individual projects or to profile projects hosted elsewhere. All projects on CoG are described using a project ontology - an organized common vocabulary - that exposes information needed for collaboration and decision-making. Projects can be linked into a network, and the underlying ontology enables consolidated views of information across the network. This access to information promotes the creation of active and knowledgeable project governance, at both individual and aggregate project levels. CoG is being used to support software development projects, model intercomparison projects, training classes, and scientific programs. Its services and ontology are customizable by project. This presentation will provide an overview of CoG, review examples of current use, and discuss how CoG can be used as knowledge and coordination hub for networks of projects in the Earth Sciences.

  5. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  6. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G. R.; Morse, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The addition of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites over the last decade to the data held by NASA data centers has created a data rich environment for the Earth science research and applications communities. The data products are being distributed to a large and diverse community of users. Due to advances in computational hardware, networks and communications, information management and software technologies, significant progress has been made in the last decade in archiving and providing data to users. However, to realize the full potential of the growing data archives, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. Sponsored by NASA s Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology (CICT) Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization through the addition of intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system (KBS). Potential Intelligent Archive concepts include: 1) Mining archived data holdings to improve metadata to facilitate data access and usability; 2) Building intelligence about transformations on data, information, knowledge, and accompanying services; 3) Recognizing the value of results, indexing and formatting them for easy access; 4) Interacting as a cooperative node in a web of distributed systems to perform knowledge building; and 5) Being aware of other nodes in the KBS, participating in open systems interfaces and protocols for virtualization, and achieving collaborative interoperability.

  7. Spatial nonlinearities: Cascading effects in the earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Pielke, R.A.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, K. M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Pataki, Diane E.; Pitelka, Louis F.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior is prevalent in all aspects of the Earth System, including ecological responses to global change (Gallagher and Appenzeller 1999; Steffen et al. 2004). Nonlinear behavior refers to a large, discontinuous change in response to a small change in a driving variable (Rial et al. 2004). In contrast to linear systems where responses are smooth, well-behaved, continuous functions, nonlinear systems often undergo sharp or discontinuous transitions resulting from the crossing of thresholds. These nonlinear responses can result in surprising behavior that makes forecasting difficult (Kaplan and Glass 1995). Given that many system dynamics are nonlinear, it is imperative that conceptual and quantitative tools be developed to increase our understanding of the processes leading to nonlinear behavior in order to determine if forecasting can be improved under future environmental changes (Clark et al. 2001).

  8. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph A; Beerling, David J; Franks, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Stomata have played a key role in the Earth System for at least 400 million years. By enabling plants to control the rate of evaporation from their photosynthetic organs, stomata helped to set in motion non-linear processes that led to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle over the continents and an expansion of climate zones favorable for plant life. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere interactions provides a way to explore parallels between the influence of vegetation on climate over time, and the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of vegetation in the current Earth System on climate and weather. We use the logic in models that simulate land-atmosphere interactions to illustrate the central role played by stomatal conductance in the Earth System. In the modeling context, most of the activities of plants and their manifold interactions with their genomes and with the environment are communicated to the atmosphere through a single property: the aperture or conductance of their stomata. We tend to think of the controls on vegetation responses in the real world as being distributed among factors such as seasonal patterns of growth, the changing availability of soil water, or changes in light intensity and leaf water potential over a day. However, the impact of these controls on crucial exchanges of energy and water vapor with the atmosphere are also largely mediated by stomata. The decisions 'made by' stomata emerge as an important and inadequately understood component of these models. At the present time we lack effective ways to link advances in the biology of stomata to this decision making process. While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity.

  9. Kwf-Grid workflow management system for Earth science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, V.; Hluchy, L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present workflow management tool for Earth science applications in EGEE. The workflow management tool was originally developed within K-wf Grid project for GT4 middleware and has many advanced features like semi-automatic workflow composition, user-friendly GUI for managing workflows, knowledge management. In EGEE, we are porting the workflow management tool to gLite middleware for Earth science applications K-wf Grid workflow management system was developed within "Knowledge-based Workflow System for Grid Applications" under the 6th Framework Programme. The workflow mangement system intended to - semi-automatically compose a workflow of Grid services, - execute the composed workflow application in a Grid computing environment, - monitor the performance of the Grid infrastructure and the Grid applications, - analyze the resulting monitoring information, - capture the knowledge that is contained in the information by means of intelligent agents, - and finally to reuse the joined knowledge gathered from all participating users in a collaborative way in order to efficiently construct workflows for new Grid applications. Kwf Grid workflow engines can support different types of jobs (e.g. GRAM job, web services) in a workflow. New class of gLite job has been added to the system, allows system to manage and execute gLite jobs in EGEE infrastructure. The GUI has been adapted to the requirements of EGEE users, new credential management servlet is added to portal. Porting K-wf Grid workflow management system to gLite would allow EGEE users to use the system and benefit from its avanced features. The system is primarly tested and evaluated with applications from ES clusters.

  10. Kepler Confirms First Earth-Sized Planet Outside Our Solar System (Kepler-20) (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-19

    NASA's Kepler mission has confirmed the discovery of the first Earth-size planets outside our solar system orbiting a sun-like star. Located about 1,000 light years from Earth, the Kepler-20 solar system has five planets orbiting a star similar to the Sun. Kepler-20f, the 4th planet in the system, is about 90 percent the size of Earth. Kepler-20f is slightly larger than Earth,with a radius that is 3 percent larger.

  11. Integration of Earth System Models and Workflow Management under iRODS for the Northeast Regional Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, F.; Yang, P.; Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM, NSF Award #1049181) integrates weather research and forecasting models, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, a water balance/transport model, and mesoscale and energy systems input-out economic models developed by interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy. NE-RESM is intended to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. Integration of model components and the development of cyberinfrastructure for interacting with the system is facilitated with the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS), a distributed data grid that provides archival storage with metadata facilities and a rule-based workflow engine for automating and auditing scientific workflows.

  12. Analysis of active volcanoes from the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Rowland, Scott; Crisp, Joy; Glaze, Lori; Jones, Kenneth; Kahle, Anne; Pieri, David; Zebker, Howard; Krueger, Arlin; Walter, Lou

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled for launch in 1997 and 1999 is briefly described, and the EOS volcanology investigation objectives are discussed. The volcanology investigation will include long- and short-term monitoring of selected volcanoes, the detection of precursor activity associated with unanticipated eruptions, and a detailed study of on-going eruptions. A variety of instruments on the EOS platforms will enable the study of local- and regional-scale thermal and deformational features of volcanoes, and the chemical and structural features of volcanic eruption plumes and aerosols.

  13. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS), appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Bay, S. M.; Foutch, T. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Makin, K. P.; Power, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The needs of state, regional, and local agencies involved in natural resources management in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin are investigated to determine the design of satellite remotely sensed derivable information products. It is concluded that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be most beneficial if it provides a full range of services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products. Included is a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers, and an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation, and government structure on implementing large scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users.

  14. Diversity of Approaches to Structuring University-Based Earth System Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, J.; Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past quarter century, the "Earth system science" paradigm has emerged among the interdisciplinary science community, emphasizing interactions among components hitherto considered within separate disciplines: atmosphere (air); hydrosphere (water); biosphere (life); lithosphere (land); anthroposphere (human dimension); and exosphere (solar system and beyond). How should the next generation of Earth system scientists learn to contribute to this interdisciplinary endeavor? There is no one simple answer. The Earth System Science Education program, funded by NASA, has addressed this question by supporting faculty at U.S. universities who develop new courses, curricula and degree programs in their institutional contexts. This report demonstrates the diversity of approaches to structuring university-based Earth system science education, focusing on the 18 current grantees of the Earth System Science Education Program for the 21st Century (ESSE21). One of the most fundamental characteristics is the departmental structure for teaching Earth system science. The "home" departments of the Earth system science faculty range from Earth sciences and physics to agronomy and social work. A brand-new institution created an interdisciplinary Institute for Earth Systems Science and Policy without traditional "parent" departments. Some institutions create new degree programs as majors or as minors while others work within existing degree programs to add or revise courses. A university may also offer multiple strands, such as a degree in the Science of the Earth System and a degree in the Human Dimensions of the Earth System. Defining a career path is extremely important to students considering Earth system science programs and a major institutional challenge for all programs in Earth system science education. How will graduate programs assess prospective students? How will universities and government agencies assess prospective faculty and scientists? How will government

  15. Elementary GLOBE: Inquiring About the Earth System Through Elementary Student Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L.; Gallagher, S.

    2006-12-01

    Elementary GLOBE was designed to introduce K-4 students to the study of Earth System Science (ESS). Elementary GLOBE forms an instructional unit comprised of five modules that address ESS and interrelated subjects including weather, hydrology, seasons, and soils. Each Elementary GLOBE module contains a science based storybook, classroom learning activities that complement the science content covered in each book, and teacher's notes. The storybooks explore a component of the Earth system and the associated classroom learning activities provide students with a meaningful introduction to technology, a basic understanding of the methods of inquiry, and connection to math and literacy skills. The science content in the books and activities serves as a springboard to GLOBE's scientific protocols. All Elementary GLOBE materials are freely downloadable (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe) The use of science storybooks with elementary students has proven to be an effective practice in exposing students to science content while providing opportunities for students to improve their reading, writing, and oral communication skills. The Elementary GLOBE storybooks portray kids asking questions about the natural world, doing science investigations, and exploring the world around them. Through the storybook characters, scientific inquiry is modeled for young learners. The associated learning activities provide opportunities for students to practice science inquiry and investigation skills, including observation, recording, measuring, etc. Students also gain exposure and increase their comfort with different tools that scientists use. The learning activities give students experiences with asking questions, conducting scientific investigations, and scientific journaling. Elementary GLOBE fills an important niche in K-4 instruction. The international GLOBE Program brings together students, teachers, and scientists with the basic goals of increasing scientific understanding of the Earth

  16. Working parameters affecting earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) system performance for passive cooling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darius, D.; Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Amaludin, A.

    2017-07-01

    The study on the effect of the working parameters such as pipe material, pipe length, pipe diameter, depth of burial of the pipe, air flow rate and different types of soils on the thermal performance of earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) systems is very crucial to ensure that thermal comfort can be achieved. In the past decade, researchers have performed studies to develop numerical models for analysis of EAHE systems. Until recently, two-dimensional models replaced the numerical models in the 1990s and in recent times, more advanced analysis using three-dimensional models, specifically the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation in the analysis of EAHE system. This paper reviews previous models used to analyse the EAHE system and working parameters that affects the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) thermal performance as of February 2017. Recent findings on the parameters affecting EAHE performance are also presented and discussed. As a conclusion, with the advent of CFD methods, investigational work have geared up to modelling and simulation work as it saves time and cost. Comprehension of the EAHE working parameters and its effect on system performance is largely established. However, the study on type of soil and its characteristics on the performance of EAHEs systems are surprisingly barren. Therefore, future studies should focus on the effect of soil characteristics such as moisture content, density of soil, and type of soil on the thermal performance of EAHEs system.

  17. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  18. Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that

  19. The Programming Language Python In Earth System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Imranullah, A.; Mora, P.; Saez, E.; Smillie, J.; Wang, C.

    2004-12-01

    Mathematical models in earth sciences base on the solution of systems of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). The spatial and time-scale vary from a planetary scale and million years for convection problems to 100km and 10 years for fault systems simulations. Various techniques are in use to deal with the time dependency (e.g. Crank-Nicholson), with the non-linearity (e.g. Newton-Raphson) and weakly coupled equations (e.g. non-linear Gauss-Seidel). Besides these high-level solution algorithms discretization methods (e.g. finite element method (FEM), boundary element method (BEM)) are used to deal with spatial derivatives. Typically, large-scale, three dimensional meshes are required to resolve geometrical complexity (e.g. in the case of fault systems) or features in the solution (e.g. in mantel convection simulations). The modelling environment escript allows the rapid implementation of new physics as required for the development of simulation codes in earth sciences. Its main object is to provide a programming language, where the user can define new models and rapidly develop high-level solution algorithms. The current implementation is linked with the finite element package finley as a PDE solver. However, the design is open and other discretization technologies such as finite differences and boundary element methods could be included. escript is implemented as an extension of the interactive programming environment python (see www.python.org). Key concepts introduced are Data objects, which are holding values on nodes or elements of the finite element mesh, and linearPDE objects, which are defining linear partial differential equations to be solved by the underlying discretization technology. In this paper we will show the basic concepts of escript and will show how escript is used to implement a simulation code for interacting fault systems. We will show some results of large-scale, parallel simulations on an SGI Altix

  20. Earth and environmental science in the 1980's: Part 1: Environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities and networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Overview descriptions of on-line environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities, and networks are presented. Each description addresses the concepts of content, capability, and user access relevant to the point of view of potential utilization by the Earth and environmental science community. The information on similar systems or facilities is presented in parallel fashion to encourage and facilitate intercomparison. In addition, summary sheets are given for each description, and a summary table precedes each section.

  1. What Would It Take for an Atmospheric Neutrino Detector to Constrain the Hydrogen Content of the Earth's Core ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourret, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Kaminski, E. C.; Van Elewyck, V.

    2017-12-01

    The difference between PREM density and seismic profiles in the Earth's core and the values for pure iron and iron-nickel alloys inferred from high pressure/high temperature experiments and ab initio calculations requires the presence of a few wt% of light elements. The nature and amount of these light elements (O, Si, S, H, C...) remains controversial. Recent studies have renewed the interest in H. It is the most abundant element in the nebula and can be easily dissolved in iron in the early stages of Earth's evolution. 1 to 2 wt% of H could explain the difference between PREM and pure iron. However, current geophysical methods alone cannot settle the debate between H and the other candidate elements. Neutrino oscillation tomography using atmospheric neutrinos opens an avenue to collect independent data on Earth's core composition. This method exploits the quantum phenomenon of neutrino flavour oscillations, which depends on the electron density along the path of the neutrino through the Earth. The combination of a neutrino-based measurement of the electron density with the PREM mass density profile constrains the average proton-to-nucleon ratio of the medium (Z/A). Since this parameter varies among chemical elements, e.g. 0.466 for Fe and 1 for H, this technique has the potential to provide unprecedented insights into the chemical composition of the core, and in particular its hydrogen content. Performing such a measurement requires large-size detectors with good efficiency in the relevant energy range and precise determination of the neutrino energy, arrival direction, and flavour. Considering a generic but realistic model of detector response, we quantify the influence of various detector performance indicators on the sensitivity to the average Z/A in the core. We further evaluate the impact of systematic uncertainties, such as those related to the physical model for neutrino oscillations and the incoming flux of atmospheric neutrinos. We consider specific

  2. Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Preparation for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Lawrence, B.; Guilyardi, E.; Pascoe, C.; Treshanksy, A.; Elkington, M.; Hibling, E.; Hassell, D.

    2015-12-01

    During the course of 2015 the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project began its preparations for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 6) by further extending the ES-DOC tooling ecosystem in support of Earth System Model (ESM) documentation creation, search, viewing & comparison. The ES-DOC online questionnaire, the ES-DOC desktop notebook, and the ES-DOC python toolkit will serve as multiple complementary pathways to generating CMIP6 documentation. It is envisaged that institutes will leverage these tools at different points of the CMIP6 lifecycle. Institutes will be particularly interested to know that the documentation burden will be either streamlined or completely automated.As all the tools are tightly integrated with the ES-DOC web-service, institutes can be confident that the latency between documentation creation & publishing will be reduced to a minimum. Published documents will be viewable with the online ES-DOC Viewer (accessible via citable URL's). Model inter-comparison scenarios will be supported using the ES-DOC online Comparator tool. The Comparator is being extended to:• Support comparison of both Model descriptions & Simulation runs;• Greatly streamline the effort involved in compiling official tables.The entire ES-DOC ecosystem is open source and built upon open standards such as the Common Information Model (CIM) (versions 1 and 2).

  3. Soil warming response: field experiments to Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bradford, M.; Wieder, W. R.; Crowther, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The soil carbon response to climate change is extremely uncertain at the global scale, in part because of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the temperature response. To address this uncertainty we collected data from 48 soil warming manipulations studies and examined the temperature response using two different methods. First, we constructed a mixed effects model and extrapolated the effect of soil warming on soil carbon stocks under anticipated shifts in surface temperature during the 21st century. We saw significant vulnerability of soil carbon stocks, especially in high carbon soils. To place this effect in the context of anticipated changes in carbon inputs and moisture shifts, we applied a one pool decay model with temperature sensitivities to the field data and imposed a post-hoc correction on the Earth system model simulations to integrate the field with the simulated temperature response. We found that there was a slight elevation in the overall soil carbon losses, but that the field uncertainty of the temperature sensitivity parameter was as large as the variation in the among model soil carbon projections. This implies that model-data integration is unlikely to constrain soil carbon simulations and highlights the importance of representing parameter uncertainty in these Earth system models to inform emissions targets.

  4. Network Performance Measurements for NASA's Earth Observation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, Joe; Gormain, Andy; Smith, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) Project studies all aspects of planet Earth from space, including climate change, and ocean, ice, land, and vegetation characteristics. It consists of about 20 satellite missions over a period of about a decade. Extensive collaboration is used, both with other US. agencies (e.g., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Defense (DoD), and international agencies (e.g., European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)), to improve cost effectiveness and obtain otherwise unavailable data. Scientific researchers are located at research institutions worldwide, primarily government research facilities and research universities. The EOS project makes extensive use of networks to support data acquisition, data production, and data distribution. Many of these functions impose requirements on the networks, including throughput and availability. In order to verify that these requirements are being met, and be pro-active in recognizing problems, NASA conducts on-going performance measurements. The purpose of this paper is to examine techniques used by NASA to measure the performance of the networks used by EOSDIS (EOS Data and Information System) and to indicate how this performance information is used.

  5. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  6. Web Content Management Systems: An Analysis of Forensic Investigatory Challenges.

    PubMed

    Horsman, Graeme

    2018-02-26

    With an increase in the creation and maintenance of personal websites, web content management systems are now frequently utilized. Such systems offer a low cost and simple solution for those seeking to develop an online presence, and subsequently, a platform from which reported defamatory content, abuse, and copyright infringement has been witnessed. This article provides an introductory forensic analysis of the three current most popular web content management systems available, WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla! Test platforms have been created, and their site structures have been examined to provide guidance for forensic practitioners facing investigations of this type. Result's document available metadata for establishing site ownership, user interactions, and stored content following analysis of artifacts including Wordpress's wp_users, and wp_comments tables, Drupal's "watchdog" records, and Joomla!'s _users, and _content tables. Finally, investigatory limitations documenting the difficulties of investigating WCMS usage are noted, and analysis recommendations are offered. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  8. Representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi

    Drainage systems can be categorized into natural or geomorphological drainage systems, agricultural drainage systems and urban drainage systems. They interact closely among themselves and with climate and human society, particularly under extreme climate and hydrological events such as floods. This editorial articulates the need to holistically understand and model drainage systems in the context of climate change and human influence, and discusses the requirements and examples of feasible approaches to representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework.

  9. Earth physicist describes US nuclear test monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. capabilities to monitor underground nuclear weapons tests in the USSR was examined. American methods used in monitoring the underground nuclear tests are enumerated. The U. S. technical means of monitoring Solviet nuclear weapons testing, and whether it is possible to conduct tests that could not be detected by these means are examined. The worldwide seismic station network in 55 countries available to the U. S. for seismic detection and measurement of underground nuclear explosions, and also the systems of seismic research observatories in 15 countries and seismic grouping stations in 12 countries are outlined including the advanced computerized data processing capabilities of these facilities. The level of capability of the U. S. seismic system for monitoring nuclear tests, other, nonseismic means of monitoring, such as hydroacoustic and recording of effects in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and the Earth's magnetic field, are discussed.

  10. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  11. A Unified Approach to Quantifying Feedbacks in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, K. E.

    2008-12-01

    In order to speed progress in reducing uncertainty in climate projections, the processes that most strongly influence those projections must be identified. It is of some importance, therefore, to assess the relative strengths of various climate feedbacks and to determine the degree to which various earth system models (ESMs) agree in their simulations of these processes. Climate feedbacks have been traditionally quantified in terms of their impact on the radiative balance of the planet, whereas carbon cycle responses have been assessed in terms of the size of the perturbations to the surface fluxes of carbon dioxide. In this study we introduce a diagnostic strategy for unifying the two approaches, which allows us to directly compare the strength of carbon-climate feedbacks with other conventional climate feedbacks associated with atmospheric and surface changes. Applying this strategy to a highly simplified model of the carbon-climate system demonstrates the viability of the approach. In the simple model we find that even if the strength of the carbon-climate feedbacks is very large, the uncertainty associated with the overall response of the climate system is likely to be dominated by uncertainties in the much larger feedbacks associated with clouds. This does not imply that the carbon cycle itself is unimportant, only that changes in the carbon cycle that are associated with climate change have a relatively small impact on global temperatures. This new, unified diagnostic approach is suitable for assessing feedbacks in even the most sophisticated earth system models. It will be interesting to see whether our preliminary conclusions are confirmed when output from the more realistic models is analyzed. This work was carried out at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. DataStreme Earth's Climate System: Building a Climate Literate Society through Effective Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Effective partnerships are key to increasing climate and overall environmental literacy. Financial support from NSF, NASA, and NOAA has allowed the American Meteorological Society (AMS) to offer DataStreme courses for almost 20 years. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. A long-standing partnership with State University of New York's The College at Brockport gives teachers the opportunity to receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits upon successful completion of each DataStreme course and construction of a Plan of Action for educational peer-training. DataStreme ECS investigates the fundamental science of Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. The course provides participants with the knowledge to make informed climate decisions. In fact, according to a recent three-year study conducted by AMS, 98% of DataStreme ECS participants reported an increase in environmental literacy as a result of the course. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and ECS content has been improved because of AMS partnerships with NOAA and NASA. Specifically, hundreds of NASA and NOAA scientists and faculty from numerous institutions both domestic and abroad have contributed and reviewed DataStreme ECS content. Additional collaborations with Consortium for Ocean Leadership and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program greatly improved the course's paleoclimate content. Looking ahead, the Climate Resilience Toolkit from NOAA's Climate Program Office will further bolster the course this fall. These partnerships have resulted in a powerful, content-rich climate science course for K-12 teachers, building the foundation to a climate literate society.

  13. Solar Cycle variations in Earth's open flux content measured by the SuperDARN radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a long term study, from 1996 - 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection and is here used as a proxy for the amount of open flux in the polar cap. The mean HMB latitude (measured at midnight) is found to be at 64 degrees during the entire period, with secondary peaks at lower latitudes during the solar maximum of 2003, and at higher latitudes during the recent extreme solar minimum of 2008-2011. We associate these large scale statistical variations in open flux content with solar cycle variations in the solar wind parameters leading to changes in the intensity of the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  14. Thermodynamic Vent System Test in a Low Earth Orbit Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A thermodynamic vent system for a cryogenic nitrogen tank was tested in a vacuum chamber simulating oxygen storage in low earth orbit. The nitrogen tank was surrounded by a cryo-shroud at -40 F. The tank was insulated with two layers of multi-layer insulation. Heat transfer into cryogenic tanks causes phase change and increases tank pressure which must be controlled. A thermodynamic vent system was used to control pressure as the location of vapor is unknown in low gravity and direct venting would be wasteful. The thermodynamic vent system consists of a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger installed on the inlet side of the tank mixer-pump. The combination is used to extract thermal energy from the tank fluid, reducing temperature and ullage pressure. The system was sized so that the tank mixer-pump operated a small fraction of the time to limit motor heating. Initially the mixer used sub-cooled liquid to cool the liquid-vapor interface inducing condensation and pressure reduction. Later, the thermodynamic vent system was used. Pressure cycles were performed until steady-state operation was demonstrated. Three test runs were conducted at tank fills of 97, 80, and 63 percent. Each test was begun with a boil-off test to determine heat transfer into the tank. The lower tank fills had time averaged vent rates very close to steady-state boil-off rates showing the thermodynamic vent system was nearly as efficient as direct venting in normal gravity.

  15. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  16. EKOSAT/DIAMANT - The Earth Observation Programme at OHB- System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penne, B.; Tobehn, C.; Kassebom, M.; Luebberstedt

    This paper covers the EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme heading for superspectral geo-information products. The EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme is based on a commercial strategy just before the realization of the first step - the EKOSAT launch in 2004. Further, we give an overview on OHB-System earth observation prime activities especially for infrared and radar. The EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is based on the MSRS sensor featuring 12 user dedicated spectral bands in the VIS/NIR with 5m spatial resolution and 26 km swath at an orbit of 670 km. The operational demonstrator mission EKOSAT is a Korean-Israelean-German-Russian initiative that aims in utilizing the existing proto-flight model of the KOMPSAT-1 spacecraft for the MSRS sensor, which development is finished. The EKOSAT pointing capability will allow a revisit time of 3 days. DIAMANT stands for the future full operational system based on dedicated small satellites. The basic constellation relying on 2-3 satellites with about one day revisit is extendend on market demand. EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is designed to fill the gap between modern high spatial resolution multispectral (MS) systems and hyperspectral systems with moderate spatial resolution. On European level, there is currently no remote sensing system operational with comparable features and capabilities concerning applications especially in the field of environmental issues, vegetation, agriculture and water bodies. The Space Segment has been designed to satisfy the user requirements based on a balance between commercial aspects and scientific approaches. For example eight spectral bands have been identified to cover almost the entire product range for the current market. Additional four bands have been implemented to be prepared for future applications as for example the improved red edge detection, which give better results regarding environmental conditions. The spacecraft design and its subsystems are still reasonable small in order to keep the mass below 200 kg. This is an

  17. Data management and analysis for the Earth System Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Henson, V. E.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.

    2008-07-01

    The international climate community is expected to generate hundreds of petabytes of simulation data within the next five to seven years. This data must be accessed and analyzed by thousands of analysts worldwide in order to provide accurate and timely estimates of the likely impact of climate change on physical, biological, and human systems. Climate change is thus not only a scientific challenge of the first order but also a major technological challenge. In order to address this technological challenge, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)-2 program, with support from the offices of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research. ESG-CET's mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with access to the data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate simulation datasets. Its specific goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing Grid technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet specific distributed database, data access, and data movement needs of national and international climate projects; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide-range of Grid-enabled climate data analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. Building on the successes of the previous Earth System Grid (ESG) project, which has enabled thousands of researchers to access tens of terabytes of data from a small number of ESG sites, ESG-CET is working to integrate a far larger number of distributed data providers, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and remote computers in a highly collaborative problem-solving environment.

  18. Earth System Science Education Centered on Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; Ladochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Several new courses and many educational activities related to climate change are available to teachers and students of all grade levels. However, not all new discoveries in climate research have reached the science education community. In particular, effective learning tools explaining natural climate change are scarce. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a main cause of natural climate variability spanning decades. While most educators are familiar with the shorter-temporal events impacting climate, El Niño and La Niña, very little has trickled into the climate change curriculum on the PDO. We have developed two online educational modules, using an Earth system science approach, on the PDO and its role in climate change and variability. The first concentrates on the discovery of the PDO through records of salmon catch in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. We present the connection between salmon abundance in the North Pacific to changing sea surface temperature patterns associated with the PDO. The connection between sea surface temperatures and salmon abundance led to the discovery of the PDO. Our activity also lets students explore the role of salmon in the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska and the environmental requirements for salmon survival. The second module is based on the climate of southern California and how changes in the Pacific Ocean , such as the PDO and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), influence regional climate variability. PDO and ENSO signals are evident in the long-term temperature and precipitation record of southern California. Students are guided in the module to discover the relationships between Pacific Ocean conditions and southern California climate variability. The module also provides information establishing the relationship between climate change and variability and the state's water, energy, agriculture, wildfires and forestry, air quality and health issues. Both modules will be

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  20. A Low Earth Orbit satellite marine communication system demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, T. Keith; Butt, Kenneth A.; Asmus, Ken W.

    1995-01-01

    An application of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite communications technology was investigated during a joint Canadian/American scientific expedition to the north pole in the summer of 1994. The Canadian ice breaker involved, was equipped with a store-and-forward LEO satellite terminal which was linked to a ground station in St. John's, Newfoundland, via the near-polar-orbiting satellite, HealthSat-l. The objective was to evaluate the performance of such a system while providing an alternate means of communications in the far north. The system performed well, given its inherent limitations. All 151 attempts to send data files to the ship were successful. Only two (2) of the 35 attempts to send files from the ship were unsuccessful. The files ranged in size from 0.1 to 60 Kbytes. In the high arctic, above 80 deg north, this system often provided the only practical means of data communications. This experiment demonstrated the potential of such a system for not-real-time communications with remote and/or mobile stations, and highlighted the many issues involved. This paper describes the project objectives, system configuration and experimental procedure used, related technical issues, trial results, future work, and conclusions.

  1. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security...

  2. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggests and researches one of his methods of flights to outer Space, described in book "Non Rocket Flights in Space", which is prepared and offered for publication. In given report the method and facilities named "Bolonkin Transport System" (BTS) for delivering of payload and people to Moon and back is presented. BTS can be used also for free trip to outer Space up at altitude 60,000 km and more. BTS can be applying as a trust system for atmospheric supersonic aircrafts, and as a free energy source. This method uses, in general, the rotary and kinetic energy of the Moon. The manuscript contains the theory and results of computation of special Project. This project uses three cables (main and two for driving of loads) from artificial material: fiber, whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio the tensile stress to density) k=/=4*10^7 or more. The nanotubes with same and better parameters are received in scientific laboratories. Theoretical limit of nanotubes SWNT is about k=100*10^7. The upper end of the cable is connected to the Moon. The lower end of the cable is connected to an aircraft (or buoy), which flies (i.e. glides or slides) in Earth atmosphere along the planet's surface. The aircraft (and Moon) has devices, which allows the length of cables to be changed. The device would consists of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have devices for delivering people and payloads t o the Moon and back using the suggested Transport System. The delivery devices include: containers, cables, motors, brakes, and controllers. If the aircraft is small and the cable is strong the motion of the Moon can be used to move the airplane. For example (see enclosed project), if the airplane weighs 15 tons and has an aerodynamic ratio (the lift force to the drag force) equal 5, a thrust of 3000 kg would be enough for the aircraft to fly for infinity without requiring any fuel. The aircraft could use a small turbine engine

  3. Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengmao; Zhu, Zhengfan; Peng, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajectory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selection, escape from and capture by the Earth-Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital resonance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid exploration.

  4. Soil Moisture Content Estimation Based on Sentinel-1 and Auxiliary Earth Observation Products. A Hydrological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Mexis, Filippos-Dimitrios K.; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini K.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2017-01-01

    A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested. The methodology is applied in Western Crete, Greece, where a SMC gauge network was deployed during 2015. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and sensitivity analysis. ANNs prove to be the most efficient in SMC estimation yielding R2 values between 0.7 and 0.9. The proposed methodology is used to support a hydrological simulation with the HEC-HMS model, applied at the Keramianos basin which is ungauged for SMC. Results and model sensitivity highlight the contribution of combining Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat 8 images for improving SMC estimates and supporting hydrological studies. PMID:28635625

  5. Influence of yttrium content on the location of rare earth ions in LYSO:Ce crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Dongzhou, E-mail: dongzhou_ding@mail.sic.ac.cn; R and D Center of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, No. 588 Heshuo Road, Shanghai 201899; Weng, Linhong

    2014-01-15

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-ray excited luminescence (XEL) measurements were performed to investigate structure details and segregation coefficients of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (x=0 at%, 8.7 at%, 25.7 at%, 44.7 at%, 65.7 at%, 87.9 at% and 100 at%). Y{sup 3+} cations were found to have a preferential occupation for RE1 site (7-oxygen-coordinated) over RE2 site (6-oxygen-coordinated), which results in a greater increase of cell parameter c than that of a with increase in Y content due to LYSO's microstructure characteristics. Results presented here revealed that the less themore » difference in electronegativity and effective ionic radius between the two ions, the easier substitution of one ion by the other, and hence the higher segregation coefficients. Besides, the contribution of luminescence of Ce1 and Ce2 in the whole XEL was evaluated, and the location of Ce{sup 3+} ion was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Segregation coefficients of (Lu{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}){sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Cce:italic> at RT/ce:italic>. Display Omitted.« less

  6. Soil Moisture Content Estimation Based on Sentinel-1 and Auxiliary Earth Observation Products. A Hydrological Approach.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D; Mexis, Filippos-Dimitrios K; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini K; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N; Tsanis, Ioannis K

    2017-06-21

    A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested. The methodology is applied in Western Crete, Greece, where a SMC gauge network was deployed during 2015. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and sensitivity analysis. ANNs prove to be the most efficient in SMC estimation yielding R² values between 0.7 and 0.9. The proposed methodology is used to support a hydrological simulation with the HEC-HMS model, applied at the Keramianos basin which is ungauged for SMC. Results and model sensitivity highlight the contribution of combining Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat 8 images for improving SMC estimates and supporting hydrological studies.

  7. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  8. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  9. A new stomatal paradigm for earth system models? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2013-12-01

    The land component of climate, and now earth system, models has simulated stomatal conductance since the introduction in the mid-1980s of the so-called second generation models that explicitly represented plant canopies. These second generation models used the Jarvis-style stomatal conductance model, which empirically relates stomatal conductance to photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentration, and other factors. Subsequent models of stomatal conductance were developed from a more mechanistic understanding of stomatal physiology, particularly that stomata are regulated so as to maximize net CO2 assimilation (An) and minimize water loss during transpiration (E). This concept is embodied in the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model, which relates stomatal conductance (gs) to net assimilation (An), scaled by the ratio of leaf surface relative humidity to leaf surface CO2 concentration, or the Leuning variant which replaces relative humidity with a vapor pressure deficit term. This coupled gs-An model has been widely used in climate and earth system models since the mid-1990s. An alternative approach models stomatal conductance by directly optimizing water use efficiency, defined as the ratio An/gs or An/E. Conceptual developments over the past several years have shown that the Ball-Berry style model can be derived from optimization theory. However, an explicit optimization model has not been tested in an earth system model. We compare the Ball-Berry model with an explicit optimization model, both implemented in a new plant canopy parameterization developed for the Community Land Model, the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The optimization model is from the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model, which integrates plant and soil hydraulics, carbon assimilation, and gas diffusion. The canopy parameterization is multi-layer and resolves profiles of radiation, temperature, vapor pressure, leaf water stress

  10. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  11. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas A.; Beer, Reinhard

    1991-01-01

    A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of polar-orbiting platforms is described. TES is aimed at studying tropospheric chemistry, in particular, the exchange of gases between the surface and the atmosphere, urban and regional pollution, acid rain precursors, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and the interchange of gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere. TES is a high-resolution (0.025/cm) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the passive thermal-emission mode in a very wide spectral range (600 to 4350/cm; 2.3 to 16.7 microns). TES has 32 spatial pixels in each of four optically conjugated linear detector arrays, each optimized for a different spectral region.

  12. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeman, V.; Earing, D.; Vincent, R. K.; Ladd, S.

    1971-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It contains an ordered, indexed compilation of natural targets in the optical region from 0.3 to 45.0 microns. The data compilation includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, 2600 vegetation, 1000 soil, and 60 water spectral reflectance, transmittance, and emittance curves. Most of the data have been categorized by subject, and the curves in those subject areas have been plotted on a single graph. Those categories with too few curves and miscellaneous categories have been plotted as single-curve graphs. Each graph, composite of single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.

  13. Snow in Earth System Models: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Slater, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Snow is the most variable of terrestrial boundary conditions. Some 50 million km^2 of the Northern Hemisphere typically sees periods of accumulation and ablation in the annual cycle. The wonderous properties of snow, such as high albedo, thermal insulation and its ability to act as a water store make it an integral part of the global climate system. Earliest inclusions of snow within climate models were simple adjustments to albedo and a moisture store. Modern Earth Syetem Models now represent snow through a myriad of model architectures and parameterizations that span a broad range of complexity. Understanding the impacts of modeling decisions upon simulation of snow and other Earth System components (either directly or via feedbacks) is an ongoing area of research. Snow models are progressing with multi-layer representations and capabilities such as complex albedo schemes that include contaminants. While considerable advances have been made, numerous challenges also remain. Simply getting a grasp on the mass of snow (seasonal or permanent) has proved more difficult than expected over the past 30 years. Snow interactions with vegetation has improved but the details of vegetation masking and emergence are still limited. Inclusion of blowing snow processes, in terms of transport and sublimation, is typically rare and sublimation remains a difficult quantity to measure. Contemplation of snow crystal form within models and integration with radiative transfer schemes for better understanding of full spectrum interations (from UV to long microwave) may simultaneously advance simulation and remote sensing. A series of international modeling experiments and directed field campaigns are planned in the near future with the aim of pushing our knowledge forward.

  14. Improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dukes, J.; Bonan, G. B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Dietze, M.; Kattge, J.; Leakey, A. D.; Mercado, L. M.; Niinemets, U.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Serbin, S.; Sitch, S.; Way, D. A.; Zaehle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Continued use of fossil fuel drives an accelerating increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and is the principal cause of global climate change. Many of the observed and projected impacts of rising [CO2] portend increasing environmental and economic risk, yet the uncertainty surrounding the projection of our future climate by Earth System Models (ESMs) is unacceptably high. Improving confidence in our estimation of future [CO2] is essential if we seek to project global change with greater confidence. There are critical uncertainties over the long term response of terrestrial CO2 uptake to global change, more specifically, over the size of the terrestrial carbon sink and over its sensitivity to rising [CO2] and temperature. Reducing the uncertainty associated with model representation of the largest CO2 flux on the planet is therefore an essential part of improving confidence in projections of global change. Here we have examined model representation of photosynthesis in seven process models including several global models that underlie the representation of photosynthesis in the land surface model component of ESMs that were part of the recent Fifth Assessment Report from the IPCC. Our approach was to focus on how physiological responses are represented by these models, and to better understand how structural and parametric differences drive variation in model responses to light, CO2, nutrients, temperature, vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture. We challenged each model to produce leaf and canopy responses to these factors to help us identify areas in which current process knowledge and emerging data sets could be used to improve model skill, and also identify knowledge gaps in current understanding that directly impact model outputs. We hope this work will provide a roadmap for the scientific activity that is necessary to advance process representation, parameterization and scaling of photosynthesis in the next generation of Earth System Models.

  15. Our Mission to Planet Earth: A guide to teaching Earth system science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, and El Nino are naturally occurring events over which humans have no control. But can human activities cause additional environmental change? Can scientists predict the global impacts of increased levels of pollutants in the atmosphere? Will the planet warm because increased levels of greenhouse gases, produced by the burning of fossil fuels, trap heat and prevent it from being radiated back into space? Will the polar ice cap melt, causing massive coastal flooding? Have humans initiated wholesale climatic change? These are difficult questions, with grave implications. Predicting global change and understanding the relationships among earth's components have increased in priority for the nation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with many other government agencies, has initiated long-term studies of earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land masses using observations from satellite, balloon, and aircraft-borne instruments. NASA calls its research program Mission to Planet Earth. Because NASA can place scientific instruments far above earth's surface, the program allows scientists to explore earth's components and their interactions on a global scale.

  16. PSEUDO-BINARY SYSTEMS INVOLVING RARE EARTH LAVES PHASES

    SciTech Connect

    Wernick, J.H.; Haszko, S.E.; Dorsi, D.

    1962-06-01

    The phase relations in a number of pseudo-binary systems involving rare earth Laves phases were determined. Complete series of cubic solid-solutions occur in the DyMn/sub 2/HoMn/sub 2/, HoMn/sub 2/-HoFe/sub 2/, DyMn/sub 2/-DyFe/ sub 2/, HoMn/sub 2/-HoAl/ sub 2/, TbMn/sub 2/TbAl/sub 2/, and DyMn/sub 2/-DyAl/ sub 2/ pseudobinary systems. Deviations from linearity in the lattice constants with composition occur in all these systems. Complete series of cubic solidsolutions also exist in the GdAl/sub 2/-ErAl/sub 2/, GdAl/sub 2/-PrAl/sub 2/ , GdAl/sub 2/-NdAl/sub 2/, GdAl/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/, TbAl/sub 2/-NdAl/sub 2/, and T bAl/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ systems. For these systems, no deviation from linearitymore » occurs in the lattice constants. For the DyFe/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ and DyCo/sub 2/- DyAl/sub 2/ systems, two new ternary phases, DyFeAl and DyCoAl, form and have the MgZn/sub 2/ structure. Their structures were determined from x-ray powder data only. The electronic state giving rise to the formation of these ternary phases is discussed qualitatively. For the DyMn/sub 2/TmMn/sub 2/ system, the range of composition in which the cubic MgCu/sub 2/ and hexagonal MgZn/sub 2/ structures exist are reported. No complete series of solid solutions or intermediate phases are formed in the DyNi/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ system. (auth)« less

  17. The detection of gravitational waves using electrodynamic system of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Isakevich, Valiriy

    There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. There has been developed a programme-analytical system (PAS) to investigate signal structures in spectral and time series, caused by geophysical and astrophysical processes based on the method of eigen vectors. There were discovered frequencies in the electrical and geomagnetical field of ELF range with PAS, which coincide with the frequency of gravitational -wave radiation of a number of double stellar systems. In the electrical and geomagnetic field there was discovered a specific axion frequency VA=0.5*10-5 Hz belonging to the ELF range which was predicted by the theory. The problem of the anomalous behavior of the electrodynamic system response to the gravitational - wave affect is being discussed. On the basis of the rich experimental material have been investigated the frequencies of gravitational-wave radiation of a number of binary systems: J0700+6418, J1012+5307, J1537+1155, J1959+2048, J2130+1210, J1915+1606. The work is carried out with supporting of RFFI No. 14-07-97510, State Task to Universities on 2014-2016.

  18. The COSPAR roadmap on Space-based observation and Integrated Earth System Science for 2016-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, Jean-Louis

    2016-07-01

    The Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science recently commissioned a study group to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. The paper will provide an overview of the content of the roadmap. All types of observation are considered in the roadmap, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced in the roadmap. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Finally the roadmap offers a set of concluding discussions covering general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of

  19. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  20. Relativistic time transfer in the vicinity of the Earth and in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    The algorithms for relativistic time transfer in the vicinity of the Earth and in the solar system are derived. The concepts of proper time and coordinate time are distinguished. The coordinate time elapsed during the transport of a clock and the propagation of an electromagnetic signal is analysed in three coordinate systems: an Earth-Centred Inertial (ECI) coordinate system, an Earth-Centred Earth-Fixed (ECEF) coordinate system and a barycentric coordinate system. The timescales of Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG), Terrestrial Time (TT) and Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) are defined and their relationships are discussed. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the magnitudes of the effects.

  1. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  2. Development of System Thinking Skills in the Context of Earth System Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2005-01-01

    The current study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the junior high school level. The sample population included about 50 eighth-grade students from two different classes of an urban Israeli junior high school who studied an earth systems-based curriculum that focused on the hydro cycle. The study addressed the following…

  3. The Earth System Science Pathfinder VOLCAM Volcanic Hazard Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1999-01-01

    The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.

  4. Revolutionizing Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Report and Recommendations from a 50-State Analysis of Earth Science Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Martos; Barstow, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned TERC to complete a review of science education standards for all 50 states. The study analyzed K-12 Earth science standards to determine how well each state addresses key Earth-science content, concepts and skills. This report reveals that few states have thoroughly integrated…

  5. Looking for earths : the race to find new solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan

    1998-09-01

    The ultimate insider's account of astronomy's fantastic voyage in search of brave new worlds in faraway galaxies "Highly recommended." -Science and Technology "Full of humor, heartbreak, and a deep understanding of the ardor and luck that compose years of research. . . . The reader becomes not merely a receiver of Boss's vision, but a fellow explorer." -Astronomy "A rewarding account." -Scientific American Are we alone in the universe . . . or are there other planets generating and sustaining life? The question may be as old as civilization, but in the twilight of a century marked by countless frustrated quests to find other solar systems, several teams of pioneering astronomers have at last discovered a rich crop of mammoth, Jupiter-sized gas planets -the first compelling evidence that there may indeed be life in other galaxies. In Looking for Earths, a prominent planetary scientist takes us along on this thrilling hunt for new life, revealing the behind-the-scenes stories of scientific determination, frustration, and triumph. Ushering us to the mountaintop observatories that house the world's most powerful telescopes, and into the tension-filled scientific meetings where new results are announced and old results overturned, Alan Boss brings the process of exploration vividly alive. Experience the roller-coaster ride as intricate observations of minuscule stellar wobbles raise hopes that at last a true planet has been found, only to be almost immediately shattered by more powerful observations. Boss also introduces the principal players whose dreams defied all odds and made the first major discovery possible. Like no other book, Looking for Earths captures the lively tension between theory and observation that defines cutting-edge astronomical discovery, along with the heated battles that will determine the direction of big-ticket American astronomy for years to come. "You will find no better introduction to one of the truly revolutionary developments in modern

  6. Content-aware network storage system supporting metadata retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Qin, Leihua; Zhou, Jingli; Nie, Xuejun

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, content-based network storage has become the hot research spot of academy and corporation[1]. In order to solve the problem of hit rate decline causing by migration and achieve the content-based query, we exploit a new content-aware storage system which supports metadata retrieval to improve the query performance. Firstly, we extend the SCSI command descriptor block to enable system understand those self-defined query requests. Secondly, the extracted metadata is encoded by extensible markup language to improve the universality. Thirdly, according to the demand of information lifecycle management (ILM), we store those data in different storage level and use corresponding query strategy to retrieval them. Fourthly, as the file content identifier plays an important role in locating data and calculating block correlation, we use it to fetch files and sort query results through friendly user interface. Finally, the experiments indicate that the retrieval strategy and sort algorithm have enhanced the retrieval efficiency and precision.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the content of heavy rare-earth elements and platinum in snow samples to assess the ecological hazard of air pollution in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Tarasova, N. P.; Trunova, A. N.; Sychkova, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    Snow samples from the territory of the Setun River Valley Wildlife Sanctuary are analyzed for the content of rare-earth elements, heavy metals, and other hazardous elements by the inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry method. The changes in the concentrations of rare-earth elements, Pt, Pd, and indicator ratios of elements in the solid fractions of snow are revealed. A trend toward a decrease in the content of several elements northeastward of the Moscow Ring Road (MRR) is established. The level of seasonal atmospheric contamination of the area under study is assessed, and a possible source is identified.

  8. Practical Methods for Estimating Software Systems Fault Content and Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Schneidewind, N.; Munson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed techniques to discriminate between fault-prone software modules and those that are not, to estimate a software system's residual fault content, to identify those portions of a software system having the highest estimated number of faults, and to estimate the effects of requirements changes on software quality.

  9. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  10. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  11. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  12. Fire in the Earth System: Bridging data and modeling research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hantson, Srijn; Kloster, Silvia; Coughlan, Michael; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vanniere, Boris; Bruecher, Tim; Kehrwald, Natalie; Magi, Brian I.

    2016-01-01

    Significant changes in wildfire occurrence, extent, and severity in areas such as western North America and Indonesia in 2015 have made the issue of fire increasingly salient in both the public and scientific spheres. Biomass combustion rapidly transforms land cover, smoke pours into the atmosphere, radiative heat from fires initiates dramatic pyrocumulus clouds, and the repeated ecological and atmospheric effects of fire can even impact regional and global climate. Furthermore, fires have a significant impact on human health, livelihoods, and social and economic systems.Modeling and databased methods to understand fire have rapidly coevolved over the past decade. Satellite and ground-based data about present-day fire are widely available for applications in research and fire management. Fire modeling has developed in part because of the evolution in vegetation and Earth system modeling efforts, but parameterizations and validation are largely focused on the present day because of the availability of satellite data. Charcoal deposits in sediment cores have emerged as a powerful method to evaluate trends in biomass burning extending back to the Last Glacial Maximum and beyond, and these records provide a context for present-day fire. The Global Charcoal Database version 3 compiled about 700 charcoal records and more than 1,000 records are expected for the future version 4. Together, these advances offer a pathway to explore how the strengths of fire data and fire modeling could address the weaknesses in the overall understanding of human-climate–fire linkages.A community of researchers studying fire in the Earth system with individual expertise that included paleoecology, paleoclimatology, modern ecology, archaeology, climate, and Earth system modeling, statistics, geography, biogeochemistry, and atmospheric science met at an intensive workshop in Massachusetts to explore new research directions and initiate new collaborations. Research themes, which emerged from

  13. Improving the Representation of Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Whitney, M. M.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The exchange of freshwater between the rivers and estuaries and the open ocean represents a unique form of scale-interaction in the climate system. The local variability in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle is integrated by rivers over potentially large drainage basins (up to semi-continental scales), and is then imposed on the coastal ocean at the scale of a river mouth. Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. A physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM has a two-layer structure representing the mixing processes driven by tides and shear flow within the estuaries. It predicts the magnitude of the mixing driven exchange flow, bringing saltier lower-layer shelf water into the estuary to mix with river water prior to discharge to the upper-layer open ocean. The EBM has been tested against observations and high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the Columbia River estuary, showing excellent agreement in the predictions of the strength of the exchange flow and the salinity of the discharged water, including modulation with the spring-neap tidal cycle. The EBM is implemented globally at every river discharge point of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In coupled ocean-sea ice experiments driven by CORE surface forcing, the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the coastal ocean is increased globally compared to the standard model, contributing to a decrease in coastal stratification. The SSS near the mouths of some of the largest rivers is decreased due to the reduction in the area over which riverine fresh water is discharged. The

  14. Integrated human-earth system modeling—state of the science and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Research on humans and the Earth system has historically occurred separately, with different teams and models devoted to each. Increasingly, however, these communities and models are becoming intricately linked. In this review, we survey the literature on integrated human-Earth system models, quantify the direction and strength of feedbacks in those models, and put them in context of other, more frequently considered, feedbacks in the Earth system. We find that such feedbacks have the potential to alter both human and Earth systems; however, there is significant uncertainty in these results, and the number of truly integrated studies remains small. More research, more models, and more studies are needed to robustly quantify the sign and magnitude of human-Earth system feedbacks. Integrating human and earth models entails significant complexity and cost, and researchers should carefully assess the costs and benefits of doing so with respect to the object of study.

  15. Relationship between seismic status of Earth and relative position of bodies in sun-earth-moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulanin, N. V.

    1985-03-01

    The time spectrum of variations in seismicity is quite broad. There are seismic seasons, as well as multiannual variations. The range of characteristic times of variation from days to about one year is studied. Seismic activity as a function of the position of the moon relative to the Earth and the direction toward the Sun is studied. The moments of strong earthquakes, over 5.8 on the Richter scale, between 1968 and June 1980 are plotted in time coordinates relating them to the relative positions of the three bodies in the sun-earth-moon system. Methods of mathematical statistics are applied to the points produced, indicating at least 99% probability that the distribution was not random. a periodicity of the earth's seismic state of 413 days is observed.

  16. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  17. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  18. Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial 2016 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    For the 2016 tutorial, NCAR/CGD requested a total budget of $70,000 split equally between DOE and NSF. The funds were used to support student participation (travel, lodging, per diem, etc.). Lectures and practical session support was primarily provided by local participants at no additional cost (see list below). The seventh annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial (2016) for students and early career scientists was held 8 – 12 August 2016. As has been the case over the last few years, this event was extremely successful and there was greater demand than could be met. There was continued interest inmore » support of the NSF’s EaSM Infrastructure awards, to train these awardees in the application of the CESM. Based on suggestions from previous tutorial participants, the 2016 tutorial experience again provided direct connection to Yellowstone for each individual participant (rather than pairs), and used the NCAR Mesa Library. The 2016 tutorial included lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These were targeted to the graduate student level. In addition, specific talks (“Application” talks) were introduced this year to provide participants with some in-depth knowledge of some specific aspects of CESM.« less

  19. Enlarging the Human Dimensions of Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2005-12-01

    Sustainability, meaning meeting human needs and values while also preserving Earth's life-support systems, can only be achieved if a just and equitable distribution of access to natural resources exists. The same environment is shared by all peoples; all must have an interest in preserving it; therefore all must receive a fair share of the benefits that preservation allows. As with most sustainability objectives, the most effective strategy remains to "think globally but act locally." In the Northern Great Plains, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) is committed to providing leadership toward sustainability. UMAC realized it needed to serve its region's largest minority, Native Americans, in order to nurture regionally the type of just society a sustainable system demands. The consortium therefore added a tribal university, Sinte Gleska, to its original seven partners. SGU shares with the other consortium universities the longer history Native Americans have with the region's environment and the closer connection they experience to Nature. Both cultures, indigenous and western, benefit. A path has been set that allows Sinte Gleska University to help organize a parallel consortium of tribal colleges committed to economic benefit and responsible planetary stewardship.

  20. Run Environment and Data Management for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Fast, I.; Legutke, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrating Model and Data Infrastructure (IMDI) developed and maintained by the Model and Data Group (M&D) comprises the Standard Compile Environment (SCE) and the Standard Run Environment (SRE). The IMDI software has a modular design, which allows to combine and couple a suite of model components and as well to execute the tasks independently and on various platforms. Furthermore the modular structure enables the extension to new model combinations and new platforms. The SRE presented here enables the configuration and performance of earth system model experiments from model integration up to storage and visualization of data. We focus on recently implemented tasks such as synchronous data base filling, graphical monitoring and automatic generation of meta data in XML forms during run time. As well we address the capability to run experiments in heterogeneous IT environments with different computing systems for model integration, data processing and storage. These features are demonstrated for model configurations and on platforms used in current or upcoming projects, e.g. MILLENNIUM or IPCC AR5.

  1. Fostering Team Awareness in Earth System Modeling Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, S. M.; Lawson, A.; Strong, S.

    2009-12-01

    Existing Global Climate Models are typically managed and controlled at a single site, with varied levels of participation by scientists outside the core lab. As these models evolve to encompass a wider set of earth systems, this central control of the modeling effort becomes a bottleneck. But such models cannot evolve to become fully distributed open source projects unless they address the imbalance in the availability of communication channels: scientists at the core site have access to regular face-to-face communication with one another, while those at remote sites have access to only a subset of these conversations - e.g. formally scheduled teleconferences and user meetings. Because of this imbalance, critical decision making can be hidden from many participants, their code contributions can interact in unanticipated ways, and the community loses awareness of who knows what. We have documented some of these problems in a field study at one climate modeling centre, and started to develop tools to overcome these problems. We report on one such tool, TracSNAP, which analyzes the social network of the scientists contributing code to the model by extracting the data in an existing project code repository. The tool presents the results of this analysis to modelers and model users in a number of ways: recommendation for who has expertise on particular code modules, suggestions for code sections that are related to files being worked on, and visualizations of team communication patterns. The tool is currently available as a plugin for the Trac bug tracking system.

  2. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovick, G. R.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment was made of the needs of a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data (state, regional, and local agencies) involved in natural resources management in five states, and alternative data management systems to satisfy these needs are outlined. Tasks described include: (1) a comprehensive data needs analysis of state and local users; (2) the design of remote sensing-derivable information products that serve priority state and local data needs; (3) a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers for producing these products; (4) an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation and government structure on implementing large-scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users; and (5) the elaboration of alternative institutional arrangements for operational Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS). It is concluded that an operational EODMS will be of most use to state, regional, and local agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  3. Interleaved Observation Execution and Rescheduling on Earth Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Frank, Jeremy; Smith, David; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Observation scheduling for Earth orbiting satellites solves the following problem: given a set of requests for images of the Earth, a set of instruments for acquiring those images distributed on a collecting of orbiting satellites, and a set of temporal and resource constraints, generate a set of assignments of instruments and viewing times to those requests that satisfy those constraints. Observation scheduling is often construed as a constrained optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the overall utility of the science data acquired. The utility of an image is typically based on the intrinsic importance of acquiring it (for example, its importance in meeting a mission or science campaign objective) as well as the expected value of the data given current viewing conditions (for example, if the image is occluded by clouds, its value is usually diminished). Currently, science observation scheduling for Earth Observing Systems is done on the ground, for periods covering a day or more. Schedules are uplinked to the satellites and are executed rigorously. An alternative to this scenario is to do some of the decision-making about what images are to be acquired on-board. The principal argument for this capability is that the desirability of making an observation can change dynamically, because of changes in meteorological conditions (e.g. cloud cover), unforeseen events such as fires, floods, or volcanic eruptions, or un-expected changes in satellite or ground station capability. Furthermore, since satellites can only communicate with the ground between 5% to 10% of the time, it may be infeasible to make the desired changes to the schedule on the ground, and uplink the revisions in time for the on-board system to execute them. Examples of scenarios that motivate an on-board capability for revising schedules include the following. First, if a desired visual scene is completely obscured by clouds, then there is little point in taking it. In this case

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; ...

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  5. An improved Rosetta pedotransfer function and evaluation in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Schaap, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters are often difficult and expensive to measure, leading to the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) an alternative to predict those parameters. Rosetta (Schaap et al., 2001, denoted as Rosetta1) are widely used PTFs, which is based on artificial neural network (ANN) analysis coupled with the bootstrap re-sampling method, allowing the estimation of van Genuchten water retention parameters (van Genuchten, 1980, abbreviated here as VG), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), as well as their uncertainties. We present an improved hierarchical pedotransfer functions (Rosetta3) that unify the VG water retention and Ks submodels into one, thus allowing the estimation of uni-variate and bi-variate probability distributions of estimated parameters. Results show that the estimation bias of moisture content was reduced significantly. Rosetta1 and Posetta3 were implemented in the python programming language, and the source code are available online. Based on different soil water retention equations, there are diverse PTFs used in different disciplines of earth system modelings. PTFs based on Campbell [1974] or Clapp and Hornberger [1978] are frequently used in land surface models and general circulation models, while van Genuchten [1980] based PTFs are more widely used in hydrology and soil sciences. We use an independent global scale soil database to evaluate the performance of diverse PTFs used in different disciplines of earth system modelings. PTFs are evaluated based on different soil characteristics and environmental characteristics, such as soil textural data, soil organic carbon, soil pH, as well as precipitation and soil temperature. This analysis provides more quantitative estimation error information for PTF predictions in different disciplines of earth system modelings.

  6. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  7. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 4: The Role of the Shuttle in the Earth Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The potential of the space shuttle as a platform for captive earth resources payloads in the sortie mode, and as a launch and services vehicle for automated earth resources spacecraft is examined. The capabilities of the total space transportation system which are pertinent to earth resources sorties and automated spacecraft are included.

  8. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  9. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  10. SPAR data set contents. [finite element structural analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of the stored data sets of the SPAR (space processing applications rocket) finite element structural analysis system are documented. The data generated by each of the system's processors are stored in a data file organized as a library. Each data set, containing a two-dimensional table or matrix, is identified by a four-word name listed in a table of contents. The creating SPAR processor, number of rows and columns, and definitions of each of the data items are listed for each data set. An example SPAR problem using these data sets is also presented.

  11. Integrating Earth System Science Data Into Tribal College and University Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilgner, P. J.; Perkey, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Universities Space Research Association and Sinte Gleska University (SGU) have teamed with eight Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) to participate in a NASA Earth Science funded project, TRibal Earth Science and Technology Education (TRESTE) project which focuses on TCU faculty teaching undergraduate Earth science courses to non-science and science students, with particular attention to TCU faculty teaching K-12 pre- and in- service teachers. The eight partner TCUs are: Blackfeet Community College (BCC), Browning, MT, Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College, Cloquet, MN, Fort Berthold Community College, New Town, ND, Little Priest Tribal College, Winnebago, NE, Oglala Lakota College, Pine Ridge, SD, Sitting Bull College, Fort Yates, ND, Turtle Mountain Community College, Belcourt, ND, United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), Bismarck, ND. The goal of this 3-year project is to promote the use of NASA Earth science data and products in the classroom thereby enabling faculty to inspire undergraduate students to careers in Earth system science, the physical sciences, and related fields of science and engineering. To accomplish this goal we are targeting three areas: (1) course content - enhance the utilization of Earth system science and physical science concepts, (2) teaching methodology - develop problem-based learning (PBL) methods, and (3) tools and technology - increase the utilization of GIS and remote sensing in the classroom. We also have enlisted ESRI, NativeView and the USGS as collaborators. To date we have held an introductory "needs" workshop at the USGS EROS Data Center and two annual workshops, one at UTTC and the second at BCC. During these annual workshops we have divided our time among the three areas. We have modeled the workshops using the PBL or Case Study approach by starting with a story or current event. Topics for the annual workshops have been Drought and Forest and Grassland Fires. These topics led us into the solar radiation budget

  12. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  13. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  14. Siberian Earth System Science Cluster - A web-based Geoportal to provide user-friendly Earth Observation Products for supporting NEESPI scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-04-01

    To provide earth observation products in the area of Siberia, the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) was established as a spatial data infrastructure at the University of Jena (Germany), Department for Earth Observation. This spatial data infrastructure implements standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organizsation for Standardization (ISO) for data discovery, data access, data processing and data analysis. The objective of SIB-ESS-C is to faciliate environmental research and Earth system science in Siberia. The region for this project covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation approximately between 58°E - 170°W and 48°N - 80°N. To provide discovery, access and analysis services a webportal was published for searching and visualisation of available data. This webportal is based on current web technologies like AJAX, Drupal Content Management System as backend software and a user-friendly surface with Drag-n-Drop and further mouse events. To have a wide range of regular updated earth observation products, some products from sensor MODIS at the satellites Aqua and Terra were processed. A direct connection to NASA archive servers makes it possible to download MODIS Level 3 and 4 products and integrate it in the SIB-ESS-C infrastructure. These data can be downloaded in a file format called Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). For visualisation and further analysis, this data is reprojected, converted to GeoTIFF and global products clipped to the project area. All these steps are implemented as an automatic process chain. If new MODIS data is available within the infrastructure this process chain is executed. With the link to a MODIS catalogue system, the system gets new data daily. With the implemented analysis processes, timeseries data can be analysed, for example to plot a trend or different time series against one another. Scientists working in this area and working with MODIS data can make use

  15. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  16. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  17. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  18. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Not only are scientific objectives and instrument characteristics given of a calibrated optical LIS for the EOS but also for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) which was designed to acquire and study the distribution and variability of total lightning on a global basis. The LIS can be traced to a lightning mapper sensor planned for flight on the GOES meteorological satellites. The LIS consists of a staring imager optimized to detect and locate lightning. The LIS will detect and locate lightning with storm scale resolution (i.e., 5 to 10 km) over a large region of the Earth's surface along the orbital track of the satellite, mark the time of occurrence of the lightning, and measure the radiant energy. The LIS will have a nearly uniform 90 pct. detection efficiency within the area viewed by the sensor, and will detect intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges during day and night conditions. Also, the LIS will monitor individual storms and storm systems long enough to obtain a measure of the lightning flashing rate when they are within the field of view of the LIS. The LIS attributes include low cost, low weight and power, low data rate, and important science. The LIS will study the hydrological cycle, general circulation and sea surface temperature variations, along with examinations of the electrical coupling of thunderstorms with the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and observations and modeling of the global electric circuit.

  19. Nutrient cycle benchmarks for earth system land model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Zhao, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting future biosphere-climate feedbacks using Earth system models (ESMs) relies heavily on robust modeling of land surface carbon dynamics. More importantly, soil nutrient (particularly, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) dynamics strongly modulate carbon dynamics, such as plant sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Prevailing ESM land models all consider nitrogen as a potentially limiting nutrient, and several consider phosphorus. However, including nutrient cycle processes in ESM land models potentially introduces large uncertainties that could be identified and addressed by improved observational constraints. We describe the development of two nutrient cycle benchmarks for ESM land models: (1) nutrient partitioning between plants and soil microbes inferred from 15N and 33P tracers studies and (2) nutrient limitation effects on carbon cycle informed by long-term fertilization experiments. We used these benchmarks to evaluate critical hypotheses regarding nutrient cycling and their representation in ESMs. We found that a mechanistic representation of plant-microbe nutrient competition based on relevant functional traits best reproduced observed plant-microbe nutrient partitioning. We also found that for multiple-nutrient models (i.e., N and P), application of Liebig's law of the minimum is often inaccurate. Rather, the Multiple Nutrient Limitation (MNL) concept better reproduces observed carbon-nutrient interactions.

  20. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  1. A hierarchy of ocean biogeochemical comprehensiveness for Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    As Earth System Models mature towards more quantitative explanations of ocean carbon cycle interactions and are applied to an increasingly diverse array of living marine resource communities, the draw towards biogeochemical and ecological comprehensiveness intensifies. However, this draw to comprehensiveness must also be balanced with the added cost of handling additional tracers. One way that GFDL has addressed this constraint is by developing a series of biogeochemical modules based on the 30 tracer TOPAZ formulation used in GFDL's CMIP5 contribution in both simplifying the biogeochemistry down to the 6 tracer BLING formulation and 3 tracer mini-BLING formulation, and in the other direction improving on ecosystem comprehensiveness with the 33 tracer COBALT formulation. We discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages along this continuum of complexity in terms of both biogeochemical and ecological fidelity and applicability. We also discuss a related approach to separate out other modules for ideal age, 14C, CFCs, SF6, Argon and other tracer suites, allowing use to run an array of experimental designs to suite different needs.

  2. LAWS (Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder) earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wind profiles can be measured from space using current technology. These wind profiles are essential for answering many of the interdisciplinary scientific questions to be addressed by EOS, the Earth Observing System. This report provides guidance for the development of a spaceborne wind sounder, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), discussing the current state of the technology and reviewing the scientific rationale for the instrument. Whether obtained globally from the EOS polar platform or in the tropics and subtropics from the Space Station, wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering knowledge of large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and improving understanding of the global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. The LAWS Instrument Panel recommends that it be given high priority for new instrument development because of the pressing scientific need and the availability of the necessary technology. LAWS is to measure wind profiles with an accuracy of a few meters per second and to sample at intervals of 100 km horizontally for layers km thick.

  3. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects,more » we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.« less

  4. Toward an in-situ analytics and diagnostics framework for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Wolf, Matthew; Rasch, Philip; Klasky, Scott; Williams, Dean; Jacob, Rob; Ma, Po-Lun; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2017-04-01

    The development roadmaps for many earth system models (ESM) aim for a globally cloud-resolving model targeting the pre-exascale and exascale systems of the future. The ESMs will also incorporate more complex physics, chemistry and biology - thereby vastly increasing the fidelity of the information content simulated by the model. We will then be faced with an unprecedented volume of simulation output that would need to be processed and analyzed concurrently in order to derive the valuable scientific results. We are already at this threshold with our current generation of ESMs at higher resolution simulations. Currently, the nominal I/O throughput in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) via Parallel IO (PIO) library is around 100 MB/s. If we look at the high frequency I/O requirements, it would require an additional 1 GB / simulated hour, translating to roughly 4 mins wallclock / simulated-day => 24.33 wallclock hours / simulated-model-year => 1,752,000 core-hours of charge per simulated-model-year on the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. There is also a pending need for 3X more volume of simulation output . Meanwhile, many ESMs use instrument simulators to run forward models to compare model simulations against satellite and ground-based instruments, such as radars and radiometers. The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) is used in CESM as well as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME), one of the ESMs specifically targeting current and emerging leadership-class computing platforms These simulators can be computationally expensive, accounting for as much as 30% of the computational cost. Hence the data are often written to output files that are then used for offline calculations. Again, the I/O bottleneck becomes a limitation. Detection and attribution studies also use large volume of data for pattern recognition and feature extraction to analyze weather and climate phenomenon such as tropical cyclones

  5. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  6. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  7. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin; ...

    2017-01-01

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  8. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  9. A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair; Medlyn, Belinda E; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Bonan, Gordon; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Dietze, Michael C; Kattge, Jens; Leakey, Andrew D B; Mercado, Lina M; Niinemets, Ülo; Prentice, I Colin; Serbin, Shawn P; Sitch, Stephen; Way, Danielle A; Zaehle, Sönke

    2017-01-01

    Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO 2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content. We identified research areas where limited process knowledge prevents inclusion of physiological phenomena in current TBMs and research areas where data are urgently needed for model parameterization or evaluation. We provide a roadmap for new science needed to improve the representation of photosynthesis in the next generation of terrestrial biosphere and Earth system models. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  11. Monitoring the Earth System Grid Federation through the ESGF Dashboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, S.; Bell, G. M.; Drach, B.; Williams, D.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) is a global effort coordinated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) involving tens of modeling groups spanning 19 countries. It is expected the CMIP5 distributed data archive will total upwards of 3.5 petabytes, stored across several ESGF Nodes on four continents (North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia). The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) provides the IT infrastructure to support the CMIP5. In this regard, the monitoring of the distributed ESGF infrastructure represents a crucial part carried out by the ESGF Dashboard. The ESGF Dashboard is a software component of the ESGF stack, responsible for collecting key information about the status of the federation in terms of: 1) Network topology (peer-groups composition), 2) Node type (host/services mapping), 3) Registered users (including their Identity Providers), 4) System metrics (e.g., round-trip time, service availability, CPU, memory, disk, processes, etc.), 5) Download metrics (both at the Node and federation level). The last class of information is very important since it provides a strong insight of the CMIP5 experiment: the data usage statistics. In this regard, CMCC and LLNL have developed a data analytics management system for the analysis of both node-level and federation-level data usage statistics. It provides data usage statistics aggregated by project, model, experiment, variable, realm, peer node, time, ensemble, datasetname (including version), etc. The back-end of the system is able to infer the data usage information of the entire federation, by carrying out: - at node level: a 18-step reconciliation process on the peer node databases (i.e. node manager and publisher DB) which provides a 15-dimension datawarehouse with local statistics and - at global level: an aggregation process which federates the data usage statistics into a 16-dimension datawarehouse with federation-level data usage statistics. The front-end of the

  12. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Several modelling studies reported potential impacts of soil moisture anomalies on regional climate. In particular for short prediction periods, perturbations of the soil moisture state may result in significant alteration of surface temperature in the following season. However, it is not clear yet whether or not soil moisture anomalies affect climate also on larger temporal and spatial scales. In an earlier study, we showed that soil moisture anomalies can persist for several seasons in the deeper soil layers of a land surface model. Additionally, those anomalies can influence root zone moisture, in particular during explicitly dry or wet periods. Thus, one prerequisite for predictability, namely the existence of long term memory, is evident for simulated soil moisture and might be exploited to improve climate predictions. The second prerequisite is the sensitivity of the climate system to soil moisture. In order to investigate this sensitivity for decadal simulations, we implemented a soil moisture assimilation scheme into the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The assimilation scheme is based on a simple nudging algorithm and updates the surface soil moisture state once per day. In our experiments, the MPI-ESM is used which includes model components for the interactive simulation of atmosphere, land and ocean. Artificial assimilation data is created from a control simulation to nudge the MPI-ESM towards predominantly dry and wet states. First analyses are focused on the impact of the assimilation on land surface variables and reveal distinct differences in the long-term mean values between wet and dry state simulations. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are larger in the wet state compared to the dry state, resulting in an increased moisture transport from the land to atmosphere and ocean. Consequently, surface temperatures are lower in the wet state simulations by more than one Kelvin. In terms of spatial pattern

  13. A view finder control system for an earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, H.

    2004-11-01

    A real time TV view finder is used on-board a low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite to manually select targets for imaging from a ground station within the communication footprint of the satellite. The attitude control system on the satellite is used to steer the satellite using commands from the groundstation and a television camera onboard the satellite will then downlink a television signal in real time to a monitor screen in the ground station. The operator in the feedback loop will be able to manually steer the boresight of the satellite's main imager towards interested target areas e.g. to avoid clouds or correct for any attitude pointing errors. Due to a substantial delay (in the order of a second) in the view finding feedback loop and the narrow field of view of the main imager, the operator has to be assisted by the onboard attitude control system to stabilise and track the target area visible on the monitor screen. This paper will present the extended Kalman filter used to estimate the satellite's attitude angles using quaternions and the bias vector component of the 3-axis inertial rate sensors (gyros). Absolute attitude sensors (i.e. sun, horizon and magnetic) are used to supply the measurement vectors to correct the filter states during the view finder manoeuvres. The target tracking and rate steering reaction wheel controllers to accurately point and stabilise the satellite will be presented. The reference generator for the satellite to target attitude and rate vectors as used by the reaction wheel controllers will be derived.

  14. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, Joanna E; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; NcKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80–100 Tg yr−1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  15. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  16. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century-squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century-squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change in the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  18. Parallel Optimization of an Earth System Model (100 Gigaflops and Beyond?)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, L. A.; Farrara, J. D.; Mechoso, C. R.; Spahr, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Katz, S.; Lou, J. Z.; Wang, P.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing an Earth System Model (ESM) to be used in research aimed to better understand the interactions between the components of the Earth System and to eventually predict their variations. Currently, our ESM includes models of the atmosphere, oceans and the important chemical tracers therein.

  19. High School Symposium for Earth Systems Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 1994). Proceedings and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings and summary for the Earth Systems Education high school symposium conducted in October, 1994. Selected participants were invited to contribute papers for inclusion in this volume so that other teachers can see how Earth Systems Education (ESE) looks in practice. The volume also contains the context for ESE in…

  20. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in…

  1. Earth Observing System. Science and Mission Requirements, Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a planned NASA program, which will carry the multidisciplinary Earth science studies employing a variety of remote sensing techniques in the 1990's, as a prime mission, using the Space Station polar platform. The scientific rationale, recommended observational needs, the broad system configuration and a recommended implementation strategy to achieve the stated mission goals are provided.

  2. Study and prototype of data system interactions for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Morris, M.

    1990-01-01

    A crucial part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is its Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The success of EOS depends not only on its instruments and science studies, but also on its ability to help scientists integrate data sets of geophysical and biological measurements taken by various instruments and investigators. NASA contractors have completed Phase B studies of EOSDIS, in particular its architecture, functionality, and user interfacing. At this point in time, it may seem impossible to exercise the EOSDIS or any of its components since they do not exist; i.e., if the EOSDIS is accepted as a totally new system, distinct from any existing DIS. However, if EOSDIS is seen as evolving from existing data systems, then some limited prototyping studies can be conducted by using currently functioning systems. In support of both the EOSDIS Science Advisory Panel and the EOSDIS Project, a prototyping activity was carried out by a cross section of interdisciplinary scientists. That prototyping activity is summarized and some conclusions are drawn that can be used by NASA-Goddard to evaluate and modify the specifications soon to be released in an RFP to build EOSDIS.

  3. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  4. What Makes Earth and Space Science Sexy? A Model for Developing Systemic Change in Earth and Space Systems Science Curriculum and Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutskin, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Earth and Space Science may be the neglected child in the family of high school sciences. In this session, we examine the strategies that Anne Arundel County Public Schools and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used to develop a dynamic and highly engaging program which follows the vision of the National Science Education Standards, is grounded in key concepts of NASA's Earth Science Directorate, and allows students to examine and apply the current research of NASA scientists. Find out why Earth/Space Systems Science seems to have usurped biology and has made students, principals, and teachers clamor for similar instructional practices in what is traditionally thought of as the "glamorous" course.

  5. Human Systems Engineering and Program Success - A Retrospective Content Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    collected from the 546 documents and entered into SPSS Statistics Version 22.0 for Windows. HSI words within the sampled doc- uments ranged from zero to...engineers. The approach used a retrospective content analysis of documents from weapon systems acquisi- tion programs, namely Major Defense Acquisition...January 2016, Vol. 23 No. 1 : 78–101 January 2016 The interaction between humans and the systems they use affects program success, as well as life-cycle

  6. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 2: EOS-A system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are defined. The system specifications for the satellite payload are examined. The broad objectives of the EOS-A program are as follows: (1) to develop space-borne sensors for the measurement of land resources, (2) to evolve spacecraft systems and subsystems which will permit earth observation with greater accuracy, coverage, spatial resolution, and continuity than existing systems, (3) to develop improved information processing, extraction, display, and distribution systems, and (4) to use space transportation systems for resupply and retrieval of the EOS.

  7. Study of the gas contents of rocks: An approach to the evolution of atmospheres on the earth and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.

    1972-01-01

    A high vacuum system was built for extracting volatiles from rocks either by heating or crushing, and preliminary analyses of the volatiles were made for selected terrestrial basalts and granites. The apparatus and experimental procedures are described, and the major problems associated with water measurement and choice of argon to replace neon as the internal standard are discussed. Preliminary analyses of granites and basalts indicate the following: All analyses lie in the H2O-CO2-CO triangle on a C-H-O ternary diagram. The compositions of the volatiles plot in distinct, but overlapping, areas of the C-H-O diagram. Pre-Cambrian granites have a higher volatile content than younger granites. Continental basalts have a higher volatile content than oceanic basalts.

  8. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.; Spargo, A.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.

    2014-12-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in both informal and formal education to display global datasets. By creating a narrative using multiple datasets, linkages between Earth systems - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere - can be conveyed. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question in developing new content for digital globes that interweaves imagery obtained by deep-diving vehicles with global datasets, including a new dataset locating the world's known hydrothermal vents. Our two narratives, "Life Without Sunlight" (LWS) and "Smoke and Fire Underwater" (SFU), each focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) principles related to geology, biology, and exploration. We are preparing a summative evaluation for our content delivered on NOAA's Science on a Sphere as interactive presentations and as movies. We tested knowledge gained with respect to the STEM principles and the level of excitement generated by the virtual deep-sea exploration. We conducted a Post-test Only Design with quantitative data based on self-reporting on a Likert scale. A total of 75 adults and 48 youths responded to our questionnaire, distributed into test groups that saw either one of the two narratives delivered either as a movie or as an interactive presentation. Here, we report preliminary results for the youths, the majority (81%) of which live in towns with lower income and lower levels of educational attainment as compared to other towns in Massachusetts. For both narratives, there was knowledge gained for all 6 STEM principles and "Quite a Bit" of excitement. The mode in responses for knowledge gained was "Quite a Bit" for both the movie and the interactive presentation for 4 of the STEM principles (LWS geology, LWS biology, SFU geology, and SFU exploration) and "Some" for SFU biology. Only for LWS exploration was there a difference in mode between the

  9. Raising Climate Literacy of K-12 Teachers with Datastreme Earth's Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) DataStreme Project is a free professional development program for in-service K-12 teachers, in which they gain considerable subject matter content and confidence in Earth science instruction. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with a team of AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. The 3-member LITs mentor about 8 teachers and in some instances an emergency manager, per semester through a given DataStreme course. Teachers may receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits through State University of New York's The College at Brockport upon completion of each DataStreme course. DataStreme is in close alignment with A Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Investigating the scientific basis of the workings of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and climate system follows the cross-cutting theme of the Framework and the NGSS and is the cornerstone of the DataStreme courses. In particular, DataStreme ECS explores the fundamental science of Earth's climate system and addresses the societal impacts relevant to today's teachers and students. The course utilizes resources from respected organizations, such as the IPCC and U.S. Global Change Research Program. Key to the NGSS is that students learn disciplinary core ideas in the context of science and engineering practices. In order for the students to learn in this way, the AMS believes that it is important to train the teachers in this context. DataStreme ECS emphasizes investigation of real-word and current NASA and NOAA data. Participants also are made aware of NASA's EdGCM, a research-grade Global Climate Model where they can explore various future climate scenarios in the same way that actual

  10. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  11. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-01

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land-atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  12. A generic biogeochemical module for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Huang, M.; Liu, C.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.

    2013-06-01

    Physical and biogeochemical processes regulate soil carbon dynamics and CO2 flux to and from the atmosphere, influencing global climate changes. Integration of these processes into earth system models (e.g. community land models - CLM), however, currently faces three major challenges: (1) extensive efforts are required to modify modeling structures and to rewrite computer programs to incorporate new or updated processes as new knowledge is being generated, (2) computational cost is prohibitively expensive to simulate biogeochemical processes in land models due to large variations in the rates of biogeochemical processes, and (3) various mathematical representations of biogeochemical processes exist to incorporate different aspects of fundamental mechanisms, but systematic evaluation of the different mathematical representations is difficult, if not impossible. To address these challenges, we propose a new computational framework to easily incorporate physical and biogeochemical processes into land models. The new framework consists of a new biogeochemical module with a generic algorithm and reaction database so that new and updated processes can be incorporated into land models without the need to manually set up the ordinary differential equations to be solved numerically. The reaction database consists of processes of nutrient flow through the terrestrial ecosystems in plants, litter and soil. This framework facilitates effective comparison studies of biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem using different conceptual models under the same land modeling framework. The approach was first implemented in CLM and benchmarked against simulations from the original CLM-CN code. A case study was then provided to demonstrate the advantages of using the new approach to incorporate a phosphorus cycle into the CLM model. To our knowledge, the phosphorus-incorporated CLM is a new model that can be used to simulate phosphorus limitation on the productivity of terrestrial

  13. Climate Variability and Wildfires: Insights from Global Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the relationship between variability in global climate and emissions from wildfires is needed for predictions of fire activity on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. Here we investigate this relationship using the long, preindustrial control simulations and historical ensembles of two Earth System models; CESM1 and the NOAA/GFDL ESM2Mb. There is smaller interannual variability of global fires in both models than in present day inventories, especially in boreal regions where observed fires vary substantially from year to year. Patterns of fire response to climate oscillation indices, including the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) are explored with the model results and compared to the response derived from satellite measurements and proxy observations. Increases in fire emissions in southeast Asia and boreal North America are associated with positive ENSO and PDO, while United States fires and Sahel fires decrease for the same climate conditions. Boreal fire emissions decrease in CESM1 for the warm phase of the AMO, while ESM2Mb did not produce a reliable AMO. CESM1 produces a weak negative trend in global fire emissions for the period 1920 to 2005, while ESM2Mb produces a positive trend over the same period. Both trends are statistically significant at a confidence level of 95% or greater given the variability derived from the respective preindustrial controls. In addition to climate variability impacts on fires, we also explore the impacts of fire emissions on climate variability and atmospheric chemistry. We analyze three long, free-evolving ESM2Mb simulations; one without fire emissions, one with constant year-over-year fire emissions based on a present day inventory, and one with interannually varying fire emissions coupled between the terrestrial and atmospheric components of the model, to gain a better understanding of the role of fire emissions in

  14. Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Prentice, I. Colin; Cornell, Sarah; Davies-Barnard, T; Finzi, Adrien; Franklin, Oskar; Janssens, Ivan; Larmola, Tuula; Manzoni, Stefano; Näsholm, Torgny; Raven, John; Rebel, Karin; Reed, Sasha C.; Vicca, Sara; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the degree to which nitrogen (N) availability limits land carbon (C) uptake under global environmental change represents an unresolved challenge. First-generation ‘C-only’vegetation models, lacking explicit representations of N cycling,projected a substantial and increasing land C sink under rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This prediction was questioned for not taking into account the potentially limiting effect of N availability, which is necessary for plant growth (Hungate et al.,2003). More recent global models include coupled C and N cycles in land ecosystems (C–N models) and are widely assumed to be more realistic. However, inclusion of more processes has not consistently improved their performance in capturing observed responses of the global C cycle (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2014). With the advent of a new generation of global models, including coupled C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling, model complexity is sure to increase; but model reliability may not, unless greater attention is paid to the correspondence of model process representations ande mpirical evidence. It was in this context that the ‘Nitrogen Cycle Workshop’ at Dartington Hall, Devon, UK was held on 1–5 February 2016. Organized by I. Colin Prentice and Benjamin D. Stocker (Imperial College London, UK), the workshop was funded by the European Research Council,project ‘Earth system Model Bias Reduction and assessing Abrupt Climate change’ (EMBRACE). We gathered empirical ecologists and ecosystem modellers to identify key uncertainties in terrestrial C–N cycling, and to discuss processes that are missing or poorly represented in current models.

  15. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; ...

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO 2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in somemore » parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  16. The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET): Scaling the Earth System Grid to Petascale Data

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2007-09-27

    This report, which summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2007 through September 30, 2007, includes discussion of overall progress, period goals, highlights, collaborations and presentations. To learn more about our project, please visit the Earth System Grid website. In addition, this report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC project management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) project management, national and international stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), etc.), and collaborators. Themore » ESG-CET executive committee consists of David Bernholdt, ORNL; Ian Foster, ANL; Don Middleton, NCAR; and Dean Williams, LLNL. The ESG-CET team is a collective of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include seven laboratories (ANL, LANL, LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL, PMEL) and one university (ISI/USC); all work in close collaboration with the project's stakeholders and domain researchers and scientists. During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET increased its efforts on completing requirement documents, framework design, and component prototyping. As we strove to complete and expand the overall ESG-CET architectural plans and use-case scenarios to fit our constituency's scope of use, we continued to provide production-level services to the community. These services continued for IPCC AR4, CCES, and CCSM, and were extended to include Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) data.« less

  17. Influence of rare earth content on Mm-based AB 5 metal hydride alloys for Ni-MH batteries-An X-ray fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, M. V.; Raju, M.; Manimaran, K.; Balachandran, G.; Nair, Lekshmi M.

    AB 5-type MH alloys with Mm (Misch metal) as the A part (with varied rare earth contents in Mm) were investigated for rare earth by XRF analysis and battery performance by life cycle tests with an objective of understanding the influence of rare earth content on electrochemical hydrogen storage. The La/Ce ratio was found to vary from 0.51 to 18.73. The capacity output varied between 179 and 266 mAh g -1. The results show that the La/Ce ratio has a strong influence on the performance, with the best performance realized with samples having an La/Ce ratio of around 12. La enhancement facilitates easy activation due to refinement in grain size and interstitial dimensions. Also, an orderly influence on crystalline structure could be seen. The study demonstrates that the rare earth content is an essential factor in determining the maximum capacity output because of its influence on crystal orientation as well as an increase in the radius of the interstitials, lattice constants and cell volumes.

  18. Global Gridded Data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) timeseries is a globally gridded atmospheric data set for use in climate research. This near real-time data set is produced by the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the operational EOS instrument product generation from the Terra (12/1999 launch), Aqua (05/2002 launch) and Aura (01/2004 launch) spacecrafts. The data is archived in the EOS Core System (ECS) at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC). The data is only a selection of the products available from the GEOS-DAS. The data is organized chronologically in timeseries format to facilitate the computation of statistics. GEOS-DAS data will be available for the time period January 1, 2000, through present.

  19. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Planchon, Frederic; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F.; Petit, Jean Robert; Bulat, Sergey; Hong, Sungmin; Cozzi, Giulio; Cescon, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports the first rare earth element (REE) concentrations in accreted ice refrozen from sub-glacial Lake Vostok (East Antarctica). REE were determined in various sections of the Vostok ice core in order to geochemically characterize its impurities. Samples were obtained from accreted ice and, for comparison, from the upper glacier ice of atmospheric origin (undisturbed, disturbed and glacial flour ice). REE concentrations ranged between 0.8-56 pg g -1 for Ce and 0.0035-0.24 pg g -1 for Lu in glacier ice, and between <0.1-24 pg g -1 for Ce and <0.0004-0.02 pg g -1 for Lu in accreted ice. Interestingly, the REE concentrations in the upper accreted ice (AC 1; characterized by visible aggregates containing a mixture of very fine terrigenous particles) and in the deeper accreted ice (AC 2; characterized by transparent ice) are lower than those in fresh water and seawater, respectively. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE content in Lake Vostok, but instead may reflect phase exclusion processes occurring at the ice/water interface during refreezing. In particular, the uneven spatial distribution (on the order of a few cm) and the large range of REE concentrations observed in AC 1 are consistent with the occurrence/absence of the aggregates in adjacent ice, and point to the presence of solid-phase concentration/exclusion processes occurring within separate pockets of frazil ice during AC 1 formation. Interestingly, if the LREE enrichment found in AC 1 was not produced by chemical fractionation occurring in Lake Vostok water, this may reflect a contribution of bedrock material, possibly in combination with aeolian dust released into the lake by melting of the glacier ice. Collectively, this valuable information provides new insight into the accreted ice formation processes, the bedrock geology of East Antarctica as well as the water chemistry and circulation of Lake Vostok.

  20. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, C.; Gabrielli, P.; Turetta, C.; Planchon, F.; Boutron, C.; Petit, J. R.; Bulat, S.; Hong, S.; Cozzi, G.; Cescon, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first rare earth element (REE) concentrations in accreted ice refrozen from sub-glacial Lake Vostok (East Antarctica). REE were determined in various sections of the Vostok ice core in order to geochemically characterize its impurities. Samples were obtained from accreted ice and, for comparison, from the upper glacier ice of atmospheric origin (undisturbed, disturbed and glacial flour ice). REE concentrations ranged between 0.8-56 pg g-1 for Ce and 0.0035- 0.24 pg g-1 for Lu in glacier ice, and between <0.1-24 pg g-1 for Ce and <0.0004-0.02 pg g-1 for Lu in accreted ice. Interestingly, the REE concentrations in the upper accreted ice (AC1;characterized by visible aggregates containing a mixture of very fine terrigenous particles) and in the deeper accreted ice (AC2; characterized by transparent ice) are lower than those in fresh water and seawater, respectively. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE content in Lake Vostok, but instead may reflect phase exclusion processes occurring at the ice/water interface during refreezing. In particular, the uneven spatial distribution (on the order of a few cm) and the large range of REE concentrations observed in AC1 are consistent with the occurrence/absence of the aggregates in adjacent ice, and point to the presence of solid-phase concentration/exclusion processes occurring within separate pockets of frazil ice during AC1 formation. Interestingly, if the LREE enrichment found in AC1 was not produced by chemical fractionation occurring in Lake Vostok water, this may reflect a contribution of bedrock material, possibly in combination with aeolian dust released into the lake by melting of the glacier ice. Collectively, this valuable information provides new insight into the accreted ice formation processes, the bedrock geology of East Antarctica as well as the water chemistry and circulation of Lake Vostok.

  1. THROUGH-THE EARTH (TTE) SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the through-the-earth (TTE) system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) system. After the Lab prototype of the IMPL system was perfected to function satisfactorily, the thrust of the work focused on building a first production prototype that can be installed and tested inside a mine. To obtain multi-channel voice communication through the TTE system, effort has proceeded to compress voice messages and make the format compatible with the power-line interface protocol.

  2. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  3. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  4. Laws, Place, History and the Interpretation of Earth Surface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The state of an Earth surface system (ESS is determined by three sets of factors: Laws, place, and history. Laws (L = L1, L2, . . . , Ln) are the n general principles, relationships, and representations applicable to any such system at any time. Place factors (P = P1, P2, . . . , Pm) are the m relevant properties or characteristics of the local or regional environment - e.g., climate, tectonic setting, geology, traits of the local biota, etc. History factors (H = H1 , H2, . . . , Hq) include the previous evolutionary pathway of the ESS, its stage of development, past disturbance, and in some contexts initial conditions. Geoscience investigation may be focused on laws (e.g., theoretical deductions, process modeling, laboratory experiments), place (e.g., regional geology or geography, soil-landscape studies), or history (e.g., paleoenvironmental studies, environmental history, historical geology or geography). Ultimately, however, all three sets of factors are necessary to fully understand and explain ESS. Beyond providing a useful checklist (analogous to the factorial models often used in pedology and ecology), the LPH framework gives us analytical traction to some difficult research problems. For example, studies of the avulsions of three southeast Texas rivers showed substantial differences in avulsion regimes and resulting alluvial morphology, despite the proximity and superficial similarity of the systems. Avulsion dynamics are governed by the same laws in all three cases [L(A) = L(B) = L(C)], and the three rivers, once part of a single system at lower sea-levels, have undergone the same sea-level, climate, and tectonic histories, as well as the same general types of anthropic impacts [H(A) ≈ H(B) ≈ H(C)]. Though the regional-scale environmental controls are similar, local details such as the location of the modern main channel relative to Pleistocene meander channels differ, and thus these place factors explain the differences between the rivers. The LPH

  5. An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a means to cool the planet by increasing the reflection of sunlight back to space, for example by injecting reflective aerosol particles into the middle atmosphere. Such proposals are not able to physically substitute for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions as a response to the risks of climate change, but might eventually be applied as a complementary approach to reduce climate risks. Thus, the Earth system consequences of solar geoengineering are central to understanding its potentials and risks. Here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection. We examine themore » common responses found in studies of an idealized form of solar geoengineering, in which the intensity of incoming sunlight is directly reduced in models. The studies reviewed are consistent in suggesting that solar geoengineering would generally reduce the differences in climate in comparison to future scenarios with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations and no solar geoengineering. However, it is clear that a solar geoengineered climate would be novel in some respects, for example a notable reduction in the intensity of the hydrological cycle. We provide an overview of the unique aspects of the response to stratospheric aerosol injection and the uncertainties around its consequences. We also consider the issues raised by the partial control over the climate that solar geoengineering would allow. Finally, this overview also highlights the key research gaps that will need to be resolved in order to effectively guide future decisions on the potential use of solar geoengineering.« less

  6. Juno Approach to the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-10

    This frame from a movie was captured by a star tracker camera on NASA Jupiter-bound Juno spacecraft. It was taken over several days as Juno approached Earth for a close flyby that would send the spacecraft onward to the giant planet.

  7. Data Mining in Earth System Science (DMESS 2011)

    Treesearch

    Forrest M. Hoffman; J. Walter Larson; Richard Tran Mills; Bhorn-Gustaf Brooks; Auroop R. Ganguly; William Hargrove; et al

    2011-01-01

    From field-scale measurements to global climate simulations and remote sensing, the growing body of very large and long time series Earth science data are increasingly difficult to analyze, visualize, and interpret. Data mining, information theoretic, and machine learning techniques—such as cluster analysis, singular value decomposition, block entropy, Fourier and...

  8. Ideas for a future earth observing system from geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Hall, Forrest; Esaias, Wayne; Maxwell, Marvin; Suomi, Verner E.; Von Bun, Fritz

    1986-01-01

    Uses for the proposed geosynchronous platform are described. The geosynchronous satellite could provide good spatial and temporal resolution, a large field-of-view, easier calibration, stereography, and data relay. The limitations of the platform are discussed. The applications of the geosynchronous platform to meteorology, earth surveying, and oceanography are examined.

  9. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2010-01-01

    Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

  10. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  11. Examples of the nonlinear dynamics of ballistic capture and escape in the earth-moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbruno, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    An example of a trajectory is given which is initially captured in an elliptic resonant orbit about the earth and then ballistically escapes the earth-moon system. This is demonstrated by a numerical example in three-dimensions using a planetary ephemeris. Another example shows a mechanism of how an elliptic orbit about the earth can increase its energy by performing a complex nonlinear transition to an elliptic orbit of a larger semi-major axis. Capture is also considered. An application of ballistic capture at the moon via an unstable periodic orbit using the four-body sun-earth-moon-S/C interaction is described.

  12. An integrated content and metadata based retrieval system for art.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul H; Martinez, Kirk; Abas, Fazly Salleh; Fauzi, Mohammad Faizal Ahmad; Chan, Stephen C Y; Addis, Matthew J; Boniface, Mike J; Grimwood, Paul; Stevenson, Alison; Lahanier, Christian; Stevenson, James

    2004-03-01

    A new approach to image retrieval is presented in the domain of museum and gallery image collections. Specialist algorithms, developed to address specific retrieval tasks, are combined with more conventional content and metadata retrieval approaches, and implemented within a distributed architecture to provide cross-collection searching and navigation in a seamless way. External systems can access the different collections using interoperability protocols and open standards, which were extended to accommodate content based as well as text based retrieval paradigms. After a brief overview of the complete system, we describe the novel design and evaluation of some of the specialist image analysis algorithms including a method for image retrieval based on sub-image queries, retrievals based on very low quality images and retrieval using canvas crack patterns. We show how effective retrieval results can be achieved by real end-users consisting of major museums and galleries, accessing the distributed but integrated digital collections.

  13. Computer Controlled Microwave Oven System for Rapid Water Content Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Codes - .d/or CONTENTS Page PREFACE .................................................................... 1 CONVERSION FACTORS, NON- SI TO SI (METRIC...CONVERSION FACTORS, NON- SI TO SI (METRIC) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Non- SI units of measurement used in this report can be converted to SI (metric) units as...formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32) . To obtain Kelvin ( K ) readings, use: K = (5/9)(F - 32) + 273.15 3 COMPUTER CONTROLLED MICROWAVE OVEN SYSTEM FOR RAPID WATER

  14. Embedding the Form Generator in a Content Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; Wicenec, A.; Delmotte, N.; Tejero, A.

    2008-08-01

    Given the tremendous amount of data generated by ESO's telescopes and the rapid evolution of the World Wide Web, the ESO archive web interface needs to offer more flexible services and advanced functionalities to a growing community of users all over the world. To achieve this endeavour, a query form generator is being developed inside a Content Management System. We present here a progress report.

  15. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  16. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  17. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  18. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  19. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  20. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  1. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system.

    PubMed

    Glasspool, Ian J; Scott, Andrew C; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world.

  2. The impact of fire on the Late Paleozoic Earth system

    PubMed Central

    Glasspool, Ian J.; Scott, Andrew C.; Waltham, David; Pronina, Natalia; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of bulk petrographic data indicate that during the Late Paleozoic wildfires were more prevalent than at present. We propose that the development of fire systems through this interval was controlled predominantly by the elevated atmospheric oxygen concentration (p(O2)) that mass balance models predict prevailed. At higher levels of p(O2), increased fire activity would have rendered vegetation with high-moisture contents more susceptible to ignition and would have facilitated continued combustion. We argue that coal petrographic data indicate that p(O2) rather than global temperatures or climate, resulted in the increased levels of wildfire activity observed during the Late Paleozoic and can, therefore, be used to predict it. These findings are based upon analyses of charcoal volumes in multiple coals distributed across the globe and deposited during this time period, and that were then compared with similarly diverse modern peats and Cenozoic lignites and coals. Herein, we examine the environmental and ecological factors that would have impacted fire activity and we conclude that of these factors p(O2) played the largest role in promoting fires in Late Paleozoic peat-forming environments and, by inference, ecosystems generally, when compared with their prevalence in the modern world. PMID:26442069

  3. Student Engagement and Empowerment Through Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Schnurrenberger, D.

    2001-12-01

    Through ESSEA's curricula, we promote empowerment of our diverse student body through access to excellence in science education and technology. Global change, by virtue of its economic relevance and environmental urgency, engages students in science inquiry. Global change is emerging as a political issue as countries with fewer resources are less able to buffer their economic systems from hardships resulting from climatic change. The ESS and global change emphasis facilitates in-depth classroom examination of the social ramifications of science and technology as required by Minnesota's state science standards. Access to ESSEA courses for in-service teachers is promoted by several programmatic initiatives of the University of Minnesota. High school and undergraduate versions of the on-line course are now in development. Summer research experiences for teachers, research projects by secondary classrooms tracking local environmental change, and involvement of graduate student scientists as on-line mentors of the ESSEA courses are components of a broader program that is building a multidisciplinary science-based learning community in Minnesota. ESSEA is the flagship program of Science CentrUM, a consortium of science and education colleges at the University of Minnesota promoting excellence in science education through content-based professional development for K-12 educators.

  4. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this models must accurately represent the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small relative to global carbon fluxes, uncertainty is large. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis and most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is typically fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for a range of Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. We found that the values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic plants in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured, and contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax, however we found that the JVratio of Arctic plants is higher than current estimates suggesting that Arctic PFTs will be more responsive to rising carbon dioxide than currently projected. In addition we are exploring remotely sensed methods to scale up key biochemical (e.g. leaf N, leaf mass area) and physiological (e.g. Vc,max and Jmax) properties that drive model representation of photosynthesis in the Arctic. Our data suggest that the Arctic tundra has a much greater capacity for CO2 uptake, particularly at low temperature, and will be more CO2 responsive

  5. Versioning for CMIP6 in the Earth System Grid Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Tobias; Kindermann, Stephan; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has been used as the e-infrastructure to provide access to CMIP5 data and is expected to serve CMIP6 data as well. 2015 marks the year of continued planning and preparation where new concepts can still be implemented for the operational phase of CMIP6. A particular concern within ESGF operations is the versioning and automated replication of data. From CMIP5 experience we know that the pathway between initial submission of modelling data to the ESGF data space and quality-controlled long-term archival of the final products is long and far from linear. Data may be retracted, amended and updated, and metadata may accumulate at different stages. It is unrealistic to assume that a simple and straightforward process can be used as a role model to build ESGF services around the different stages data will pass through during the active phase of CMIP6. Nonetheless, at the technical level ESGF requires some form of automated control and management. At the same time, the accountability of