Science.gov

Sample records for earth system sensitivity

  1. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  2. Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunt, D.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Schmidt, G.A.; Salzmann, U.; Valdes, P.J.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the equilibrium response of global temperatures to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is one of the cornerstones of climate research. Components of the Earths climate system that vary over long timescales, such as ice sheets and vegetation, could have an important effect on this temperature sensitivity, but have often been neglected. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to simulate the climate of the mid-Pliocene warm period (about three million years ago), and analyse the forcings and feedbacks that contributed to the relatively warm temperatures. Furthermore, we compare our simulation with proxy records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature. Taking these lines of evidence together, we estimate that the response of the Earth system to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is 30-50% greater than the response based on those fast-adjusting components of the climate system that are used traditionally to estimate climate sensitivity. We conclude that targets for the long-term stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations aimed at preventing a dangerous human interference with the climate system should take into account this higher sensitivity of the Earth system. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. What Do We Mean By Sensitivity Analysis? The Need For A Comprehensive Characterization Of Sensitivity In Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2014-12-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is an important paradigm in the context of Earth System model development and application, and provides a powerful tool that serves several essential functions in modelling practice, including 1) Uncertainty Apportionment - attribution of total uncertainty to different uncertainty sources, 2) Assessment of Similarity - diagnostic testing and evaluation of similarities between the functioning of the model and the real system, 3) Factor and Model Reduction - identification of non-influential factors and/or insensitive components of model structure, and 4) Factor Interdependence - investigation of the nature and strength of interactions between the factors, and the degree to which factors intensify, cancel, or compensate for the effects of each other. A variety of sensitivity analysis approaches have been proposed, each of which formally characterizes a different "intuitive" understanding of what is meant by the "sensitivity" of one or more model responses to its dependent factors (such as model parameters or forcings). These approaches are based on different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and range from simple local derivatives and one-factor-at-a-time procedures to rigorous variance-based (Sobol-type) approaches. In general, each approach focuses on, and identifies, different features and properties of the model response and may therefore lead to different (even conflicting) conclusions about the underlying sensitivity. This presentation revisits the theoretical basis for sensitivity analysis, and critically evaluates existing approaches so as to demonstrate their flaws and shortcomings. With this background, we discuss several important properties of response surfaces that are associated with the understanding and interpretation of sensitivity. Finally, a new approach towards global sensitivity assessment is developed that is consistent with important properties of Earth System model response surfaces.

  4. A New Framework for Effective and Efficient Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) models are essential components of research, development, and decision-making in science and engineering disciplines. With continuous advances in understanding and computing power, such models are becoming more complex with increasingly more factors to be specified (model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.). To facilitate better understanding of the role and importance of different factors in producing the model responses, the procedure known as 'Sensitivity Analysis' (SA) can be very helpful. Despite the availability of a large body of literature on the development and application of various SA approaches, two issues continue to pose major challenges: (1) Ambiguous Definition of Sensitivity - Different SA methods are based in different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and can result in different, even conflicting, assessments of the underlying sensitivities for a given problem, (2) Computational Cost - The cost of carrying out SA can be large, even excessive, for high-dimensional problems and/or computationally intensive models. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to sensitivity analysis that addresses the dual aspects of 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency'. By effective, we mean achieving an assessment that is both meaningful and clearly reflective of the objective of the analysis (the first challenge above), while by efficiency we mean achieving statistically robust results with minimal computational cost (the second challenge above). Based on this approach, we develop a 'global' sensitivity analysis framework that efficiently generates a newly-defined set of sensitivity indices that characterize a range of important properties of metric 'response surfaces' encountered when performing SA on EES models. Further, we show how this framework embraces, and is consistent with, a spectrum of different concepts regarding 'sensitivity', and that commonly-used SA approaches (e.g., Sobol

  5. Geobiological constraints on Earth system sensitivity to CO₂ during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Royer, D L; Pagani, M; Beerling, D J

    2012-07-01

    Earth system climate sensitivity (ESS) is the long-term (>10³ year) response of global surface temperature to doubled CO₂ that integrates fast and slow climate feedbacks. ESS has energy policy implications because global temperatures are not expected to decline appreciably for at least 10³ year, even if anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions drop to zero. We report provisional ESS estimates of 3 °C or higher for some of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic based on paleo-reconstructions of CO₂ and temperature. These estimates are generally higher than climate sensitivities simulated from global climate models for the same ancient periods (approximately 3 °C). Climate models probably do not capture the full suite of positive climate feedbacks that amplify global temperatures during some globally warm periods, as well as other characteristic features of warm climates such as low meridional temperature gradients. These absent feedbacks may be related to clouds, trace greenhouse gases (GHGs), seasonal snow cover, and/or vegetation, especially in polar regions. Better characterization and quantification of these feedbacks is a priority given the current accumulation of atmospheric GHGs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. State-Dependence of the Climate Sensitivity in Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2017-10-01

    Growing evidence from general circulation models (GCMs) indicates that the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) depends on the magnitude of forcing, which is commonly referred to as state-dependence. We present a comprehensive assessment of ECS state-dependence in Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) by analyzing millennial simulations with sustained 2×CO2 and 4×CO2 forcings. We compare different extrapolation methods and show that ECS is smaller in the higher-forcing scenario in 12 out of 15 EMICs, in contrast to the opposite behavior reported from GCMs. In one such EMIC, the Bern3D-LPX model, this state-dependence is mainly due to the weakening sea ice-albedo feedback in the Southern Ocean, which depends on model configuration. Due to ocean-mixing adjustments, state-dependence is only detected hundreds of years after the abrupt forcing, highlighting the need for long model integrations. Adjustments to feedback parametrizations of EMICs may be necessary if GCM intercomparisons confirm an opposite state-dependence.

  7. What do we mean by sensitivity analysis? The need for comprehensive characterization of "global" sensitivity in Earth and Environmental systems models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2015-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an essential paradigm in Earth and Environmental Systems modeling. However, the term "sensitivity" has a clear definition, based in partial derivatives, only when specified locally around a particular point (e.g., optimal solution) in the problem space. Accordingly, no unique definition exists for "global sensitivity" across the problem space, when considering one or more model responses to different factors such as model parameters or forcings. A variety of approaches have been proposed for global sensitivity analysis, based on different philosophies and theories, and each of these formally characterizes a different "intuitive" understanding of sensitivity. These approaches focus on different properties of the model response at a fundamental level and may therefore lead to different (even conflicting) conclusions about the underlying sensitivities. Here we revisit the theoretical basis for sensitivity analysis, summarize and critically evaluate existing approaches in the literature, and demonstrate their flaws and shortcomings through conceptual examples. We also demonstrate the difficulty involved in interpreting "global" interaction effects, which may undermine the value of existing interpretive approaches. With this background, we identify several important properties of response surfaces that are associated with the understanding and interpretation of sensitivities in the context of Earth and Environmental System models. Finally, we highlight the need for a new, comprehensive framework for sensitivity analysis that effectively characterizes all of the important sensitivity-related properties of model response surfaces.

  8. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.

    2017-12-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77-0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02-0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the

  9. Variogram Analysis of Response surfaces (VARS): A New Framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Earth and environmental systems models (EESMs) are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. Complexity and dimensionality are manifested by introducing many different factors in EESMs (i.e., model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.) to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for characterizing the role and importance of such factors in producing the model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are limiting cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  10. Simulations of precipitation using the Community Earth System Model (CESM): Sensitivity to microphysics time step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthi, A.; Menon, S.; Sednev, I.

    2011-12-01

    An inherent difficulty in the ability of global climate models to accurately simulate precipitation lies in the use of a large time step, Δt (usually 30 minutes), to solve the governing equations. Since microphysical processes are characterized by small time scales compared to Δt, finite difference approximations used to advance microphysics equations suffer from numerical instability and large time truncation errors. With this in mind, the sensitivity of precipitation simulated by the atmospheric component of CESM, namely the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.1), to the microphysics time step (τ) is investigated. Model integrations are carried out for a period of five years with a spin up time of about six months for a horizontal resolution of 2.5 × 1.9 degrees and 30 levels in the vertical, with Δt = 1800 s. The control simulation with τ = 900 s is compared with one using τ = 300 s for accumulated precipitation and radi- ation budgets at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA), while keeping Δt fixed. Our choice of τ = 300 s is motivated by previous work on warm rain processes wherein it was shown that a value of τ around 300 s was necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure positive definiteness and numerical stability of the explicit time integration scheme used to integrate the microphysical equations. However, since the entire suite of microphysical processes are represented in our case, we suspect that this might impose additional restrictions on τ. The τ = 300 s case produces differences in large-scale accumulated rainfall from the τ = 900 s case by as large as 200 mm, over certain regions of the globe. The spatial patterns of total accumulated precipitation using τ = 300 s are in closer agreement with satellite observed precipitation, when compared to the τ = 900 s case. Differences are also seen in the radiation budget with the τ = 300 (900) s cases producing surpluses that range between 1-3 W/m2 at both the TOA and surface in the global

  11. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  12. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  13. integrated Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andew; Di Vittorio, Alan; Collins, William

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems.« less

  14. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  15. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  16. Engineering the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The post-war growth of the earth sciences has been fueled, in part, by a drive to quantify environmental insults in order to support arguments for their reduction, yet paradoxically the knowledge gained is grants us ever greater capability to deliberately engineer environmental processes on a planetary scale. Increased capability can arises though seemingly unconnected scientific advances. Improvements in numerical weather prediction such as the use of adjoint models in analysis/forecast systems, for example, means that weather modification can be accomplished with smaller control inputs. Purely technological constraints on our ability to engineer earth systems arise from our limited ability to measure and predict system responses and from limits on our ability to manage large engineering projects. Trends in all three constraints suggest a rapid growth in our ability to engineer the planet. What are the implications of our growing ability to geoengineer? Will we see a reemergence of proposals to engineer our way out of the climate problem? How can we avoid the moral hazard posed by the knowledge that geoengineering might provide a backstop to climate damages? I will speculate about these issues, and suggest some institutional factors that may provide a stronger constraint on the use of geoengineering than is provided by any purely technological limit.

  17. Changes in interannual climate sensitivities of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 21st century predicted by CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongwen; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial carbon fluxes are sensitive to climate change, but the interannual climate sensitivity of the land carbon cycle can also change with time. We analyzed the changes in responses of net biome production (NBP), net primary production (NPP), and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) to interannual climate variations over the 21st century in the Earth System Models (ESMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. Under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5, interannual temperature sensitivities of NBP (γTempNBP), NPP (γTempNPP), and Rh (γTempRh) remain relatively stable at global scale, yet with large differences among ESMs and spatial heterogeneity. Modeled γTempNPP and γTempRh appear to increase in parallel in boreal regions, resulting in unchanged γTempNBP. Tropical γTempNBP decreases in most models, due to decreasing γTempNPP and relatively stable γTempRh. Across models, the changes in γTempNBP can be mainly explained by changes in γTempNPP rather than changes in γTempRh, at both global and regional scales. Interannual precipitation sensitivities of global NBP (γPrecNBP), NPP (γPrecNPP), and Rh (γPrecRh) are predicted not to change significantly, with large differences among ESMs. Across models, the changes in γPrecNBP can be mainly explained by changes in γPrecNPP rather than changes in γPrecRh in temperate regions, but not in other regions. Changes in the interannual climate sensitivities of carbon fluxes are consistent across RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 but larger in more intensive scenarios. More effort should be considered to improve terrestrial carbon flux responses to interannual climate variability, e.g., incorporating biogeochemical processes of nutrient limitation, permafrost dynamics, and microbial decomposition.

  18. Evaluating Carbon and Climate Sensitivities of the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model ESM2Mb to Forcing Perturbations during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandy, H.; Shevliakova, E.; Keller, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.5 Myr) was a period of rapid warming resulting from major changes in the carbon cycle and has been cited as the closest historical analogue to anthropogenic carbon release. Up to now, modeling studies of the PETM used either a low-resolution coupled model of the ocean and atmosphere with prescribed CO2 or CH4, or coupled climate-carbon models of intermediate complexity (i.e. simplified ocean or atmosphere). In this study we carried a suit of numerical experiments with the NOAA/GFDL comprehensive atmosphere-ocean coupled model with integrated terrestrial and marine carbon cycle components, known as an Earth System Model (ESM2Mb). We analyzed the output from millennia-scale ESM2Mb simulations with different combinations of forcings from the pre-PETM and PETM, including greenhouse gas concentrations and solar intensity. In addition we explore sensitivities of climate and carbon cycling to changes in geology such as topography, continental positions, and the presence and absence of large land glaciers. Furthermore, we examine ESM2Mb climate and carbon sensitivities to PETM conditions with a focus on how alternate conditions and forcings relate to the uncertainty in the climate and carbon cycling estimates from paleo observations. We explore changes in atmosphere, land, and ocean temperatures and circulation patterns as well as vegetation distribution, permafrost, and carbon storage in terrestrial and marine ecosystems from pre-PETM to PETM conditions. We found that with the present day land/sea mask and land glaciers in ESM2Mb, changes in only greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2 and CH4) from pre-PETM to PETM conditions induce global warming of 3-5 °C, consistent with the lower range of estimates from paleo proxies. Changes in the carbon permafrost storage from warming cannot explain the rapid increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Changes in the ocean circulation and carbon storage critically depend on geological

  19. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  20. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  1. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more » This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  2. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; ...

    2014-12-08

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more » This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO₂ given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m⁻²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m⁻²), where 3.7 W ⁻² denotes the forcing for doubled CO₂. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  3. Earth System Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  4. Sensitivity of planetary cruise navigation to earth orientation calibration errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Folkner, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed analysis was conducted to determine the sensitivity of spacecraft navigation errors to the accuracy and timeliness of Earth orientation calibrations. Analyses based on simulated X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler and ranging measurements acquired during the interplanetary cruise segment of the Mars Pathfinder heliocentric trajectory were completed for the nominal trajectory design and for an alternative trajectory with a longer transit time. Several error models were developed to characterize the effect of Earth orientation on navigational accuracy based on current and anticipated Deep Space Network calibration strategies. The navigational sensitivity of Mars Pathfinder to calibration errors in Earth orientation was computed for each candidate calibration strategy with the Earth orientation parameters included as estimated parameters in the navigation solution. In these cases, the calibration errors contributed 23 to 58% of the total navigation error budget, depending on the calibration strategy being assessed. Navigation sensitivity calculations were also performed for cases in which Earth orientation calibration errors were not adjusted in the navigation solution. In these cases, Earth orientation calibration errors contributed from 26 to as much as 227% of the total navigation error budget. The final analysis suggests that, not only is the method used to calibrate Earth orientation vitally important for precision navigation of Mars Pathfinder, but perhaps equally important is the method for inclusion of the calibration errors in the navigation solutions.

  5. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-05-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software system in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We also develop the earth science application metadata; geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing; and some other tools. In this paper, we will describe software architecture and components of the data grid system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  6. Ontology of Earth's nonlinear dynamic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2017-04-01

    As a complex system, Earth and its major integrated and dynamically interacting subsystems (e.g., hydrosphere, atmosphere) display nonlinear behavior in response to internal and external influences. The Earth Nonlinear Dynamic Complex Systems (ENDCS) ontology formally represents the semantics of the knowledge about the nonlinear system element (agent) behavior, function, and structure, inter-agent and agent-environment feedback loops, and the emergent collective properties of the whole complex system as the result of interaction of the agents with other agents and their environment. It also models nonlinear concepts such as aperiodic, random chaotic behavior, sensitivity to initial conditions, bifurcation of dynamic processes, levels of organization, self-organization, aggregated and isolated functionality, and emergence of collective complex behavior at the system level. By incorporating several existing ontologies, the ENDCS ontology represents the dynamic system variables and the rules of transformation of their state, emergent state, and other features of complex systems such as the trajectories in state (phase) space (attractor and strange attractor), basins of attractions, basin divide (separatrix), fractal dimension, and system's interface to its environment. The ontology also defines different object properties that change the system behavior, function, and structure and trigger instability. ENDCS will help to integrate the data and knowledge related to the five complex subsystems of Earth by annotating common data types, unifying the semantics of shared terminology, and facilitating interoperability among different fields of Earth science.

  7. Earth orbiting Sisyphus system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurkevich, I.; Krause, K. W.; Neste, S. L.; Soberman, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of employing an optical meteoroid detecting system, known as Sisyphus, to measure the near-earth particulates from an earth orbiting vehicle, is considered. A Sisyphus system can discriminate between natural and man-made particles since the system measures orbital characteristics of particles. A Sisyphus system constructed for the Pioneer F/G missions to Jupiter is used as the baseline, and is described. The amount of observing time which can be obtained by a Sisyphus instrument launched into various orbits is determined. Observation time is lost when, (1) the Sun is in or near the field of view, (2) the lighted Earth is in or near the field of view, (3) the instrument is eclipsed by the Earth, and (4) the phase angle measured at the particle between the forward scattering direction and the instrument is less than a certain critical value. The selection of the launch system and the instrument platform with a dedicated, attitude controlled payload package is discussed. Examples of such systems are SATS and SOLRAD 10(C) vehicles, and other possibilities are AVCO Corp. S4 system, the OWL system, and the Delta Payload Experiment Package.

  8. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  9. Earth Science Data Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  10. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  11. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  12. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  13. Fire in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  14. Fire in the Earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, David M.J.S.; Balch, Jennifer; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J.; Carlson, Jean M.; Cochrane, Mark A.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Doyle, John C.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Johnston, Fay H.; Keeley, Jon E.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Kull, Christian A.; Marston, J. Brad; Moritz, Max A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Roos, Christopher I.; Scott, Andrew C.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Pyne, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  15. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  16. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  17. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  18. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  19. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-02-12

    The term "tipping point" commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term "tipping element" to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  20. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tipping element” to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points. PMID:18258748

  1. Earth Observing System Data Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe; Amrhein, James; Sefert, Ed; Marsans, Lorena; Solomon, Mark; Nestler, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Data Gateway (EDG) software provides a "one-stop-shopping" standard interface for exploring and ordering Earth-science data stored at geographically distributed sites. EDG enables a user to do the following: 1) Search for data according to high-level criteria (e.g., geographic location, time, or satellite that acquired the data); 2) Browse the results of a search, viewing thumbnail sketches of data that satisfy the user s criteria; and 3) Order selected data for delivery to a specified address on a chosen medium (e.g., compact disk or magnetic tape). EDG consists of (1) a component that implements a high-level client/server protocol, and (2) a collection of C-language libraries that implement the passing of protocol messages between an EDG client and one or more EDG servers. EDG servers are located at sites usually called "Distributed Active Archive Centers" (DAACs). Each DAAC may allow access to many individual data items, called "granules" (e.g., single Landsat images). Related granules are grouped into collections called "data sets." EDG enables a user to send a search query to multiple DAACs simultaneously, inspect the resulting information, select browseable granules, and then order selected data from the different sites in a seamless fashion.

  2. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  3. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  4. Earth and ocean dynamics satellites and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the present state of satellite and ground systems making observations of the dynamics of the solid earth and the oceans. Emphasis is placed on applications of space technology for practical use. Topics discussed include: satellite missions and results over the last two decades in the areas of earth gravity field, polar motions, earth tides, magnetic anomalies, and satellite-to-satellite tracking; laser ranging systems; development of the Very Long Baseline Interferometer; and Skylab radar altimeter data applications.

  5. The Sensitivity of Earth's Climate History To Changes In The Rates of Biological And Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.

    2014-12-01

    The faint young Sun paradox (early Earth had surface liquid water despite solar luminosity 70% of the modern value) implies that our planet's albedo has increased through time and/or greenhouse warming has fallen. The obvious explanation is that negative feedback processes stabilized temperatures. However, the limited temperature data available does not exhibit the expected residual temperature rise and, at least for the Phanerozoic, estimates of climate sensitivity exceed the Planck sensitivity (the zero net-feedback value). The alternate explanation is that biological and geological evolution have tended to cool Earth through time hence countering solar-driven warming. The coincidence that Earth-evolution has roughly cancelled Solar-evolution can then be explained as an emergent property of a complex system (the Gaia hypothesis) or the result of the unavoidable observational bias that Earth's climate history must be compatible with our existence (the anthropic principle). Here, I use a simple climate model to investigate the sensitivity of Earth's climate to changes in the rate of Earth-evolution. Earth-evolution is represented by an effective emissivity which has an intrinsic variation through time (due to continental growth, the evolution of cyanobacteria, orbital fluctuations etc) plus a linear feedback term which enhances emissivity variations. An important feature of this model is a predicted maximum in the radiated-flux versus temperature function. If the increasing solar flux through time had exceeded this value then runaway warming would have occurred. For the best-guess temperature history and climate sensitivity, the Earth has always been within a few percent of this maximum. There is no obvious Gaian explanation for this flux-coincidence but the anthropic principle naturally explains it: If the rate of biological/geological evolution is naturally slow then Earth is a fortunate outlier which evolved just fast enough to avoid solar-induced over

  6. Sensitivity of future U.S. water shortages to socioeconomic and climate drivers: A case study in Georgia using an integrated human-earth system modeling framework

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; ...

    2016-02-06

    Here, one of the most important interactions between humans and climate is in the demand and supply of water. Humans withdraw, use, and consume water and return waste water to the environment for a variety of socioeconomic purposes, including domestic, commercial, and industrial use, production of energy resources and cooling thermal-electric power plants, and growing food, fiber, and chemical feed stocks for human consumption. Uncertainties in the future human demand for water interact with future impacts of climatic change on water supplies to impinge on water management decisions at the international, national, regional, and local level, but until recently toolsmore » were not available to assess the uncertainties surrounding these decisions. This paper demonstrates the use of a multi-model framework in a structured sensitivity analysis to project and quantify the sensitivity of future deficits in surface water in the context of climate and socioeconomic change for all U.S. states and sub-basins. The framework treats all sources of water demand and supply consistently from the world to local level. The paper illustrates the capabilities of the framework with sample results for a river sub-basin in the U.S. state of Georgia.« less

  7. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, P.; Muhlhaus, H.; Lister, G.; Dyskin, A.; Place, D.; Appelbe, B.; Nimmervoll, N.; Abramson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the physics and dynamics of the entire earth system offers an outstanding opportunity for advancing earth system science and technology but represents a major challenge due to the range of scales and physical processes involved, as well as the magnitude of the software engineering effort required. However, new simulation and computer technologies are bringing this objective within reach. Under a special competitive national funding scheme to establish new Major National Research Facilities (MNRF), the Australian government together with a consortium of Universities and research institutions have funded construction of the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS). The Simulator or computational virtual earth will provide the research infrastructure to the Australian earth systems science community required for simulations of dynamical earth processes at scales ranging from microscopic to global. It will consist of thematic supercomputer infrastructure and an earth systems simulation software system. The Simulator models and software will be constructed over a five year period by a multi-disciplinary team of computational scientists, mathematicians, earth scientists, civil engineers and software engineers. The construction team will integrate numerical simulation models (3D discrete elements/lattice solid model, particle-in-cell large deformation finite-element method, stress reconstruction models, multi-scale continuum models etc) with geophysical, geological and tectonic models, through advanced software engineering and visualization technologies. When fully constructed, the Simulator aims to provide the software and hardware infrastructure needed to model solid earth phenomena including global scale dynamics and mineralisation processes, crustal scale processes including plate tectonics, mountain building, interacting fault system dynamics, and micro-scale processes that control the geological, physical and dynamic

  8. Earth System Science: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details how an understanding of the role played by human activities in global environmental change has emerged. Presents information about the earth system provided by research programs. Speculates about the direction of future research. (DDR)

  9. 1993 Earth Observing System reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem (Editor); Dokken, David Jon (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a NASA-sponsored concept that uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components of MTPE will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. Sustained observations will allow researchers to monitor climate variables overtime to determine trends; however, space-based monitoring alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive data and information system, a community of scientists performing research with the data acquired, and extensive ground campaigns are all important components. Brief descriptions of the various elements that comprise the overall mission are provided. The Earth Observing System (EOS) - a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans - is the centerpiece of MTPE. The elements comprising the EOS mission are described in detail.

  10. The UK Earth System Model project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  11. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  12. Overview of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    For over the last 15 years, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has devoted a tremendous effort to design and build the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to acquire, process, archive and distribute the data of the EOS series of satellites and other ESE missions and field programs. The development of EOSDIS began with an early prototype to support NASA data from heritage missions and progressed through a formal development process to today's system that supports the data from multiple missions including Landsat 7, Terra, Aqua, SORCE and ICESat. The system is deployed at multiple Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and its current holdings are approximately 4.5 petabytes. The current set of unique users requesting EOS data and information products exceeds 2 million. While EOSDIS has been the centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems, other initiatives have augmented the services of EOSDIS and have impacted its evolution and the future directions of data systems within the ESE. ESDIS had an active prototyping effort and has continued to be involved in the activities of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). In response to concerns from the science community that EOSDIS was too large and monolithic, the ESE initiated the Earth Science Information Partners (ESP) Federation Experiment that funded a series of projects to develop specialized products and services to support Earth science research and applications. Last year, the enterprise made 41 awards to successful proposals to the Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASON) Cooperative Agreement Notice to continue and extend the ESP activity. The ESE has also sponsored a formulation activity called the Strategy for the Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) to develop approaches and decision support processes for the management of the collection of data system and service providers of the enterprise. Throughout the development of its earth science

  13. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  14. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  15. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  16. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: Conceptual Frameworks of Earth Systems and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Hannah H.; Holder, Lauren; Herbert, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in authentic problem solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves both developing student conceptualization of Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge using techniques that model those used by professionals. In this first paper of a two-part series, we review the state of…

  17. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  18. Global Change and the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2004-08-01

    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  19. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS) advanced altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the post-TOPEX era, satellite radar altimeters will be developed with the capability of measuring the earth's surface topography over a wide swath of coverage, rather than just at the satellite's nadir. The identification of potential spacecraft flight missions in the future was studied. The best opportunity was found to be the Earth Observing System (EOS). It is felt that an instrument system that has a broad appeal to the earth sciences community stands a much better chance of being selected as an EOS instrument. Consequently, the Topography and Rain Radar Imager (TARRI) will be proposed as a system that has the capability to profile the Earth's topography regardless of the surface type. The horizontal and height resolutions of interest are obviously significantly different over land, ice, and water; but, the use of radar to provide an all-weather observation capability is applicable to the whole earth. The scientific guidance for the design and development of this instrument and the eventual scientific utilization of the data produced by the TARRI will be provided by seven science teams. The teams are formed around scientific disciplines and are titled: Geology/Geophysics, Hydrology/Rain, Oceanography, Ice/Snow, Geodesy/Orbit/Attitude, Cartography, and Surface Properties/Techniques.

  1. Project Copernicus: An Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation is presenting this proposal for Project Copernicus to fulfill the need for space-based remote sensing of Earth. Concentration is on data acquisition. Copernicus is designed to be a flexible system of spacecraft in a low near-polar orbit. The goal is to acquire data so that the scientists may begin to understand many Earth processes and interactions. The mission objective of Copernicus is to provide a space-based, remote-sensing measurement data acquisition and transfer system for 15 years. A description of the design project is presented.

  2. Teleconnections in complex human-Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J.

    2017-12-01

    Human systems and physical Earth systems are closely coupled and interact in complex ways that are sometimes surprising. This presentation discusses a few examples of system interactions. We consider the coupled energy-water-land-economy systems. We show how reductions in fossil fuel emissions are inversely coupled to land rents, food prices and deforestation. We discuss how water shortages in one part of the world is propagated to other distant parts of the world. We discuss the sensitivity of international trade patterns to energy and land systems technology and markets, and the potentially unanticipated results that can emerge.

  3. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  4. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  5. The Earth System (ES-DOC) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Murphy, Sylvia; Treshansky, Allyn; DeLuca, Cecilia; Guilyardi, Eric; Denvil, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    ESSI1.3 New Paradigms, Modelling, and International Collaboration Strategies for Earth System Sciences Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software and places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages emerging documentation standards and supports the following projects: Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and demonstrate the range of tools and services currently available for use. It will also demonstrate how international collaborative efforts are essential to the success of ES-DOC.

  6. Detrital zircons and Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.

    2016-12-01

    Zircon is a mineral commonly produced in silicic magmatism. Therefore, due to its resilience and exceedingly long residence times in the continental crust, detrital zircon records can be used to track processes associated with silicic magmatism throughout Earth history. In this contribution I will address the potential role of preservational biases in zircon record, and further discuss how zircon datasets can be used to help better understand the relationship between lithospheric and Earth system evolution. I will use large compilations of zircon data to trace the composition and weatherability of the continental crust, to evaluate temporal rates of crustal recycling, and finally to track spatiotemporal variation in continental arc magmatism and volcanic CO2 outgassing throughout Earth history. These records demonstrate that secular changes in plate tectonic regimes played a prominent role in modulating conditions of the ocean+atmosphere system and long-term climate state for the last 3 billion years.

  7. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  8. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  9. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  10. Modeling Earth system changes of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutzbach, John E.

    1992-01-01

    This review outlines some of the challenging problems to be faced in understanding the causes and mechanisms of large climatic changes and gives examples of initial studies of these problems with climate models. The review covers climatic changes in three main periods of earth history: (1) the past several centuries; (2) the past several glacial-interglacial cycles; and (3) the past several million years. The review will concentrate on studies of climate but, where possible, will mention broader aspects of the earth system.

  11. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  12. Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, R. M.

    2002-12-01

    Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

  13. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  14. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  15. Integrated Earth System Model (iESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter Edmond; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-12-02

    The iESM is a simulation code that represents the physical and biological aspects of Earth's climate system, and also includes the macro-economic and demographic properties of human societies. The human aspect of the simulation code is focused in particular on the effects of human activities on land use and land cover change, but also includes aspects such as energy economies. The time frame for predictions with iESM is approximately 1970 through 2100.

  16. 2016 Earth System Grid Federation Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) experienced a major setback in June 2015, when it experienced a security incident that brought all systems to a halt for more than half a year. However, federation developers and management committee members turned the incident into an opportunity to dramatically upgrade the system security and functionality and to develop planning and policy documents to guide ESGF evolution and success. Moreover, despite the incident, ESGF developer working teams continue to make strong and significant progress on various enhancement projects that will help ensure ESGF can meet the needs of the climate community in themore » coming years.« less

  17. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  18. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  19. Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, K. A.; Langendijk, G.; Bahar, F.; Huang-Lachmann, J. T.; Osman, M.; Mirsafa, M.; Sonntag, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) community is compiled of early career researchers (including students) coming from a range of scientific backgrounds, spanning both natural and social sciences. YESS unifies young researchers in an influential network to give them a collective voice and leverage within the geosciences community, while supporting career development. The YESS community has used its powerful network to provide a unified perspective on the future of Earth system science (Rauser et al. 2017), to be involved in the organization of international conferences, and to engage with existing international structures that coordinate science. Since its founding in Germany in 2010, the YESS community has grown extensively across the globe, with currently almost 1000 members from over 80 countries, and has become truly interdisciplinary. Recently, the organization has carried elections for Regional Representatives and the Executive Committee as part of its self-sustained governance structure. YESS is ready to continue pioneering crucial areas of research which provide solutions to benefit society for the long-term advancement of Earth system science.

  20. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  1. EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

  2. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  3. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  4. Critical Thresholds in Earth-System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The history of the Earth system is a story of change. Some changesare gradual and benign, but others, especially those associated withcatastrophic mass extinction, are relatively abrupt and destructive.What sets one group apart from the other? Here I hypothesize thatperturbations of Earth's carbon cycle lead to mass extinction if theyexceed either a critical rate at long time scales or a critical sizeat short time scales. By analyzing 31 carbon-isotopic events duringthe last 542 million years, I identify the critical rate with a limitimposed by mass conservation. Further analysis identifies thecrossover timescale separating fast from slow events with thetimescale of the ocean's homeostatic response to a change in pH. Theproduct of the critical rate and the crossover timescale then yieldsthe critical size. The modern critical size for the marine carboncycle is roughly similar to the mass of carbon that human activitieswill likely have added to the oceans by the year 2100.

  5. The 1990 Reference Handbook: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System (EOS) including goals and requirements is given. Its role in the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the International--Biosphere Program is addressed. The EOS mission requirements, science, fellowship program, data and information systems architecture, data policy, space measurement, and mission elements are presented along with the management of EOS. Descriptions of the facility instruments, instrument investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations are also present. The role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the mission is mentioned.

  6. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  7. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  8. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  9. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  10. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  11. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  12. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    EOSDIS is a data system created by NASA to manage its collection of Earth Science data. This presentation is a brief description of the data system provided to the general user community. The presentation reviews the data types, management and software development techniques in use to organize the system.

  13. The influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, Andrew E.; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2018-04-01

    Our climate is constrained by the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and terrestrial energy radiated to space. This energy balance has been widely used to infer equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) from observations of 20th-century warming. Such estimates yield lower values than other methods, and these have been influential in pushing down the consensus ECS range in recent assessments. Here we test the method using a 100-member ensemble of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.1) simulations of the period 1850-2005 with known forcing. We calculate ECS in each ensemble member using energy balance, yielding values ranging from 2.1 to 3.9 K. The spread in the ensemble is related to the central assumption in the energy budget framework: that global average surface temperature anomalies are indicative of anomalies in outgoing energy (either of terrestrial origin or reflected solar energy). We find that this assumption is not well supported over the historical temperature record in the model ensemble or more recent satellite observations. We find that framing energy balance in terms of 500 hPa tropical temperature better describes the planet's energy balance.

  14. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  15. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  16. Earth system modelling: a GAIM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C.

    2003-04-01

    For over a decade the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Integration (formerly Interepretation) and Modelling (GAIM) has facilitated international, interdisciplinary research. The focus has been development, comparison and evaluation of models describing Earth system components, especially terrestrial and ocean carbon cycling and atmospheric transport. GAIM also sponsored the BIOME 6000 project, which produced snapshots of world vegetation patterns for the last glacial maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene, and experiments in coupled atmosphere-biosphere modelling that used these results. The most successful achievements have brought together modellers and data experts so that model comparisons could be made “with open eyes”. The need to bring together different communities (such as data experts and modellers; ecologists and atmospheric scientists; economists and ecologists...) only increases, and is a major rationale for the continuation of GAIM. GAIM has recently set out 23 overarching questions which could define future directions in Earth system science. Many have a “human dimension”, reflecting the fact that the societal context is poorly defined. Natural scientists often appeal to societal reasons to study global change, but typically don’t incorporate human science perspectives in their research strategies. Other questions have a “physical dimension” as biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and physical climate science merge. As IGBP II begins, GAIM faces the challenge of tackling large gaps in our knowledge of how the coupled Earth system works, with and without human interfence. On the natural science side, the Vostok ice-core record dramatically illustrates our current state of ignorance. Vostok established that the Earth system’s response to orbital forcing is characterized by strong non-linear interactions between atmospheric greenhouse-gas and aerosol constituents and climate. The problem is that we don’t understand most of these

  17. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  18. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  19. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  20. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  1. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D.; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near‐real‐time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)‐based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided. PMID:29497478

  2. Soil warming response: field experiments to Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bradford, M.; Wieder, W. R.; Crowther, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The soil carbon response to climate change is extremely uncertain at the global scale, in part because of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the temperature response. To address this uncertainty we collected data from 48 soil warming manipulations studies and examined the temperature response using two different methods. First, we constructed a mixed effects model and extrapolated the effect of soil warming on soil carbon stocks under anticipated shifts in surface temperature during the 21st century. We saw significant vulnerability of soil carbon stocks, especially in high carbon soils. To place this effect in the context of anticipated changes in carbon inputs and moisture shifts, we applied a one pool decay model with temperature sensitivities to the field data and imposed a post-hoc correction on the Earth system model simulations to integrate the field with the simulated temperature response. We found that there was a slight elevation in the overall soil carbon losses, but that the field uncertainty of the temperature sensitivity parameter was as large as the variation in the among model soil carbon projections. This implies that model-data integration is unlikely to constrain soil carbon simulations and highlights the importance of representing parameter uncertainty in these Earth system models to inform emissions targets.

  3. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thresholds of catastrophe in the Earth system

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    The history of the Earth system is a story of change. Some changes are gradual and benign, but others, especially those associated with catastrophic mass extinction, are relatively abrupt and destructive. What sets one group apart from the other? Here, I hypothesize that perturbations of Earth’s carbon cycle lead to mass extinction if they exceed either a critical rate at long time scales or a critical size at short time scales. By analyzing 31 carbon isotopic events during the past 542 million years, I identify the critical rate with a limit imposed by mass conservation. Identification of the crossover time scale separating fast from slow events then yields the critical size. The modern critical size for the marine carbon cycle is roughly similar to the mass of carbon that human activities will likely have added to the oceans by the year 2100. PMID:28948221

  5. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  6. Average latitudinal variation in ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface. [biological sensitivity and dosage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Mo, T.; Green, A. E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Tabulated values are presented for ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface as a function of wavelength, latitude, and season, for clear sky and seasonally and latitudinally averaged ozone amounts. These tabulations can be combined with any biological sensitivity function in order to obtain the seasonal and latitudinal variation of the corresponding effective doses. The integrated dosages, based on the erythemal sensitivity curve and on the Robertson-Berger sunburn-meter sensitivity curve, have also been calculated, and these are found to vary with latitude and season in very nearly the same way as 307 and 314 nm radiation, respectively.

  7. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): Effective Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web-based tool, under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. It contains features geared toward a range of applications, spanning research and outreach. It offers an intuitive user interface, in which model inputs are changed using sliders and other interactive components. Current capabilities include simulation of polar ice sheet responses to climate forcing, based on NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We believe that the visualization of data is most effective when tailored to the target audience, and that many of the best practices for modern Web design/development can be applied directly to the visualization of data: use of negative space, color schemes, typography, accessibility standards, tooltips, etc cetera. We present our prototype website, and invite input from potential users, including researchers, educators, and students.

  8. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  9. Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Kernels for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in a Laterally Varying Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, O.; Al-Attar, D.; Tromp, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Austermann, J.; Lau, H. C. P.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a new approach to both the forward and inverse problems in glacial isostatic adjustment. We present a method for forward modelling GIA in compressible and laterally heterogeneous earth models with a variety of linear and non-linear rheologies. Instead of using the so-called sea level equation, which must be solved iteratively, the forward theory we present consists of a number of coupled evolution equations that can be straightforwardly numerically integrated. We also apply the adjoint method to the inverse problem in order to calculate the derivatives of measurements of GIA with respect to the viscosity structure of the Earth. Such derivatives quantify the sensitivity of the measurements to the model. The adjoint method enables efficient calculation of continuous and laterally varying derivatives, allowing us to calculate the sensitivity of measurements of glacial isostatic adjustment to the Earth's three-dimensional viscosity structure. The derivatives have a number of applications within the inverse method. Firstly, they can be used within a gradient-based optimisation method to find a model which minimises some data misfit function. The derivatives can also be used to quantify the uncertainty in such a model and hence to provide understanding of which parts of the model are well constrained. Finally, they enable construction of measurements which provide sensitivity to a particular part of the model space. We illustrate both the forward and inverse aspects with numerical examples in a spherically symmetric earth model.

  10. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  11. Keeping Earth at work: Using thermodynamics to develop a holistic theory of the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The Earth system is unique among terrestrial planets in that it is maintained in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Practically all processes are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy, and these would act to destroy this state of disequilibrium. In order to maintain disequilibrium in steady state, driving forces are required that perform the work to maintain the Earth system in a state far from equilibrium. To characterize the functioning of the Earth system and the interactions among its subsystems we need to consider all terms of the first and second law of thermodynamics. While the global energy balance is well established in climatology, the global entropy and work balances receive little, if any, attention. Here I will present first steps in developing a holistic theory of the Earth system including quantifications of the relevant terms that is based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This theory allows us to compare the significance of different processes in driving and maintaining disequilibrium, allows us to explore interactions by investigating the role of power transfer among processes, and specifically illustrate the significance of life in driving planetary disequilibrium. Furthermore, the global work balance demonstrates the significant impact of human activity and it provides an estimate for the availability of renewable sources of free energy within the Earth system. Hence, I conclude that a holistic thermodynamic theory of the Earth system is not just some academic exercise of marginal use, but essential for a profound understanding of the Earth system and its response to change.

  12. Peptide synthesis in early earth hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemke, K.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260??C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160??C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ ?? mol-1) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. Astrobiology 9, 141-146. ?? 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009.

  13. A Desktop Virtual Reality Earth Motion System in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih Hung; Yang, Jie Chi; Shen, Sarah; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality principles. A study was conducted to observe the influences of the proposed system in learning.…

  14. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  15. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  16. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  17. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives: PTFs in Earth system science perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; ...

    2017-12-28

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. Here in this article, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscalingmore » techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.« less

  18. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-06-01

    This paper proposes a new transportation system for travel between Earth and Moon. This transportation system uses mechanical energy transfer and requires only minimal energy, using an engine located on Earth. A cable directly connects a pole of the Earth through a drive station to the lunar surface_ The equation for an optimal equal stress cable for complex gravitational field of Earth-Moon has been derived that allows significantly lower cable masses. The required strength could be provided by cables constructed of carbon nanotubes or carbon whiskers. Some of the constraints on such a system are discussed.

  19. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe.

  20. Solar system ice: Source of Earth's water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The contribution of carbanaceous chondrites in the water providing of the Earth has been discussed. It could be much more important than previously assumed. A comparison is made with the contribution by Comets.

  1. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  2. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  3. Altimetric system: Earth observing system. Volume 2h: Panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Born, George; Chase, Robert R. P.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Parsons, Chester; Tapley, Byron

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an altimetric system aboard the Earth observing system (Eos) spacecraft is provided. In keeping with the recommendations of the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, a complete altimetric system is defined that is capable of perpetuating the data set to be derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, enabling key scientific questions to be addressed. Since the scientific utility and technical maturity of spaceborne radar altimeters is well documented, the discussion is limited to highlighting those Eos-specific considerations that materially impact upon radar altimetric measurements.

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; ...

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  5. Direct and indirect capture of near-Earth asteroids in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Near-Earth asteroids have attracted attention for both scientific and commercial mission applications. Due to the fact that the Earth-Moon L1 and L2 points are candidates for gateway stations for lunar exploration, and an ideal location for space science, capturing asteroids and inserting them into periodic orbits around these points is of significant interest for the future. In this paper, we define a new type of lunar asteroid capture, termed direct capture. In this capture strategy, the candidate asteroid leaves its heliocentric orbit after an initial impulse, with its dynamics modeled using the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem until its insertion, with a second impulse, onto the L2 stable manifold in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. A Lambert arc in the Sun-asteroid two-body problem is used as an initial guess and a differential corrector used to generate the transfer trajectory from the asteroid's initial obit to the stable manifold associated with Earth-Moon L2 point. Results show that the direct asteroid capture strategy needs a shorter flight time compared to an indirect asteroid capture, which couples capture in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem and subsequent transfer to the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. Finally, the direct and indirect asteroid capture strategies are also applied to consider capture of asteroids at the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system.

  6. ACCESS Earth: Promoting Accessibility to Earth System Science for Students with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, S. M.; Cohen, L.; Lightbody, N.

    2001-05-01

    ACCESS Earth is an intensive summer institute for high school students with disabilities and their teachers that is designed to encourage students with disabilities to consider careers in earth system science. Participants study earth system science concepts at a Maine coastal estuary, using Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and field observations to evaluate the impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and development on coastal systems. Teachers, students, and scientists work together to adapt field and laboratory activities for persons with disabilities, including those with mobility and visual impairments. Other sessions include demonstrations of assistive technology, career discussions, and opportunities for students to meet with successful scientists with disabilities from throughout the U.S. The summer institute is one of several programs in development at the University of Southern Maine to address the problem of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the earth sciences. Other projects include a mentoring program for high school students, a web-based clearinghouse of resources for teaching earth sciences to students with disabilities, and guidebooks for adaptation of popular published earth system science curricula for disabled learners.

  7. Sensitivities of Earth's core and mantle compositions to accretion and differentiation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2017-01-01

    The Earth and other terrestrial planets formed through the accretion of smaller bodies, with their core and mantle compositions primarily set by metal-silicate interactions during accretion. The conditions of these interactions are poorly understood, but could provide insight into the mechanisms of planetary core formation and the composition of Earth's core. Here we present modeling of Earth's core formation, combining results of 100 N-body accretion simulations with high pressure-temperature metal-silicate partitioning experiments. We explored how various aspects of accretion and core formation influence the resulting core and mantle chemistry: depth of equilibration, amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, initial distribution of oxidation states in the disk, temperature distribution in the planet, and target:impactor ratio of equilibrating silicate. Virtually all sets of model parameters that are able to reproduce the Earth's mantle composition result in at least several weight percent of both silicon and oxygen in the core, with more silicon than oxygen. This implies that the core's light element budget may be dominated by these elements, and is consistent with ≤1-2 wt% of other light elements. Reproducing geochemical and geophysical constraints requires that Earth formed from reduced materials that equilibrated at temperatures near or slightly above the mantle liquidus during accretion. The results indicate a strong tradeoff between the compositional effects of the depth of equilibration and the amounts of metal and silicate that equilibrate, so these aspects should be targeted in future studies aiming to better understand core formation conditions. Over the range of allowed parameter space, core and mantle compositions are most sensitive to these factors as well as stochastic variations in what the planet accreted as a function of time, so tighter constraints on these parameters will lead to an improved understanding of Earth's core composition.

  8. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  9. Near infrared harvesting dye-sensitized solar cells enabled by rare-earth upconversion materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyang; Ågren, Hans; Chen, Guanying

    2018-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been deemed as promising alternatives to silicon solar cells for the conversion of clean sunlight energy into electricity. A major limitation to their conversion efficiency is their inability to utilize light in the infrared (IR) spectral range, which constitutes almost half the energy of the sun's radiation. This fact has elicited motivations and endeavors to extend the response wavelength of DSSCs to the IR range. Photon upconversion through rare-earth ions constitutes one of the most promising approaches toward the goal of converting near-IR (NIR) or IR light into visible or ultraviolet light, where DSSCs typically have high sensitivity. In the present review, we summarize recent progress based on the utilization of various upconversion materials and device structures to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  11. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  12. Stratigraphic and Earth System approaches to defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Will; Leinfelder, Reinhold; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Williams, Mark; Summerhayes, Colin; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Crutzen, Paul; Edgeworth, Matt; Ellis, Erle C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Galuszka, Agnieszka; Grinevald, Jacques; Haywood, Alan; Ivar do Sul, Juliana; Jeandel, Catherine; McNeill, J. R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB.; Syvitski, James; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    Stratigraphy provides insights into the evolution and dynamics of the Earth System over its long history. With recent developments in Earth System science, changes in Earth System dynamics can now be observed directly and projected into the near future. An integration of the two approaches provides powerful insights into the nature and significance of contemporary changes to Earth. From both perspectives, the Earth has been pushed out of the Holocene Epoch by human activities, with the mid-20th century a strong candidate for the start date of the Anthropocene, the proposed new epoch in Earth history. Here we explore two contrasting scenarios for the future of the Anthropocene, recognizing that the Earth System has already undergone a substantial transition away from the Holocene state. A rapid shift of societies toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals could stabilize the Earth System in a state with more intense interglacial conditions than in the late Quaternary climate regime and with little further biospheric change. In contrast, a continuation of the present Anthropocene trajectory of growing human pressures will likely lead to biotic impoverishment and a much warmer climate with a significant loss of polar ice.

  13. Modeling the Earth system in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unninayar, Sushel; Bergman, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A broad overview is made of global earth system modeling in the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) era for the multidisciplinary audience encompassed by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Time scales of global system fluctuation and change are described in Section 2. Section 3 provides a rubric for modeling the global earth system, as presently understood. The ability of models to predict the future state of the global earth system and the extent to which their predictions are reliable are covered in Sections 4 and 5. The 'engineering' use of global system models (and predictions) is covered in Section 6. Section 7 covers aspects of an increasing need for improved transform algorithms and better methods to assimilate this information into global models. Future monitoring and data requirements are detailed in Section 8. Section 9 covers the NASA-initiated concept 'Mission to Planet Earth,' which employs space and ground based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. Section 10 concludes this review with general remarks concerning the state of global system modeling and observing technology and the need for future research.

  14. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  16. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  17. Photosynthesis, Earth System Models and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Sloan, V. L.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the huge carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is the largest of these fluxes, and is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity (GPP). One of the key parameters required by the FvCB model is an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Although Arctic GPP a small flux relative to global GPP, uncertainty is large. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we examined the derivation of Vc,max in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max for 12 species representing both dominant vegetation and key PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Separate measurements of CO2 assimilation (A) made at ambient conditions were compared with A modeled using the Vc,max values we measured in Barrow and those used by the ESMs. The A modeled with the Vc,max values used by the ESMs was 80% lower than the observed A. When our measured Vc,max values were used, modeled A was within 5% of observed A. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Here

  18. Supporting Inquiry-based Earth System Science Instruction with Middle and High School Earth Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, L.; Varner, R.; Froburg, E.; Smith, M.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Laura, G.; Brown, D.; Bryce, J.; Darwish, A.; Furman, T.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project, a partnership between faculty at the University of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State University, Elizabeth City State University and Dillard University, is designed to enrich the professional development of in-service and pre-service Earth science teachers. One goal of this effort is to help teachers use an inquiry-based approach to teaching Earth system science in their classrooms. As a part of the TESSE project, 42 pre-service and in-service teachers participated in an intensive two-week summer institute at UNH taught by Earth scientists and science educators from TESSE partnership institutions. The institute included instruction about a range of Earth science system topics as well as an introduction to teaching Earth science using an inquiry-based approach. In addition to providing teachers with information about inquiry-based science teaching in the form of sample lesson plans and opportunities to revise traditional lessons and laboratory exercises to make them more inquiry-based, TESSE instructors modeled an inquiry- based approach in their own teaching as much as possible. By the end of the Institute participants had developed lesson plans, units, or year-long course overviews in which they were expected to explain the ways in which they would include an inquiry-based approach in their Earth science teaching over the course of the school year. As a part of the project, graduate fellows (graduate students in the earth sciences) will work with classroom teachers during the academic year to support their implementation of these plans as well as to assist them in developing a more comprehensive inquiry-based approach in the classroom.

  19. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  20. Earth resources ground data handling systems for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.

  1. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  2. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Several modelling studies reported potential impacts of soil moisture anomalies on regional climate. In particular for short prediction periods, perturbations of the soil moisture state may result in significant alteration of surface temperature in the following season. However, it is not clear yet whether or not soil moisture anomalies affect climate also on larger temporal and spatial scales. In an earlier study, we showed that soil moisture anomalies can persist for several seasons in the deeper soil layers of a land surface model. Additionally, those anomalies can influence root zone moisture, in particular during explicitly dry or wet periods. Thus, one prerequisite for predictability, namely the existence of long term memory, is evident for simulated soil moisture and might be exploited to improve climate predictions. The second prerequisite is the sensitivity of the climate system to soil moisture. In order to investigate this sensitivity for decadal simulations, we implemented a soil moisture assimilation scheme into the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The assimilation scheme is based on a simple nudging algorithm and updates the surface soil moisture state once per day. In our experiments, the MPI-ESM is used which includes model components for the interactive simulation of atmosphere, land and ocean. Artificial assimilation data is created from a control simulation to nudge the MPI-ESM towards predominantly dry and wet states. First analyses are focused on the impact of the assimilation on land surface variables and reveal distinct differences in the long-term mean values between wet and dry state simulations. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are larger in the wet state compared to the dry state, resulting in an increased moisture transport from the land to atmosphere and ocean. Consequently, surface temperatures are lower in the wet state simulations by more than one Kelvin. In terms of spatial pattern

  3. Earth-moon system: Dynamics and parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical development of the equations of motion governing the earth-moon system is presented. The earth and moon were treated as finite rigid bodies and a mutual potential was utilized. The sun and remaining planets were treated as particles. Relativistic, non-rigid, and dissipative effects were not included. The translational and rotational motion of the earth and moon were derived in a fully coupled set of equations. Euler parameters were used to model the rotational motions. The mathematical model is intended for use with data analysis software to estimate physical parameters of the earth-moon system using primarily LURE type data. Two program listings are included. Program ANEAMO computes the translational/rotational motion of the earth and moon from analytical solutions. Program RIGEM numerically integrates the fully coupled motions as described above.

  4. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wu Hsiung; Wang, Feng Sheng; Chang, Maw Shang

    2008-01-01

    Background A mathematical model to understand, predict, control, or even design a real biological system is a central theme in systems biology. A dynamic biological system is always modeled as a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) system. How to simulate the dynamic behavior and dynamic parameter sensitivities of systems described by ODEs efficiently and accurately is a critical job. In many practical applications, e.g., the fed-batch fermentation systems, the system admissible input (corresponding to independent variables of the system) can be time-dependent. The main difficulty for investigating the dynamic log gains of these systems is the infinite dimension due to the time-dependent input. The classical dynamic sensitivity analysis does not take into account this case for the dynamic log gains. Results We present an algorithm with an adaptive step size control that can be used for computing the solution and dynamic sensitivities of an autonomous ODE system simultaneously. Although our algorithm is one of the decouple direct methods in computing dynamic sensitivities of an ODE system, the step size determined by model equations can be used on the computations of the time profile and dynamic sensitivities with moderate accuracy even when sensitivity equations are more stiff than model equations. To show this algorithm can perform the dynamic sensitivity analysis on very stiff ODE systems with moderate accuracy, it is implemented and applied to two sets of chemical reactions: pyrolysis of ethane and oxidation of formaldehyde. The accuracy of this algorithm is demonstrated by comparing the dynamic parameter sensitivities obtained from this new algorithm and from the direct method with Rosenbrock stiff integrator based on the indirect method. The same dynamic sensitivity analysis was performed on an ethanol fed-batch fermentation system with a time-varying feed rate to evaluate the applicability of the algorithm to realistic models with time

  5. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  6. Advancing coupled human-earth system models: The integrated Earth System Model Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Thornton, P. E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Mao, J.; Chini, L. P.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Shi, X.

    2012-12-01

    As human and biogeophysical models develop, opportunities for connections between them evolve and can be used to advance our understanding of human-earth systems interaction in the context of a changing climate. One such integration is taking place with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). A multi-disciplinary, multi-institution team has succeeded in integrating the GCAM integrated assessment model of human activity into CESM to dynamically represent the feedbacks between changing climate and human decision making, in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. The first applications of this capability have focused on the feedbacks between climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and human decisions affecting future land use change, which are in turn connected to human decisions about energy systems and bioenergy production. These experiments have been conducted in the context of the RCP4.5 scenario, one of four pathways of future radiative forcing being used in CMIP5, which constrains future human-induced greenhouse gas emissions from energy and land activities to stabilize radiative forcing at 4.5 W/m2 (~650 ppm CO2 -eq) by 2100. When this pathway is run in GCAM with the climate feedback on terrestrial productivity from CESM, there are implications for both the land use and energy system changes required for stabilization. Early findings indicate that traditional definitions of radiative forcing used in scenario development are missing a critical component of the biogeophysical consequences of land use change and their contribution to effective radiative forcing. Initial full coupling of the two global models has important implications for how climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems changes the dynamics of future land use change for agriculture and forestry, particularly in the context of a climate mitigation policy designed to reduce emissions from land use as well as energy systems

  7. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  8. Improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dukes, J.; Bonan, G. B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Dietze, M.; Kattge, J.; Leakey, A. D.; Mercado, L. M.; Niinemets, U.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Serbin, S.; Sitch, S.; Way, D. A.; Zaehle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Continued use of fossil fuel drives an accelerating increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and is the principal cause of global climate change. Many of the observed and projected impacts of rising [CO2] portend increasing environmental and economic risk, yet the uncertainty surrounding the projection of our future climate by Earth System Models (ESMs) is unacceptably high. Improving confidence in our estimation of future [CO2] is essential if we seek to project global change with greater confidence. There are critical uncertainties over the long term response of terrestrial CO2 uptake to global change, more specifically, over the size of the terrestrial carbon sink and over its sensitivity to rising [CO2] and temperature. Reducing the uncertainty associated with model representation of the largest CO2 flux on the planet is therefore an essential part of improving confidence in projections of global change. Here we have examined model representation of photosynthesis in seven process models including several global models that underlie the representation of photosynthesis in the land surface model component of ESMs that were part of the recent Fifth Assessment Report from the IPCC. Our approach was to focus on how physiological responses are represented by these models, and to better understand how structural and parametric differences drive variation in model responses to light, CO2, nutrients, temperature, vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture. We challenged each model to produce leaf and canopy responses to these factors to help us identify areas in which current process knowledge and emerging data sets could be used to improve model skill, and also identify knowledge gaps in current understanding that directly impact model outputs. We hope this work will provide a roadmap for the scientific activity that is necessary to advance process representation, parameterization and scaling of photosynthesis in the next generation of Earth System Models.

  9. Using the earth system for integrating the science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Victor J.

    Content and process instruction from the earth sciences has gone unrepresented in the world's science curricula, especially at the secondary level. As a result there is a serious deficiency in public understanding of the planet on which we all live. This lack includes national and international leaders in politics, business, and science. The earth system science effort now engaging the research talent of the earth sciences provides a firm foundation from the sciences for inclusion of earth systems content into the evolving integrated science curricula of this country and others. Implementing integrated science curricula, especially at the secondary level where potential leaders often have their only exposure to science, can help to address these problems. The earth system provides a conceptual theme as opposed to a disciplinary theme for organizing such integrated curricula, absent from prior efforts. The end of the cold war era is resulting in a reexamination of science and the influence it has had on our planet and society. In the future, science and the curricula that teach about science must seriously address the environmental and social problems left in the wake of over 100 years of preparation for military and economic war. The earth systems education effort provides one such approach to the modernization of science curricula. Earth science educators should assume leadership in helping to establish such curricula in this country and around the world.

  10. Design definition study of the Earth radiation budget satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Wallschlaeger, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments for measuring the radiation budget components are discussed, and the conceptual design of instruments for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) are reported. Scanning and nonscanning assemblies are described. The ERBSS test program is also described.

  11. A new program in earth system science education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  12. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  13. Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) - a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Sander, R.; Kerkweg, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.

    2005-02-01

    The development of a comprehensive Earth System Model (ESM) to study the interactions between chemical, physical, and biological processes, requires coupling of the different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, ...). One strategy is to link existing domain-specific models with a universal coupler, i.e. an independent standalone program organizing the communication between other programs. In many cases, however, a much simpler approach is more feasible. We have developed the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy). It comprises (1) a modular interface structure to connect to a , (2) an extendable set of such for miscellaneous processes, and (3) a coding standard. MESSy is therefore not a coupler in the classical sense, but exchanges data between a and several within one comprehensive executable. The internal complexity of the is controllable in a transparent and user friendly way. This provides remarkable new possibilities to study feedback mechanisms (by two-way coupling). Note that the MESSy and the coupler approach can be combined. For instance, an atmospheric model implemented according to the MESSy standard could easily be coupled to an ocean model by means of an external coupler. The vision is to ultimately form a comprehensive ESM which includes a large set of submodels, and a base model which contains only a central clock and runtime control. This can be reached stepwise, since each process can be included independently. Starting from an existing model, process submodels can be reimplemented according to the MESSy standard. This procedure guarantees the availability of a state-of-the-art model for scientific applications at any time of the development. In principle, MESSy can be implemented into any kind of model, either global or regional. So far, the MESSy concept has been applied to the general circulation model ECHAM5 and a number of process boxmodels.

  14. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  15. Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Project Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D.

    The E3SM project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.

  16. Syllabus for Weizmann Course: Earth System Science 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This course aims for an understanding of Earth System Science and the interconnection of its various "spheres" (atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.) by adopting the view that "the microcosm mirrors the macrocosm". We shall study a small set of microcosims, each residing primarily in one sphere, but substantially involving at least one other sphere, in order to illustrate the kinds of coupling that can occur and gain a greater appreciation of the complexity of even the smallest Earth System Science phenomenon.

  17. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  18. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  19. Sensitivity of the Geomagnetic Octupole to a Stably Stratified Layer in the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, C.; Stanley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core has long been proposed for Earth, based on evidence from seismology and geomagnetic secular variation. Geodynamo modeling offers a unique window to inspect the properties and dynamics in Earth's core. For example, numerical simulations have shown that magnetic field morphology is sensitive to the presence of stably stratified layers in a planet's core. Here we use the mMoSST numerical dynamo model to investigate the effects of a thin stably stratified layer at the top of the fluid outer core in Earth on the resulting large-scale geomagnetic field morphology. We find that the existence of a stable layer has significant influence on the octupolar component of the magnetic field in our models, whereas the quadrupole doesn't show an obvious trend. This suggests that observations of the geomagnetic field can be applied to provide information of the properties of this plausible stable layer, such as how thick and how stable this layer could be. Furthermore, we have examined whether the dominant thermal signature from mantle tomography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (a degree & order 2 spherical harmonic) can influence our results. We found that this heat flux pattern at the CMB has no outstanding effects on the quadrupole and octupole magnetic field components. Our studies suggest that if there is a stably stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, it must be limited in terms of stability and thickness, in order to be compatible with the observed paleomagnetic record.

  20. Optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, J.; Loecherbach, E.

    1991-10-01

    The current development status of optical communication engineering in comparison to the conventional microwave systems and the different configurations of the optical data communication for Earth observation satellite systems are described. An outlook to future optical communication satellite systems is given. During the last decade Earth observation became more and more important for the extension of the knowledge about our planet and the human influence on nature. Today pictures taken by satellites are used, for example, to discover mineral resources or to predict harvest, crops, climate, and environment variations and their influence on the population. A new and up to date application for Earth observation satellites can be the verification of disarmament arrangements and the control of crises areas. To solve these tasks a system of Earth observing satellites with sensors tailored to the envisaged mission is necessary. Besides these low Earth orbiting satellites, a global Earth observation system consists of at least two data relay satellites. The communication between the satellites will be established via Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) and Inter-Orbit Links (IOL). On these links, bitrates up to 1 Gbit/s must be taken into account. Due to the increasing scarcity of suitable frequencies, higher carrier frequencies must probably be considered, and possible interference with terrestrial radio relay systems are two main problems for a realization in microwave technique. One important step to tackle these problems is the use of optical frequencies for IOL's and ISL's.

  1. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of Afterbody Radiative Heating Predictions for Earth Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hosder, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for afterbody radiative heating predictions of Stardust capsule during Earth entry at peak afterbody radiation conditions. The radiation environment in the afterbody region poses significant challenges for accurate uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis due to the complexity of the flow physics, computational cost, and large number of un-certain variables. In this study, first a sparse collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos approach along with global non-linear sensitivity analysis was used to identify the most significant uncertain variables and reduce the dimensions of the stochastic problem. Then, a total order stochastic expansion was constructed over only the important parameters for an efficient and accurate estimate of the uncertainty in radiation. Based on previous work, 388 uncertain parameters were considered in the radiation model, which came from the thermodynamics, flow field chemistry, and radiation modeling. The sensitivity analysis showed that only four of these variables contributed significantly to afterbody radiation uncertainty, accounting for almost 95% of the uncertainty. These included the electronic- impact excitation rate for N between level 2 and level 5 and rates of three chemical reactions in uencing N, N(+), O, and O(+) number densities in the flow field.

  2. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  3. Paleogeographic Controls on Climate Sensitivity and Feedback Strength and their Impacts on Snowball Earth Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, R.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The enigmatic Neoproterozoic geological record suggests the potential for a fully glaciated 'Snowball Earth.' Low-latitude continental position has been invoked as a potential Snowball Earth trigger by increasing surface albedo and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations through increased silicate weathering. Herein, climate response to reduction of total solar irradiance (TSI) and CO2 concentration is tested using four different land configurations (aquaplanet, modern, Neoproterozoic, and low-latitude supercontinent) with uniform topography in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 3.1) GCM with a mixed-layer ocean. Despite a lower global mean surface albedo at 100% TSI for the aquaplanet scenario, the threshold for global glaciation decreases from 92% TSI in the aquaplanet configuration to 85% TSI with a low-latitude supercontinent. Climate sensitivity, as measured by the equilibrium temperature response to TSI and CO2 changes, varied across all four geographies at each forcing pair. The range of sensitivities observed suggests that climate feedback strengths are strongly dependent on both paleogeography and forcing. To identify the mechanisms responsible for the observed breadth in climate sensitivities, we calculate radiative kernels for four different TSI and CO2 forcing pairs in order to assess the strengths of the water vapor, albedo, lapse rate, Planck, and cloud feedbacks and how they vary with both forcing and paleogeography. Radiative kernels are calculated using an uncoupled version of the CAM3.1 radiation code and then perturbing climate fields of interest (surface albedo, specific humidity, and temperature) by a standard amount. No cloud kernels are calculated; instead, the cloud feedback is calculated by correcting the change in cloud radiative forcing to account for cloud masking. We find that paleogeography strongly controls how the water vapor and lapse rate feedbacks respond to different forcings. In particular, low latitude

  4. Earth System Grid and EGI interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciazek, J.; Petitdidier, M.; Gemuend, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science data centers have developed a data grid called Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF) to give the scientific community world wide access to CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5) climate data. The CMIP5 data will permit to evaluate the impact of climate change in various environmental and societal areas, such as regional climate, extreme events, agriculture, insurance… The ESGF grid provides services like searching, browsing and downloading of datasets. At the security level, ESGF data access is protected by an authentication mechanism. An ESGF trusted X509 Short-Lived EEC certificate with the correct roles/attributes is required to get access to the data in a non-interactive way (e.g. from a worker node). To access ESGF from EGI (i.e. by earth science applications running on EGI infrastructure), the security incompatibility between the two grids is the challenge: the EGI proxy certificate is not ESGF trusted nor it contains the correct roles/attributes. To solve this problem, we decided to use a Credential Translation Service (CTS) to translate the EGI X509 proxy certificate into the ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate (the CTS will issue ESGF certificates based on EGI certificate authentication). From the end user perspective, the main steps to use the CTS are: the user binds his two identities (EGI and ESGF) together in the CTS using the CTS web interface (this steps has to be done only once) and then request an ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate every time is needed, using a command-line tools. The implementation of the CTS is on-going. It is based on the open source MyProxy software stack, which is used in many grid infrastructures. On the client side, the "myproxy-logon" command-line tools is used to request the certificate translation. A new option has been added to "myproxy-logon" to select the original certificate (in our case, the EGI one). On the server side, MyProxy server operates in Certificate Authority mode, with a new module

  5. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  6. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  7. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  8. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R.; Botti, J.

    2002-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  9. Problem-Based Learning and Earth System Science - The ESSEA High School Earth System Science Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. J.; Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    The high school Earth system science course is web based and designed to meet the professional development needs of science teachers in grades 9-12. Three themes predominate this course: Earth system science (ESS) content, collaborative investigations, and problem-based learning (PBL) methodology. PBL uses real-world contexts for in-depth investigations of a subject matter. Participants predict the potential impacts of the selected event on Earth's spheres and the subsequent feedback and potential interactions that might result. PBL activities start with an ill-structured problem that serves as a springboard to team engagement. These PBL scenarios contain real-world situations. Teams of learners conduct an Earth system science analysis of the event and make recommendations or offer solutions regarding the problem. The course design provides an electronic forum for conversations, debate, development, and application of ideas. Samples of threaded discussions built around ESS thinking in science and PBL pedagogy will be presented.

  10. Development of the earth-moon system with implications for the geology of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Established facts regarding the basic features of the earth and the moon are reviewed, and some important problems involving the moon are discussed (extent of melting, time of crustal differentiation and nature of bombardment, bulk chemical composition, and nature and source of mare basins), with attention given to the various existing theories concerning these problems. Models of the development of the earth-moon system from the solar nebula are examined, with particular attention focused on those that use the concept of capture with disintegration. Impact processes in the early crust of the earth are briefly considered, with attention paid to Green's (1972) suggestion that Archaean greenstone belts may be the terrestrial equivalent of lunar maria.

  11. Orbital Noise in the Earth System and Climate Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Frequency noise in the variations of the Earth's obliquity (tilt) can modulate the insolation signal for climate change. Including this frequency noise effect on the incoming solar radiation, we have applied an energy balance climate model to calculate the climate fluctuations for the past one million years. Model simulation results are in good agreement with the geologically observed paleoclimate data. We conclude that orbital noise in the Earth system may be the major cause of the climate fluctuation cycles.

  12. Disentangling Aerosol Cooling and Greenhouse Warming to Reveal Earth's Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storelvmo, Trude; Leirvik, Thomas; Phillips, Petter; Lohmann, Ulrike; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Earth's climate sensitivity has been the subject of heated debate for decades, and recently spurred renewed interest after the latest IPCC assessment report suggested a downward adjustment of the most likely range of climate sensitivities. Here, we present a study based on the time period 1964 to 2010, which is unique in that it does not rely on global climate models (GCMs) in any way. The study uses surface observations of temperature and incoming solar radiation from approximately 1300 surface sites, along with observations of the equivalent CO2 concentration (CO2,eq) in the atmosphere, to produce a new best estimate for the transient climate sensitivity of 1.9K (95% confidence interval 1.2K - 2.7K). This is higher than other recent observation-based estimates, and is better aligned with the estimate of 1.8K and range (1.1K - 2.5K) derived from the latest generation of GCMs. The new estimate is produced by incorporating the observations in an energy balance framework, and by applying statistical methods that are standard in the field of Econometrics, but less common in climate studies. The study further suggests that about a third of the continental warming due to increasing CO2,eq was masked by aerosol cooling during the time period studied.

  13. Disentangling Greenhouse Warming and Aerosol Cooling to Reveal Earth's Transient Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storelvmo, T.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate sensitivity has been the subject of heated debate for decades, and recently spurred renewed interest after the latest IPCC assessment report suggested a downward adjustment of the most likely range of climate sensitivities. Here, we present an observation-based study based on the time period 1964 to 2010, which is unique in that it does not rely on global climate models (GCMs) in any way. The study uses surface observations of temperature and incoming solar radiation from approximately 1300 surface sites, along with observations of the equivalent CO2 concentration (CO2,eq) in the atmosphere, to produce a new best estimate for the transient climate sensitivity of 1.9K (95% confidence interval 1.2K - 2.7K). This is higher than other recent observation-based estimates, and is better aligned with the estimate of 1.8K and range (1.1K - 2.5K) derived from the latest generation of GCMs. The new estimate is produced by incorporating the observations in an energy balance framework, and by applying statistical methods that are standard in the field of Econometrics, but less common in climate studies. The study further suggests that about a third of the continental warming due to increasing CO2,eq was masked by aerosol cooling during the time period studied.

  14. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  15. The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.

  16. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  17. Earth System Stability Through Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions haveresulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species.Each of these events is associated with significant environmentalchange recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentaryrocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologicrecord that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes themdifferent? Two factors appear important: the size of theenvironmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs.We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during thepast 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change overtwo orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate isconsistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., nearsteady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate withmarginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast,unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest thatthe great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a"sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, arecharacterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  18. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  19. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Frederick, P. N.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    Empirical tests of range estimation accuracy and resolution, via television, under monoptic and steroptic viewing conditions are discussed. Test data are used to derive man machine interface requirements and make design decisions for an orbital remote manipulator system. Remote manipulator system visual tasks are given and the effects of system parameters of these tasks are evaluated.

  20. Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Obara, Clifford J.; Amer, Tahani R.; Faulcon, Nettie D.; Carmine, Michael T.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Pritchard, Daniel W.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paint Field System that is used to provide global surface pressure and temperature measurements on models tested in Langley wind tunnels. The system was developed and is maintained by Global Surface Measurements Team personnel of the Data Acquisition and Information Management Branch in the Research Facilities Services Competency. Descriptions of the system hardware and software are presented and operational procedures are detailed.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of earth and environmental models: a systematic review to guide scientific advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Pianosi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Sensitivity Analysis (SA) investigates how the variation in the output of a numerical model can be attributed to variations of its input factors. SA is increasingly being used in earth and environmental modelling for a variety of purposes, including uncertainty assessment, model calibration and diagnostic evaluation, dominant control analysis and robust decision-making. Here we provide some practical advice regarding best practice in SA and discuss important open questions based on a detailed recent review of the existing body of work in SA. Open questions relate to the consideration of input factor interactions, methods for factor mapping and the formal inclusion of discrete factors in SA (for example for model structure comparison). We will analyse these questions using relevant examples and discuss possible ways forward. We aim at stimulating the discussion within the community of SA developers and users regarding the setting of good practices and on defining priorities for future research.

  2. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  3. Radiometric calibration of the Earth observing system's imaging sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    Philosophy, requirements, and methods of calibration of multispectral space sensor systems as applicable to the Earth Observing System (EOS) are discussed. Vicarious methods for calibration of low spatial resolution systems, with respect to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), are then summarized. Finally, a theoretical introduction is given to a new vicarious method of calibration using the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the Earth's surfaces as the key input. This may provide an additional independent method for in-flight calibration.

  4. Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.

  5. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  6. Electromagnetic Calculation of Combined Earthing System with Ring Earth Electrode and Vertical Rods for Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    With the worldwide spread of wind turbine installations, various problems such as landscape issues, bird strikes and grid connections have arisen. Protection of wind turbines from lightning is cited as one of the main problems. Wind turbines are often struck by lightning because of their open-air locations, such as in mountainous areas, and their special configuration and very-high construction. Especially, low-voltage and control circuits can fail or suffer burnout while blades can incur serious damage if struck by lightning. Wind turbine failures caused by lightning strikes account for approximately 25% of all failures. The problem is regarded as a global one that needs immediate resolution. It is important to understand the impedance characteristics of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC TR61400-24 recommends a “ring earth electrode”. This was originally defined in IEC 61024 (currently revised and re-numbered as IEC 62305), where such an electrode is recommended to reduce touch and step voltages in households and buildings. IEC TR61400-24 also recommended additional electrodes of vertical or horizontal rods. However, these concepts have not been fully discussed from the viewpoint of its application to wind turbines. To confirm the effect of a combination of a ring earth electrode and additional vertical rods for protection of a wind turbine, this report uses the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to present an electromagnetic transient analysis on such a wind turbine earthing system. The results show that an optimal combination can be arranged from viewpoints of lightning protection and construction cost. Thus, this report discusses how to establish a quantitative design methodology of the wind turbine earthing system to provide effective lightning protection.

  7. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system -- for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events -- volcanic eruptions

  8. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J.; Myers, R.

    2002-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational Technologiestm at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system-for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions

  9. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  10. Solar System Portrait - Earth as Pale Blue Dot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-12

    This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed Pale Blue Dot, is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by NASA’s Voyager 1. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. From Voyager's great distance Earth is a mere point of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size. Coincidentally, Earth lies right in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun. This blown-up image of the Earth was taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color image. The background features in the image are artifacts resulting from the magnification. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00452

  11. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  12. Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) Enables Comparative Climatology with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Lunine, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.; Lebreton, J.

    2009-09-01

    Titan is a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on Earth. Its geology, from lakes and seas to broad river valleys and mountains, while carved in ice is, in its balance of processes, again most like Earth. Beneath this panoply of Earth-like processes an ice crust floats atop what appears to be a liquid water ocean. The Titan Saturn System Mission would seek to understand Titan as a system, in the same way that one would ask this question about Venus, Mars, and the Earth. How are distinctions between Titan and other worlds in the solar systems understandable in the context of the complex interplay of geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy? Is Titan an analogue for some aspect of Earth's history, past or future? Why is Titan endowed with an atmosphere when Ganymede is not? Titan is also rich in organic molecules_more so in its surface and atmosphere than anyplace in the solar system, including Earth (excluding our vast carbonate sediments). These molecules were formed in the atmosphere, deposited on the surface and, in coming into contact with liquid water may undergo an aqueous chemistry that could replicate aspects of life's origins. The second goal of the proposed TSSM mission is to understand the chemical cycles that generate and destroy organics and assess the likelihood that they can tell us something of life's origins. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  13. Digital Earth system based river basin data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Wanqing; Lin, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Digital Earth is an integrated approach to build scientific infrastructure. The Digital Earth systems provide a three-dimensional visualization and integration platform for river basin data which include the management data, in situ observation data, remote sensing observation data and model output data. This paper studies the Digital Earth system based river basin data integration technology. Firstly, the construction of the Digital Earth based three-dimensional river basin data integration environment is discussed. Then the river basin management data integration technology is presented which is realized by general database access interface, web service and ActiveX control. Thirdly, the in situ data stored in database tables as records integration is realized with three-dimensional model of the corresponding observation apparatus display in the Digital Earth system by a same ID code. In the next two parts, the remote sensing data and the model output data integration technologies are discussed in detail. The application in the Digital Zhang River basin System of China shows that the method can effectively improve the using efficiency and visualization effect of the data.

  14. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  15. The CICT Earth Science Systems Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Coughlan, Joe; Biegel, Bryan; Stevens, Ken; Hansson, Othar; Hayes, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Computing Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Systems Analysis. Our modeling approach: a 3-part schematic investment model of technology change, impact assessment and prioritization. A whirlwind tour of our model. Lessons learned.

  16. Earth land landing alternatives: Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) develop a landing option such that it is a viable trade option for future NASA missions; (2) provide NASA programs with solid technical support in the landing systems area; (3) develop the technical staff; and (4) advance the state of landing systems technology to apply to future NASA missions. All results are presented in viewgraph format.

  17. Comments on 'The origin of the earth-moon system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, P.; Teleki, G.

    1986-10-01

    A new hypothesis for the origin of the earth-moon system is developed on the basis of Savic's (1961) theory of the origin of rotation of celestial bodies. According to the theory, the cooling off and contraction due to gravitational attraction on vast particle systems, with the pushing out of electrons from atom shells, results in the continually increasing density of a planet; the expulsion of electrons causes formation of a magnetic field by which a rotational motion is brought about. It is argued that these conditions are consistent with the formation of the earth and the moon from a unique protoplanet which, in course of the rotation, has taken shape of a large Jacobi ellipsoid. New condensation forming along the edge of the ellipsoid led to the creation of the dual earth-moon system.

  18. Coupling population dynamics with earth system models: the POPEM model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Moreno, Raúl; Jiménez-Alcázar, Alfonso; Tapiador, Francisco J

    2017-09-16

    Precise modeling of CO 2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO 2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations. The module, dubbed POPEM (from Population Parameterization for Earth Models), is compared with current emission inventories and validated against UN aggregated data. Finally, it is shown that the module can be used to advance toward fully coupling the social and natural components of the Earth system, an emerging research path for environmental science and pollution research.

  19. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  20. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  1. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  2. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  3. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  4. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  5. Small asteroids temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Patterson, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    We present an update on our work on understanding the population of natural objects that are temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system like the 2-3 meter diameter, 2006 RH120, that was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. We use the term `minimoon' to refer to objects that are gravitationally bound to the Earth-Moon system, make at least one revolution around the barycenter in a co-rotating frame relative to the Earth-Sun axis, and are within 3 Earth Hill-sphere radii. There are one or two 1 to 2 meter diameter minimoons in the steady state population at any time, and about a dozen larger than 50 cm diameter. `Drifters' are also bound to the Earth-Moon system but make less than one revolution about the barycenter. The combined population of minimoons and drifters provide a new opportunity for scientific exploration of small asteroids and testing concepts for in-situ resource utilization. These objects provide interesting challenges for rendezvous missions because of their limited lifetime and complicated trajectories. Furthermore, they are difficult to detect because they are small, available for a limited time period, and move quickly across the sky.

  6. Small asteroids temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Patterson, Geoff

    2015-08-01

    We will present an update on our work on understanding the population of natural objects that are temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system, such as the 2-3 meter diameter 2006 RH120 that was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. We use the term 'minimoon' to refer to objects that are gravitationally bound to the Earth-Moon system, make at least one revolution around the barycenter in a co-rotating frame relative to the Earth-Sun axis, and are within 3 Earth Hill-sphere radii. There are one or two 1 to 2 meter diameter minimoons in the steady state population at any time, and about a dozen larger than 50 cm diameter. `Drifters' are also bound to the Earth-Moon system but make less than one revolution about the barycenter. The combined population of minimoons and drifters provide a new opportunity for scientific exploration of small asteroids and testing concepts for in-situ resource utilization. These objects provide interesting challenges for rendezvous missions because of their limited lifetime and complicated trajectories. Furthermore, they are difficult to detect because they are small, available for a limited time period, and move quickly across the sky.

  7. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of GENIE Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrew R; Myerscough, Richard J; Voutchkov, Ivan I; Marsh, Robert; Cox, Simon J

    2009-07-13

    The tuning of parameters in climate models is essential to provide reliable long-term forecasts of Earth system behaviour. We apply a multi-objective optimization algorithm to the problem of parameter estimation in climate models. This optimization process involves the iterative evaluation of response surface models (RSMs), followed by the execution of multiple Earth system simulations. These computations require an infrastructure that provides high-performance computing for building and searching the RSMs and high-throughput computing for the concurrent evaluation of a large number of models. Grid computing technology is therefore essential to make this algorithm practical for members of the GENIE project.

  9. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  10. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    The directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions in the most cost effective manner are determined. The mission set requirements, state of the art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system level electric propulsion parameters are discussed. The impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems is evaluated.

  11. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  12. Embodying Earth's Place in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Elementary students find it difficult to connect the apparent motion of objects in the sky with how celestial objects actually move in the solar system. As a university astronomy education researcher, the author has been investigating methods to help children learn astronomy through workshops and summer camps at science museums and planetariums.…

  13. Earth system responses to cumulative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2015-07-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil carbon emissions and multiple climate targets are essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient responses in different climate variables are quantified for a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization and in idealized experiments using the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model. The model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte-Carlo type framework. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.88 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.28 to 2.69 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and in steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The slopes of the relationships change when CO2 is stabilized. The Transient Climate Response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models, but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  14. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  15. The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, and the Earth Explorations Video Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, a complete overview of the theoretical basics of Earth Science in 64 episodes, was completed in 2009, but has continued to serve the worldwide community as evidenced by listener feedback (e.g. "I am a 65 year old man. I have been retired for awhile and thought that retirement would be nothing more than waiting for the grave. However I want to thank you for your geo podcasts. They have given me a new lease on life and taught me a great deal." - FP, 2015). My current project is a video series on the practical basics of Earth Science titled "Earth Explorations". Each video is under 12 minutes long and tackles a major Earth Science concept. These videos go beyond a talking head, or even voice-over with static pictures or white-board graphics. Moving images are combined with animations created with Adobe After Effects, and aerial shots using a UAV. The dialog is scripted in a way to make it accessible at many levels, and the episodes as they currently stand have been used in K-12, and Freshman college levels with success. Though these videos are made to be used at this introductory level, they are also designed as remedial episodes for upper level classes, freeing up time given to review for new content. When completed, the series should contain close to 200 episodes, and this talk will cover the full range of resources I have produced, plan to produce, and how to access these resources. Both resources are available on iTunesU, and the videos are also available on YouTube.

  16. Occurrence of Earth-like bodies in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1991-08-02

    Present theories of terrestrial planet formation predict the rapid ;;runaway formation'' of planetary embryos. The sizes of the embryos increase with heliocentric distance. These embryos then merge to form planets. In earlier Monte Carlo simulations of the merger of these embryos it was assumed that embryos did not form in the asteroid belt, but this assumption may not be valid. Simulations in which runaways were allowed to form in the asteroid belt show that, although the initial distributions of mass, energy, and angular momentum are different from those observed today, during the growth of the planets these distributions spontaneously evolve toward those observed, simply as a result of known solar system processes. Even when a large planet analogous to ;;Jupiter'' does not form, an Earth-sized planet is almost always found near Earth's heliocentric distance. These results suggest that occurrence of Earth-like planets may be a common feature of planetary systems.

  17. A Waypoint on the Road to EtaEarth: Improving the Sensitivity of Kepler’s Science Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2012-05-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered a plethora of planetary systems in the three years that it has been operating and is delving deeper to uncover smaller and smaller planets in longer and cooler orbits. Our ultimate goal is to determine etaEarth, the frequency of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars in our galaxy. Kepler's ability to detect weak signatures of terrestrial planets in habitable orbital abodes is complicated by unexpectedly high stellar variability exhibited by main-sequence, solar-like stars (20 ppm rather than 10 ppm on timescales of 6.5 hours), and by transients in the data caused chiefly by thermal effects in the spacecraft and photometer, as well as occasional, radiation-induced sudden drops in pixel sensitivity. Kepler’s observations need to be extended to 8 years in order to recover the expected pre-launch sensitivity to HZ planets. Significant performance improvements in dealing with instrumental systematic effects have been obtained through Bayesian approaches, resulting in light curves that retain intrinsic astrophysical signatures as well as lower photometric noise. However, additional improvements are necessary in order to realize the full benefits of an extended mission. Other important tasks include characterizing the completeness and reliability of the detection pipeline, and minimizing the manual effort necessary to vet the planetary signatures it identifies. This talk summarizes the status of these activities, all of which are required to reach a robust estimate of etaEarth. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  19. Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Digital Object Identifier Registration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanchoo, Lalit; James, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented a fully automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). A key factor in the successful evolution of the DOI registration system over last 7 years has been the incorporation of community input from three focus groups under the NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). These groups were largely composed of DOI submitters and data curators from the 12 data centers serving the user communities of various science disciplines. The suggestions from these groups were formulated into recommendations for ESDIS consideration and implementation. The ESDIS DOI registration system has evolved to be fully functional with over 5,000 publicly accessible DOIs and over 200 DOIs being held in reserve status until the information required for registration is obtained. The goal is to assign DOIs to the entire 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management via its network of discipline-oriented data centers. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited.

  20. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  1. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  2. A New Model of the Earth System Nitrogen Cycle: How Plates and Life Affect the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed an Earth system N cycle model, including biologic and geologic fluxes and key nutrients such as phosphorus. The atmosphere can change mass significantly over Earth history, and the solid Earth contains most of the planet's N.

  3. Activities for the Changing Earth System. Earth Systems Education, Middle School and High School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Research Foundation.

    This book is intended to help teachers fulfill the need for children and future leaders to understand issues of global change and the science that lies behind them. Important changes are occurring in several of the earth's subsystems. The changes are thought to be the result from the expanding use of technology for the improvement of living…

  4. EarthCube - Earth System Bridge: Spanning Scientific Communities with Interoperable Modeling Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.; DeLuca, C.; Gochis, D. J.; Arrigo, J.; Kelbert, A.; Choi, E.; Dunlap, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand and predict environmental hazards of weather/climate, ecology and deep earth processes, geoscientists develop and use physics-based computational models. These models are used widely both in academic and federal communities. Because of the large effort required to develop and test models, there is widespread interest in component-based modeling, which promotes model reuse and simplified coupling to tackle problems that often cross discipline boundaries. In component-based modeling, the goal is to make relatively small changes to models that make it easy to reuse them as "plug-and-play" components. Sophisticated modeling frameworks exist to rapidly couple these components to create new composite models. They allow component models to exchange variables while accommodating different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and units. Modeling frameworks have arisen in many modeling communities. CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) serves the academic earth surface process dynamics community, while ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) serves many federal Earth system modeling projects. Others exist in both the academic and federal domains and each satisfies design criteria that are determined by the community they serve. While they may use different interface standards or semantic mediation strategies, they share fundamental similarities. The purpose of the Earth System Bridge project is to develop mechanisms for interoperability between modeling frameworks, such as the ability to share a model or service component. This project has three main goals: (1) Develop a Framework Description Language (ES-FDL) that allows modeling frameworks to be described in a standard way so that their differences and similarities can be assessed. (2) Demonstrate that if a model is augmented with a framework-agnostic Basic Model Interface (BMI), then simple, universal adapters can go from BMI to a

  5. Pedotransfer functions in Earth system science: challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Looy, K.; Minasny, B.; Nemes, A.; Verhoef, A.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-12-01

    We make a stronghold for a new generation of Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) that is currently developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science, offering strong perspectives for improvement of integrated process-based models, from local to global scale applications. PTFs are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we highlight how PTF development needs to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly capture the spatial heterogeneity of soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration and organic carbon content, root density and vegetation water uptake. We present an outlook and stepwise approach to the development of a comprehensive set of PTFs that can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques and soil information availability provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary in three domains: 1) the determining of unknown relationships and dealing with uncertainty in Earth system modeling; 2) the step of spatially deploying this knowledge with PTF validation at regional to global scales; and 3) the integration and linking of the complex model parameterizations (coupled parameterization). Integration is an achievable goal we will show.

  6. Educator Perspectives on Earth System Science Literacy: Challenges and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…

  7. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science

    Treesearch

    Lilian Alessa; F. Stuart Chapin

    2008-01-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  8. Native America: American Indian Geoscientists & Earth System Science Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands across the Americas. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all Tribal societies. These changes have accelerated the momentum to ensure the future of American Indian Geoscientists and Earth Systems Science Leaders. The presentation will bring to prominence the unique recruitment and mentoring necessary to achieve success that emerged through working with Tribal people. The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on recruitment and mentoring of Native/Tribal students in geoscience and earth systems science; 2) current Native leadership and research development; 3) unique collaborations "bridging" Native people across geographic areas (International) in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive geoscience and earth systems science knowledge of Tribal peoples throughout the Americas. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native geoscientists and earth systems science leaders.

  9. Orbital Boom Sensor System with a cloudy Earth limb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    S114-E-5712 (28 July 2005) --- This view of the Orbital Boom Sensor System, backdropped by clouds and Earth’s limb, was taken by the STS-114 crew during approach and docking operations with the international space station.

  10. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  11. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): A Virtual Research Environment for The Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Halkides, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web application, under continued development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. As with any project of its size, we have encountered both successes and challenges during the course of development. Our principal point of success is the fact that VESL users can interact seamlessly with our earth science simulations within their own Web browser. Some of the challenges we have faced include retrofitting the VESL Web application to respond to touch gestures, reducing page load time (especially as the application has grown), and accounting for the differences between the various Web browsers and computing platforms.

  12. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  13. Tidal-friction theory of the earth-moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Serious errors contained in Jeffreys' (1952, 1959, 1970, 1976) discussion of tidal friction in the earth-moon system are identified and their consequences are discussed. A direct solution of the dynamical tidal equations for the couple from the earth acting upon the moon and the couple from the earth acting upon the sun, which were left unsolved by Jeffreys, is found to be incompatible with observations and the predictions of linear or quadratic friction theory, due to his failure to take into account the possible change of the moment of inertia of the earth with time in the derivation of the dynamical equations. Consideration of this factor leads to the conclusion that the earth must be contracting at a rate of 14.7 x 10 to the -11th/year, which can be accounted for only by the Ramsey theory, in which the terrestrial core is considered as a phase change rather than a change in chemical composition. Implications of this value for the rates of changes in day length and lunar distance are also indicated.

  14. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  15. Astrometric detectability of systems with unseen companions: effects of the Earth orbital motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2018-06-01

    The astrometric detection of an unseen companion is based on an analysis of the apparent motion of its host star around the system's barycentre. Systems with an orbital period close to 1 yr may escape detection if the orbital motion of their host stars is observationally indistinguishable from the effects of parallax. Additionally, an astrometric solution may produce a biased parallax estimation for such systems. We examine the effects of the orbital motion of the Earth on astrometric detectability in terms of a correlation between the Earth's orbital position and the position of the star relative to its system barycentre. The χ2 statistic for parallax estimation is calculated analytically, leading to expressions that relate the decrease in detectability and accompanying parallax bias to the position correlation function. The impact of the Earth's motion critically depends on the exoplanet's orbital period, diminishing rapidly as the period deviates from 1 yr. Selection effects against 1-yr-period systems is, therefore, expected. Statistical estimation shows that the corresponding loss of sensitivity results in a typical 10 per cent increase in the detection threshold. Consideration of eccentric orbits shows that the Earth's motion has no effect on detectability for e≳ 0.5. The dependence of the detectability on other parameters, such as orbital phases and inclination of the orbital plane to the ecliptic, are smooth and monotonic because they are described by simple trigonometric functions.

  16. New tools for linking human and earth system models: The Toolbox for Human-Earth System Interaction & Scaling (THESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Kauffman, B.; Lawrence, P.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated analysis of questions regarding land, water, and energy resources often requires integration of models of different types. One type of integration is between human and earth system models, since both societal and physical processes influence these resources. For example, human processes such as changes in population, economic conditions, and policies govern the demand for land, water and energy, while the interactions of these resources with physical systems determine their availability and environmental consequences. We have begun to develop and use a toolkit for linking human and earth system models called the Toolbox for Human-Earth System Integration and Scaling (THESIS). THESIS consists of models and software tools to translate, scale, and synthesize information from and between human system models and earth system models (ESMs), with initial application to linking the NCAR integrated assessment model, iPETS, with the NCAR earth system model, CESM. Initial development is focused on urban areas and agriculture, sectors that are both explicitly represented in both CESM and iPETS. Tools are being made available to the community as they are completed (see https://www2.cgd.ucar.edu/sections/tss/iam/THESIS_tools). We discuss four general types of functions that THESIS tools serve (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Properties, Consistency, and Outcome Evaluation). Tools are designed to be modular and can be combined in order to carry out more complex analyses. We illustrate their application to both the exposure of population to climate extremes and to the evaluation of climate impacts on the agriculture sector. For example, projecting exposure to climate extremes involves use of THESIS tools for spatial population, spatial urban land cover, the characteristics of both, and a tool to bring urban climate information together with spatial population information. Development of THESIS tools is continuing and open to the research community.

  17. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  18. Pedotransfer Functions in Earth System Science: Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Looy, Kris; Bouma, Johan; Herbst, Michael; Koestel, John; Minasny, Budiman; Mishra, Umakant; Montzka, Carsten; Nemes, Attila; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Padarian, José; Schaap, Marcel G.; Tóth, Brigitta; Verhoef, Anne; Vanderborght, Jan; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Weihermüller, Lutz; Zacharias, Steffen; Zhang, Yonggen; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-12-01

    Soil, through its various functions, plays a vital role in the Earth's ecosystems and provides multiple ecosystem services to humanity. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are simple to complex knowledge rules that relate available soil information to soil properties and variables that are needed to parameterize soil processes. In this paper, we review the existing PTFs and document the new generation of PTFs developed in the different disciplines of Earth system science. To meet the methodological challenges for a successful application in Earth system modeling, we emphasize that PTF development has to go hand in hand with suitable extrapolation and upscaling techniques such that the PTFs correctly represent the spatial heterogeneity of soils. PTFs should encompass the variability of the estimated soil property or process, in such a way that the estimation of parameters allows for validation and can also confidently provide for extrapolation and upscaling purposes capturing the spatial variation in soils. Most actively pursued recent developments are related to parameterizations of solute transport, heat exchange, soil respiration, and organic carbon content, root density, and vegetation water uptake. Further challenges are to be addressed in parameterization of soil erosivity and land use change impacts at multiple scales. We argue that a comprehensive set of PTFs can be applied throughout a wide range of disciplines of Earth system science, with emphasis on land surface models. Novel sensing techniques provide a true breakthrough for this, yet further improvements are necessary for methods to deal with uncertainty and to validate applications at global scale.

  19. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  20. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (approx.185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. There are four major systems or spheres of Earth. They are: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphe, and

  1. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  2. EARTH SYSTEM ATLAS: A Platform for Access to Peer-Reviewed Information about process and change in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Prentice, C.

    2004-12-01

    A great deal of time, effort and resources have been expended on global change research to date, but dissemination and visualization of the key pertinent data sets has been problematical. Toward that end, we are constructing an Earth System Atlas which will serve as a single compendium describing the state of the art in our understanding of the Earth system and how it has responded to and is likely to respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The Atlas is an interactive web-based system of data bases and data manipulation tools and so is much more than a collection of pre-made maps posted on the web. It represents a tool for assembling, manipulating, and displaying specific data as selected and customized by the user. Maps are created "on the fly" according to user-specified instructions. The information contained in the Atlas represents the growing body of data assembled by the broader Earth system research community, and can be displayed in the form of maps and time series of the various relevant parameters that drive and are driven by changes in the Earth system at various time scales. The Atlas is designed to display the information assembled by the global change research community in the form of maps and time series of all the relevant parameters that drive or are driven by changes in the Earth System at various time scales. This will serve to provide existing data to the community, but also will help to highlight data gaps that may hinder our understanding of critical components of the Earth system. This new approach to handling Earth system data is unique in several ways. First and foremost, data must be peer-reviewed. Further, it is designed to draw on the expertise and products of extensive international research networks rather than on a limited number of projects or institutions. It provides explanatory explanations targeted to the user's needs, and the display of maps and time series can be customize by the user. In general, the Atlas is

  3. User Metrics in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This presentation the collection and use of user metrics in NASA's Earth Science data systems. A variety of collection methods is discussed, with particular emphasis given to the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ASCI). User sentiment on potential use of cloud computing is presented, with generally positive responses. The presentation also discusses various forms of automatically collected metrics, including an example of the relative usage of different functions within the Giovanni analysis system.

  4. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; ...

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  5. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    State, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management were investigated as potential users of satellite remotely sensed data. This group's needs are assessed and alternative data management systems serving some of those needs are outlined. It is concluded that an operational earth observation data management system will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  6. Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyongyong

    The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  7. Electrochemistry of Prebiotic Early Earth Hydrothermal Chimney Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermis, N.; Barge, L. M.; Chin, K. B.; LeBlanc, G.; Cameron, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal chimneys are self-organizing chemical garden precipitates generated from geochemical disequilibria within sea-vent environments, and have been proposed as a possible setting for the emergence of life because they contain mineral catalysts and transect ambient pH / Eh / chemical gradients [1]. We simulated the growth of hydrothermal chimneys in early Earth vent systems by using different hydrothermal simulants such as sodium sulfide (optionally doped with organic molecules) which were injected into an early Earth ocean simulant containing dissolved ferrous iron, nickel, and bicarbonate [2]. Chimneys on the early Earth would have constituted flow-through reactors, likely containing Fe/Ni-sulfide catalysts that could have driven proto-metabolic electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical activity of the chimney system was characterized non-invasively by placing electrodes at different locations across the chimney wall and in the ocean to analyze the bulk properties of surface charge potential in the chimney / ocean / hydrothermal fluid system. We performed in-situ characterization of the chimney using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) which allowed us to observe the changes in physio-chemical behavior of the system through electrical spectra of capacitance and impedance over a wide range of frequencies during the metal sulfide chimney growth. The electrochemical properties of hydrothermal chimneys in natural systems persist due to the disequilibria maintained between the ocean and hydrothermal fluid. When the injection in our experiment (analogous to fluid flow in a vent) stopped, we observed a corresponding decline in open circuit voltage across the chimney wall, though the impedance of the precipitate remained lor. Further work is needed to characterize the electrochemistry of simulated chimney systems by controlling response factors such as electrode geometry and environmental conditions, in order to simulate electrochemical reactions

  8. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  9. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  10. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  11. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high quality tools and services in support of Earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation ecosystem that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages the emerging Common Information Model (CIM) metadata standard, which has supported the following projects: ** Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); ** Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP-2012); ** National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms (NCPP) Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop (QED-2013). This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and will demonstrate the current production level capabilities of the eco-system: ** An ESM documentation Viewer embeddable into any website; ** An ESM Questionnaire configurable on a project by project basis; ** An ESM comparison tool reusable across projects; ** An ESM visualization tool reusable across projects; ** A search engine for speedily accessing published documentation; ** Libraries for streamlining document creation, validation and publishing pipelines.

  12. Quantifying Key Climate Parameter Uncertainties Using an Earth System Model with a Dynamic 3D Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Sriver, R. L.; Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Matthews, D.; Haran, M.; Keller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections hinge critically on uncertain climate model parameters such as climate sensitivity, vertical ocean diffusivity and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcings. Climate sensitivity is defined as the equilibrium global mean temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Vertical ocean diffusivity parameterizes sub-grid scale ocean vertical mixing processes. These parameters are typically estimated using Intermediate Complexity Earth System Models (EMICs) that lack a full 3D representation of the oceans, thereby neglecting the effects of mixing on ocean dynamics and meridional overturning. We improve on these studies by employing an EMIC with a dynamic 3D ocean model to estimate these parameters. We carry out historical climate simulations with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) varying parameters that affect climate sensitivity, vertical ocean mixing, and effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. We use a Bayesian approach whereby the likelihood of each parameter combination depends on how well the model simulates surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content. We use a Gaussian process emulator to interpolate the model output to an arbitrary parameter setting. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the posterior probability distribution function (pdf) of these parameters. We explore the sensitivity of the results to prior assumptions about the parameters. In addition, we estimate the relative skill of different observations to constrain the parameters. We quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimates stemming from climate variability, model and observational errors. We explore the sensitivity of key decision-relevant climate projections to these parameters. We find that climate sensitivity and vertical ocean diffusivity estimates are consistent with previously published results. The climate sensitivity pdf is strongly affected by the prior assumptions, and by the scaling

  13. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  14. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  15. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  16. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  17. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  18. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  19. Sensitivity of system stability to model structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosack, G.R.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    A community is stable, and resilient, if the levels of all community variables can return to the original steady state following a perturbation. The stability properties of a community depend on its structure, which is the network of direct effects (interactions) among the variables within the community. These direct effects form feedback cycles (loops) that determine community stability. Although feedback cycles have an intuitive interpretation, identifying how they form the feedback properties of a particular community can be intractable. Furthermore, determining the role that any specific direct effect plays in the stability of a system is even more daunting. Such information, however, would identify important direct effects for targeted experimental and management manipulation even in complex communities for which quantitative information is lacking. We therefore provide a method that determines the sensitivity of community stability to model structure, and identifies the relative role of particular direct effects, indirect effects, and feedback cycles in determining stability. Structural sensitivities summarize the degree to which each direct effect contributes to stabilizing feedback or destabilizing feedback or both. Structural sensitivities prove useful in identifying ecologically important feedback cycles within the community structure and for detecting direct effects that have strong, or weak, influences on community stability. The approach may guide the development of management intervention and research design. We demonstrate its value with two theoretical models and two empirical examples of different levels of complexity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. From the Ground Up: Building an Undergraduate Earth Systems Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, W. D.; Alexander, S. E.; Moore, S. W.; Melton, F. S.

    2006-12-01

    It is rare that an interdisciplinary group of educators has the opportunity to design a science curriculum without the constraints of pre-existing academic departments. In 1994, California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) acquired 1,387 acres from the U.S. Department of the Army and began construction of a new campus. CSUMB was developed as a four-year undergraduate university distinctive in its mission to serve the diverse people of California. Inspired by the Earth System Science Education program initiated by NASA and the University Space Research Association, CSUMB embarked upon the development of an interdisciplinary Earth systems curriculum that placed a strong emphasis on experience-based learning, integration of science, policy, and technology, outreach to minority students, and partnerships with the local community. Our cornerstone program is the Bachelor of Science in Earth Systems Science & Policy. It is built on a pyramid- style framework that includes integration, systems approach, and applied technologies (base of the pyramid); junior entry course, case studies, concentrations, service learning, student internships, and research experiences (middle of the pyramid); and senior capstone projects (apex of the pyramid). However, to succeed, new and innovative programs must constantly evaluate where they have been, where they are, and where they need to go to meet the needs of their students today and their students of the future.

  1. The Earth Phenomena Observing System: Intelligent Autonomy for Satellite Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricard, Michael; Abramson, Mark; Carter, David; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Earth monitoring systems of the future may include large numbers of inexpensive small satellites, tasked in a coordinated fashion to observe both long term and transient targets. For best performance, a tool which helps operators optimally assign targets to satellites will be required. We present the design of algorithms developed for real-time optimized autonomous planning of large numbers of small single-sensor Earth observation satellites. The algorithms will reduce requirements on the human operators of such a system of satellites, ensure good utilization of system resources, and provide the capability to dynamically respond to temporal terrestrial phenomena. Our initial real-time system model consists of approximately 100 satellites and large number of points of interest on Earth (e.g., hurricanes, volcanoes, and forest fires) with the objective to maximize the total science value of observations over time. Several options for calculating the science value of observations include the following: 1) total observation time, 2) number of observations, and the 3) quality (a function of e.g., sensor type, range, slant angle) of the observations. An integrated approach using integer programming, optimization and astrodynamics is used to calculate optimized observation and sensor tasking plans.

  2. UNH Data Cooperative: A Cyber Infrastructure for Earth System Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B. H.; Fekete, B. M.; Prusevich, A.; Gliden, S.; Magill, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth system scientists and managers have a continuously growing demand for a wide array of earth observations derived from various data sources including (a) modern satellite retrievals, (b) "in-situ" records, (c) various simulation outputs, and (d) assimilated data products combining model results with observational records. The sheer quantity of data, and formatting inconsistencies make it difficult for users to take full advantage of this important information resource. Thus the system could benefit from a thorough retooling of our current data processing procedures and infrastructure. Emerging technologies, like OPeNDAP and OGC map services, open standard data formats (NetCDF, HDF) data cataloging systems (NASA-Echo, Global Change Master Directory, etc.) are providing the basis for a new approach in data management and processing, where web- services are increasingly designed to serve computer-to-computer communications without human interactions and complex analysis can be carried out over distributed computer resources interconnected via cyber infrastructure. The UNH Earth System Data Collaborative is designed to utilize the aforementioned emerging web technologies to offer new means of access to earth system data. While the UNH Data Collaborative serves a wide array of data ranging from weather station data (Climate Portal) to ocean buoy records and ship tracks (Portsmouth Harbor Initiative) to land cover characteristics, etc. the underlaying data architecture shares common components for data mining and data dissemination via web-services. Perhaps the most unique element of the UNH Data Cooperative's IT infrastructure is its prototype modeling environment for regional ecosystem surveillance over the Northeast corridor, which allows the integration of complex earth system model components with the Cooperative's data services. While the complexity of the IT infrastructure to perform complex computations is continuously increasing, scientists are often forced

  3. Canopies to Continents: What spatial scales are needed to represent landcover distributions in earth system models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.; Duhl, T.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing computational resources have enabled a steady improvement in the spatial resolution used for earth system models. Land surface models and landcover distributions have kept ahead by providing higher spatial resolution than typically used in these models. Satellite observations have played a major role in providing high resolution landcover distributions over large regions or the entire earth surface but ground observations are needed to calibrate these data and provide accurate inputs for models. As our ability to resolve individual landscape components improves, it is important to consider what scale is sufficient for providing inputs to earth system models. The required spatial scale is dependent on the processes being represented and the scientific questions being addressed. This presentation will describe the development a contiguous U.S. landcover database using high resolution imagery (1 to 1000 meters) and surface observations of species composition and other landcover characteristics. The database includes plant functional types and species composition and is suitable for driving land surface models (CLM and MEGAN) that predict land surface exchange of carbon, water, energy and biogenic reactive gases (e.g., isoprene, sesquiterpenes, and NO). We investigate the sensitivity of model results to landcover distributions with spatial scales ranging over six orders of magnitude (1 meter to 1000000 meters). The implications for predictions of regional climate and air quality will be discussed along with recommendations for regional and global earth system modeling.

  4. Embracing Open Source for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baynes, Katie; Pilone, Dan; Boller, Ryan; Meyer, David; Murphy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The overarching purpose of NASAs Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth as a system. Scientific knowledge is most robust and actionable when resulting from transparent, traceable, and reproducible methods. Reproducibility includes open access to the data as well as the software used to arrive at results. Additionally, software that is custom-developed for NASA should be open to the greatest degree possible, to enable re-use across Federal agencies, reduce overall costs to the government, remove barriers to innovation, and promote consistency through the use of uniform standards. Finally, Open Source Software (OSS) practices facilitate collaboration between agencies and the private sector. To best meet these ends, NASAs Earth Science Division promotes the full and open sharing of not only all data, metadata, products, information, documentation, models, images, and research results but also the source code used to generate, manipulate and analyze them. This talk focuses on the challenges to open sourcing NASA developed software within ESD and the growing pains associated with establishing policies running the gamut of tracking issues, properly documenting build processes, engaging the open source community, maintaining internal compliance, and accepting contributions from external sources. This talk also covers the adoption of existing open source technologies and standards to enhance our custom solutions and our contributions back to the community. Finally, we will be introducing the most recent OSS contributions from NASA Earth Science program and promoting these projects for wider community review and adoption.

  5. Occurrence of earth-like bodies in planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Present theories of terrestrial planet formation predict the rapid 'runaway formation' of planetary embryos. The sizes of the embryos increase with heliocentric distance. These embryos then emerge to form planets. In earlier Monte Carlo simulations of the merger of these embryos it was assumed that embryos did not form in the asteroid belt, but this assumption may not be valid. Simulations in which runaways were allowed to form in the asteroid belt show that, although the initial distributions of mass, energy, and angular momentum are different from those observed today, during the growth of the planets these distributions spontaneously evolve toward those observed, simply as a result of known solar system processes. Even when a large planet analogous to 'Jupiter' does not form, an earth-sized planet is almost always found near earth's heliocentric distance. These results suggest that occurrence of earthlike planets may be a common feature of planetary systems.

  6. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  7. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  8. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  9. Progress in Earth System Modeling since the ENIAC Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.

    2009-05-01

    The success of the first numerical weather prediction experiment on the ENIAC computer in 1950 was hinged on the expansion of the meteorological observing network, which led to theoretical advances in atmospheric dynamics and subsequently the implementation of the simplified equations on the computer. This paper briefly reviews the progress in Earth System Modeling and climate observations, and suggests a strategy to sustain and expand the observations needed to advance climate science and prediction.

  10. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  11. On the development of earth observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Subsequent to the launching of the first LANDSAT by NASA, Japan has recognized the importance of data from earth observation satellites, has conducted studies, and is preparing to develop an independent system. The first ocean observation satellite will be launched in 1983, the second in 1985. The first land observation satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1987 and by 1990 Japan intends to have both land and ocean observation systems in regular operation. The association reception and data processing systems are being developed.

  12. Tested Tools You Can Use: Evaluating Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. P.; Prakash, A.; Reider, D.; Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) has created a public access on-line evaluation resource available at http://esse21.usra.edu/evaltoolkit in collaboration with the ESSE 21 institutions, PIs, and evaluators. The purpose of the ESSE toolkit is to offer examples of how evaluation and assessment are/have been used in Earth System Science courses and programs. Our goal is to help instructors recognize different types of assessment and evaluation tools and uses that have proved useful in these courses and provide models for designing assessments in new courses. We have included actual examples of evaluations used by ESSE institution faculty in their own courses. This is not a comprehensive toolkit on educational evaluation and assessment, but it does provide several examples of evaluations that have been used successfully in Earth System Science courses and links to many good web resources on course evaluation. We have provided examples of assessments that are designed to collect information from students before, during and after courses. Some, presented in different formats, are designed to assess what students learn, others are designed to provide course instructors with information they can use to revise their courses. These assessments range from content tests to portfolios, from feedback forms to interviews, and from concept maps to attitude surveys.

  13. Biological and geophysical feedbacks with fire in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S.; Lehmann, C. E. R.; Belcher, C. M.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R. A.; Daniau, A.-L.; Dexter, K. G.; Forrestel, E. J.; Greve, M.; He, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Lamont, B. B.; McGlinn, D. J.; Moncrieff, G. R.; Osborne, C. P.; Pausas, J. G.; Price, O.; Ripley, B. S.; Rogers, B. M.; Schwilk, D. W.; Simon, M. F.; Turetsky, M. R.; Van der Werf, G. R.; Zanne, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Roughly 3% of the Earth’s land surface burns annually, representing a critical exchange of energy and matter between the land and atmosphere via combustion. Fires range from slow smouldering peat fires, to low-intensity surface fires, to intense crown fires, depending on vegetation structure, fuel moisture, prevailing climate, and weather conditions. While the links between biogeochemistry, climate and fire are widely studied within Earth system science, these relationships are also mediated by fuels—namely plants and their litter—that are the product of evolutionary and ecological processes. Fire is a powerful selective force and, over their evolutionary history, plants have evolved traits that both tolerate and promote fire numerous times and across diverse clades. Here we outline a conceptual framework of how plant traits determine the flammability of ecosystems and interact with climate and weather to influence fire regimes. We explore how these evolutionary and ecological processes scale to impact biogeochemical and Earth system processes. Finally, we outline several research challenges that, when resolved, will improve our understanding of the role of plant evolution in mediating the fire feedbacks driving Earth system processes. Understanding current patterns of fire and vegetation, as well as patterns of fire over geological time, requires research that incorporates evolutionary biology, ecology, biogeography, and the biogeosciences.

  14. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  16. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Burrows, Susannah M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Elbert, Wolfgang; Su, Hang; Hoor, Peter; Thines, Eckhard; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the interactions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The sources, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbiome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap in the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research, highlights recent advances, and outlines future perspectives in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transformation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focusing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.

  17. Integrating Intelligent Systems Domain Knowledge Into the Earth Science Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    High-volume heterogeneous datasets are becoming ubiquitous, migrating to center stage over the last ten years and transcending the boundaries of computationally intensive disciplines into the mainstream, becoming a fundamental part of every science discipline. Despite the fact that large datasets are now pervasive across industries and academic disciplines, the array of skills is generally absent from earth science programs. This has left the bulk of the student population without access to curricula that systematically teach appropriate intelligent-systems skills, creating a void for skill sets that should be universal given their need and marketability. While some guidance regarding appropriate computational thinking and pedagogy is appearing, there exist few examples where these have been specifically designed and tested within the earth science domain. Furthermore, best practices from learning science have not yet been widely tested for developing intelligent systems-thinking skills. This research developed and tested evidence based computational skill modules that target this deficit with the intention of informing the earth science community as it continues to incorporate intelligent systems techniques and reasoning into its research and classrooms.

  18. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the in-teractions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The actual formation, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbi-ome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap inmore » the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research and highlights recent advances in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transfor-mation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focus-ing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.« less

  19. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  20. Live Interrogation and Visualization of Earth Systems (LIVES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.; Anderson, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Twenty tablet PCs and associated peripherals acquired through a HP Technology for Teaching grant are being used to redesign two freshman laboratory courses as well as a sophomore geobiology course in Geology and Geophysics at Louisiana State University. The two introductory laboratories serve approximately 750 students per academic year including both majors and non-majors; the geobiology course enrolls about 35 students/year and is required for majors in the department's geology concentration. Limited enrollments and 3 hour labs make it possible to incorporate hands-on visualization, animation, GIS, manipulation of data and images, and access to geological data available online. Goals of the course redesigns include: enhancing visualization of earth materials, physical/chemical/biological processes, and biosphere/geosphere history; strengthening student's ability to acquire, manage, and interpret multifaceted geological information; fostering critical thinking, the scientific method, and earth-system science/perspective in ancient and modern environments (such as coastal erosion and restoration in Louisiana or the Snowball Earth hypothesis); improving student communication skills; and increasing the quantity, quality, and diversity of students pursuing Earth Science careers. IT resources available in the laboratory provide students with sophisticated visualization tools, allowing them to switch between 2-D and 3-D reconstructions more seamlessly, and enabling them to manipulate larger integrated data- sets, thus permitting more time for critical thinking and hypothesis testing. IT resources also enable faculty and students to simultaneously work with simulation software to animate earth processes such as plate motions or groundwater flow and immediately test hypothesis formulated in the data analysis. Finally, tablet PCs make it possible for data gathering and analysis outside a formal classroom. As a result, students will achieve fluency in using visualization

  1. University of Rhode Island Regional Earth Systems Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, Lewis; Cornillon, P.

    The primary objective of this program was to establish the URI Regional Earth System Center (“Center”) that would enhance overall societal wellbeing (health, financial, environmental) by utilizing the best scientific information and technology to achieve optimal policy decisions with maximum stakeholder commitment for energy development, coastal environmental management, water resources protection and human health protection, while accelerating regional economic growth. The Center was to serve to integrate existing URI institutional strengths in energy, coastal environmental management, water resources, and human wellbeing. This integrated research, educational and public/private sector outreach Center was to focus on local, state and regional resources. Themore » centerpiece activity of the Center was in the development and implementation of integrated assessment models (IAMs) that both ‘downscaled’ global observations and interpolated/extrapolated regional observations for analyzing the complexity of interactions among humans and the natural climate system to further our understanding and, ultimately, to predict the future state of our regional earth system. The Center was to begin by first ‘downscaling’ existing global earth systems management tools for studying the causes of local, state and regional climate change and potential social and environmental consequences, with a focus on the regional resources identified above. The Center would ultimately need to address the full feedbacks inherent in the nonlinear earth systems by quantifying the “upscaled” impacts of those regional changes on the global earth system. Through an interacting suite of computer simulations that are informed by observations from the nation’s evolving climate observatories, the Center activities integrates climate science, technology, economics, and social policy into forecasts that will inform solutions to pressing issues in regional climate change science,

  2. Photovoltaic System Modeling. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Martin, Curtis E.

    2015-08-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling AC energy from ph otovoltaic systems . Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. We quantify u ncertainty i n the output of each model using empirical distribution s of each model's residuals. We propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models by sampli ng these distributions to obtain a n empirical distribution of a PV system's output. We consider models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane - of - array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature;more » (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power ; (5) reduce DC power for losses due to inefficient maximum power point tracking or mismatch among modules; and (6) convert DC to AC power . O ur analysis consider s a notional PV system com prising an array of FirstSolar FS - 387 modules and a 250 kW AC inverter ; we use measured irradiance and weather at Albuquerque, NM. We found the uncertainty in PV syste m output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. We found that unce rtainty in the models for POA irradiance and effective irradiance to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty in predicted daily energy. Our analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output predictions may yield the greatest improvements by focusing on the POA and effective irradiance models.« less

  3. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  4. Earth support systems: Threatened? why? what can we do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Paul H.; Reitan, Eric H.

    2001-12-01

    The most important concept to emerge in the 20th century was the recognition that sustainability is threatened. A sustainable society is one that functions and lives in such harmony with earth systems that future generations will be able to function with equal or greater ease and the quality of life will in no way be diminished. Evidence of threats to sustainability is found in: global energy use; global climate change; availability of sufficient safe water; degradation of soil on agricultural lands; food production for a global population of 9,000 million by 2050; accelerated extinction rates and loss of biodiversity; human under- and over-nourishment; and the spread of diseases. Ignorance borne of alienation from nature deprives us of sensitivity to the threats human activities cause. Alienation may be traced to the agricultural revolution, but has become widespread and even inescapable for many with massive control of energy and the industrial revolution, dependence on machines, and urbanization. With the control of enough energy to dominate nature and the achievement of a high, but transient, level of wealth, a world view extolling growth—led by the highly industrialized nations, but now being emulated in the developing countries—has committed the world to an unsustainable path. Because of this, world societies must work to find practical “sustainability” world views to help guide our future choices. Wise choices will depend upon good scientific understanding and must be based upon a deep respect for the non-human world and a concern for the future. The environmental meaning of different world views, whether founded in the world religions or in nonreligious philosophy, share a common concern to promote an equitable, harmonious, and sustainable relationship between humanity and nature. The similarities in pragmatic meaning in relation to nature of, e.g., Christian stewardship and Deep Ecology, illustrate this. Our attention must not be directed towards

  5. SPITFIRE within the MPI Earth system model: Model development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Kloster, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    Quantification of the role of fire within the Earth system requires an adequate representation of fire as a climate-controlled process within an Earth system model. To be able to address questions on the interaction between fire and the Earth system, we implemented the mechanistic fire model SPITFIRE, in JSBACH, the land surface model of the MPI Earth system model. Here, we document the model implementation as well as model modifications. We evaluate our model results by comparing the simulation to the GFED version 3 satellite-based data set. In addition, we assess the sensitivity of the model to the meteorological forcing and to the spatial variability of a number of fire relevant model parameters. A first comparison of model results with burned area observations showed a strong correlation of the residuals with wind speed. Further analysis revealed that the response of the fire spread to wind speed was too strong for the application on global scale. Therefore, we developed an improved parametrization to account for this effect. The evaluation of the improved model shows that the model is able to capture the global gradients and the seasonality of burned area. Some areas of model-data mismatch can be explained by differences in vegetation cover compared to observations. We achieve benchmarking scores comparable to other state-of-the-art fire models. The global total burned area is sensitive to the meteorological forcing. Adjustment of parameters leads to similar model results for both forcing data sets with respect to spatial and seasonal patterns. This article was corrected on 29 SEP 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. An early warning system for high climate sensitivity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2010-12-01

    from this problem, the transient nature of climate response driven by increasing CO2 requires careful monitoring of ocean heat storage as well as top-of-atmosphere radiative budgets, if climate sensitivity is to be estimated. Water vapor feedback is not considered as uncertain as cloud feedback, but there is still a considerable potential for surprises. I will discuss microwave monitoring requirements for tracking water vapor feedback. At the other extreme, the longer term feedbacks that contribute to Earth System Sensitivity are even more uncertain than cloud feedbacks, particularly with regard to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Prospects for obtaining an early warning of a PETM-type organic carbon release seem bleak. Finally, I will discuss the particular challenge of obtaining an early warning of high climate sensitivity in the case that the climate system has a bifurcation.

  8. Short-term capture of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; de Ruiter, Anton

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the short-term capture (STC) of an asteroid in the Earth-Moon system is proposed and investigated. First, the space condition of STC is analysed and five subsets of the feasible region are defined and discussed. Then, the time condition of STC is studied by parameter scanning in the Sun-Earth-Moon-asteroid restricted four-body problem. Numerical results indicate that there is a clear association between the distributions of the time probability of STC and the five subsets. Next, the influence of the Jacobi constant on STC is examined using the space and time probabilities of STC. Combining the space and time probabilities of STC, we propose a STC index to evaluate the probability of STC comprehensively. Finally, three potential STC asteroids are found and analysed.

  9. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnoe, S. H.

    2018-06-01

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  10. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores.

    PubMed

    Curnoe, S H

    2018-06-13

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  11. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  13. Re-Evaluating Satellite Solar Power Systems for Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite System is a concept to collect solar power in space, and then transport it to the surface of the Earth by microwave (or possibly laser) beam, where if is converted into electrical power for terrestrial use. The recent increase in energy costs, predictions of the near-term exhaustion of oil, and prominence of possible climate change due to the "greenhouse effect" from burning of fossil fuels has again brought alternative energy sources to public attention, and the time is certainly appropriate to reexamine the economics of space based power. Several new concepts for Satellite Power System designs were evaluated to make the concept more economically feasible.

  14. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alex; Gunter, Dan; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-03-10

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

  15. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  16. Earth observing system. Data and information system. Volume 2A: Report of the EOS Data Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (Eos), defined by the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the Earth as a system. The Eos data and information system is conceived as a complete research information system that would transcend the traditional mission data system, and include additional capabilties such as maintaining long-term, time-series data bases and providing access by Eos researchers to relevant non-Eos data. The Working Group recommends that the Eos data and information system be initiated now, with existing data, and that the system evolve into one that can meet the intensive research and data needs that will exist when Eos spacecraft are returning data in the 1990s.

  17. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  18. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  19. Intermediate phases in some rare earth-ruthenium systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharifrazi, P.; Raman, A.; Mohanty, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The phase equilibria and crystal structures of intermediate phases were investigated in eight representative RE-Ru systems using powder X-ray diffraction and metallographic techniques. The Fe3C, Mn5C2 and Er5Ru3 structures occur in all but the Ce-Ru systems. Phases analogous to Er5Ru3 possess an unknown crystal structure similar to Er5Rh3(I). MgCu2 and MgZn2 type Laves phases are encountered in the light rare earth and heavy rare earth systems, respectively, and RERu2 phases, where RE = Nd and Sm, possess both the Laves phase structures. An intermediate phase, NdRu, with an unknown structure, occurs only in the Nd-Ru system. A bcc structure with 40 atoms per unit cell is encountered in the phases Er3Ru2 and Y3Ru2. The behavior of cerium in Ce-Ru alloys is unique in that four unidentified structures, not encountered in other RE-Ru systems, have been encountered. Also a phase designated as Ce3Ru is found with the Th7Fe3 type structure.

  20. Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) IPY Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, L. S.; Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is a National Science Foundation-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service, middle, and high school teachers. ESSEA increases teachers' access to quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. With additional support from NASA, the ESSEA program is being enhanced to reflect emphasis on the International Polar Year. From 1999-2005 the ESSEA program was based on a trio of online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers), the courses have been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 teachers in Earth system science. Program evaluation of original course participants indicated that the courses had significant impact on teachers Earth system content knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning. Seventeen of the original participating institutions have continued to use the courses and many have developed new programs that incorporate the courses in Earth science education opportunities for teachers. Today the ESSEA program lists nearly 40 colleges and universities as participants. With NASA support, the K-4 course and modules have been revised to include topics and resources focusing on the International Polar Year. Additional modules examining the changes in black carbon, ice sheets and permafrost have been added for middle and high school levels. The new modules incorporate geoscience data and analysis tools into classroom instruction. By exploring IPY related topics and data, participating teachers and their students will develop new understandings about the interactions and dependencies of the Earth spheres and our polar regions. Changes in climate, air, water, and land quality and animal and plant populations make the news everyday. The ESSEA IPY modules will help teachers inform rather than frighten their students as they learn

  1. Solar System Portrait - View of the Sun, Earth and Venus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-13

    This color image of the sun, Earth and Venus was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft Feb. 14, 1990, when it was approximately 32 degrees above the plane of the ecliptic and at a slant-range distance of approximately 4 billion miles. It is the first -- and may be the only -- time that we will ever see our solar system from such a vantage point. The image is a portion of a wide-angle image containing the sun and the region of space where the Earth and Venus were at the time with two narrow-angle pictures centered on each planet. The wide-angle was taken with the camera's darkest filter (a methane absorption band), and the shortest possible exposure (5 thousandths of a second) to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large in the sky as seen from Voyager's perspective at the edge of the solar system but is still eight million times brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The image of the sun you see is far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. The result of the brightness is a bright burned out image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera. The "rays" around the sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide angle lens. The two narrow-angle frames containing the images of the Earth and Venus have been digitally mosaiced into the wide-angle image at the appropriate scale. These images were taken through three color filters and recombined to produce a color image. The violet, green and blue filters were used; exposure times were, for the Earth image, 0.72, 0.48 and 0.72 seconds, and for the Venus frame, 0.36, 0.24 and 0.36, respectively. Although the planetary pictures were taken with the narrow-angle camera (1500 mm focal length) and were not pointed directly at the sun, they show the effects of the glare from the nearby sun, in the form of long linear streaks resulting from the scattering of sunlight off parts of the camera and its sun

  2. Solar System Portrait - View of the Sun, Earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the sun, Earth and Venus was taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft Feb. 14, 1990, when it was approximately 32 degrees above the plane of the ecliptic and at a slant-range distance of approximately 4 billion miles. It is the first -- and may be the only -- time that we will ever see our solar system from such a vantage point. The image is a portion of a wide-angle image containing the sun and the region of space where the Earth and Venus were at the time with two narrow-angle pictures centered on each planet. The wide-angle was taken with the camera's darkest filter (a methane absorption band), and the shortest possible exposure (5 thousandths of a second) to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large in the sky as seen from Voyager's perspective at the edge of the solar system but is still eight million times brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The image of the sun you see is far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. The result of the brightness is a bright burned out image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera. The 'rays' around the sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide angle lens. The two narrow-angle frames containing the images of the Earth and Venus have been digitally mosaiced into the wide-angle image at the appropriate scale. These images were taken through three color filters and recombined to produce a color image. The violet, green and blue filters were used; exposure times were, for the Earth image, 0.72, 0.48 and 0.72 seconds, and for the Venus frame, 0.36, 0.24 and 0.36, respectively. Although the planetary pictures were taken with the narrow-angle camera (1500 mm focal length) and were not pointed directly at the sun, they show the effects of the glare from the nearby sun, in the form of long linear streaks resulting from the scattering of sunlight off parts of the camera and its sun

  3. The Earth System CoG Collaboration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, C.; Murphy, S.; Cinquini, L.; Treshansky, A.; Wallis, J. C.; Rood, R. B.; Overeem, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth System CoG supports collaborative Earth science research and product development in virtual organizations that span multiple projects and communities. It provides access to data, metadata, and visualization services along with tools that support open project governance, and it can be used to host individual projects or to profile projects hosted elsewhere. All projects on CoG are described using a project ontology - an organized common vocabulary - that exposes information needed for collaboration and decision-making. Projects can be linked into a network, and the underlying ontology enables consolidated views of information across the network. This access to information promotes the creation of active and knowledgeable project governance, at both individual and aggregate project levels. CoG is being used to support software development projects, model intercomparison projects, training classes, and scientific programs. Its services and ontology are customizable by project. This presentation will provide an overview of CoG, review examples of current use, and discuss how CoG can be used as knowledge and coordination hub for networks of projects in the Earth Sciences.

  4. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  5. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G. R.; Morse, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The addition of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites over the last decade to the data held by NASA data centers has created a data rich environment for the Earth science research and applications communities. The data products are being distributed to a large and diverse community of users. Due to advances in computational hardware, networks and communications, information management and software technologies, significant progress has been made in the last decade in archiving and providing data to users. However, to realize the full potential of the growing data archives, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. Sponsored by NASA s Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology (CICT) Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization through the addition of intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system (KBS). Potential Intelligent Archive concepts include: 1) Mining archived data holdings to improve metadata to facilitate data access and usability; 2) Building intelligence about transformations on data, information, knowledge, and accompanying services; 3) Recognizing the value of results, indexing and formatting them for easy access; 4) Interacting as a cooperative node in a web of distributed systems to perform knowledge building; and 5) Being aware of other nodes in the KBS, participating in open systems interfaces and protocols for virtualization, and achieving collaborative interoperability.

  6. Spatial nonlinearities: Cascading effects in the earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Pielke, R.A.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, K. M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Pataki, Diane E.; Pitelka, Louis F.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior is prevalent in all aspects of the Earth System, including ecological responses to global change (Gallagher and Appenzeller 1999; Steffen et al. 2004). Nonlinear behavior refers to a large, discontinuous change in response to a small change in a driving variable (Rial et al. 2004). In contrast to linear systems where responses are smooth, well-behaved, continuous functions, nonlinear systems often undergo sharp or discontinuous transitions resulting from the crossing of thresholds. These nonlinear responses can result in surprising behavior that makes forecasting difficult (Kaplan and Glass 1995). Given that many system dynamics are nonlinear, it is imperative that conceptual and quantitative tools be developed to increase our understanding of the processes leading to nonlinear behavior in order to determine if forecasting can be improved under future environmental changes (Clark et al. 2001).

  7. The Sensitivity of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in West Antarctica to Lateral Variations in Earth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, G.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Blank, B.; van der Wal, W.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Stuart, G. W.; Lloyd, A. J.; Wiens, D.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) are required for correcting satellite measurements of ice-mass change and for interpretation of geodetic data at the location of present and former ice sheets. Global models of GIA tend to adopt a 1-D representation of Earth structure, varying in the radial direction only. In some regions rheological parameters may differ significantly from this global average leading to bias in model predictions of present-day deformation, geoid change rates and sea-level change. The advancement of 3-D GIA modelling techniques in recent years has led to improvements in the representation of the Earth via the incorporation of laterally varying structure. This study investigates the influence of 3-D Earth structure on deformation rates in West Antarctica using a finite element GIA model with power-law rheology. We utilise datasets of seismic velocity and temperature for the crust and upper mantle with the aim of determining a data-driven Earth model, and consider the differences when compared to deformation predicted from an equivalent 1-D Earth structure.

  8. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph A; Beerling, David J; Franks, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Stomata have played a key role in the Earth System for at least 400 million years. By enabling plants to control the rate of evaporation from their photosynthetic organs, stomata helped to set in motion non-linear processes that led to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle over the continents and an expansion of climate zones favorable for plant life. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere interactions provides a way to explore parallels between the influence of vegetation on climate over time, and the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of vegetation in the current Earth System on climate and weather. We use the logic in models that simulate land-atmosphere interactions to illustrate the central role played by stomatal conductance in the Earth System. In the modeling context, most of the activities of plants and their manifold interactions with their genomes and with the environment are communicated to the atmosphere through a single property: the aperture or conductance of their stomata. We tend to think of the controls on vegetation responses in the real world as being distributed among factors such as seasonal patterns of growth, the changing availability of soil water, or changes in light intensity and leaf water potential over a day. However, the impact of these controls on crucial exchanges of energy and water vapor with the atmosphere are also largely mediated by stomata. The decisions 'made by' stomata emerge as an important and inadequately understood component of these models. At the present time we lack effective ways to link advances in the biology of stomata to this decision making process. While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity.

  9. Kwf-Grid workflow management system for Earth science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, V.; Hluchy, L.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present workflow management tool for Earth science applications in EGEE. The workflow management tool was originally developed within K-wf Grid project for GT4 middleware and has many advanced features like semi-automatic workflow composition, user-friendly GUI for managing workflows, knowledge management. In EGEE, we are porting the workflow management tool to gLite middleware for Earth science applications K-wf Grid workflow management system was developed within "Knowledge-based Workflow System for Grid Applications" under the 6th Framework Programme. The workflow mangement system intended to - semi-automatically compose a workflow of Grid services, - execute the composed workflow application in a Grid computing environment, - monitor the performance of the Grid infrastructure and the Grid applications, - analyze the resulting monitoring information, - capture the knowledge that is contained in the information by means of intelligent agents, - and finally to reuse the joined knowledge gathered from all participating users in a collaborative way in order to efficiently construct workflows for new Grid applications. Kwf Grid workflow engines can support different types of jobs (e.g. GRAM job, web services) in a workflow. New class of gLite job has been added to the system, allows system to manage and execute gLite jobs in EGEE infrastructure. The GUI has been adapted to the requirements of EGEE users, new credential management servlet is added to portal. Porting K-wf Grid workflow management system to gLite would allow EGEE users to use the system and benefit from its avanced features. The system is primarly tested and evaluated with applications from ES clusters.

  10. Kepler Confirms First Earth-Sized Planet Outside Our Solar System (Kepler-20) (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-19

    NASA's Kepler mission has confirmed the discovery of the first Earth-size planets outside our solar system orbiting a sun-like star. Located about 1,000 light years from Earth, the Kepler-20 solar system has five planets orbiting a star similar to the Sun. Kepler-20f, the 4th planet in the system, is about 90 percent the size of Earth. Kepler-20f is slightly larger than Earth,with a radius that is 3 percent larger.

  11. Integration of Earth System Models and Workflow Management under iRODS for the Northeast Regional Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, F.; Yang, P.; Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM, NSF Award #1049181) integrates weather research and forecasting models, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, a water balance/transport model, and mesoscale and energy systems input-out economic models developed by interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy. NE-RESM is intended to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. Integration of model components and the development of cyberinfrastructure for interacting with the system is facilitated with the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS), a distributed data grid that provides archival storage with metadata facilities and a rule-based workflow engine for automating and auditing scientific workflows.

  12. Analysis of active volcanoes from the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Rowland, Scott; Crisp, Joy; Glaze, Lori; Jones, Kenneth; Kahle, Anne; Pieri, David; Zebker, Howard; Krueger, Arlin; Walter, Lou

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled for launch in 1997 and 1999 is briefly described, and the EOS volcanology investigation objectives are discussed. The volcanology investigation will include long- and short-term monitoring of selected volcanoes, the detection of precursor activity associated with unanticipated eruptions, and a detailed study of on-going eruptions. A variety of instruments on the EOS platforms will enable the study of local- and regional-scale thermal and deformational features of volcanoes, and the chemical and structural features of volcanic eruption plumes and aerosols.

  13. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS), appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Bay, S. M.; Foutch, T. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Makin, K. P.; Power, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The needs of state, regional, and local agencies involved in natural resources management in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin are investigated to determine the design of satellite remotely sensed derivable information products. It is concluded that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be most beneficial if it provides a full range of services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products. Included is a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers, and an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation, and government structure on implementing large scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users.

  14. Diversity of Approaches to Structuring University-Based Earth System Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, J.; Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past quarter century, the "Earth system science" paradigm has emerged among the interdisciplinary science community, emphasizing interactions among components hitherto considered within separate disciplines: atmosphere (air); hydrosphere (water); biosphere (life); lithosphere (land); anthroposphere (human dimension); and exosphere (solar system and beyond). How should the next generation of Earth system scientists learn to contribute to this interdisciplinary endeavor? There is no one simple answer. The Earth System Science Education program, funded by NASA, has addressed this question by supporting faculty at U.S. universities who develop new courses, curricula and degree programs in their institutional contexts. This report demonstrates the diversity of approaches to structuring university-based Earth system science education, focusing on the 18 current grantees of the Earth System Science Education Program for the 21st Century (ESSE21). One of the most fundamental characteristics is the departmental structure for teaching Earth system science. The "home" departments of the Earth system science faculty range from Earth sciences and physics to agronomy and social work. A brand-new institution created an interdisciplinary Institute for Earth Systems Science and Policy without traditional "parent" departments. Some institutions create new degree programs as majors or as minors while others work within existing degree programs to add or revise courses. A university may also offer multiple strands, such as a degree in the Science of the Earth System and a degree in the Human Dimensions of the Earth System. Defining a career path is extremely important to students considering Earth system science programs and a major institutional challenge for all programs in Earth system science education. How will graduate programs assess prospective students? How will universities and government agencies assess prospective faculty and scientists? How will government

  15. Atmospheric Constituents in GEOS-5: Components for an Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Douglass, Anne; Duncan, Bryan; Nielsen, Eric; Ott, Leslie; Strode, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The GEOS-S model is being developed for weather and climate processes, including the implementation of "Earth System" components. While the stratospheric chemistry capabilities are mature, we are presently extending this to include predictions of the tropospheric composition and chemistry - this includes CO2, CH4, CO, nitrogen species, etc. (Aerosols are also implemented, but are beyond the scope of this paper.) This work will give an overview of our chemistry modules, the approaches taken to represent surface emissions and uptake of chemical species, and some studies of the sensitivity of the atmospheric circulation to changes in atmospheric composition. Results are obtained through focused experiments and multi-decadal simulations.

  16. Charting a Course to Earth System Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Koch, L.; Ridky, R.; Wei, M.; Ladue, N.

    2008-12-01

    Public literacy of fundamental ideas in Earth System Science (ESS) is immensely important, both because of its relevance to the daily lives of individual citizens and the role played by informed policy decisions related to water, energy, climate change, and hazards in securing our Nation's well-being and prosperity. The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) argued that topics which comprise ESS also have tremendous value in providing context and meaning for the teaching of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics concepts and their applications, thereby serving the goals of the America COMPETES Act. Yet, as documented in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) results, the U.S. continues to lag significantly behind other developed nations in science literacy. A major obstacle to improving public ESS literacy, specifically, and strengthening science literacy, in general, is the fact that fewer than 30% of students in U.S. high schools take any courses related to ESS. Often, these courses are taught by teachers with limited preparation in this content area. A new grass-roots movement within the geoscience research and education communities, fueled by interagency collaboration, is seeking to overcome these obstacles and steer a new course for ESS education in the Nation. The Earth System Science Literacy Initiative (ESSLI) builds on recent efforts within portions of the geosciences community to reach consensus on what defines scientific literacy within their fields. Individual literacy frameworks now exist for the ocean, atmospheric science, Earth science, and climate topic areas, and others are under development. The essential principles and fundamental concepts articulated in these frameworks provide consistent core messages that can be delivered and reinforced not only through formal education channels, but also through informal education activities and the media, thereby avoiding the inherent obstacles of the formal education setting

  17. Inversion of magnetotelluric data using integral equation approach with variable sensitivity domain: Application to EarthScope MT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuma, Martin; Gribenko, Alexander; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a multi-level parallel magnetotelluric (MT) integral equation based inversion program which uses variable sensitivity domain. The limited sensitivity of the data, which decreases with increasing frequency, is exploited by a receiver sensitivity domain, which also varies with frequency. We assess the effect of inverting principal impedances, full impedance tensor, and full tensor jointly with magnetovariational data (tipper). We first apply this method to several models and then invert the EarthScope MT data. We recover well the prominent features in the area including resistive structure associated with the Juan de Fuca slab subducting beneath the northwestern United States, the conductive zone of partially melted material above the subducting slab at the Cascade volcanic arc, conductive features in the Great Basin and in the area of Yellowstone associated with the hot spot, and resistive areas to the east corresponding to the older and more stable cratons.

  18. Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that

  19. The Programming Language Python In Earth System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Imranullah, A.; Mora, P.; Saez, E.; Smillie, J.; Wang, C.

    2004-12-01

    Mathematical models in earth sciences base on the solution of systems of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). The spatial and time-scale vary from a planetary scale and million years for convection problems to 100km and 10 years for fault systems simulations. Various techniques are in use to deal with the time dependency (e.g. Crank-Nicholson), with the non-linearity (e.g. Newton-Raphson) and weakly coupled equations (e.g. non-linear Gauss-Seidel). Besides these high-level solution algorithms discretization methods (e.g. finite element method (FEM), boundary element method (BEM)) are used to deal with spatial derivatives. Typically, large-scale, three dimensional meshes are required to resolve geometrical complexity (e.g. in the case of fault systems) or features in the solution (e.g. in mantel convection simulations). The modelling environment escript allows the rapid implementation of new physics as required for the development of simulation codes in earth sciences. Its main object is to provide a programming language, where the user can define new models and rapidly develop high-level solution algorithms. The current implementation is linked with the finite element package finley as a PDE solver. However, the design is open and other discretization technologies such as finite differences and boundary element methods could be included. escript is implemented as an extension of the interactive programming environment python (see www.python.org). Key concepts introduced are Data objects, which are holding values on nodes or elements of the finite element mesh, and linearPDE objects, which are defining linear partial differential equations to be solved by the underlying discretization technology. In this paper we will show the basic concepts of escript and will show how escript is used to implement a simulation code for interacting fault systems. We will show some results of large-scale, parallel simulations on an SGI Altix

  20. Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Preparation for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Lawrence, B.; Guilyardi, E.; Pascoe, C.; Treshanksy, A.; Elkington, M.; Hibling, E.; Hassell, D.

    2015-12-01

    During the course of 2015 the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project began its preparations for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 6) by further extending the ES-DOC tooling ecosystem in support of Earth System Model (ESM) documentation creation, search, viewing & comparison. The ES-DOC online questionnaire, the ES-DOC desktop notebook, and the ES-DOC python toolkit will serve as multiple complementary pathways to generating CMIP6 documentation. It is envisaged that institutes will leverage these tools at different points of the CMIP6 lifecycle. Institutes will be particularly interested to know that the documentation burden will be either streamlined or completely automated.As all the tools are tightly integrated with the ES-DOC web-service, institutes can be confident that the latency between documentation creation & publishing will be reduced to a minimum. Published documents will be viewable with the online ES-DOC Viewer (accessible via citable URL's). Model inter-comparison scenarios will be supported using the ES-DOC online Comparator tool. The Comparator is being extended to:• Support comparison of both Model descriptions & Simulation runs;• Greatly streamline the effort involved in compiling official tables.The entire ES-DOC ecosystem is open source and built upon open standards such as the Common Information Model (CIM) (versions 1 and 2).

  1. Network Performance Measurements for NASA's Earth Observation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loiacono, Joe; Gormain, Andy; Smith, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) Project studies all aspects of planet Earth from space, including climate change, and ocean, ice, land, and vegetation characteristics. It consists of about 20 satellite missions over a period of about a decade. Extensive collaboration is used, both with other US. agencies (e.g., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Defense (DoD), and international agencies (e.g., European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)), to improve cost effectiveness and obtain otherwise unavailable data. Scientific researchers are located at research institutions worldwide, primarily government research facilities and research universities. The EOS project makes extensive use of networks to support data acquisition, data production, and data distribution. Many of these functions impose requirements on the networks, including throughput and availability. In order to verify that these requirements are being met, and be pro-active in recognizing problems, NASA conducts on-going performance measurements. The purpose of this paper is to examine techniques used by NASA to measure the performance of the networks used by EOSDIS (EOS Data and Information System) and to indicate how this performance information is used.

  2. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  3. Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Alonso, Ursula; Lemasson, Quentin; Missana, Tiziana; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Camarena de la Mora, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    A series of granite samples (Grimsel and Äspö) enriched by sorption with natU (10-3 M, 10-4 M, 10-5 M in solution) and La (10-3 M, 10-4 M in solution) has been scanned by PIXE over a surface of 1920 × 1920 mm2 together with non-enriched Grimsel and Äspö granites and a glass standard. An assessment of minimum detection limits, MDL's, for several elements has been performed with the use of standard materials. Due to mapping and the high sensitivity of the new AGLAE detection system, U levels around 30 ppm can be detected from the whole PIXE spectrum (one low energy detector and four summed filtered detectors) while U reach grains, inhomogeneously distributed over the surface can be clearly identified through the multi elemental maps and analyzed separately. Even the nominally enriched samples have La levels below the MDL, probably because precipitation of the element (and not adsorption) mostly took place, and precipitates were eliminated after surface cleaning carried out before PIXE analyses. A multi detector system that implies a PIXE detection solid angle much wider than in any other similar set-up (a factor of 2-5); a higher events selectivity, given by the possibility of filtering individually up to 4 PIXE detectors; a double RBS detector, the new Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. Full mapping capability in air, assisted by a powerful event by event reconstruction software. These features allow lower Minimum Detection Limits (MDL) which are highly beneficial to the analysis of cultural heritage objects, meaning generally a reduction of irradiation time. Paintings will then be studied without any damage to the pigments that have color change tendencies which is a major drawback of the previous system. Alternatively they could allow an increase in information collected at equal time, particularly considering the detector's fast response and therefore the potential for high beam currents when sample damage can be

  4. The impact of Earth system feedbacks on carbon budgets and climate response.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Bernie, Daniel

    2018-05-13

    A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified. Here, we make initial estimates to show that the combined impact from typically unrepresented Earth system processes may be important for the achievability of limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The size of the effects range up to around a 350 GtCO 2 budget reduction for a 1.5°C warming limit and around a 500 GtCO 2 reduction for achieving a warming limit of 2°C. Median estimates for the extra Earth system forcing lead to around 100 GtCO 2 and 150 GtCO 2 , respectively, for the two warming limits. Our estimates are equivalent to several years of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions at present rates. In addition to the likely reduction of the allowable global carbon budgets, the extra feedbacks also bring forward the date at which a given warming threshold is likely to be exceeded for a particular emission pathway.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. The impact of Earth system feedbacks on carbon budgets and climate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Jason A.; Bernie, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified. Here, we make initial estimates to show that the combined impact from typically unrepresented Earth system processes may be important for the achievability of limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The size of the effects range up to around a 350 GtCO2 budget reduction for a 1.5°C warming limit and around a 500 GtCO2 reduction for achieving a warming limit of 2°C. Median estimates for the extra Earth system forcing lead to around 100 GtCO2 and 150 GtCO2, respectively, for the two warming limits. Our estimates are equivalent to several years of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions at present rates. In addition to the likely reduction of the allowable global carbon budgets, the extra feedbacks also bring forward the date at which a given warming threshold is likely to be exceeded for a particular emission pathway. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  6. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  7. Representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi

    Drainage systems can be categorized into natural or geomorphological drainage systems, agricultural drainage systems and urban drainage systems. They interact closely among themselves and with climate and human society, particularly under extreme climate and hydrological events such as floods. This editorial articulates the need to holistically understand and model drainage systems in the context of climate change and human influence, and discusses the requirements and examples of feasible approaches to representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework.

  8. Earth physicist describes US nuclear test monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. capabilities to monitor underground nuclear weapons tests in the USSR was examined. American methods used in monitoring the underground nuclear tests are enumerated. The U. S. technical means of monitoring Solviet nuclear weapons testing, and whether it is possible to conduct tests that could not be detected by these means are examined. The worldwide seismic station network in 55 countries available to the U. S. for seismic detection and measurement of underground nuclear explosions, and also the systems of seismic research observatories in 15 countries and seismic grouping stations in 12 countries are outlined including the advanced computerized data processing capabilities of these facilities. The level of capability of the U. S. seismic system for monitoring nuclear tests, other, nonseismic means of monitoring, such as hydroacoustic and recording of effects in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and the Earth's magnetic field, are discussed.

  9. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  10. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  11. A Unified Approach to Quantifying Feedbacks in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, K. E.

    2008-12-01

    In order to speed progress in reducing uncertainty in climate projections, the processes that most strongly influence those projections must be identified. It is of some importance, therefore, to assess the relative strengths of various climate feedbacks and to determine the degree to which various earth system models (ESMs) agree in their simulations of these processes. Climate feedbacks have been traditionally quantified in terms of their impact on the radiative balance of the planet, whereas carbon cycle responses have been assessed in terms of the size of the perturbations to the surface fluxes of carbon dioxide. In this study we introduce a diagnostic strategy for unifying the two approaches, which allows us to directly compare the strength of carbon-climate feedbacks with other conventional climate feedbacks associated with atmospheric and surface changes. Applying this strategy to a highly simplified model of the carbon-climate system demonstrates the viability of the approach. In the simple model we find that even if the strength of the carbon-climate feedbacks is very large, the uncertainty associated with the overall response of the climate system is likely to be dominated by uncertainties in the much larger feedbacks associated with clouds. This does not imply that the carbon cycle itself is unimportant, only that changes in the carbon cycle that are associated with climate change have a relatively small impact on global temperatures. This new, unified diagnostic approach is suitable for assessing feedbacks in even the most sophisticated earth system models. It will be interesting to see whether our preliminary conclusions are confirmed when output from the more realistic models is analyzed. This work was carried out at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis for Multidisciplinary Systems (SAMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    support both mode-based structural representations and time-dependent, nonlinear finite element structural dynamics. This interim report describes...Adaptation, & Sensitivity Toolkit • Elasticity, heat transfer, & compressible flow • Adjoint solver for sensitivity analysis • High-order finite elements ...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard D. Snyder 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2401 5e. TASK NUMBER N/A 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q1FS 7

  13. Thermodynamic Vent System Test in a Low Earth Orbit Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    A thermodynamic vent system for a cryogenic nitrogen tank was tested in a vacuum chamber simulating oxygen storage in low earth orbit. The nitrogen tank was surrounded by a cryo-shroud at -40 F. The tank was insulated with two layers of multi-layer insulation. Heat transfer into cryogenic tanks causes phase change and increases tank pressure which must be controlled. A thermodynamic vent system was used to control pressure as the location of vapor is unknown in low gravity and direct venting would be wasteful. The thermodynamic vent system consists of a Joule-Thomson valve and heat exchanger installed on the inlet side of the tank mixer-pump. The combination is used to extract thermal energy from the tank fluid, reducing temperature and ullage pressure. The system was sized so that the tank mixer-pump operated a small fraction of the time to limit motor heating. Initially the mixer used sub-cooled liquid to cool the liquid-vapor interface inducing condensation and pressure reduction. Later, the thermodynamic vent system was used. Pressure cycles were performed until steady-state operation was demonstrated. Three test runs were conducted at tank fills of 97, 80, and 63 percent. Each test was begun with a boil-off test to determine heat transfer into the tank. The lower tank fills had time averaged vent rates very close to steady-state boil-off rates showing the thermodynamic vent system was nearly as efficient as direct venting in normal gravity.

  14. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  15. Sensitivity of Earth Wheat Markets to Space Weather: Comparative Analysis based on data from Medieval European Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We consider a problem of the possible influence of unfavorable states of the space weather on agriculture markets through the chain of connections: "space weather"-"earth weather"- "agriculture crops"-"price reaction". We show that new manifestations of "space weather"- "earth weather" relations discovered in the recent time allow revising a wide range of the expected solar-terrestrial connections. In the previous works we proposed possible mechanisms of wheat market reaction on the specific unfavorable states of space weather in the form of price bursts and price asymmetry. We point out that implementation of considered "price reaction scenarios" is possible only for the case of simultaneous realization of several necessary conditions: high sensitivity of local earth weather in the selected region to space weather; the state of "high risk agriculture" in the selected agriculture zone; high sensitivity of agricultural market to a possible deficit of yield. Results of our previous works (I, II), including application of this approach to the Medieval England wheat market (1250-1700) and to the modern USA durum market (1910-1992), showed that connection between wheat price bursts and space weather state in these cases was absolutely real. The aim of the present work is to answer the question why wheat markets in one selected region may be sensitive to a space weather factor, while in other regions wheat markets demonstrate absolutely indifferent reaction on the space weather. For this aim, we consider dependence of sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather as a function of their location in different climatic zones of Europe. We analyze a database of 95 European wheat markets from 14 countries for the 600-year period (1260-1912). We show that the observed sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather effects is controlled, first of all, by a type of predominant climate in different zones of agricultural production. Wheat markets in the Northern and, partly, in

  16. EKOSAT/DIAMANT - The Earth Observation Programme at OHB- System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penne, B.; Tobehn, C.; Kassebom, M.; Luebberstedt

    This paper covers the EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme heading for superspectral geo-information products. The EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme is based on a commercial strategy just before the realization of the first step - the EKOSAT launch in 2004. Further, we give an overview on OHB-System earth observation prime activities especially for infrared and radar. The EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is based on the MSRS sensor featuring 12 user dedicated spectral bands in the VIS/NIR with 5m spatial resolution and 26 km swath at an orbit of 670 km. The operational demonstrator mission EKOSAT is a Korean-Israelean-German-Russian initiative that aims in utilizing the existing proto-flight model of the KOMPSAT-1 spacecraft for the MSRS sensor, which development is finished. The EKOSAT pointing capability will allow a revisit time of 3 days. DIAMANT stands for the future full operational system based on dedicated small satellites. The basic constellation relying on 2-3 satellites with about one day revisit is extendend on market demand. EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is designed to fill the gap between modern high spatial resolution multispectral (MS) systems and hyperspectral systems with moderate spatial resolution. On European level, there is currently no remote sensing system operational with comparable features and capabilities concerning applications especially in the field of environmental issues, vegetation, agriculture and water bodies. The Space Segment has been designed to satisfy the user requirements based on a balance between commercial aspects and scientific approaches. For example eight spectral bands have been identified to cover almost the entire product range for the current market. Additional four bands have been implemented to be prepared for future applications as for example the improved red edge detection, which give better results regarding environmental conditions. The spacecraft design and its subsystems are still reasonable small in order to keep the mass below 200 kg. This is an

  17. Data management and analysis for the Earth System Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D. E.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Henson, V. E.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.

    2008-07-01

    The international climate community is expected to generate hundreds of petabytes of simulation data within the next five to seven years. This data must be accessed and analyzed by thousands of analysts worldwide in order to provide accurate and timely estimates of the likely impact of climate change on physical, biological, and human systems. Climate change is thus not only a scientific challenge of the first order but also a major technological challenge. In order to address this technological challenge, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)-2 program, with support from the offices of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research. ESG-CET's mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with access to the data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate simulation datasets. Its specific goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing Grid technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet specific distributed database, data access, and data movement needs of national and international climate projects; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide-range of Grid-enabled climate data analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. Building on the successes of the previous Earth System Grid (ESG) project, which has enabled thousands of researchers to access tens of terabytes of data from a small number of ESG sites, ESG-CET is working to integrate a far larger number of distributed data providers, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and remote computers in a highly collaborative problem-solving environment.

  18. Earth System Science Education Centered on Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; Ladochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Several new courses and many educational activities related to climate change are available to teachers and students of all grade levels. However, not all new discoveries in climate research have reached the science education community. In particular, effective learning tools explaining natural climate change are scarce. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a main cause of natural climate variability spanning decades. While most educators are familiar with the shorter-temporal events impacting climate, El Niño and La Niña, very little has trickled into the climate change curriculum on the PDO. We have developed two online educational modules, using an Earth system science approach, on the PDO and its role in climate change and variability. The first concentrates on the discovery of the PDO through records of salmon catch in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. We present the connection between salmon abundance in the North Pacific to changing sea surface temperature patterns associated with the PDO. The connection between sea surface temperatures and salmon abundance led to the discovery of the PDO. Our activity also lets students explore the role of salmon in the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska and the environmental requirements for salmon survival. The second module is based on the climate of southern California and how changes in the Pacific Ocean , such as the PDO and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), influence regional climate variability. PDO and ENSO signals are evident in the long-term temperature and precipitation record of southern California. Students are guided in the module to discover the relationships between Pacific Ocean conditions and southern California climate variability. The module also provides information establishing the relationship between climate change and variability and the state's water, energy, agriculture, wildfires and forestry, air quality and health issues. Both modules will be

  19. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  20. The Simulated Impact of Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions on the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Elliott, S.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Burrows, S. M.; Maltrud, M. E.; Lucas, D. D.; Ghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of many biologically derived gases and particles emitted from the ocean that has the potential to affect climate. In the case of DMS it is oxidized to sulfate, which increases the aerosol loading in the atmosphere either through nucleation or condensation on other aerosols, which in turn changes the energy balance of the Earth by reflection of sunlight either through direct reflection by the aerosols or by modifying clouds. We have previously shown that the geographical distribution of DMS emission from the ocean may be quite sensitive to climate changes, especially in the Southern Ocean. Our state-of-the-art sulfur-cycle Earth system model (ESM), based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM) climate model, includes an ocean sulfur ecosystem model, the oxidation of DMS to sulfate by atmospheric chemistry, and the indirect effect of sulfate on radiation via clouds using the Modal Aerosol Model (MAM). Our multi-decadal simulations calculate the impact of DMS on the energy balance and climate of the Earth system, and its sensitivity/feedback to climate change. The estimate from our simulations is that DMS is responsible for ~6 W/m2 of reflected sunlight in the pre-industrial era (globally averaged), and ~4 W/m2 in the present era. The reduction is caused by increased competition with cloud condensation nuclei from anthropogenic aerosols in the present era, and therefore partially offsets the cooling from the anthropogenic aerosols. The distribution of these effects are not uniform, and doesn't necessarily follow the simulated DMS distribution, because some clouds are more sensitive to DMS derived sulfate than others, and there are surface feedbacks such as the ice-albedo feedback. Although our calculated impact of DMS is higher than some previous studies, it is not much higher than recent observational estimates (McCoy, et al., 2015). We are now porting these capabilities to the US Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling

  1. A Low Earth Orbit satellite marine communication system demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, T. Keith; Butt, Kenneth A.; Asmus, Ken W.

    1995-01-01

    An application of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite communications technology was investigated during a joint Canadian/American scientific expedition to the north pole in the summer of 1994. The Canadian ice breaker involved, was equipped with a store-and-forward LEO satellite terminal which was linked to a ground station in St. John's, Newfoundland, via the near-polar-orbiting satellite, HealthSat-l. The objective was to evaluate the performance of such a system while providing an alternate means of communications in the far north. The system performed well, given its inherent limitations. All 151 attempts to send data files to the ship were successful. Only two (2) of the 35 attempts to send files from the ship were unsuccessful. The files ranged in size from 0.1 to 60 Kbytes. In the high arctic, above 80 deg north, this system often provided the only practical means of data communications. This experiment demonstrated the potential of such a system for not-real-time communications with remote and/or mobile stations, and highlighted the many issues involved. This paper describes the project objectives, system configuration and experimental procedure used, related technical issues, trial results, future work, and conclusions.

  2. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggests and researches one of his methods of flights to outer Space, described in book "Non Rocket Flights in Space", which is prepared and offered for publication. In given report the method and facilities named "Bolonkin Transport System" (BTS) for delivering of payload and people to Moon and back is presented. BTS can be used also for free trip to outer Space up at altitude 60,000 km and more. BTS can be applying as a trust system for atmospheric supersonic aircrafts, and as a free energy source. This method uses, in general, the rotary and kinetic energy of the Moon. The manuscript contains the theory and results of computation of special Project. This project uses three cables (main and two for driving of loads) from artificial material: fiber, whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio the tensile stress to density) k=/=4*10^7 or more. The nanotubes with same and better parameters are received in scientific laboratories. Theoretical limit of nanotubes SWNT is about k=100*10^7. The upper end of the cable is connected to the Moon. The lower end of the cable is connected to an aircraft (or buoy), which flies (i.e. glides or slides) in Earth atmosphere along the planet's surface. The aircraft (and Moon) has devices, which allows the length of cables to be changed. The device would consists of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have devices for delivering people and payloads t o the Moon and back using the suggested Transport System. The delivery devices include: containers, cables, motors, brakes, and controllers. If the aircraft is small and the cable is strong the motion of the Moon can be used to move the airplane. For example (see enclosed project), if the airplane weighs 15 tons and has an aerodynamic ratio (the lift force to the drag force) equal 5, a thrust of 3000 kg would be enough for the aircraft to fly for infinity without requiring any fuel. The aircraft could use a small turbine engine

  3. Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengmao; Zhu, Zhengfan; Peng, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajectory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selection, escape from and capture by the Earth-Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital resonance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid exploration.

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  5. Southern Africa Validation of NASA's Earth Observing System (SAVE EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Southern Africa Validation of EOS (SAVE) is 4-year, multidisciplinary effort to validate operational and experimental products from Terra-the flagship satellite of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). At test sites from Zambia to South Africa, we are measuring soil, vegetation and atmospheric parameters over a range of ecosystems for comparison with products from Terra, Landsat 7, AVHRR and SeaWiFS. The data are also employed to parameterize and improve vegetation process models. Fixed-point and mobile "transect" sampling are used to collect the ground data. These are extrapolated over larger areas with fine-resolution multispectral imagery. We describe the sites, infrastructure, and measurement strategies developed underSAVE, as well as initial results from our participation in the first Intensive Field Campaign of SAFARI 2000. We also describe SAVE's role in the Kalahari Transect Campaign (February/March 2000) in Zambia and Botswana.

  6. A new stomatal paradigm for earth system models? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2013-12-01

    The land component of climate, and now earth system, models has simulated stomatal conductance since the introduction in the mid-1980s of the so-called second generation models that explicitly represented plant canopies. These second generation models used the Jarvis-style stomatal conductance model, which empirically relates stomatal conductance to photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentration, and other factors. Subsequent models of stomatal conductance were developed from a more mechanistic understanding of stomatal physiology, particularly that stomata are regulated so as to maximize net CO2 assimilation (An) and minimize water loss during transpiration (E). This concept is embodied in the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model, which relates stomatal conductance (gs) to net assimilation (An), scaled by the ratio of leaf surface relative humidity to leaf surface CO2 concentration, or the Leuning variant which replaces relative humidity with a vapor pressure deficit term. This coupled gs-An model has been widely used in climate and earth system models since the mid-1990s. An alternative approach models stomatal conductance by directly optimizing water use efficiency, defined as the ratio An/gs or An/E. Conceptual developments over the past several years have shown that the Ball-Berry style model can be derived from optimization theory. However, an explicit optimization model has not been tested in an earth system model. We compare the Ball-Berry model with an explicit optimization model, both implemented in a new plant canopy parameterization developed for the Community Land Model, the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The optimization model is from the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model, which integrates plant and soil hydraulics, carbon assimilation, and gas diffusion. The canopy parameterization is multi-layer and resolves profiles of radiation, temperature, vapor pressure, leaf water stress

  7. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  8. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas A.; Beer, Reinhard

    1991-01-01

    A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of polar-orbiting platforms is described. TES is aimed at studying tropospheric chemistry, in particular, the exchange of gases between the surface and the atmosphere, urban and regional pollution, acid rain precursors, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and the interchange of gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere. TES is a high-resolution (0.025/cm) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the passive thermal-emission mode in a very wide spectral range (600 to 4350/cm; 2.3 to 16.7 microns). TES has 32 spatial pixels in each of four optically conjugated linear detector arrays, each optimized for a different spectral region.

  9. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeman, V.; Earing, D.; Vincent, R. K.; Ladd, S.

    1971-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System and the information contained therein are described. It contains an ordered, indexed compilation of natural targets in the optical region from 0.3 to 45.0 microns. The data compilation includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, 2600 vegetation, 1000 soil, and 60 water spectral reflectance, transmittance, and emittance curves. Most of the data have been categorized by subject, and the curves in those subject areas have been plotted on a single graph. Those categories with too few curves and miscellaneous categories have been plotted as single-curve graphs. Each graph, composite of single, is fully titled to indicate curve source and is indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval.

  10. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  11. Snow in Earth System Models: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Slater, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Snow is the most variable of terrestrial boundary conditions. Some 50 million km^2 of the Northern Hemisphere typically sees periods of accumulation and ablation in the annual cycle. The wonderous properties of snow, such as high albedo, thermal insulation and its ability to act as a water store make it an integral part of the global climate system. Earliest inclusions of snow within climate models were simple adjustments to albedo and a moisture store. Modern Earth Syetem Models now represent snow through a myriad of model architectures and parameterizations that span a broad range of complexity. Understanding the impacts of modeling decisions upon simulation of snow and other Earth System components (either directly or via feedbacks) is an ongoing area of research. Snow models are progressing with multi-layer representations and capabilities such as complex albedo schemes that include contaminants. While considerable advances have been made, numerous challenges also remain. Simply getting a grasp on the mass of snow (seasonal or permanent) has proved more difficult than expected over the past 30 years. Snow interactions with vegetation has improved but the details of vegetation masking and emergence are still limited. Inclusion of blowing snow processes, in terms of transport and sublimation, is typically rare and sublimation remains a difficult quantity to measure. Contemplation of snow crystal form within models and integration with radiative transfer schemes for better understanding of full spectrum interations (from UV to long microwave) may simultaneously advance simulation and remote sensing. A series of international modeling experiments and directed field campaigns are planned in the near future with the aim of pushing our knowledge forward.

  12. Our Mission to Planet Earth: A guide to teaching Earth system science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, and El Nino are naturally occurring events over which humans have no control. But can human activities cause additional environmental change? Can scientists predict the global impacts of increased levels of pollutants in the atmosphere? Will the planet warm because increased levels of greenhouse gases, produced by the burning of fossil fuels, trap heat and prevent it from being radiated back into space? Will the polar ice cap melt, causing massive coastal flooding? Have humans initiated wholesale climatic change? These are difficult questions, with grave implications. Predicting global change and understanding the relationships among earth's components have increased in priority for the nation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), along with many other government agencies, has initiated long-term studies of earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land masses using observations from satellite, balloon, and aircraft-borne instruments. NASA calls its research program Mission to Planet Earth. Because NASA can place scientific instruments far above earth's surface, the program allows scientists to explore earth's components and their interactions on a global scale.

  13. PSEUDO-BINARY SYSTEMS INVOLVING RARE EARTH LAVES PHASES

    SciTech Connect

    Wernick, J.H.; Haszko, S.E.; Dorsi, D.

    1962-06-01

    The phase relations in a number of pseudo-binary systems involving rare earth Laves phases were determined. Complete series of cubic solid-solutions occur in the DyMn/sub 2/HoMn/sub 2/, HoMn/sub 2/-HoFe/sub 2/, DyMn/sub 2/-DyFe/ sub 2/, HoMn/sub 2/-HoAl/ sub 2/, TbMn/sub 2/TbAl/sub 2/, and DyMn/sub 2/-DyAl/ sub 2/ pseudobinary systems. Deviations from linearity in the lattice constants with composition occur in all these systems. Complete series of cubic solidsolutions also exist in the GdAl/sub 2/-ErAl/sub 2/, GdAl/sub 2/-PrAl/sub 2/ , GdAl/sub 2/-NdAl/sub 2/, GdAl/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/, TbAl/sub 2/-NdAl/sub 2/, and T bAl/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ systems. For these systems, no deviation from linearitymore » occurs in the lattice constants. For the DyFe/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ and DyCo/sub 2/- DyAl/sub 2/ systems, two new ternary phases, DyFeAl and DyCoAl, form and have the MgZn/sub 2/ structure. Their structures were determined from x-ray powder data only. The electronic state giving rise to the formation of these ternary phases is discussed qualitatively. For the DyMn/sub 2/TmMn/sub 2/ system, the range of composition in which the cubic MgCu/sub 2/ and hexagonal MgZn/sub 2/ structures exist are reported. No complete series of solid solutions or intermediate phases are formed in the DyNi/sub 2/-DyAl/sub 2/ system. (auth)« less

  14. The detection of gravitational waves using electrodynamic system of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Isakevich, Valiriy

    There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. There has been developed a programme-analytical system (PAS) to investigate signal structures in spectral and time series, caused by geophysical and astrophysical processes based on the method of eigen vectors. There were discovered frequencies in the electrical and geomagnetical field of ELF range with PAS, which coincide with the frequency of gravitational -wave radiation of a number of double stellar systems. In the electrical and geomagnetic field there was discovered a specific axion frequency VA=0.5*10-5 Hz belonging to the ELF range which was predicted by the theory. The problem of the anomalous behavior of the electrodynamic system response to the gravitational - wave affect is being discussed. On the basis of the rich experimental material have been investigated the frequencies of gravitational-wave radiation of a number of binary systems: J0700+6418, J1012+5307, J1537+1155, J1959+2048, J2130+1210, J1915+1606. The work is carried out with supporting of RFFI No. 14-07-97510, State Task to Universities on 2014-2016.

  15. Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS): systems, procedures and sensitivity (1976)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyns, P K

    1976-07-01

    This report describes the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS) designed and operated by EG and G, Inc., for the Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) Division of Operational Safety with the cooperation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Designed to rapidly survey large areas for low-level man-made radiation, the ARMS has also proven extremely useful in locating lost radioactive sources of relatively low activity. The system consists of sodium iodide scintillation detectors, data formatting and recording equipment, positioning equipment, meteorological instruments, direct readout hardware, and data analysis equipment. The instrumentation, operational procedures, data reduction techniques and system sensitivities are described, togethermore » with their applications and sample results.« less

  16. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  17. Relativistic time transfer in the vicinity of the Earth and in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    The algorithms for relativistic time transfer in the vicinity of the Earth and in the solar system are derived. The concepts of proper time and coordinate time are distinguished. The coordinate time elapsed during the transport of a clock and the propagation of an electromagnetic signal is analysed in three coordinate systems: an Earth-Centred Inertial (ECI) coordinate system, an Earth-Centred Earth-Fixed (ECEF) coordinate system and a barycentric coordinate system. The timescales of Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG), Terrestrial Time (TT) and Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) are defined and their relationships are discussed. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the magnitudes of the effects.

  18. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  19. Development of System Thinking Skills in the Context of Earth System Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2005-01-01

    The current study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the junior high school level. The sample population included about 50 eighth-grade students from two different classes of an urban Israeli junior high school who studied an earth systems-based curriculum that focused on the hydro cycle. The study addressed the following…

  20. The Earth System Science Pathfinder VOLCAM Volcanic Hazard Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1999-01-01

    The VOLCAM mission is planned for research on volcanic eruptions and as a demonstration of a satellite system for measuring the location and density of volcanic eruption clouds for use in mitigating hazards to aircraft by the operational air traffic control systems. A requirement for 15 minute time resolution is met by flight as payloads of opportunity on geostationary satellites. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash are detected using techniques that have been developed from polar orbiting TOMS (UV) and AVHRR (IR) data. Seven band UV and three band IR filter wheel cameras are designed for continuous observation of the full disk of the earth with moderate (10 - 20 km) ground resolution. This resolution can be achieved with small, low cost instruments but is adequate for discrimination of ash and sulfur dioxide in the volcanic clouds from meteorological clouds and ozone. The false alarm rate is small through use of sulfur dioxide as a unique tracer of volcanic clouds. The UV band wavelengths are optimized to detect very small sulfur dioxide amounts that are present in pre-eruptive outgassing of volcanoes. The system is also capable of tracking dust and smoke clouds, and will be used to infer winds at tropopause level from the correlation of total ozone with potential vorticity.

  1. Looking for earths : the race to find new solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan

    1998-09-01

    The ultimate insider's account of astronomy's fantastic voyage in search of brave new worlds in faraway galaxies "Highly recommended." -Science and Technology "Full of humor, heartbreak, and a deep understanding of the ardor and luck that compose years of research. . . . The reader becomes not merely a receiver of Boss's vision, but a fellow explorer." -Astronomy "A rewarding account." -Scientific American Are we alone in the universe . . . or are there other planets generating and sustaining life? The question may be as old as civilization, but in the twilight of a century marked by countless frustrated quests to find other solar systems, several teams of pioneering astronomers have at last discovered a rich crop of mammoth, Jupiter-sized gas planets -the first compelling evidence that there may indeed be life in other galaxies. In Looking for Earths, a prominent planetary scientist takes us along on this thrilling hunt for new life, revealing the behind-the-scenes stories of scientific determination, frustration, and triumph. Ushering us to the mountaintop observatories that house the world's most powerful telescopes, and into the tension-filled scientific meetings where new results are announced and old results overturned, Alan Boss brings the process of exploration vividly alive. Experience the roller-coaster ride as intricate observations of minuscule stellar wobbles raise hopes that at last a true planet has been found, only to be almost immediately shattered by more powerful observations. Boss also introduces the principal players whose dreams defied all odds and made the first major discovery possible. Like no other book, Looking for Earths captures the lively tension between theory and observation that defines cutting-edge astronomical discovery, along with the heated battles that will determine the direction of big-ticket American astronomy for years to come. "You will find no better introduction to one of the truly revolutionary developments in modern

  2. Testing Earth System Models with Earth System Data: using C isotopes in atmospheric CO2 to probe stomatal response to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Miller, J. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Tans, P. P.; Baker, I. T.

    2013-12-01

    The global cycles of water and carbon are inextricably linked through photosynthesis. This link is largely governed by stomatal conductance that regulates water loss to the atmosphere and carbon gain to the biosphere. Although extensive research has focused on the response of stomatal conductance to increased atmospheric CO2, much less research has focused on the response of stomatal conductance to concomitant climate change. Here we make use of intensive and extensive measurements of C isotopes in source CO2 to the atmosphere (del-bio) to make inferences about stomatal response to climatic factors at a single forest site and across a network of global observation sites. Based on intensive observations at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site we discover that del-bio is an excellent physical proxy of stomatal response during the growing season and this response is highly sensitive to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We use these intensive single forest site observations to inform our analysis of the global observation network, focusing in on the growing season across an array of terrestrial sites. We find that stomatal response across most of these terrestrial sites is also highly sensitive to VPD. Lastly, we simulate the response of future climate change on stomatal response and discover that future increases in VPD may limit the biosphere's capacity to assimilate future CO2 emissions. These results have direct implications for the benchmarking of Earth System Models as stomatal conductance in many of these models does not vary as a function of VPD.

  3. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  4. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  5. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  6. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  7. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning retrospective predictions at the decadal (5-years), seasonal and sub-seasonal time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and sub-seasonal time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over Sahel, North American Great Plains, Nordeste

  8. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul A.

    2017-08-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning from centennial (twentieth century) simulations and retrospective predictions to the decadal (5-years), seasonal and weather time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and weather time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2 m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over

  9. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul A.

    2017-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning from centennial (20th Century) simulations and retrospective predictions to the decadal (5-years), seasonal and weather time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and weather time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over Sahel

  10. Fire in the Earth System: Bridging data and modeling research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hantson, Srijn; Kloster, Silvia; Coughlan, Michael; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vanniere, Boris; Bruecher, Tim; Kehrwald, Natalie; Magi, Brian I.

    2016-01-01

    Significant changes in wildfire occurrence, extent, and severity in areas such as western North America and Indonesia in 2015 have made the issue of fire increasingly salient in both the public and scientific spheres. Biomass combustion rapidly transforms land cover, smoke pours into the atmosphere, radiative heat from fires initiates dramatic pyrocumulus clouds, and the repeated ecological and atmospheric effects of fire can even impact regional and global climate. Furthermore, fires have a significant impact on human health, livelihoods, and social and economic systems.Modeling and databased methods to understand fire have rapidly coevolved over the past decade. Satellite and ground-based data about present-day fire are widely available for applications in research and fire management. Fire modeling has developed in part because of the evolution in vegetation and Earth system modeling efforts, but parameterizations and validation are largely focused on the present day because of the availability of satellite data. Charcoal deposits in sediment cores have emerged as a powerful method to evaluate trends in biomass burning extending back to the Last Glacial Maximum and beyond, and these records provide a context for present-day fire. The Global Charcoal Database version 3 compiled about 700 charcoal records and more than 1,000 records are expected for the future version 4. Together, these advances offer a pathway to explore how the strengths of fire data and fire modeling could address the weaknesses in the overall understanding of human-climate–fire linkages.A community of researchers studying fire in the Earth system with individual expertise that included paleoecology, paleoclimatology, modern ecology, archaeology, climate, and Earth system modeling, statistics, geography, biogeochemistry, and atmospheric science met at an intensive workshop in Massachusetts to explore new research directions and initiate new collaborations. Research themes, which emerged from

  11. Improving the Representation of Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Whitney, M. M.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The exchange of freshwater between the rivers and estuaries and the open ocean represents a unique form of scale-interaction in the climate system. The local variability in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle is integrated by rivers over potentially large drainage basins (up to semi-continental scales), and is then imposed on the coastal ocean at the scale of a river mouth. Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. A physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM has a two-layer structure representing the mixing processes driven by tides and shear flow within the estuaries. It predicts the magnitude of the mixing driven exchange flow, bringing saltier lower-layer shelf water into the estuary to mix with river water prior to discharge to the upper-layer open ocean. The EBM has been tested against observations and high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the Columbia River estuary, showing excellent agreement in the predictions of the strength of the exchange flow and the salinity of the discharged water, including modulation with the spring-neap tidal cycle. The EBM is implemented globally at every river discharge point of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In coupled ocean-sea ice experiments driven by CORE surface forcing, the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the coastal ocean is increased globally compared to the standard model, contributing to a decrease in coastal stratification. The SSS near the mouths of some of the largest rivers is decreased due to the reduction in the area over which riverine fresh water is discharged. The

  12. Integrated human-earth system modeling—state of the science and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Research on humans and the Earth system has historically occurred separately, with different teams and models devoted to each. Increasingly, however, these communities and models are becoming intricately linked. In this review, we survey the literature on integrated human-Earth system models, quantify the direction and strength of feedbacks in those models, and put them in context of other, more frequently considered, feedbacks in the Earth system. We find that such feedbacks have the potential to alter both human and Earth systems; however, there is significant uncertainty in these results, and the number of truly integrated studies remains small. More research, more models, and more studies are needed to robustly quantify the sign and magnitude of human-Earth system feedbacks. Integrating human and earth models entails significant complexity and cost, and researchers should carefully assess the costs and benefits of doing so with respect to the object of study.

  13. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s-1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.

  14. Relationship between seismic status of Earth and relative position of bodies in sun-earth-moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulanin, N. V.

    1985-03-01

    The time spectrum of variations in seismicity is quite broad. There are seismic seasons, as well as multiannual variations. The range of characteristic times of variation from days to about one year is studied. Seismic activity as a function of the position of the moon relative to the Earth and the direction toward the Sun is studied. The moments of strong earthquakes, over 5.8 on the Richter scale, between 1968 and June 1980 are plotted in time coordinates relating them to the relative positions of the three bodies in the sun-earth-moon system. Methods of mathematical statistics are applied to the points produced, indicating at least 99% probability that the distribution was not random. a periodicity of the earth's seismic state of 413 days is observed.

  15. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  16. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  17. Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial 2016 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    For the 2016 tutorial, NCAR/CGD requested a total budget of $70,000 split equally between DOE and NSF. The funds were used to support student participation (travel, lodging, per diem, etc.). Lectures and practical session support was primarily provided by local participants at no additional cost (see list below). The seventh annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial (2016) for students and early career scientists was held 8 – 12 August 2016. As has been the case over the last few years, this event was extremely successful and there was greater demand than could be met. There was continued interest inmore » support of the NSF’s EaSM Infrastructure awards, to train these awardees in the application of the CESM. Based on suggestions from previous tutorial participants, the 2016 tutorial experience again provided direct connection to Yellowstone for each individual participant (rather than pairs), and used the NCAR Mesa Library. The 2016 tutorial included lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These were targeted to the graduate student level. In addition, specific talks (“Application” talks) were introduced this year to provide participants with some in-depth knowledge of some specific aspects of CESM.« less

  18. Enlarging the Human Dimensions of Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2005-12-01

    Sustainability, meaning meeting human needs and values while also preserving Earth's life-support systems, can only be achieved if a just and equitable distribution of access to natural resources exists. The same environment is shared by all peoples; all must have an interest in preserving it; therefore all must receive a fair share of the benefits that preservation allows. As with most sustainability objectives, the most effective strategy remains to "think globally but act locally." In the Northern Great Plains, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) is committed to providing leadership toward sustainability. UMAC realized it needed to serve its region's largest minority, Native Americans, in order to nurture regionally the type of just society a sustainable system demands. The consortium therefore added a tribal university, Sinte Gleska, to its original seven partners. SGU shares with the other consortium universities the longer history Native Americans have with the region's environment and the closer connection they experience to Nature. Both cultures, indigenous and western, benefit. A path has been set that allows Sinte Gleska University to help organize a parallel consortium of tribal colleges committed to economic benefit and responsible planetary stewardship.

  19. Run Environment and Data Management for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Fast, I.; Legutke, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrating Model and Data Infrastructure (IMDI) developed and maintained by the Model and Data Group (M&D) comprises the Standard Compile Environment (SCE) and the Standard Run Environment (SRE). The IMDI software has a modular design, which allows to combine and couple a suite of model components and as well to execute the tasks independently and on various platforms. Furthermore the modular structure enables the extension to new model combinations and new platforms. The SRE presented here enables the configuration and performance of earth system model experiments from model integration up to storage and visualization of data. We focus on recently implemented tasks such as synchronous data base filling, graphical monitoring and automatic generation of meta data in XML forms during run time. As well we address the capability to run experiments in heterogeneous IT environments with different computing systems for model integration, data processing and storage. These features are demonstrated for model configurations and on platforms used in current or upcoming projects, e.g. MILLENNIUM or IPCC AR5.

  20. Fostering Team Awareness in Earth System Modeling Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, S. M.; Lawson, A.; Strong, S.

    2009-12-01

    Existing Global Climate Models are typically managed and controlled at a single site, with varied levels of participation by scientists outside the core lab. As these models evolve to encompass a wider set of earth systems, this central control of the modeling effort becomes a bottleneck. But such models cannot evolve to become fully distributed open source projects unless they address the imbalance in the availability of communication channels: scientists at the core site have access to regular face-to-face communication with one another, while those at remote sites have access to only a subset of these conversations - e.g. formally scheduled teleconferences and user meetings. Because of this imbalance, critical decision making can be hidden from many participants, their code contributions can interact in unanticipated ways, and the community loses awareness of who knows what. We have documented some of these problems in a field study at one climate modeling centre, and started to develop tools to overcome these problems. We report on one such tool, TracSNAP, which analyzes the social network of the scientists contributing code to the model by extracting the data in an existing project code repository. The tool presents the results of this analysis to modelers and model users in a number of ways: recommendation for who has expertise on particular code modules, suggestions for code sections that are related to files being worked on, and visualizations of team communication patterns. The tool is currently available as a plugin for the Trac bug tracking system.

  1. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovick, G. R.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment was made of the needs of a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data (state, regional, and local agencies) involved in natural resources management in five states, and alternative data management systems to satisfy these needs are outlined. Tasks described include: (1) a comprehensive data needs analysis of state and local users; (2) the design of remote sensing-derivable information products that serve priority state and local data needs; (3) a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers for producing these products; (4) an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation and government structure on implementing large-scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users; and (5) the elaboration of alternative institutional arrangements for operational Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS). It is concluded that an operational EODMS will be of most use to state, regional, and local agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  2. Interleaved Observation Execution and Rescheduling on Earth Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Frank, Jeremy; Smith, David; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Observation scheduling for Earth orbiting satellites solves the following problem: given a set of requests for images of the Earth, a set of instruments for acquiring those images distributed on a collecting of orbiting satellites, and a set of temporal and resource constraints, generate a set of assignments of instruments and viewing times to those requests that satisfy those constraints. Observation scheduling is often construed as a constrained optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the overall utility of the science data acquired. The utility of an image is typically based on the intrinsic importance of acquiring it (for example, its importance in meeting a mission or science campaign objective) as well as the expected value of the data given current viewing conditions (for example, if the image is occluded by clouds, its value is usually diminished). Currently, science observation scheduling for Earth Observing Systems is done on the ground, for periods covering a day or more. Schedules are uplinked to the satellites and are executed rigorously. An alternative to this scenario is to do some of the decision-making about what images are to be acquired on-board. The principal argument for this capability is that the desirability of making an observation can change dynamically, because of changes in meteorological conditions (e.g. cloud cover), unforeseen events such as fires, floods, or volcanic eruptions, or un-expected changes in satellite or ground station capability. Furthermore, since satellites can only communicate with the ground between 5% to 10% of the time, it may be infeasible to make the desired changes to the schedule on the ground, and uplink the revisions in time for the on-board system to execute them. Examples of scenarios that motivate an on-board capability for revising schedules include the following. First, if a desired visual scene is completely obscured by clouds, then there is little point in taking it. In this case

  3. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  4. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 4: The Role of the Shuttle in the Earth Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The potential of the space shuttle as a platform for captive earth resources payloads in the sortie mode, and as a launch and services vehicle for automated earth resources spacecraft is examined. The capabilities of the total space transportation system which are pertinent to earth resources sorties and automated spacecraft are included.

  5. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  6. Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Waide, P.A.

    We discuss the upconversion luminescence efficiencies of phosphors that generate red, green, and blue light. The phosphors studied are single crystals and powders co-doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}, and with Tm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}. The Yb ions are pumped near 980 nm; transfers of two or three quanta to the co-doped rare earth ion generate visible luminescence. The main contribution embodied in this work is the quantitative measurement of this upconversion efficiency, based on the use of a calibrated integrating sphere, determination of the fraction of pump light absorbed, and careful control of the pump laser beammore » profile. The green phosphors are the most efficient, yielding efficiency values as high as 4 %, with the red and blue materials giving 1 - 2 %. Saturation was observed in all cases, suggesting that populations of upconversion steps of the ions are maximized at higher power. Quasi-CW modeling of the intensity- dependent upconversion efficiency was attempted; input data included level lifetimes, transition cross sections, and cross-relaxation rate coefficients. The saturation of the Yb,Er:fluoride media is explained as the pumping of Er{sup 3+} ions into a bottleneck (long-lived state)- the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} metastable level, making them unavailable for further excitation transfer. 32 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  8. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  9. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  10. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  11. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  12. Expendable vs reusable propulsion systems cost sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Dodd, Glenn R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the key trade studies that must be considered when studying any new space transportation hardware is whether to go reusable or expendable. An analysis is presented here for such a trade relative to a proposed Liquid Rocket Booster which is being studied at MSFC. The assumptions or inputs to the trade were developed and integrated into a model that compares the Life-Cycle Costs of both a reusable LRB and an expendable LRB. Sensitivities were run by varying the input variables to see their effect on total cost. In addition a Monte-Carlo simulation was run to determine the amount of cost risk that may be involved in a decision to reuse or expend.

  13. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  14. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Not only are scientific objectives and instrument characteristics given of a calibrated optical LIS for the EOS but also for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) which was designed to acquire and study the distribution and variability of total lightning on a global basis. The LIS can be traced to a lightning mapper sensor planned for flight on the GOES meteorological satellites. The LIS consists of a staring imager optimized to detect and locate lightning. The LIS will detect and locate lightning with storm scale resolution (i.e., 5 to 10 km) over a large region of the Earth's surface along the orbital track of the satellite, mark the time of occurrence of the lightning, and measure the radiant energy. The LIS will have a nearly uniform 90 pct. detection efficiency within the area viewed by the sensor, and will detect intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges during day and night conditions. Also, the LIS will monitor individual storms and storm systems long enough to obtain a measure of the lightning flashing rate when they are within the field of view of the LIS. The LIS attributes include low cost, low weight and power, low data rate, and important science. The LIS will study the hydrological cycle, general circulation and sea surface temperature variations, along with examinations of the electrical coupling of thunderstorms with the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and observations and modeling of the global electric circuit.

  15. Nutrient cycle benchmarks for earth system land model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Zhao, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting future biosphere-climate feedbacks using Earth system models (ESMs) relies heavily on robust modeling of land surface carbon dynamics. More importantly, soil nutrient (particularly, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) dynamics strongly modulate carbon dynamics, such as plant sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Prevailing ESM land models all consider nitrogen as a potentially limiting nutrient, and several consider phosphorus. However, including nutrient cycle processes in ESM land models potentially introduces large uncertainties that could be identified and addressed by improved observational constraints. We describe the development of two nutrient cycle benchmarks for ESM land models: (1) nutrient partitioning between plants and soil microbes inferred from 15N and 33P tracers studies and (2) nutrient limitation effects on carbon cycle informed by long-term fertilization experiments. We used these benchmarks to evaluate critical hypotheses regarding nutrient cycling and their representation in ESMs. We found that a mechanistic representation of plant-microbe nutrient competition based on relevant functional traits best reproduced observed plant-microbe nutrient partitioning. We also found that for multiple-nutrient models (i.e., N and P), application of Liebig's law of the minimum is often inaccurate. Rather, the Multiple Nutrient Limitation (MNL) concept better reproduces observed carbon-nutrient interactions.

  16. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  17. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  18. A hierarchy of ocean biogeochemical comprehensiveness for Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    As Earth System Models mature towards more quantitative explanations of ocean carbon cycle interactions and are applied to an increasingly diverse array of living marine resource communities, the draw towards biogeochemical and ecological comprehensiveness intensifies. However, this draw to comprehensiveness must also be balanced with the added cost of handling additional tracers. One way that GFDL has addressed this constraint is by developing a series of biogeochemical modules based on the 30 tracer TOPAZ formulation used in GFDL's CMIP5 contribution in both simplifying the biogeochemistry down to the 6 tracer BLING formulation and 3 tracer mini-BLING formulation, and in the other direction improving on ecosystem comprehensiveness with the 33 tracer COBALT formulation. We discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages along this continuum of complexity in terms of both biogeochemical and ecological fidelity and applicability. We also discuss a related approach to separate out other modules for ideal age, 14C, CFCs, SF6, Argon and other tracer suites, allowing use to run an array of experimental designs to suite different needs.

  19. LAWS (Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder) earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wind profiles can be measured from space using current technology. These wind profiles are essential for answering many of the interdisciplinary scientific questions to be addressed by EOS, the Earth Observing System. This report provides guidance for the development of a spaceborne wind sounder, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), discussing the current state of the technology and reviewing the scientific rationale for the instrument. Whether obtained globally from the EOS polar platform or in the tropics and subtropics from the Space Station, wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering knowledge of large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and improving understanding of the global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. The LAWS Instrument Panel recommends that it be given high priority for new instrument development because of the pressing scientific need and the availability of the necessary technology. LAWS is to measure wind profiles with an accuracy of a few meters per second and to sample at intervals of 100 km horizontally for layers km thick.

  20. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects,more » we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.« less

  1. On the sensitivity of complex, internally coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanskisobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for computing sensitivity derivatives with respect to independent (input) variables for complex, internally coupled systems, while avoiding the cost and inaccuracy of finite differencing performed on the entire system analysis. The method entails two alternative algorithms: the first is based on the classical implicit function theorem formulated on residuals of governing equations, and the second develops the system sensitivity equations in a new form using the partial (local) sensitivity derivatives of the output with respect to the input of each part of the system. A few application examples are presented to illustrate the discussion.

  2. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence. PMID:24180684

  3. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources.

    PubMed

    Ganem, Joseph; Bowman, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence.

  4. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganem, Joseph; Bowman, Steven R.

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence.

  5. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  6. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe.

  7. The tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, increasing concern has been expressed about Global Change - the natural and anthropogenic alteration of the Earth's environment involving global greenhouse warming and the associated climate change, urban and regional atmospheric pollution, acid deposition, regional increases in tropospheric zone, and the decrease in stratospheric ozone. A common theme among these problems is that they all involve those tropospheric trace gases which are fundamental to the biosphere-troposphere interaction, the chemistry of the free troposphere itself, and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. The chemical species involved all have spectral signatures within the near and mid infrared that can now be measured by advanced techniques of remote-sensing infrared spectroradiometry. Such a system is the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), now in Phase B definition for the Earth Observing System (EOS) polar platforms. TES addresses these objectives by obtaining radiometrically calibrated, linewidth-limited spectral resolution, infrared spectra of the lower atmosphere using both natural thermal emission and reflected sunlight (where appropriate) in three different, but fully programmable, modes: a gobal mode, a pointed mode, and a limb-viewing mode. The goals of TES, its instrumentation, operational modes, sensitivity and data handling are discussed.

  8. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kimberly V.; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M.; Kump, Lee R.; Lehrmann, Daniel J.; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L.; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and 238U/235U isotopic compositions (δ238U) of Upper Permian−Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ238U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and −0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and −0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans—characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves—global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe. PMID:26884155

  9. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin; ...

    2017-01-01

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  10. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  11. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  12. Monitoring the Earth System Grid Federation through the ESGF Dashboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, S.; Bell, G. M.; Drach, B.; Williams, D.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) is a global effort coordinated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) involving tens of modeling groups spanning 19 countries. It is expected the CMIP5 distributed data archive will total upwards of 3.5 petabytes, stored across several ESGF Nodes on four continents (North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia). The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) provides the IT infrastructure to support the CMIP5. In this regard, the monitoring of the distributed ESGF infrastructure represents a crucial part carried out by the ESGF Dashboard. The ESGF Dashboard is a software component of the ESGF stack, responsible for collecting key information about the status of the federation in terms of: 1) Network topology (peer-groups composition), 2) Node type (host/services mapping), 3) Registered users (including their Identity Providers), 4) System metrics (e.g., round-trip time, service availability, CPU, memory, disk, processes, etc.), 5) Download metrics (both at the Node and federation level). The last class of information is very important since it provides a strong insight of the CMIP5 experiment: the data usage statistics. In this regard, CMCC and LLNL have developed a data analytics management system for the analysis of both node-level and federation-level data usage statistics. It provides data usage statistics aggregated by project, model, experiment, variable, realm, peer node, time, ensemble, datasetname (including version), etc. The back-end of the system is able to infer the data usage information of the entire federation, by carrying out: - at node level: a 18-step reconciliation process on the peer node databases (i.e. node manager and publisher DB) which provides a 15-dimension datawarehouse with local statistics and - at global level: an aggregation process which federates the data usage statistics into a 16-dimension datawarehouse with federation-level data usage statistics. The front-end of the

  13. A view finder control system for an earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn, H.

    2004-11-01

    A real time TV view finder is used on-board a low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite to manually select targets for imaging from a ground station within the communication footprint of the satellite. The attitude control system on the satellite is used to steer the satellite using commands from the groundstation and a television camera onboard the satellite will then downlink a television signal in real time to a monitor screen in the ground station. The operator in the feedback loop will be able to manually steer the boresight of the satellite's main imager towards interested target areas e.g. to avoid clouds or correct for any attitude pointing errors. Due to a substantial delay (in the order of a second) in the view finding feedback loop and the narrow field of view of the main imager, the operator has to be assisted by the onboard attitude control system to stabilise and track the target area visible on the monitor screen. This paper will present the extended Kalman filter used to estimate the satellite's attitude angles using quaternions and the bias vector component of the 3-axis inertial rate sensors (gyros). Absolute attitude sensors (i.e. sun, horizon and magnetic) are used to supply the measurement vectors to correct the filter states during the view finder manoeuvres. The target tracking and rate steering reaction wheel controllers to accurately point and stabilise the satellite will be presented. The reference generator for the satellite to target attitude and rate vectors as used by the reaction wheel controllers will be derived.

  14. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, Joanna E; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; NcKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80–100 Tg yr−1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  15. Radiometric sensitivity comparisons of multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Nadine C.; Slater, Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    Multispectral imaging systems provide much of the basic data used by the land and ocean civilian remote-sensing community. There are numerous multispectral imaging systems which have been and are being developed. A common way to compare the radiometric performance of these systems is to examine their noise-equivalent change in reflectance, NE Delta-rho. The NE Delta-rho of a system is the reflectance difference that is equal to the noise in the recorded signal. A comparison is made of the noise equivalent change in reflectance of seven different multispectral imaging systems (AVHRR, AVIRIS, ETM, HIRIS, MODIS-N, SPOT-1, HRV, and TM) for a set of three atmospheric conditions (continental aerosol with 23-km visibility, continental aerosol with 5-km visibility, and a Rayleigh atmosphere), five values of ground reflectance (0.01, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00), a nadir viewing angle, and a solar zenith angle of 45 deg.

  16. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  17. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century-squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century-squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change in the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 X 10 to the -22 rad/second-squared.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  19. Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Dynamical Systems With Switching [Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Hong; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Constantinescu, Emil; ...

    2017-01-24

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool for describing power system dynamic behavior in response to parameter variations. It is a central component in preventive and corrective control applications. The existing approaches for sensitivity calculations, namely, finite-difference and forward sensitivity analysis, require a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of sensitivity parameters. In this paper, we investigate, implement, and test a discrete adjoint sensitivity approach whose computational effort is effectively independent of the number of sensitivity parameters. The proposed approach is highly efficient for calculating sensitivities of larger systems and is consistent, within machine precision, with the function whosemore » sensitivity we are seeking. This is an essential feature for use in optimization applications. Moreover, our approach includes a consistent treatment of systems with switching, such as dc exciters, by deriving and implementing the adjoint jump conditions that arise from state-dependent and time-dependent switchings. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in comparison with the forward sensitivity analysis approach. In conclusion, this paper focuses primarily on the power system dynamics, but the approach is general and can be applied to hybrid dynamical systems in a broader range of fields.« less

  20. Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Dynamical Systems With Switching [Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Constantinescu, Emil

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool for describing power system dynamic behavior in response to parameter variations. It is a central component in preventive and corrective control applications. The existing approaches for sensitivity calculations, namely, finite-difference and forward sensitivity analysis, require a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of sensitivity parameters. In this paper, we investigate, implement, and test a discrete adjoint sensitivity approach whose computational effort is effectively independent of the number of sensitivity parameters. The proposed approach is highly efficient for calculating sensitivities of larger systems and is consistent, within machine precision, with the function whosemore » sensitivity we are seeking. This is an essential feature for use in optimization applications. Moreover, our approach includes a consistent treatment of systems with switching, such as dc exciters, by deriving and implementing the adjoint jump conditions that arise from state-dependent and time-dependent switchings. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in comparison with the forward sensitivity analysis approach. In conclusion, this paper focuses primarily on the power system dynamics, but the approach is general and can be applied to hybrid dynamical systems in a broader range of fields.« less

  1. Parallel Optimization of an Earth System Model (100 Gigaflops and Beyond?)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, L. A.; Farrara, J. D.; Mechoso, C. R.; Spahr, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Katz, S.; Lou, J. Z.; Wang, P.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing an Earth System Model (ESM) to be used in research aimed to better understand the interactions between the components of the Earth System and to eventually predict their variations. Currently, our ESM includes models of the atmosphere, oceans and the important chemical tracers therein.

  2. High School Symposium for Earth Systems Education (Columbus, Ohio, October 1994). Proceedings and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings and summary for the Earth Systems Education high school symposium conducted in October, 1994. Selected participants were invited to contribute papers for inclusion in this volume so that other teachers can see how Earth Systems Education (ESE) looks in practice. The volume also contains the context for ESE in…

  3. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  4. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in…

  5. Earth Observing System. Science and Mission Requirements, Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a planned NASA program, which will carry the multidisciplinary Earth science studies employing a variety of remote sensing techniques in the 1990's, as a prime mission, using the Space Station polar platform. The scientific rationale, recommended observational needs, the broad system configuration and a recommended implementation strategy to achieve the stated mission goals are provided.

  6. Study and prototype of data system interactions for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Morris, M.

    1990-01-01

    A crucial part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is its Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The success of EOS depends not only on its instruments and science studies, but also on its ability to help scientists integrate data sets of geophysical and biological measurements taken by various instruments and investigators. NASA contractors have completed Phase B studies of EOSDIS, in particular its architecture, functionality, and user interfacing. At this point in time, it may seem impossible to exercise the EOSDIS or any of its components since they do not exist; i.e., if the EOSDIS is accepted as a totally new system, distinct from any existing DIS. However, if EOSDIS is seen as evolving from existing data systems, then some limited prototyping studies can be conducted by using currently functioning systems. In support of both the EOSDIS Science Advisory Panel and the EOSDIS Project, a prototyping activity was carried out by a cross section of interdisciplinary scientists. That prototyping activity is summarized and some conclusions are drawn that can be used by NASA-Goddard to evaluate and modify the specifications soon to be released in an RFP to build EOSDIS.

  7. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  8. What Makes Earth and Space Science Sexy? A Model for Developing Systemic Change in Earth and Space Systems Science Curriculum and Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutskin, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Earth and Space Science may be the neglected child in the family of high school sciences. In this session, we examine the strategies that Anne Arundel County Public Schools and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used to develop a dynamic and highly engaging program which follows the vision of the National Science Education Standards, is grounded in key concepts of NASA's Earth Science Directorate, and allows students to examine and apply the current research of NASA scientists. Find out why Earth/Space Systems Science seems to have usurped biology and has made students, principals, and teachers clamor for similar instructional practices in what is traditionally thought of as the "glamorous" course.

  9. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 2: EOS-A system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program are defined. The system specifications for the satellite payload are examined. The broad objectives of the EOS-A program are as follows: (1) to develop space-borne sensors for the measurement of land resources, (2) to evolve spacecraft systems and subsystems which will permit earth observation with greater accuracy, coverage, spatial resolution, and continuity than existing systems, (3) to develop improved information processing, extraction, display, and distribution systems, and (4) to use space transportation systems for resupply and retrieval of the EOS.

  10. Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Alan D.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

  11. Emergent constraints on climate-carbon cycle feedbacks in the CMIP5 Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Sabrina; Cox, Peter M.; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    An emergent linear relationship between the long-term sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage to climate warming (γLT) and the short-term sensitivity of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to interannual temperature variability (γIAV) has previously been identified by Cox et al. (2013) across an ensemble of Earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP). Here we examine whether such a constraint also holds for a new set of eight ESMs participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. A wide spread in tropical land carbon storage is found for the quadrupling of atmospheric CO2, which is of the order of 252 ± 112 GtC when carbon-climate feedbacks are enabled. Correspondingly, the spread in γLT is wide (-49 ± 40 GtC/K) and thus remains one of the key uncertainties in climate projections. A tight correlation is found between the long-term sensitivity of tropical land carbon and the short-term sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 (γLT versus γIAV), which enables the projections to be constrained with observations. The observed short-term sensitivity of CO2 (-4.4 ± 0.9 GtC/yr/K) sharpens the range of γLT to -44 ± 14 GtC/K, which overlaps with the probability density function derived from the C4MIP models (-53 ± 17 GtC/K) by Cox et al. (2013), even though the lines relating γLT and γIAV differ in the two cases. Emergent constraints of this type provide a means to focus ESM evaluation against observations on the metrics most relevant to projections of future climate change.

  12. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, A.; Catalano, F.; De Felice, M.; van den Hurk, B.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Miller, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The European consortium earth system model (EC-Earth; http://www.ec-earth.org) has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning from centennial (20th Century) simulations and retrospective predictions to the decadal (5-years), seasonal and weather time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and weather time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and

  13. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  14. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-01

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land-atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  15. A generic biogeochemical module for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Huang, M.; Liu, C.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.

    2013-06-01

    Physical and biogeochemical processes regulate soil carbon dynamics and CO2 flux to and from the atmosphere, influencing global climate changes. Integration of these processes into earth system models (e.g. community land models - CLM), however, currently faces three major challenges: (1) extensive efforts are required to modify modeling structures and to rewrite computer programs to incorporate new or updated processes as new knowledge is being generated, (2) computational cost is prohibitively expensive to simulate biogeochemical processes in land models due to large variations in the rates of biogeochemical processes, and (3) various mathematical representations of biogeochemical processes exist to incorporate different aspects of fundamental mechanisms, but systematic evaluation of the different mathematical representations is difficult, if not impossible. To address these challenges, we propose a new computational framework to easily incorporate physical and biogeochemical processes into land models. The new framework consists of a new biogeochemical module with a generic algorithm and reaction database so that new and updated processes can be incorporated into land models without the need to manually set up the ordinary differential equations to be solved numerically. The reaction database consists of processes of nutrient flow through the terrestrial ecosystems in plants, litter and soil. This framework facilitates effective comparison studies of biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem using different conceptual models under the same land modeling framework. The approach was first implemented in CLM and benchmarked against simulations from the original CLM-CN code. A case study was then provided to demonstrate the advantages of using the new approach to incorporate a phosphorus cycle into the CLM model. To our knowledge, the phosphorus-incorporated CLM is a new model that can be used to simulate phosphorus limitation on the productivity of terrestrial

  16. Climate Variability and Wildfires: Insights from Global Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the relationship between variability in global climate and emissions from wildfires is needed for predictions of fire activity on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. Here we investigate this relationship using the long, preindustrial control simulations and historical ensembles of two Earth System models; CESM1 and the NOAA/GFDL ESM2Mb. There is smaller interannual variability of global fires in both models than in present day inventories, especially in boreal regions where observed fires vary substantially from year to year. Patterns of fire response to climate oscillation indices, including the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) are explored with the model results and compared to the response derived from satellite measurements and proxy observations. Increases in fire emissions in southeast Asia and boreal North America are associated with positive ENSO and PDO, while United States fires and Sahel fires decrease for the same climate conditions. Boreal fire emissions decrease in CESM1 for the warm phase of the AMO, while ESM2Mb did not produce a reliable AMO. CESM1 produces a weak negative trend in global fire emissions for the period 1920 to 2005, while ESM2Mb produces a positive trend over the same period. Both trends are statistically significant at a confidence level of 95% or greater given the variability derived from the respective preindustrial controls. In addition to climate variability impacts on fires, we also explore the impacts of fire emissions on climate variability and atmospheric chemistry. We analyze three long, free-evolving ESM2Mb simulations; one without fire emissions, one with constant year-over-year fire emissions based on a present day inventory, and one with interannually varying fire emissions coupled between the terrestrial and atmospheric components of the model, to gain a better understanding of the role of fire emissions in

  17. Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Prentice, I. Colin; Cornell, Sarah; Davies-Barnard, T; Finzi, Adrien; Franklin, Oskar; Janssens, Ivan; Larmola, Tuula; Manzoni, Stefano; Näsholm, Torgny; Raven, John; Rebel, Karin; Reed, Sasha C.; Vicca, Sara; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the degree to which nitrogen (N) availability limits land carbon (C) uptake under global environmental change represents an unresolved challenge. First-generation ‘C-only’vegetation models, lacking explicit representations of N cycling,projected a substantial and increasing land C sink under rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This prediction was questioned for not taking into account the potentially limiting effect of N availability, which is necessary for plant growth (Hungate et al.,2003). More recent global models include coupled C and N cycles in land ecosystems (C–N models) and are widely assumed to be more realistic. However, inclusion of more processes has not consistently improved their performance in capturing observed responses of the global C cycle (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2014). With the advent of a new generation of global models, including coupled C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling, model complexity is sure to increase; but model reliability may not, unless greater attention is paid to the correspondence of model process representations ande mpirical evidence. It was in this context that the ‘Nitrogen Cycle Workshop’ at Dartington Hall, Devon, UK was held on 1–5 February 2016. Organized by I. Colin Prentice and Benjamin D. Stocker (Imperial College London, UK), the workshop was funded by the European Research Council,project ‘Earth system Model Bias Reduction and assessing Abrupt Climate change’ (EMBRACE). We gathered empirical ecologists and ecosystem modellers to identify key uncertainties in terrestrial C–N cycling, and to discuss processes that are missing or poorly represented in current models.

  18. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; ...

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO 2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in somemore » parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  19. Exploiting satellite earth observation to quantify current global oceanic DMS flux and its future climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Bell, T. G.; Yang, M.

    2014-11-01

    We used coincident Envisat RA2 and AATSR temperature and wind speed data from 2008/2009 to calculate the global net sea-air flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which we estimate to be 19.6 Tg S a-1. Our monthly flux calculations are compared to open ocean eddy correlation measurements of DMS flux from 10 recent cruises, with a root mean square difference of 3.1 μmol m-2 day-1. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied temperature, salinity, surface wind speed, and aqueous DMS concentration, using fixed global changes as well as CMIP5 model output. The range of DMS flux in future climate scenarios is discussed. The CMIP5 model predicts a reduction in surface wind speed and we estimate that this will decrease the global annual sea-air flux of DMS by 22% over 25 years. Concurrent changes in temperature, salinity, and DMS concentration increase the global flux by much smaller amounts. The net effect of all CMIP5 modelled 25 year predictions was a 19% reduction in global DMS flux. 25 year DMS concentration changes had significant regional effects, some positive (Southern Ocean, North Atlantic, Northwest Pacific) and some negative (isolated regions along the Equator and in the Indian Ocean). Using satellite-detected coverage of coccolithophore blooms, our estimate of their contribution to North Atlantic DMS emissions suggests that the coccolithophores contribute only a small percentage of the North Atlantic annual flux estimate, but may be more important in the summertime and in the northeast Atlantic.

  20. The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET): Scaling the Earth System Grid to Petascale Data

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2007-09-27

    This report, which summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2007 through September 30, 2007, includes discussion of overall progress, period goals, highlights, collaborations and presentations. To learn more about our project, please visit the Earth System Grid website. In addition, this report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC project management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) project management, national and international stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), etc.), and collaborators. Themore » ESG-CET executive committee consists of David Bernholdt, ORNL; Ian Foster, ANL; Don Middleton, NCAR; and Dean Williams, LLNL. The ESG-CET team is a collective of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include seven laboratories (ANL, LANL, LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL, PMEL) and one university (ISI/USC); all work in close collaboration with the project's stakeholders and domain researchers and scientists. During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET increased its efforts on completing requirement documents, framework design, and component prototyping. As we strove to complete and expand the overall ESG-CET architectural plans and use-case scenarios to fit our constituency's scope of use, we continued to provide production-level services to the community. These services continued for IPCC AR4, CCES, and CCSM, and were extended to include Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) data.« less

  1. Global Gridded Data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) timeseries is a globally gridded atmospheric data set for use in climate research. This near real-time data set is produced by the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the operational EOS instrument product generation from the Terra (12/1999 launch), Aqua (05/2002 launch) and Aura (01/2004 launch) spacecrafts. The data is archived in the EOS Core System (ECS) at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC). The data is only a selection of the products available from the GEOS-DAS. The data is organized chronologically in timeseries format to facilitate the computation of statistics. GEOS-DAS data will be available for the time period January 1, 2000, through present.

  2. THROUGH-THE EARTH (TTE) SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the through-the-earth (TTE) system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) system. After the Lab prototype of the IMPL system was perfected to function satisfactorily, the thrust of the work focused on building a first production prototype that can be installed and tested inside a mine. To obtain multi-channel voice communication through the TTE system, effort has proceeded to compress voice messages and make the format compatible with the power-line interface protocol.

  3. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  4. Laws, Place, History and the Interpretation of Earth Surface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The state of an Earth surface system (ESS is determined by three sets of factors: Laws, place, and history. Laws (L = L1, L2, . . . , Ln) are the n general principles, relationships, and representations applicable to any such system at any time. Place factors (P = P1, P2, . . . , Pm) are the m relevant properties or characteristics of the local or regional environment - e.g., climate, tectonic setting, geology, traits of the local biota, etc. History factors (H = H1 , H2, . . . , Hq) include the previous evolutionary pathway of the ESS, its stage of development, past disturbance, and in some contexts initial conditions. Geoscience investigation may be focused on laws (e.g., theoretical deductions, process modeling, laboratory experiments), place (e.g., regional geology or geography, soil-landscape studies), or history (e.g., paleoenvironmental studies, environmental history, historical geology or geography). Ultimately, however, all three sets of factors are necessary to fully understand and explain ESS. Beyond providing a useful checklist (analogous to the factorial models often used in pedology and ecology), the LPH framework gives us analytical traction to some difficult research problems. For example, studies of the avulsions of three southeast Texas rivers showed substantial differences in avulsion regimes and resulting alluvial morphology, despite the proximity and superficial similarity of the systems. Avulsion dynamics are governed by the same laws in all three cases [L(A) = L(B) = L(C)], and the three rivers, once part of a single system at lower sea-levels, have undergone the same sea-level, climate, and tectonic histories, as well as the same general types of anthropic impacts [H(A) ≈ H(B) ≈ H(C)]. Though the regional-scale environmental controls are similar, local details such as the location of the modern main channel relative to Pleistocene meander channels differ, and thus these place factors explain the differences between the rivers. The LPH

  5. An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a means to cool the planet by increasing the reflection of sunlight back to space, for example by injecting reflective aerosol particles into the middle atmosphere. Such proposals are not able to physically substitute for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions as a response to the risks of climate change, but might eventually be applied as a complementary approach to reduce climate risks. Thus, the Earth system consequences of solar geoengineering are central to understanding its potentials and risks. Here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection. We examine themore » common responses found in studies of an idealized form of solar geoengineering, in which the intensity of incoming sunlight is directly reduced in models. The studies reviewed are consistent in suggesting that solar geoengineering would generally reduce the differences in climate in comparison to future scenarios with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations and no solar geoengineering. However, it is clear that a solar geoengineered climate would be novel in some respects, for example a notable reduction in the intensity of the hydrological cycle. We provide an overview of the unique aspects of the response to stratospheric aerosol injection and the uncertainties around its consequences. We also consider the issues raised by the partial control over the climate that solar geoengineering would allow. Finally, this overview also highlights the key research gaps that will need to be resolved in order to effectively guide future decisions on the potential use of solar geoengineering.« less

  6. Juno Approach to the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-10

    This frame from a movie was captured by a star tracker camera on NASA Jupiter-bound Juno spacecraft. It was taken over several days as Juno approached Earth for a close flyby that would send the spacecraft onward to the giant planet.

  7. Data Mining in Earth System Science (DMESS 2011)

    Treesearch

    Forrest M. Hoffman; J. Walter Larson; Richard Tran Mills; Bhorn-Gustaf Brooks; Auroop R. Ganguly; William Hargrove; et al

    2011-01-01

    From field-scale measurements to global climate simulations and remote sensing, the growing body of very large and long time series Earth science data are increasingly difficult to analyze, visualize, and interpret. Data mining, information theoretic, and machine learning techniques—such as cluster analysis, singular value decomposition, block entropy, Fourier and...

  8. Ideas for a future earth observing system from geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Hall, Forrest; Esaias, Wayne; Maxwell, Marvin; Suomi, Verner E.; Von Bun, Fritz

    1986-01-01

    Uses for the proposed geosynchronous platform are described. The geosynchronous satellite could provide good spatial and temporal resolution, a large field-of-view, easier calibration, stereography, and data relay. The limitations of the platform are discussed. The applications of the geosynchronous platform to meteorology, earth surveying, and oceanography are examined.

  9. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2010-01-01

    Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

  10. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  11. Examples of the nonlinear dynamics of ballistic capture and escape in the earth-moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbruno, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    An example of a trajectory is given which is initially captured in an elliptic resonant orbit about the earth and then ballistically escapes the earth-moon system. This is demonstrated by a numerical example in three-dimensions using a planetary ephemeris. Another example shows a mechanism of how an elliptic orbit about the earth can increase its energy by performing a complex nonlinear transition to an elliptic orbit of a larger semi-major axis. Capture is also considered. An application of ballistic capture at the moon via an unstable periodic orbit using the four-body sun-earth-moon-S/C interaction is described.

  12. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  13. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  14. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  15. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  16. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  17. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this models must accurately represent the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small relative to global carbon fluxes, uncertainty is large. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis and most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is typically fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for a range of Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. We found that the values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic plants in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured, and contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax, however we found that the JVratio of Arctic plants is higher than current estimates suggesting that Arctic PFTs will be more responsive to rising carbon dioxide than currently projected. In addition we are exploring remotely sensed methods to scale up key biochemical (e.g. leaf N, leaf mass area) and physiological (e.g. Vc,max and Jmax) properties that drive model representation of photosynthesis in the Arctic. Our data suggest that the Arctic tundra has a much greater capacity for CO2 uptake, particularly at low temperature, and will be more CO2 responsive

  18. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Sloan, V. L.; Wyatt, R. A.; Kubien, D. S.; Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small - relative to global carbon fluxes - uncertainty is large. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we are examining the photosynthetic parameterization of the Arctic plant functional type (PFT) in ESMs. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given PFT. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for 7 species representing both dominant vegetation and key Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax for all PFTs. We found that the JVratio of

  19. Versioning for CMIP6 in the Earth System Grid Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Tobias; Kindermann, Stephan; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has been used as the e-infrastructure to provide access to CMIP5 data and is expected to serve CMIP6 data as well. 2015 marks the year of continued planning and preparation where new concepts can still be implemented for the operational phase of CMIP6. A particular concern within ESGF operations is the versioning and automated replication of data. From CMIP5 experience we know that the pathway between initial submission of modelling data to the ESGF data space and quality-controlled long-term archival of the final products is long and far from linear. Data may be retracted, amended and updated, and metadata may accumulate at different stages. It is unrealistic to assume that a simple and straightforward process can be used as a role model to build ESGF services around the different stages data will pass through during the active phase of CMIP6. Nonetheless, at the technical level ESGF requires some form of automated control and management. At the same time, the accountability of data products must be made transparent to guard against misinterpretation, increase user experience and promote open and reproducible science. To address the challenges, first some essential versioning policies must be agreed upon and enforced through technical means and organizational processes. The volatile readiness state of CMIP data cannot be changed as it is given by the users; however its management can be improved. A promising approach is to embed persistent identifiers in all CMIP6 data objects and register them so they can be globally resolved by any user and used as reference points within ESGF management processes. A specific conceptual interpretation and management of such identifiers can ensure that they remain valid and useful even if the data objects change or become unavailable. For this, identifiers must be assigned to individual versions and aggregations, connected with each other and integrated in the existing ESGF publication

  20. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  1. Spectral and Polarization Sensitivity of the Dipteran Visual System

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Gilbert D.; Arnett, David W.

    1972-01-01

    Spectral and polarization sensitivity measurements were made at several levels (retina, first and third optic ganglion, cervical connective, behavior) of the dipteran visual nervous system. At all levels, it was possible to reveal contributions from the retinular cell subsystem cells 1 to 6 or the retinular cell subsystem cells 7 and 8 or both. Only retinular cells 1 to 6 were directly studied, and all possessed the same spectral sensitivity characterized by two approximately equal sensitivity peaks at 350 and 480 nm. All units of both the sustaining and on-off variety in the first optic ganglion exhibited the same spectral sensitivity as that of retinular cells 1 to 6. It was possible to demonstrate for motion detection and optomotor responses two different spectral sensitivities depending upon the spatial wavelength of the stimulus. For long spatial wavelengths, the spectral sensitivity agreed with retinular cells 1 to 6; however, the spectral sensitivity at short spatial wavelengths was characterized by a single peak at 465 nm reflecting contributions from the (7, 8) subsystem. Although the two subsystems exhibited different spectral sensitivities, the difference was small and no indication of color discrimination mechanisms was observed. Although all retinular cells 1 to 6 exhibited a preferred polarization plane, sustaining and on-off units did not. Likewise, motion detection and optomotor responses were insensitive to the polarization plane for long spatial wavelength stimuli; however, sensitivity to select polarization planes was observed for short spatial wavelengths. PMID:5027759

  2. Tropical Carbon Response to Seasonal Phasing and Intensity of Precipitation in CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, S.; Keppel-Aleks, G.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon cycling and water fluxes are connected over land. Understanding the current sensitivity of tropical ecosystems to climate drivers, such as precipitation, at short timescales is important for projecting future trends in the land sink of anthropogenic CO2. Several recent studies have shown that interannual droughts in 2005 and 2010 reduced net carbon uptake in the Amazon rainforest. In 2011 Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions, especially Australian ecosystems, were found to largely contribute to the above average increase in the land carbon sink following consecutive wet seasons under La Nina conditions. Earth system models (ESMs) are able to simulate these sensitivities with varying degrees of fidelity, and ESMs also show a wide range of changes in precipitation phasing and intensity by 2100. Unsurprisingly, model projections of the land carbon sink also vary widely, with some simulations showing land becoming a CO2 source to the atmosphere. To constrain projections of the tropical land carbon balance among an ensemble of ESMs, we analyzed seasonal and interannual precipitation-carbon relationships in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ESMs for the period from 1982-2006. The sensitivity of net biospheric production on land (NBP) to precipitation was quantified on seasonal and annual timescales, and NBP was spatially correlated to precipitation across tropical and subtropical regions (+/- 30 degrees) within humid and semi-arid ecosystems. This analysis was expanded to soil moisture and drought metrics were used to distinguish between wet and dry seasons. Large scale precipitation was used to resolve Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) movement and convective precipitation was used to diagnose the short-term NBP response within the wet season. Results revealed a spread in NBP sensitivity to precipitation intensity as well as how individual models simulated precipitation phasing across different tropical regions.

  3. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  4. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of

  5. Using Gravity Assists in the Earth-moon System as a Gateway to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElrath, Timothy P.; Lantoine, Gregory; Landau, Damon; Grebow, Dan; Strange, Nathan; Wilson, Roby; Sims, Jon

    2012-01-01

    For spacecraft departing the Earth - Moon system, lunar flybys can significantly increase the hyperbolic escape energy (C3, in km (exp 2) /sec (exp 2) ) for a modest increase in flight time. Within approx 2 months, lunar flybys can produce a C3 of approx 2. Over 4 - 6 months, lunar flybys alone can increase the C3 to approx 4.5, or they can provide for additional periapsis burns to increase the C3 from approx 2 -3 to 10 or more, suitable for planetary missions. A lunar flyby departure can be followed by additional delta -V (such as that efficiently provided by a low thrust system, eg. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)) to raise the Earth - relative velocity (at a ratio of more than 2:1) before a subsequent Earth flyby, which redirects that velocity to a more distant target, all within not more than a year. This paper describes the applicability of lunar flybys for different flight times and propulsion systems, and illustrates this with instances of past usage and future possibilities. Examples discussed include ISEE-3, Nozomi, STEREO, 2018 Mars studies (which showed an 8% payload increase), and missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). In addition, the options for the achieving the initial lunar flyby are systematically discussed, with a view towards their practical use within a compact launch period. In particular, we show that launches to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload provide a feasible means of obtaining a lunar flyby for an acceptable cost, even for SEP systems that cannot easily deliver large delta-Vs at periapsis. Taken together, these results comprise a myriad of options for increasing the mission performance, by the efficient use of lunar flybys within an acceptable extension of the flight time.

  6. Using Gravity Assists in the Earth-moon System as a Gateway to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElrath, Tim; Lantoine, Gregory; Landau, Damon; Grebow, Dan; Strange, Nathan; Wilson, Roby; Sims, Jon

    2012-01-01

    For spacecraft departing the Earth - Moon system, lunar flybys can significantly increase the hype rbolic escape energy (C3, in km 2 /sec 2 ) for a modest increase in flight time. Within 2 months, lunar flybys can produce a C3 of 2. Over 4 - 6 months, lunar flybys alone can increase the C3 to 4.5, or they can provide for additional periapsis burns to increase the C3 from 2 -3 to 10 or more, suitable for planetary missions. A lunar flyby departure can be followed by additional ? -V (such as that efficiently provided by a low thrust system, eg. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)) to raise the Earth - relative velocity (at a ratio of more than 2:1) before a subsequent Earth flyby, which redirects that velocity to a more di stant target, all within not much more than a year. This paper describes the applicability of lunar flybys for different flight times and propulsi on systems, and illustrates this with instances of past usage and future possibilities. Examples discussed i nclude ISEE - 3, Nozomi, STEREO, 2018 Mars studies (which showed an 8% payload increase), and missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). In addition, the options for the achieving the initial lunar flyby are systematically discussed, with a view towards their p ractical use with in a compact launch period. In particular, we show that launches to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload provide a feasible means of obtaining a lunar flyby for an acceptable cost, even for SEP systems that cannot ea sily deliver large ? - Vs at periapsis. Taken together, these results comprise a myriad of options for increasing the mission performance, by the efficient use of lunar flybys within an acceptable extension of the flight time.

  7. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, maximum entropy production and Earth-system evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-01-13

    The present-day atmosphere is in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This uniqueness is for instance reflected in the high concentration of molecular oxygen and the low relative humidity in the atmosphere. Given that the concentration of atmospheric oxygen has likely increased throughout Earth-system history, we can ask whether this trend can be generalized to a trend of Earth-system evolution that is directed away from thermodynamic equilibrium, why we would expect such a trend to take place and what it would imply for Earth-system evolution as a whole. The justification for such a trend could be found in the proposed general principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), which states that non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems maintain steady states at which entropy production is maximized. Here, I justify and demonstrate this application of MEP to the Earth at the planetary scale. I first describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamic nature of Earth-system processes and distinguish processes that drive the system's state away from equilibrium from those that are directed towards equilibrium. I formulate the interactions among these processes from a thermodynamic perspective and then connect them to a holistic view of the planetary thermodynamic state of the Earth system. In conclusion, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and MEP have the potential to provide a simple and holistic theory of Earth-system functioning. This theory can be used to derive overall evolutionary trends of the Earth's past, identify the role that life plays in driving thermodynamic states far from equilibrium, identify habitability in other planetary environments and evaluate human impacts on Earth-system functioning. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  8. Relation between the celestial reference system and the terrestrial reference system of a rigid earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shinko

    The equations of motion for a rigid earth under the influence of the sun and moon are solved analytically up to the second-order perturbation, and the results are used to elucidate the relationship between the celestial and terrestrial reference systems. The derivations are given in detail, and consideration is given to celestial-ephemeris and instantaneous-rotation poles, wobble, the departure point as the origin of the local inertial system, the precession-nutation matrix, and techniques for improving the celestial reference system.

  9. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1991-01-01

    General Circulation Model (GCM) studies of the atmospheric response to change boundary conditions are discussed. Results are reported on an extensive series of numerical studies based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM) general circulation model. In these studies the authors determined the response to systematic changes in atmospheric CO2 ranging from 100 to 1000 ppm; to changes in the prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) in the Gulf of Mexico, such as occurred during the deglaciation phase of the last ice age; to changes in soil moisture over North America; and to changes in sea ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere. Study results show that the response of surface temperature and other variables is nearly logarithmic, with lower levels of CO2 implying greater sensitivity of the atmospheric state to changes in CO2. It was found that the surface temperature of the Gulf of Mexico exerts considerable control over the storm track and behavior of storm systems over the North Atlantic through its influence on evaporation and the source of latent heat. It was found that reductions in soil moisture can play a significant role in amplifying and maintaining North American drought, particularly when a negative soil moisture anomaly prevails late in the spring.

  11. CPMIP: measurements of real computational performance of Earth system models in CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Venkatramani; Maisonnave, Eric; Zadeh, Niki; Lawrence, Bryan N.; Biercamp, Joachim; Fladrich, Uwe; Aloisio, Giovanni; Benson, Rusty; Caubel, Arnaud; Durachta, Jeffrey; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Lister, Grenville; Mocavero, Silvia; Underwood, Seth; Wright, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    A climate model represents a multitude of processes on a variety of timescales and space scales: a canonical example of multi-physics multi-scale modeling. The underlying climate system is physically characterized by sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and natural stochastic variability, so very long integrations are needed to extract signals of climate change. Algorithms generally possess weak scaling and can be I/O and/or memory-bound. Such weak-scaling, I/O, and memory-bound multi-physics codes present particular challenges to computational performance. Traditional metrics of computational efficiency such as performance counters and scaling curves do not tell us enough about real sustained performance from climate models on different machines. They also do not provide a satisfactory basis for comparative information across models. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We introduce a set of metrics that can be used for the study of computational performance of climate (and Earth system) models. These measures do not require specialized software or specific hardware counters, and should be accessible to anyone. They are independent of platform and underlying parallel programming models. We show how these metrics can be used to measure actually attained performance of Earth system models on different machines, and identify the most fruitful areas of research and development for performance engineering. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We present results for these measures for a diverse suite of models from several modeling centers, and propose to use these measures as a basis for a CPMIP, a computational performance model intercomparison project (MIP).

  12. Tube dynamics and low energy Earth-Moon transfers in the 4-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozaki, Kaori; Yoshimura, Hiroaki; Ross, Shane D.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we show a low energy Earth-Moon transfer in the context of the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft 4-body system. We consider the 4-body system as the coupled system of the Sun-Earth-spacecraft 3-body system perturbed by the Moon (which we call the Moon-perturbed system) and the Earth-Moon-spacecraft 3-body system perturbed by the Sun (which we call the Sun-perturbed system). In both perturbed systems, analogs of the stable and unstable manifolds are computed numerically by using the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures, wherein the stable and unstable manifolds play the role of separating orbits into transit and non-transit orbits. We obtain a family of non-transit orbits departing from a low Earth orbit in the Moon-perturbed system, and a family of transit orbits arriving into a low lunar orbit in the Sun-perturbed system. Finally, we show that we can construct a low energy transfer from the Earth to the Moon by choosing appropriate trajectories from both families and patching these trajectories with a maneuver.

  13. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. Here, we argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled withmore » Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections.This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. Lastly, the importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less

  14. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Humanmore » System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures t