Science.gov

Sample records for earth system-climate model

  1. Evaluating Regional Scale Deforestation in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, P.; Montenegro, A.; Beltrami, H.; Eby, M.

    2011-12-01

    Forests play a key role in influencing the Earths climate and at the same time are affected by changing climates. At this point it is estimated that 15-30% of Earths natural forests have already been converted to pasture or cropland. With such large amounts of forest being converted to cropland and grassland, it is important to determine the climatic effects of these actions. To date, most modelling efforts towards understanding the climatic effects of deforestation have simulated global deforestation or have been based on experiments where trees were removed from large areas, i.e. the entire Amazon or all forests above 50 N. Here we use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate model which contains a fully coupled carbon cycle, to evaluate the response to deforestation of 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the forested areas in three latitude bands: high (above 50°N), mid (above ± 30°) and low (between ± 30°). All simulations were transient simulations, allowing for changes to atmospheric forcings following the A2 emissions scenario. High latitude deforestation lead to cooling (-.05 °C to -0.45 °C) and increase in soil carbon (0.5 to 3 x 1014 kg) for all fractions of deforestation. Due in part to the increase in soil carbon, there was a decrease in atmospheric CO2 in the 50% (-20 ppm) and 100% (-60 ppm) high-latitude deforestation simulations. Low-latitude deforestation initially produced warming in all scenarios (0.1 to 0.25 °C), although all were colder (-0.05 to -0.1 °C) than the control by the end of the simulation. Atmospheric CO2 increased in all simulations (40 to 80 ppm), as well as soil carbon (2 to 16 x 1013 kg). Mid-latitude deforestation also lead to initial warming (0.01 to 0.1 °C) followed by cooling (-0.01 to -0.1 °C). Mid latitude deforestation also produced an increase in soil carbon (2 to 10 x 1013 kg), and atmospheric CO2 (0 to 25ppm). In all three latitude bands forest dieback was observed. Results range from 7% to 37% for high

  2. The carbon cycle since the LGM in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model: Implications of marine ice shelves and late-Holocene deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, C. T.; Mysak, L. A.; Matthews, D.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (version v.9) is used to investigate carbon cycle dynamics from the Last Glacial Maximum (21000 years Before Present (BP)) to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (150 BP). A series of simulations with prescribed and freely-evolving CO2 infer that a combination of two factors, a faster overturning of the oceans during the interglacial and a release of carbon from deep-sea sediments, are likely responsible for a substantial proportion of the glacial-interglacial CO2 increase from 190 (23000 BP) to 280 ppm (150 BP). The simulations also indicate that a realistic glacial-interglacial change in the meridional overturning circulation can be generated without accounting for runoff from melting ice sheets. A series of model experiments also investigated the mechanisms behind the Holocene increase in CO2 after 8000 BP. Without the explicit representation of peatlands, permafrost, coral reefs, or human land use, the UVic model simulation of the natural carbon cycle over the period produced a decline in the atmospheric CO2 from 260 to around 250 ppm, in contrast to the increase from 260 to 280 ppm actually observed. Surprisingly, sensitivity simulations with global deforestation actually yielded lower CO2 concentrations (249-254 ppm) at 150 BP than the same simulations with no deforestation; however, deforestation of certain vegetation types lead to higher concentrations (~270 ppm). Even without deforestation, the decrease in CO2 is highly sensitive to the configuration of land ice shelves near Antarctica, with more extensive land ice leading to deeper local circulation in the Southern Ocean, less Antarctic-generated bottom waters globally, and a higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations (260 ppm) at 150 BP. The 5-8 ppm contribution of ice shelf extent may well be an important contributor to the higher analogue CO2 levels during the Holocene interglacial, as current data and reconstructions suggests that these ice

  3. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöhlker, Christopher; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Burrows, Susannah M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Elbert, Wolfgang; Su, Hang; Hoor, Peter; Thines, Eckhard; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the interactions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The sources, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbiome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap in the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research, highlights recent advances, and outlines future perspectives in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transformation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focusing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.

  4. Bioaerosols in the Earth system: Climate, health, and ecosystem interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kampf, Christopher J.; Weber, Bettina

    Aerosols of biological origin play a vital role in the Earth system, particularly in the in-teractions between atmosphere, biosphere, climate, and public health. Airborne bacteria, fungal spores, pollen, and other bioparticles are essential for the reproduction and spread of organisms across various ecosystems, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can serve as nuclei for cloud droplets, ice crystals, and precipitation, thus influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The actual formation, abundance, composition, and effects of biological aerosols and the atmospheric microbi-ome are, however, not yet well characterized and constitute a large gap inmore » the scientific understanding of the interaction and co-evolution of life and climate in the Earth system. This review presents an overview of the state of bioaerosol research and highlights recent advances in terms of bioaerosol identification, characterization, transport, and transfor-mation processes, as well as their interactions with climate, health, and ecosystems, focus-ing on the role bioaerosols play in the Earth system.« less

  5. Scientific drilling and the evolution of the earth system: climate, biota, biogeochemistry and extreme systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Cohen, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A US National Science Foundation-funded workshop occurred 17-19 May 2013 at the University of Oklahoma to stimulate research using continental scientific drilling to explore earth's sedimentary, paleobiological and biogeochemical record. Participants submitted 3-page "pre-proposals" to highlight projects that envisioned using drill-core studies to address scientific issues in paleobiology, paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and biogeochemistry, and to identify locations where key questions can best be addressed. The workshop was also intended to encourage US scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous core records to answer important questions in the history of earth's sedimentary, biogeochemical and paleobiologic systems. Introductory talks on drilling and coring methods, plus best practices in core handling and curation, opened the workshop to enable all to understand the opportunities and challenges presented by scientific drilling. Participants worked in thematic breakout sessions to consider questions to be addressed using drill cores related to glacial-interglacial and icehouse-greenhouse transitions, records of evolutionary events and extinctions, records of major biogeochemical events in the oceans, reorganization of earth's atmosphere, Lagerstätte and exceptional fossil biota, records of vegetation-landscape change, and special sampling requirements, contamination, and coring tool concerns for paleobiology, geochemistry, geochronology, and stratigraphy-sedimentology studies. Closing discussions at the workshop focused on the role drilling can play in studying overarching science questions about the evolution of the earth system. The key theme, holding the most impact in terms of societal relevance, is understanding how climate transitions have driven biotic change, and the role of pristine, stratigraphically continuous cores in advancing our understanding of this linkage. Scientific drilling, and particularly drilling

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND MODELING OF REACTIVE BUILDING SYSTEMS: CLIMATE AND ILLUMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Desirability barriers regarding the human comfort level still remain in the public acceptance of passive solar energy homes. The goal of this project is to model sensing climate control and illumination building systems as they apply to a zero-energy Midwest home. In develop...

  7. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  8. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  9. integrated Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andew; Di Vittorio, Alan; Collins, William

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems.« less

  10. Earth Gravitational Model 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D.; Factor, J. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Ingalls, S.; Presicci, M. R.; Beale, J.; Fecher, T.

    2015-12-01

    The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new 'Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will likely retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and shipborne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas, will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors where possible, and generating improved error models that will inform the final combination with the latest satellite gravity models. Outdated data gridding procedures have been replaced with improved approaches. For EGM2020, NGA intends to extract maximum value from the proprietary data that overlaps geographically with unrestricted data, whilst also making sure to respect and honor its proprietary agreements with its data-sharing partners.

  11. Earth Gravitational Model 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Daniel; Holmes, Simon; Factor, John; Ingalls, Sarah; Presicci, Manny; Beale, James

    2017-04-01

    The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new 'Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will likely retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and ship borne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas, will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors where possible, and generating improved error models that will inform the final combination with the latest satellite gravity models. Outdated data gridding procedures have been replaced with improved approaches. For EGM2020, NGA intends to extract maximum value from the proprietary data that overlaps geographically with unrestricted data, whilst also making sure to respect and honor its proprietary agreements with its data-sharing partners. Approved for Public Release

  12. Modeling Earth's Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  13. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  14. Models of the Earth's Core.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    1981-11-06

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with the following properties. Core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and laboratory data.

  15. Models of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  16. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  17. An Analog Earth Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The earth climate is broadly governed by the radiative power of the sun as well as the heat retention and convective cooling of the atmosphere. I have constructed an analog earth model for an undergraduate climate class that simulates mean climate using these three parameters. The ‘earth’ is a hollow, black, bronze sphere (4 cm diameter) mounted on a thin insulated rod, and illuminated by two opposite optic fibers, with light focused on the sphere by a set of lenses. The sphere is encased in a large double-walled aluminum cylinder (34 cm diameter by 26 cm high) with separate water cooling jackets at the top, bottom, and sides. The cylinder can be filled with a gas of choice at a variety of pressures or can be run in vacuum. The exterior is cladded with insulation, and the temperature of the sphere, atmosphere and walls is monitored with thermocouples. The temperature and waterflow of the three cooling jackets can be monitored to establish the energy output of the whole system; the energy input is the energy yield of the two optic fibers. A small IR transmissive lens at the top provides the opportunity to hook up the fiber of a hyper spectrometer to monitor the emission spectrum of the black ‘earth’ sphere. A pressure gauge and gas inlet-outlet system for flushing of the cell completes it. The heat yield of the cooling water at the top is the sum of the radiative and convective components, whereas the bottom jacket only carries off the radiative heat of the sphere. Undergraduate E&ES students at Wesleyan University have run experiments with dry air, pure CO2, N2 and Ar at 1 atmosphere, and a low vacuum run was accomplished to calibrate the energy input. For each experiment, the lights are flipped on, the temperature acquisition routine is activated, and the sphere starts to warm up until an equilibrium temperature has been reached. The lights are then flipped off and the cooling sequence towards ambient is registered. The energy input is constant for a given

  18. Statistical modeling of Earth's plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veibell, Victoir

    The behavior of plasma near Earth's geosynchronous orbit is of vital importance to both satellite operators and magnetosphere modelers because it also has a significant influence on energy transport, ion composition, and induced currents. The system is highly complex in both time and space, making the forecasting of extreme space weather events difficult. This dissertation examines the behavior and statistical properties of plasma mass density near geosynchronous orbit by using both linear and nonlinear models, as well as epoch analyses, in an attempt to better understand the physical processes that precipitates and drives its variations. It is shown that while equatorial mass density does vary significantly on an hourly timescale when a drop in the disturbance time scale index ( Dst) was observed, it does not vary significantly between the day of a Dst event onset and the day immediately following. It is also shown that increases in equatorial mass density were not, on average, preceded or followed by any significant change in the examined solar wind or geomagnetic variables, including Dst, despite prior results that considered a few selected events and found a notable influence. It is verified that equatorial mass density and and solar activity via the F10.7 index have a strong correlation, which is stronger over longer timescales such as 27 days than it is over an hourly timescale. It is then shown that this connection seems to affect the behavior of equatorial mass density most during periods of strong solar activity leading to large mass density reactions to Dst drops for high values of F10.7. It is also shown that equatorial mass density behaves differently before and after events based on the value of F10.7 at the onset of an equatorial mass density event or a Dst event, and that a southward interplanetary magnetic field at onset leads to slowed mass density growth after event onset. These behavioral differences provide insight into how solar and geomagnetic

  19. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  20. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K.; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  1. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard; Hearty, Thomas; hide

    2011-01-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole disk Earth model simulations used to better under- stand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute s Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model (Tinetti et al., 2006a,b). This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of approx.100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to the Earth s lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves, and residuals of approx.10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We extend our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of approx.7%, and temperature errors of less than 1K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated

  2. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes.

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  4. The Collaborative Seismic Earth Model: Generation 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Herwaarden, Dirk-Philip; Afanasiev, Michael; SimutÄ--, SaulÄ--; Krischer, Lion; ćubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Colli, Lorenzo; Saygin, Erdinc; Villaseñor, Antonio; Trampert, Jeannot; Cupillard, Paul; Bunge, Hans-Peter; Igel, Heiner

    2018-05-01

    We present a general concept for evolutionary, collaborative, multiscale inversion of geophysical data, specifically applied to the construction of a first-generation Collaborative Seismic Earth Model. This is intended to address the limited resources of individual researchers and the often limited use of previously accumulated knowledge. Model evolution rests on a Bayesian updating scheme, simplified into a deterministic method that honors today's computational restrictions. The scheme is able to harness distributed human and computing power. It furthermore handles conflicting updates, as well as variable parameterizations of different model refinements or different inversion techniques. The first-generation Collaborative Seismic Earth Model comprises 12 refinements from full seismic waveform inversion, ranging from regional crustal- to continental-scale models. A global full-waveform inversion ensures that regional refinements translate into whole-Earth structure.

  5. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  6. Earth as an Extrasolar Planet: Earth Model Validation Using EPOXI Earth Observations

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A.; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K.; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward

  7. The UK Earth System Model project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  8. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Albarede, F.; Shaw, H.

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals aremore » clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.« less

  9. 3D-model: Earth's seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirlaen, Koen

    2017-04-01

    A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth. Most of the students think that the earth's seasons are caused by the differences in the distance from the sun throughout the year. So as a teacher I tried year after year to explain the motion of the earth around the sun. Even when I used animations/movies/… it still seemed difficult for the students to understand the 3D-situation. Most of the animations only show the start of every season but it's important to demonstrate to the students the motion of the earth during a year so they can see that the tilt of our planet causes the seasons. The earth's axis is tilted by 23.4 degrees to the plane in which it travels around the sun, the ecliptic. So I started to work on a 3D-model on a scale to use in a classroom. It measures approximately 2m by 1m. You can buy all the materials in DIY-shop for less than € 100: wooden plank, lamp, styrofoam spheres (= earth), … I have been using the model for over 4 years now and it's very nice to work with. You can involve the students more and let them investigate for themselves what causes the seasons. The model demonstrates the start of every season, why it is dark for several months in several places on Earth. They can draw the positions of the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle on the styrofoam spheres. Also the difference between day and night is well shown on the globes. A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth: the changes in weather, ocean currents, winds, tropical storms, vegetation, fauna and flora, hours of daylight, … even economy, migration and social health. This way the model can be used in many lessons during the year. The poster session will demonstrate how you can make the 3D-model, some exercises, …

  10. The Collaborative Seismic Earth Model Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; van Herwaarden, D. P.; Afanasiev, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first generation of the Collaborative Seismic Earth Model (CSEM). This effort is intended to address grand challenges in tomography that currently inhibit imaging the Earth's interior across the seismically accessible scales: [1] For decades to come, computational resources will remain insufficient for the exploitation of the full observable seismic bandwidth. [2] With the man power of individual research groups, only small fractions of available waveform data can be incorporated into seismic tomographies. [3] The limited incorporation of prior knowledge on 3D structure leads to slow progress and inefficient use of resources. The CSEM is a multi-scale model of global 3D Earth structure that evolves continuously through successive regional refinements. Taking the current state of the CSEM as initial model, these refinements are contributed by external collaborators, and used to advance the CSEM to the next state. This mode of operation allows the CSEM to [1] harness the distributed man and computing power of the community, [2] to make consistent use of prior knowledge, and [3] to combine different tomographic techniques, needed to cover the seismic data bandwidth. Furthermore, the CSEM has the potential to serve as a unified and accessible representation of tomographic Earth models. Generation 1 comprises around 15 regional tomographic refinements, computed with full-waveform inversion. These include continental-scale mantle models of North America, Australasia, Europe and the South Atlantic, as well as detailed regional models of the crust beneath the Iberian Peninsula and western Turkey. A global-scale full-waveform inversion ensures that regional refinements are consistent with whole-Earth structure. This first generation will serve as the basis for further automation and methodological improvements concerning validation and uncertainty quantification.

  11. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students…

  12. Modeling Earth system changes of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutzbach, John E.

    1992-01-01

    This review outlines some of the challenging problems to be faced in understanding the causes and mechanisms of large climatic changes and gives examples of initial studies of these problems with climate models. The review covers climatic changes in three main periods of earth history: (1) the past several centuries; (2) the past several glacial-interglacial cycles; and (3) the past several million years. The review will concentrate on studies of climate but, where possible, will mention broader aspects of the earth system.

  13. Goddard earth models (5 and 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Richardson, J. A.; Brownd, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive earth model has been developed that consists of two complementary gravitational fields and center-of-mass locations for 134 tracking stations on the earth's surface. One gravitational field is derived solely from satellite tracking data. This data on 27 satellite orbits is the most extensive used for such a solution. A second solution uses this data with 13,400 simultaneous events from satellite camera observations and surface gravimetric anomalies. The satellite-only solution as a whole is accurate to about 4.5 milligals as judged by the surface gravity data. The majority of the station coordinates are accurate to better than 10 meters as judged by independent results from geodetic surveys and by Doppler tracking of both distant space probes and near earth orbits.

  14. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  15. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  16. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  17. CISM: Modeling the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Team, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The Center for Integrated SpaceWeather Modeling (CISM), an NSF Science and Technology Center that is a consortium of ten institutions headed by Boston University, has as its primary goal the development of a series of ever improving versions of a comprehensive physics-based simulation model that describes the space environment from the Sun to the Earth. CISM will do this by coupling existing models of components of the system. In this paper we review our progress to date and summarize our plans. We discuss results of initial coupling of MHD models of the corona and solar wind, and of a global magnetospheric MHD model with a global ionosphere/thermosphere model, a radiation belt model, and a ring current particle model. Coupling the SAIC coronal MHD model and the U Colorado/SEC solar wind MHD codes allows us to track CMEs from the base of the corona to 1 AU. The results show how shocks form and develop in the heliosphere, and how the CME flattens into a pancake shape by the time it reaches earth. Coupling the Lyon/Fedder/Mobarry global MHD model with the Rice Convection Model and the NCAR TIE-GCM/TING model allows full dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere, the ionosphere/thermosphere, and the hot plasma in the inner magnetosphere. Including the Dartmouth radiation belt model shows how the radiation belts evolve in a realistic magnetosphere.

  18. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute

  19. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  20. Fresh approaches to Earth surface modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, N. S.; Starikov, I. P.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers modelling of the surface when fixing objects in the geocentric coordinate systems in the course of GLONASS satellite system development. The authors revealed new approaches to presentation of geographical data to a user, transformation of map properties and the leading role of ERS (Earth remote sensing) as a source of mapping information; change of scientific paradigms aimed at improvement of high-accuracy cartographic objects representation in the plane.

  21. The Earth's magnetosphere modeling and ISO standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, I.

    The empirical model developed by Tsyganenko T96 is constructed by minimizing the rms deviation from the large magnetospheric data base Fairfield et al 1994 which contains Earth s magnetospheric magnetic field measurements accumulated during many years The applicability of the T96 model is limited mainly by quiet conditions in the solar wind along the Earth orbit But contrary to the internal planet s field the external magnetospheric magnetic field sources are much more time-dependent A reliable representation of the magnetic field is crucial in the framework of radiation belt modelling especially for disturbed conditions The last version of the Tsyganenko model has been constructed for a geomagnetic storm time interval This version based on the more accurate and physically consistent approach in which each source of the magnetic field would have its own relaxation timescale and a driving function based on an individual best fit combination of the solar wind and IMF parameters The same method has been used previously for paraboloid model construction This method is based on a priori information about the global magnetospheric current systems structure Each current system is included as a separate block module in the magnetospheric model As it was shown by the spacecraft magnetometer data there are three current systems which are the main contributors to the external magnetospheric magnetic field magnetopause currents ring current and tail current sheet Paraboloid model is based on an analytical solution of the Laplace

  1. Modeling the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, W. J.

    2003-04-01

    Space weather is caused by a series of interconnected events, beginning at the Sun and ending in the near-Earth space environment. Our ability to predict conditions and events in space depends on our understanding of these connections, and more importantly, our ability to predict details, such as the orientation of the magnetic field within a CME that is on its way to Earth. One approach to both improved understanding and prediction is through the use of models, particularly computer simulation models. Although models of the space environment are not yet good enough for this approach to be quantitative, things are changing. Models of components of the system the magnetosphere or the Sun’s corona, for example are now approaching a point where the biggest uncertainties in the model results are due to uncertainties in boundary conditions or in interactions with neighboring regions. Thus the time is ripe for the models to be joined into one large model that can deal with the complex couplings between the components of the system. In this talk we will review efforts to do this being undertaken by the new NSF Science and Technology Center, the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, a consortium of ten institutions headed by Boston University. We will discuss results of initial efforts to couple MHD models of the corona and solar wind, and to couple a global magnetospheric MHD model with a global ionosphere/thermosphere model and a ring current particle model. Coupling the SAIC coronal MHD model and the U Colorado/SEC solar wind MHD codes allows us to track CMEs from the base of the corona to 1 AU. The results show how shocks form and develop in the heliosphere, and how the CME flattens into a pancake shape by the time it reaches earth. Coupling the Lyon/Fedder/Mobarry global MHD model with the Rice Convection Model and the NCAR TIE-GCM/TING model allows full dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere, the ionosphere/thermosphere, and the hot plasma in the inner

  2. Foundations for a multiscale collaborative Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Michael; Peter, Daniel; Sager, Korbinian; Simutė, Saulė; Ermert, Laura; Krischer, Lion; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework for the assimilation of local to global seismic data into a consistent model describing Earth structure on all seismically accessible scales. This Collaborative Seismic Earth Model (CSEM) is designed to meet the following requirements: (i) Flexible geometric parametrization, capable of capturing topography and bathymetry, as well as all aspects of potentially resolvable structure, including small-scale heterogeneities and deformations of internal discontinuities. (ii) Independence of any particular wave equation solver, in order to enable the combination of inversion techniques suitable for different types of seismic data. (iii) Physical parametrization that allows for full anisotropy and for variations in attenuation and density. While not all of these parameters are always resolvable, the assimilation of data that constrain any parameter subset should be possible. (iv) Ability to accommodate successive refinements through the incorporation of updates on any scale as new data or inversion techniques become available. (v) Enable collaborative Earth model construction. The structure of the initial CSEM is represented on a variable-resolution tetrahedral mesh. It is assembled from a long-wavelength 3-D global model into which several regional-scale tomographies are embedded. We illustrate the CSEM workflow of successive updating with two examples from Japan and the Western Mediterranean, where we constrain smaller scale structure using full-waveform inversion. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of the CSEM to act as a vehicle for the combination of different tomographic techniques with a joint full-waveform and traveltime ray tomography of Europe. This combination broadens the exploitable frequency range of the individual techniques, thereby improving resolution. We perform two iterations of a whole-Earth full-waveform inversion using a long-period reference data set from 225 globally recorded earthquakes. At this early stage

  3. Coupling population dynamics with earth system models: the POPEM model.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Andrés; Moreno, Raúl; Jiménez-Alcázar, Alfonso; Tapiador, Francisco J

    2017-09-16

    Precise modeling of CO 2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO 2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations. The module, dubbed POPEM (from Population Parameterization for Earth Models), is compared with current emission inventories and validated against UN aggregated data. Finally, it is shown that the module can be used to advance toward fully coupling the social and natural components of the Earth system, an emerging research path for environmental science and pollution research.

  4. Earth system modelling: a GAIM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C.

    2003-04-01

    For over a decade the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Integration (formerly Interepretation) and Modelling (GAIM) has facilitated international, interdisciplinary research. The focus has been development, comparison and evaluation of models describing Earth system components, especially terrestrial and ocean carbon cycling and atmospheric transport. GAIM also sponsored the BIOME 6000 project, which produced snapshots of world vegetation patterns for the last glacial maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene, and experiments in coupled atmosphere-biosphere modelling that used these results. The most successful achievements have brought together modellers and data experts so that model comparisons could be made “with open eyes”. The need to bring together different communities (such as data experts and modellers; ecologists and atmospheric scientists; economists and ecologists...) only increases, and is a major rationale for the continuation of GAIM. GAIM has recently set out 23 overarching questions which could define future directions in Earth system science. Many have a “human dimension”, reflecting the fact that the societal context is poorly defined. Natural scientists often appeal to societal reasons to study global change, but typically don’t incorporate human science perspectives in their research strategies. Other questions have a “physical dimension” as biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and physical climate science merge. As IGBP II begins, GAIM faces the challenge of tackling large gaps in our knowledge of how the coupled Earth system works, with and without human interfence. On the natural science side, the Vostok ice-core record dramatically illustrates our current state of ignorance. Vostok established that the Earth system’s response to orbital forcing is characterized by strong non-linear interactions between atmospheric greenhouse-gas and aerosol constituents and climate. The problem is that we don’t understand most of these

  5. 2017 Updates: Earth Gravitational Model 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. E.; Holmes, S. A.; Ingalls, S.; Beale, J.; Presicci, M. R.; Minter, C.

    2017-12-01

    The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new `Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and shipborne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas (Antarctica, Greenland …), will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors. Public release number 15-564

  6. Modelling the isotopic evolution of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Paul, Debajyoti; White, William M; Turcotte, Donald L

    2002-11-15

    We present a flexible multi-reservoir (primitive lower mantle, depleted upper mantle, upper continental crust, lower continental crust and atmosphere) forward-transport model of the Earth, incorporating the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, U-Th-Pb-He and K-Ar isotope-decay systematics. Mathematically, the model consists of a series of differential equations, describing the changing abundance of each nuclide in each reservoir, which are solved repeatedly over the history of the Earth. Fluxes between reservoirs are keyed to heat production and further constrained by estimates of present-day fluxes (e.g. subduction, plume flux) and current sizes of reservoirs. Elemental transport is tied to these fluxes through 'enrichment factors', which allow for fractionation between species. A principal goal of the model is to reproduce the Pb-isotope systematics of the depleted upper mantle, which has not been done in earlier models. At present, the depleted upper mantle has low (238)U/(204)Pb (mu) and (232)Th/(238)U (kappa) ratios, but Pb-isotope ratios reflect high time-integrated values of these ratios. These features are reproduced in the model and are a consequence of preferential subduction of U and of radiogenic Pb from the upper continental crust into the depleted upper mantle. At the same time, the model reproduces the observed Sr-, Nd-, Ar- and He-isotope ratios of the atmosphere, continental crust and mantle. We show that both steady-state and time-variant concentrations of incompatible-element concentrations and ratios in the continental crust and upper mantle are possible. Indeed, in some cases, incompatible-element concentrations and ratios increase with time in the depleted mantle. Hence, assumptions of a progressively depleting or steady-state upper mantle are not justified. A ubiquitous feature of this model, as well as other evolutionary models, is early rapid depletion of the upper mantle in highly incompatible elements; hence, a near-chondritic Th/U ratio in the upper mantle

  7. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  8. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  9. An Earth longwave radiation climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model was constructed for radiation budget study. Required information is provided by on empirical 100mb water vapor mixing ratio equation of the mixing ratio interpolation scheme. Cloud top temperature is adjusted so that the calculation would agree with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Both clear sky and cloudy sky cases are calculated and discussed for global average, zonal average and world-wide distributed cases. The results agree well with the satellite observations. The clear sky case shows that the OLWR field is highly modulated by water vapor, especially in the tropics. The strongest longitudinal variation occurs in the tropics. This variation can be mostly explained by the strong water vapor gradient. Although in the zonal average case the tropics have a minimum in OLWR, the minimum is essentially contributed by a few very low flux regions, such as the Amazon, Indonesian and the Congo.

  10. Earth horizon modeling and application to static Earth sensors on TRMM spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keat, J.; Challa, M.; Tracewell, D.; Galal, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Earth sensor assemblies (ESA's) often are used in the attitude determination (AD) for both spinning and Earth-pointing spacecraft. The ESA's on previous such spacecraft for which the ground-based AD operation was performed by the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) used the Earth scanning method. AD on such spacecraft requires a model of the shape of the Earth disk as seen from the spacecraft. AD accuracy requirements often are too severe to permit Earth oblateness to be ignored when modeling disk shape. Section 2 of this paper reexamines and extends the methods for Earth disk shape modeling employed in AD work at FDD for the past decade. A new formulation, based on a more convenient Earth flatness parameter, is introduced, and the geometric concepts are examined in detail. It is shown that the Earth disk can be approximated as an ellipse in AD computations. Algorithms for introducing Earth oblateness into the AD process for spacecraft carrying scanning ESA's have been developed at FDD and implemented into the support systems. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) will be the first spacecraft with AD operation performed at FDD that uses a different type of ESA - namely, a static one - containing four fixed detectors D(sub i) (i = 1 to 4). Section 3 of this paper considers the effect of Earth oblateness on AD accuracy for TRMM. This effect ideally will not induce AD errors on TRMM when data from all four D(sub i) are present. When data from only two or three D(sub i) are available, however, a spherical Earth approximation can introduce errors of 0.05 to 0.30 deg on TRMM. These oblateness-induced errors are eliminated by a new algorithm that uses the results of Section 2 to model the Earth disk as an ellipse.

  11. A carbon dioxide radiance model of the earth planet using the conical earth sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Tu, Zhijun; Yuan, Jun; He, Ting; Wei, Yi

    2013-10-01

    Climate Modeling results show that about 50% of the Earth's outgoing radiation and 75% of the atmospheric outgoing radiation are contained in the far infrared. Generally the earth is considered as a 220~230 K blackbody, and the peak breadth of the Earth's outgoing radiation is around the wavelength of 10 micron. The atmospheric outgoing radiation are contained with five spectral intervals: the water vapor band from 6.33 to 6.85 microns, the ozone band from 8.9 to 10.1microns, the atmospheric window from 10.75 to 11.75 microns, the carbon dioxide band from 14 to 16 microns, and finally the rotational water vapor band from 21 to 125 microns. The properties of the carbon dioxide band is stable than other bands which has been chosen for the work Spectrum of the earth sensors. But the radiation energy of carbon dioxide band is variety and it is a function of latitude, season and weather conditions. Usually the luminance of the Earth's radiation (14 to 16 μm) is from 3 to 7 W/m2Sr. Earth sensor is an important instrument of the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS), and it is sensitive to the curve of the earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation profile to determine the roll and pitch angles of satellite which are relative to nadir vector. Most earth sensors use profile data gathered form Project Scanner taken in August and December 1966. The earth sensor referred in this paper is the conical scanning earth sensor which is mainly used in the LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. A method to determine the luminance of earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation (carbon dioxide) using the earth sensor is discussed in this paper. When the conical scanning sensor scan form the space to the earth, a pulse is produced and the pulse breadth is scale with the infrared radiation luminance. Then the infrared radiation luminance can be calculated. A carbon dioxide radiance model of the earth's and atmospheric outgoing radiation is obtained according the luminance data about with

  12. Photosynthesis, Earth System Models and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Sloan, V. L.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the huge carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is the largest of these fluxes, and is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity (GPP). One of the key parameters required by the FvCB model is an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Although Arctic GPP a small flux relative to global GPP, uncertainty is large. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we examined the derivation of Vc,max in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max for 12 species representing both dominant vegetation and key PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Separate measurements of CO2 assimilation (A) made at ambient conditions were compared with A modeled using the Vc,max values we measured in Barrow and those used by the ESMs. The A modeled with the Vc,max values used by the ESMs was 80% lower than the observed A. When our measured Vc,max values were used, modeled A was within 5% of observed A. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Here

  13. Modeling Earth's Ring Current Using The CIMI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, J. D., II; Perez, J. D.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's ring current is a result of the injection of charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere from solar storms. The enhancement of the ring current particles produces magnetic depressions and disturbances to the Earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms, which have been modeled using the comprehensive inner magnetosphere-ionosphere (CIMI) model. The purpose of this model is to identify and understand the physical processes that control the dynamics of the geomagnetic storms. The basic procedure was to use the CIMI model for the simulation of 15 storms since 2009. Some of the storms were run multiple times, but with varying parameters relating to the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field, particle fluxes, and boundary conditions of the inner-magnetosphere. Results and images were placed in the TWINS online catalog page for further analysis and discussion. Particular areas of interest were extreme storm events. A majority of storms simulated had average DST values of -100 nT; these extreme storms exceeded DST values of -200 nT. The continued use of the CIMI model will increase knowledge of the interactions and processes of the inner-magnetosphere as well as lead to a better understanding of extreme solar storm events for the future advancement of space weather physics.

  14. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  15. Geodesy: Modeling Earth's Post-Glacial Rebound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Giorgio; Antonioli, Andrea; Boschi, Lapo; Brandi, Valter; Cianetti, Spina; Galvani, Gabriele; Giunchi, Carlo; Perniola, Bruna; Agostinetti, Nicola Piana; Piersanti, Antonio; Stocchi, Paolo

    2004-02-01

    Efforts to mathematically model the Earth's post-glacial rebound, or, in general, long-term planetary-scale viscoelastic deformations, have been ongoing for several decades. Unfortunately, research in the post-glacial rebound community has not been characterized by much exchange of knowledge. Groups around the world have developed their code independently, sometimes with profoundly different approaches, occasionally leading to inconsistent results [e.g., Boschi et al., 1999]. Postglacial Rebound Calculator (TABOO) is a post-glacial rebound software that is being made freely available (through Samizdat Press at http://samizdat.mines.edu/taboo/)in the hope that it might become a common reference for all post-glacial rebound researchers. TABOO is portable and has been tested on Unix, Linux, and Windows systems; all it requires is a Fortran90 compiler supporting quadruple precision. The software is easy to use. It comes with a detailed guide that can work as a quick reference cookbook, and it is also accompanied by a textbook, The Theory Behind TABOO, collecting the most significant theoretical results from post-glacial rebound literature. TABOO is not a ``black-box,'' although it may easily be used as such. The entire source code is provided and should be easy to understand for intermediate-level Fortran programmers.

  16. Clay-Motion: Modeling Our Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrello, Murray C.

    1994-01-01

    Provides easy to teach and understand laboratory exercises for three fundamental concepts (plate movement, rock mechanics, and geologic time) that are often left out of the geology and Earth science curriculum. (ZWH)

  17. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  18. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  19. A Earth Outgoing Longwave Radiation Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Keng

    An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model has been constructed for radiation budget study. The model consists of the upward radiative transfer parameterization of Thompson and Warren (1982), the cloud cover model of Sherr et al. (1968) and a monthly average climatology defined by the data from Crutcher and Meserve (1971) and Taljaard et al. (1969). Additional required information is provided by the empirical 100mb water vapor mixing ratio equation of Harries (1976), and the mixing ratio interpolation scheme of Briegleb and Ramanathan (1982). Cloud top temperature is adjusted so that the calculation would agree with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Both clear sky and cloudy sky cases are calculated and discussed for global average, zonal average and world-wide distributed cases. The results agree well with the satellite observations. The clear sky case shows that the OLWR field is highly modulated by water vapor, especially in the tropics. The strongest longitudinal variation occurs in the tropics. This variation can be mostly explained by the strong water vapor gradient. Although in the zonal average case the tropics have a minimum in OLWR, the minimum is essentially contributed by a few very low flux regions, such as the Amazon, Indonesia and the Congo. There are regions in the tropics such that their OLWR is as large as that of the subtropics. In the high latitudes, where cold air contains less water vapor, OLWR is basically modulated by the surface temperature. Thus, the topographical heat capacity becomes a dominant factor in determining the distribution. Clouds enhance water vapor modulation of OLWR. Tropical clouds have the coldest cloud top temperatures. This again increases the longitudinal variation in the region. However, in the polar region, where temperature inversion is prominent, cloud top temperature is warmer than the surface. Hence, cloud has the effect of increasing OLWR. The implication of this cloud mechanism is that the

  20. Earth impedance model for through-the-earth communication applications with electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, Vanessa; MuñOz, Antonio; Gaudó, Pilar Molina; Mediano, Arturo; Cuchí, José A.; Villarroel, José L.

    2010-12-01

    Through-the-earth (TTE) communications are relevant in applications such as caving, tunnel and cave rescue, mining, and subsurface radiolocation. The majority of the TTE communication systems use ground electrodes as load antenna. Wires, electrode contact, and earth impedances are the major contributors to the impedance observed by the transmitter. In this paper, state-of-art models found in the literature are reviewed, and an improved method to measure the earth impedance is presented. The paper also proposes an optimal circuit model for earth impedance between electrodes as a function of frequency, as a consequence of the particular conditions of the application. The model is validated with measurements for different soil conditions, showing a good agreement between empirical data and the simulation results.

  1. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Earth-GRAM) GRAM Virtual Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    What is Earth-GRAM? Provide monthly mean and standard deviation for any point in atmosphere; Monthly, Geographic, and Altitude Variation. Earth-GRAM is a C++ software package; Currently distributed as Earth-GRAM 2016. Atmospheric variables included: pressure, density, temperature, horizontal and vertical winds, speed of sound, and atmospheric constituents. Used by engineering community because of ability to create dispersions inatmosphere at a rapid runtime; Often embedded in trajectory simulation software. Not a forecast model. Does not readily capture localized atmospheric effects.

  2. Quantifying Key Climate Parameter Uncertainties Using an Earth System Model with a Dynamic 3D Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Sriver, R. L.; Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Matthews, D.; Haran, M.; Keller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections hinge critically on uncertain climate model parameters such as climate sensitivity, vertical ocean diffusivity and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcings. Climate sensitivity is defined as the equilibrium global mean temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Vertical ocean diffusivity parameterizes sub-grid scale ocean vertical mixing processes. These parameters are typically estimated using Intermediate Complexity Earth System Models (EMICs) that lack a full 3D representation of the oceans, thereby neglecting the effects of mixing on ocean dynamics and meridional overturning. We improve on these studies by employing an EMIC with a dynamic 3D ocean model to estimate these parameters. We carry out historical climate simulations with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) varying parameters that affect climate sensitivity, vertical ocean mixing, and effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. We use a Bayesian approach whereby the likelihood of each parameter combination depends on how well the model simulates surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content. We use a Gaussian process emulator to interpolate the model output to an arbitrary parameter setting. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the posterior probability distribution function (pdf) of these parameters. We explore the sensitivity of the results to prior assumptions about the parameters. In addition, we estimate the relative skill of different observations to constrain the parameters. We quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimates stemming from climate variability, model and observational errors. We explore the sensitivity of key decision-relevant climate projections to these parameters. We find that climate sensitivity and vertical ocean diffusivity estimates are consistent with previously published results. The climate sensitivity pdf is strongly affected by the prior assumptions, and by the scaling

  3. Theory of a refined earth model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, H. G. L.

    1968-01-01

    Refined equations are derived relating the variations of the earths gravity and radius as functions of longitude and latitude. They particularly relate the oblateness coefficients of the old harmonics and the difference of the polar radii /respectively, ellipticities and polar gravity accelerations/ in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  4. Modeling the Earth system in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unninayar, Sushel; Bergman, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A broad overview is made of global earth system modeling in the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) era for the multidisciplinary audience encompassed by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Time scales of global system fluctuation and change are described in Section 2. Section 3 provides a rubric for modeling the global earth system, as presently understood. The ability of models to predict the future state of the global earth system and the extent to which their predictions are reliable are covered in Sections 4 and 5. The 'engineering' use of global system models (and predictions) is covered in Section 6. Section 7 covers aspects of an increasing need for improved transform algorithms and better methods to assimilate this information into global models. Future monitoring and data requirements are detailed in Section 8. Section 9 covers the NASA-initiated concept 'Mission to Planet Earth,' which employs space and ground based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. Section 10 concludes this review with general remarks concerning the state of global system modeling and observing technology and the need for future research.

  5. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  6. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  7. Integrated Earth System Model (iESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter Edmond; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2016-12-02

    The iESM is a simulation code that represents the physical and biological aspects of Earth's climate system, and also includes the macro-economic and demographic properties of human societies. The human aspect of the simulation code is focused in particular on the effects of human activities on land use and land cover change, but also includes aspects such as energy economies. The time frame for predictions with iESM is approximately 1970 through 2100.

  8. Advancing coupled human-earth system models: The integrated Earth System Model Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Thornton, P. E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Mao, J.; Chini, L. P.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Shi, X.

    2012-12-01

    As human and biogeophysical models develop, opportunities for connections between them evolve and can be used to advance our understanding of human-earth systems interaction in the context of a changing climate. One such integration is taking place with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). A multi-disciplinary, multi-institution team has succeeded in integrating the GCAM integrated assessment model of human activity into CESM to dynamically represent the feedbacks between changing climate and human decision making, in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. The first applications of this capability have focused on the feedbacks between climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and human decisions affecting future land use change, which are in turn connected to human decisions about energy systems and bioenergy production. These experiments have been conducted in the context of the RCP4.5 scenario, one of four pathways of future radiative forcing being used in CMIP5, which constrains future human-induced greenhouse gas emissions from energy and land activities to stabilize radiative forcing at 4.5 W/m2 (~650 ppm CO2 -eq) by 2100. When this pathway is run in GCAM with the climate feedback on terrestrial productivity from CESM, there are implications for both the land use and energy system changes required for stabilization. Early findings indicate that traditional definitions of radiative forcing used in scenario development are missing a critical component of the biogeophysical consequences of land use change and their contribution to effective radiative forcing. Initial full coupling of the two global models has important implications for how climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems changes the dynamics of future land use change for agriculture and forestry, particularly in the context of a climate mitigation policy designed to reduce emissions from land use as well as energy systems

  9. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  10. The Geolocation model for lunar-based Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yixing; Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Lv, Mingyang

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, people are more and more aware of that the earth need to treated as an entirety, and consequently to be observed in a holistic, systematic and multi-scale view. However, the interaction mechanism between the Earth's inner layers and outer layers is still unclear. Therefore, we propose to observe the Earth's inner layers and outer layers instantaneously on the Moon which may be helpful to the studies in climatology, meteorology, seismology, etc. At present, the Moon has been proved to be an irreplaceable platform for Earth's outer layers observation. Meanwhile, some discussions have been made in lunar-based observation of the Earth's inner layers, but the geolocation model of lunar-based observation has not been specified yet. In this paper, we present a geolocation model based on transformation matrix. The model includes six coordinate systems: The telescope coordinate system, the lunar local coordinate system, the lunar-reference coordinate system, the selenocentric inertial coordinate system, the geocentric inertial coordinate system and the geo-reference coordinate system. The parameters, lncluding the position of the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, the libration and the attitude of the Earth, can be acquired from the Ephemeris. By giving an elevation angle and an azimuth angle of the lunar-based telescope, this model links the image pixel to the ground point uniquely.

  11. Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Project Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D.

    The E3SM project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.

  12. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  13. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  14. EarthCube - Earth System Bridge: Spanning Scientific Communities with Interoperable Modeling Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, S. D.; DeLuca, C.; Gochis, D. J.; Arrigo, J.; Kelbert, A.; Choi, E.; Dunlap, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand and predict environmental hazards of weather/climate, ecology and deep earth processes, geoscientists develop and use physics-based computational models. These models are used widely both in academic and federal communities. Because of the large effort required to develop and test models, there is widespread interest in component-based modeling, which promotes model reuse and simplified coupling to tackle problems that often cross discipline boundaries. In component-based modeling, the goal is to make relatively small changes to models that make it easy to reuse them as "plug-and-play" components. Sophisticated modeling frameworks exist to rapidly couple these components to create new composite models. They allow component models to exchange variables while accommodating different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and units. Modeling frameworks have arisen in many modeling communities. CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) serves the academic earth surface process dynamics community, while ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) serves many federal Earth system modeling projects. Others exist in both the academic and federal domains and each satisfies design criteria that are determined by the community they serve. While they may use different interface standards or semantic mediation strategies, they share fundamental similarities. The purpose of the Earth System Bridge project is to develop mechanisms for interoperability between modeling frameworks, such as the ability to share a model or service component. This project has three main goals: (1) Develop a Framework Description Language (ES-FDL) that allows modeling frameworks to be described in a standard way so that their differences and similarities can be assessed. (2) Demonstrate that if a model is augmented with a framework-agnostic Basic Model Interface (BMI), then simple, universal adapters can go from BMI to a

  15. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  16. The CICT Earth Science Systems Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Coughlan, Joe; Biegel, Bryan; Stevens, Ken; Hansson, Othar; Hayes, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Computing Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Systems Analysis. Our modeling approach: a 3-part schematic investment model of technology change, impact assessment and prioritization. A whirlwind tour of our model. Lessons learned.

  17. An Evolving Model for Capacity Building with Earth Observation Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylak-Glassman, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    For the first forty years of Earth observation satellite imagery, all imagery was collected by civilian or military governmental satellites. Over this timeframe, countries without observation satellite capabilities had very limited access to Earth observation data or imagery. In response to the limited access to Earth observation systems, capacity building efforts were focused on satellite manufacturing. Wood and Weigel (2012) describe the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries with a technology ladder. A country moves up the ladder as they move from producing satellites with training services to building satellites locally. While the ladder model may be appropriate if the goal is to develop autonomous satellite manufacturing capability, in the realm of Earth observation, the goal is generally to derive societal benefit from the use of Earth observation-derived information. In this case, the model for developing Earth observation capacity is more appropriately described by a hub-and-spoke model in which the use of Earth observation imagery is the "hub," and the "spokes" describe the various paths to achieving that imagery: the building of a satellite (either independently or with assistance), the purchase of a satellite, participation in a constellation of satellites, and the use of freely available or purchased satellite imagery. We discuss the different capacity-building activities that are conducted in each of these pathways, such as the "Know-How Transfer and Training" program developed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. , Earth observation imagery training courses run by SERVIR in developing countries, and the use of national or regional remote sensing centers (such as those in Morocco, Malaysia, and Kenya) to disseminate imagery and training. In addition, we explore the factors that determine through which "spoke" a country arrives at the ability to use Earth observation imagery, and discuss best practices for achieving the capability to use

  18. Multi-objective optimization of GENIE Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrew R; Myerscough, Richard J; Voutchkov, Ivan I; Marsh, Robert; Cox, Simon J

    2009-07-13

    The tuning of parameters in climate models is essential to provide reliable long-term forecasts of Earth system behaviour. We apply a multi-objective optimization algorithm to the problem of parameter estimation in climate models. This optimization process involves the iterative evaluation of response surface models (RSMs), followed by the execution of multiple Earth system simulations. These computations require an infrastructure that provides high-performance computing for building and searching the RSMs and high-throughput computing for the concurrent evaluation of a large number of models. Grid computing technology is therefore essential to make this algorithm practical for members of the GENIE project.

  19. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Douglass, Anne R.; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D.; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near‐real‐time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)‐based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided. PMID:29497478

  20. Modeling Olympus Mons from the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebofsky, Nancy R.; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a science activity using cubes for constructing the "Olympus Mons" model, the largest known volcano in the solar system. Uses the Catalina Mountains as a real-life comparison and builds a scale-proportionate model. (YDS)

  1. Seismic modeling of Earth's 3D structure: Recent advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsema, J.

    2008-12-01

    Global models of Earth's seismic structure continue to improve due to the growth of seismic data sets, implementation of advanced wave propagations theories, and increased computational power. In my presentation, I will summarize seismic tomography results from the past 5-10 years. I will compare the most recent P and S velocity models, discuss model resolution and model interpretation, and present an, admittedly biased, list of research directions required to develop the next generation 3D models.

  2. Habitability of the Paleo-Earth as a Model for Earth-like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Phanerozoic is the current eon of Earth's geological history, from 542 million years ago to today, when large and complex life started to populate the ocean and land areas. Our planet became more hospitable and life took the opportunity to evolve and spread globally, especially on land. This had an impact on surface and atmospheric bio-signatures. Future observations of exoplanets might be able to detect similar changes on nearby exoplanets. Therefore, the application of the evolution of terrestrial habitability might help to determine the potential for life on Earth-like exoplanets. Here we evaluated the habitability of Earth during the Phanerozoic as a model for comparison with future observations of Earth-like exoplanets. Vegetation was used as a global indicator of habitability because as a primary producer it provides the energy for many other simple to complex life forms in the trophic scale. Our first proxy for habitability was the Relative Vegetation Density (RVD) derived from our vegetation datasets of the Visible Paleo-Earth. The RVD is a measure similar to vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), that gives a general idea of the global area-weighted fraction of vegetation cover. Our second habitability proxy was the Standard Primary Habitability (SPH) derived from mean global surface temperatures and relative humidity. The RVD is a more direct measure of the habitability of a planet but the SPH is easier to measure by remote sensors. Our analysis shows that terrestrial habitability has been greater than today for most of the Phanerozoic as demonstrated by both the RVD and SPH, with the Devonian and Cretaceous particularly more habitable. The RVD and SPH are generally correlated except around the Permian-Triassic, matching the P-Tr extinction. There has been a marked decrease in terrestrial habitability during the last 100 million years, even superseding the K-Pg extinction. Additional metrics were used to examine

  3. A user-friendly earth system model of low complexity: the ESCIMO system dynamics model of global warming towards 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randers, Jorgen; Golüke, Ulrich; Wenstøp, Fred; Wenstøp, Søren

    2016-11-01

    We have made a simple system dynamics model, ESCIMO (Earth System Climate Interpretable Model), which runs on a desktop computer in seconds and is able to reproduce the main output from more complex climate models. ESCIMO represents the main causal mechanisms at work in the Earth system and is able to reproduce the broad outline of climate history from 1850 to 2015. We have run many simulations with ESCIMO to 2100 and beyond. In this paper we present the effects of introducing in 2015 six possible global policy interventions that cost around USD 1000 billion per year - around 1 % of world GDP. We tentatively conclude (a) that these policy interventions can at most reduce the global mean surface temperature - GMST - by up to 0.5 °C in 2050 and up to 1.0 °C in 2100 relative to no intervention. The exception is injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which can reduce the GMST by more than 1.0 °C in a decade but creates other serious problems. We also conclude (b) that relatively cheap human intervention can keep global warming in this century below +2 °C relative to preindustrial times. Finally, we conclude (c) that run-away warming is unlikely to occur in this century but is likely to occur in the longer run. The ensuing warming is slow, however. In ESCIMO, it takes several hundred years to lift the GMST to +3 °C above preindustrial times through gradual self-reinforcing melting of the permafrost. We call for research to test whether more complex climate models support our tentative conclusions from ESCIMO.

  4. GeoTess: A generalized Earth model software utility

    DOE PAGES

    Ballard, Sanford; Hipp, James; Kraus, Brian; ...

    2016-03-23

    GeoTess is a model parameterization and software support library that manages the construction, population, storage, and interrogation of data stored in 2D and 3D Earth models. Here, the software is available in Java and C++, with a C interface to the C++ library.

  5. Climate modeling. [for use in understanding earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for radiation measurements suitable for the understanding, improvement, and verification of models used in performing climate research are considered. Both zonal energy balance models and three dimensional general circulation models are considered, and certain problems are identified as common to all models. Areas of emphasis include regional energy balance observations, spectral band observations, cloud-radiation interaction, and the radiative properties of the earth's surface.

  6. Numerical Modeling in Problems of Near-Earth Object Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Chuvashov, I. N.

    2017-05-01

    A method of numerical modeling is used to solve three most interesting problems of artificial Earth satellite (AES) dynamics. Orbital evolution of an ensemble of near-Earth objects at altitudes in the range from 1 500 to 60 000 km is considered, chaoticity of motion of objects in the geosynchronous zone is studied by the MEGNOanalysis, the parameters of AES motion are determined, and the models of forces are considered from measurements for GLONASS satellites. The recent versions of algorithms and programs used to perform investigations are briefly described.

  7. New land surface digital elevation model covers the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    1999-01-01

    Land surface elevation around the world is reaching new heights—as far as its description and measurement goes. A new global digital elevation model (DEM) is being cited as a significant improvement in the quality of topographic data available for Earth science studies.Land surface elevation is one of the Earth's most fundamental geophysical properties, but the accuracy and detail with which it has been measured and described globally have been insufficient for many large-area studies. The new model, developed at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has changed all that.

  8. EarthLabs: A National Model for Earth Science Lab Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2008-12-01

    As a response to the need for more rigorous, inquiry-based high school Earth science courses, a coalition of scientists, educators, and five states have created EarthLabs, a set of pilot modules that can serve as a national model for lab-based science courses. The content of EarthLabs chapters focuses on Earth system science and environmental literacy and conforms to the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The effort is funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. The pilot modules present activities on Corals, Drought, Fisheries, and Hurricanes. The Fisheries and Hurricanes units were reviewed and field-tested by educators in Texas and Arizona. The feedback from this evaluation led to revisions of these units and guided development of the Corals and Drought chapters. Each module consists of activities that use online data sets, satellite imagery, web-based readings, and hands-on laboratory experiments. The project comprises two separate websites, one for the instructor and one for students. The instructor's site contains the pedagogical underpinnings for each lab including teaching materials, assessment strategies, and the alignment of activities with state and national science standards. The student site provides access to all materials that students need to complete the activities or, in the case of the hands-on labs, where they access additional information to help extend their learning. There are also formative and summative questions embedded in the student webpages to help scaffold learning through the activities.

  9. A Compound Model for the Origin of Earth's Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izidoro, A.; de Souza Torres, K.; Winter, O. C.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important subjects of debate in the formation of the solar system is the origin of Earth's water. Comets have long been considered as the most likely source of the delivery of water to Earth. However, elemental and isotopic arguments suggest a very small contribution from these objects. Other sources have also been proposed, among which local adsorption of water vapor onto dust grains in the primordial nebula and delivery through planetesimals and planetary embryos have become more prominent. However, no sole source of water provides a satisfactory explanation for Earth's water as a whole. In view of that, using numerical simulations, we have developed a compound model incorporating both the principal endogenous and exogenous theories, and investigating their implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery. Comets are also considered in the final analysis, as it is likely that at least some of Earth's water has cometary origin. We analyze our results comparing two different water distribution models, and complement our study using the D/H ratio, finding possible relative contributions from each source and focusing on planets formed in the habitable zone. We find that the compound model plays an important role by showing greater advantage in the amount and time of water delivery in Earth-like planets.

  10. A COMPOUND MODEL FOR THE ORIGIN OF EARTH'S WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C.; De Souza Torres, K.

    2013-04-10

    One of the most important subjects of debate in the formation of the solar system is the origin of Earth's water. Comets have long been considered as the most likely source of the delivery of water to Earth. However, elemental and isotopic arguments suggest a very small contribution from these objects. Other sources have also been proposed, among which local adsorption of water vapor onto dust grains in the primordial nebula and delivery through planetesimals and planetary embryos have become more prominent. However, no sole source of water provides a satisfactory explanation for Earth's water as a whole. In viewmore » of that, using numerical simulations, we have developed a compound model incorporating both the principal endogenous and exogenous theories, and investigating their implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery. Comets are also considered in the final analysis, as it is likely that at least some of Earth's water has cometary origin. We analyze our results comparing two different water distribution models, and complement our study using the D/H ratio, finding possible relative contributions from each source and focusing on planets formed in the habitable zone. We find that the compound model plays an important role by showing greater advantage in the amount and time of water delivery in Earth-like planets.« less

  11. One technique for refining the global Earth gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.; Polovnev, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the theoretical and experimental research on the technique for refining the global Earth geopotential models such as EGM2008 in the continental regions are presented. The discussed technique is based on the high-resolution satellite data for the Earth's surface topography which enables the allowance for the fine structure of the Earth's gravitational field without the additional gravimetry data. The experimental studies are conducted by the example of the new GGMplus global gravity model of the Earth with a resolution about 0.5 km, which is obtained by expanding the EGM2008 model to degree 2190 with the corrections for the topograohy calculated from the SRTM data. The GGMplus and EGM2008 models are compared with the regional geoid models in 21 regions of North America, Australia, Africa, and Europe. The obtained estimates largely support the possibility of refining the global geopotential models such as EGM2008 by the procedure implemented in GGMplus, particularly in the regions with relatively high elevation difference.

  12. The 3D Reference Earth Model: Status and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the 20th century, seismologists constructed models of how average physical properties (e.g. density, rigidity, compressibility, anisotropy) vary with depth in the Earth's interior. These one-dimensional (1D) reference Earth models (e.g. PREM) have proven indispensable in earthquake location, imaging of interior structure, understanding material properties under extreme conditions, and as a reference in other fields, such as particle physics and astronomy. Over the past three decades, new datasets motivated more sophisticated efforts that yielded models of how properties vary both laterally and with depth in the Earth's interior. Though these three-dimensional (3D) models exhibit compelling similarities at large scales, differences in the methodology, representation of structure, and dataset upon which they are based, have prevented the creation of 3D community reference models. As part of the REM-3D project, we are compiling and reconciling reference seismic datasets of body wave travel-time measurements, fundamental mode and overtone surface wave dispersion measurements, and normal mode frequencies and splitting functions. These reference datasets are being inverted for a long-wavelength, 3D reference Earth model that describes the robust long-wavelength features of mantle heterogeneity. As a community reference model with fully quantified uncertainties and tradeoffs and an associated publically available dataset, REM-3D will facilitate Earth imaging studies, earthquake characterization, inferences on temperature and composition in the deep interior, and be of improved utility to emerging scientific endeavors, such as neutrino geoscience. Here, we summarize progress made in the construction of the reference long period dataset and present a preliminary version of REM-3D in the upper-mantle. In order to determine the level of detail warranted for inclusion in REM-3D, we analyze the spectrum of discrepancies between models inverted with different subsets of the

  13. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  14. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At thatmore » time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.« less

  15. Teaching Mathematical Modelling for Earth Sciences via Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-05-01

    Mathematical modelling is becoming crucially important for earth sciences because the modelling of complex systems such as geological, geophysical and environmental processes requires mathematical analysis, numerical methods and computer programming. However, a substantial fraction of earth science undergraduates and graduates may not have sufficient skills in mathematical modelling, which is due to either limited mathematical training or lack of appropriate mathematical textbooks for self-study. In this paper, we described a detailed case-study-based approach for teaching mathematical modelling. We illustrate how essential mathematical skills can be developed for students with limited training in secondary mathematics so that they are confident in dealing with real-world mathematical modelling at university level. We have chosen various topics such as Airy isostasy, greenhouse effect, sedimentation and Stokes' flow,free-air and Bouguer gravity, Brownian motion, rain-drop dynamics, impact cratering, heat conduction and cooling of the lithosphere as case studies; and we use these step-by-step case studies to teach exponentials, logarithms, spherical geometry, basic calculus, complex numbers, Fourier transforms, ordinary differential equations, vectors and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, geostatistics and basic numeric methods. Implications for teaching university mathematics for earth scientists for tomorrow's classroom will also be discussed. Refereces 1) D. L. Turcotte and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, (2002). 2) X. S. Yang, Introductory Mathematics for Earth Scientists, Dunedin Academic Press, (2009).

  16. A New Model of the Earth System Nitrogen Cycle: How Plates and Life Affect the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed an Earth system N cycle model, including biologic and geologic fluxes and key nutrients such as phosphorus. The atmosphere can change mass significantly over Earth history, and the solid Earth contains most of the planet's N.

  17. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2013-09-01

    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  18. Absorption band Q model for the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Given, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Attenuation in solids and liquids, as measured by the quality factor Q, is typically frequency dependent. In seismology, however, Q is usually assumed to be independent of frequency. Body wave, surface wave, and normal mode data are used to place constraints on the frequency dependence of Q in the mantle. Specific features of the absorption band model are: low-Q in the seismic band at both the top and the base of the mantle, low-Q for long-period body waves in the outer core, an inner core Q sub s that increases with period, and low Q sub p/Q sub s at short periods in the middle mantle.

  19. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  20. Modeling the Infrared Spectra of Earth-Analog Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C.

    2014-04-01

    As a preparation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and other facilities, we have undertaken to model the infrared spectra of Earth-like exoplanets. Two atmospheric models were used: the modern (low CO2) and archean (high CO2) predictive models of the Kasting group at Penn state. Several model parameters such as distance to star, and stellar type (visible-UV spectrum spectrum) were adjusted, and the models reconverged. Subsequently, the final model atmospheres were input to a radiative transfer code (NEMESIS) and the results intercompared to search for the most significant spectral changes. Implications for exoplanet spectrum detectivity will be discussed.

  1. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  2. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  3. Modeling dilute pyroclastic density currents on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. B.; Brand, B. D.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The surface of Mars has been shaped extensively by volcanic activity, including explosive eruptions that may have been heavily influenced by water- or ice-magma interaction. However, the dynamics of associated pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) under Martian atmospheric conditions and controls on deposition and runout from such currents are poorly understood. This work combines numerical modeling with terrestrial field measurements to explore the dynamics of dilute PDC dynamics on Earth and Mars, especially as they relate to deposit characteristics. We employ two numerical approaches. Model (1) consists of simulation of axi-symmetric flow and sedimentation from a steady-state, depth-averaged density current. Equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are solved simultaneously, and the effects of atmospheric entrainment, particle sedimentation, basal friction, temperature changes, and variations in current thickness and density are explored. The Rouse number and Brunt-Väisälä frequency are used to estimate the wavelength of internal gravity waves in a density-stratified current, which allows us to predict deposit dune wavelengths. The model predicts realistic runout distances and bedform wavelengths for several well-documented field cases on Earth. The model results also suggest that dilute PDCs on Mars would have runout distances up to three times that of equivalent currents on Earth and would produce longer-wavelength bedforms. In both cases results are heavily dependent on source conditions, grain-size characteristics, and entrainment and friction parameters. Model (2) relaxes several key simplifications, resulting in a fully 3D, multiphase, unsteady model that captures more details of propagation, including density stratification, and depositional processes. Using this more complex approach, we focus on the role of unsteady or pulsatory vent conditions typically associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions. Runout distances from Model (2) agree

  4. Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) - a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Sander, R.; Kerkweg, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.

    2005-02-01

    The development of a comprehensive Earth System Model (ESM) to study the interactions between chemical, physical, and biological processes, requires coupling of the different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, ...). One strategy is to link existing domain-specific models with a universal coupler, i.e. an independent standalone program organizing the communication between other programs. In many cases, however, a much simpler approach is more feasible. We have developed the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy). It comprises (1) a modular interface structure to connect to a , (2) an extendable set of such for miscellaneous processes, and (3) a coding standard. MESSy is therefore not a coupler in the classical sense, but exchanges data between a and several within one comprehensive executable. The internal complexity of the is controllable in a transparent and user friendly way. This provides remarkable new possibilities to study feedback mechanisms (by two-way coupling). Note that the MESSy and the coupler approach can be combined. For instance, an atmospheric model implemented according to the MESSy standard could easily be coupled to an ocean model by means of an external coupler. The vision is to ultimately form a comprehensive ESM which includes a large set of submodels, and a base model which contains only a central clock and runtime control. This can be reached stepwise, since each process can be included independently. Starting from an existing model, process submodels can be reimplemented according to the MESSy standard. This procedure guarantees the availability of a state-of-the-art model for scientific applications at any time of the development. In principle, MESSy can be implemented into any kind of model, either global or regional. So far, the MESSy concept has been applied to the general circulation model ECHAM5 and a number of process boxmodels.

  5. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; ...

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  6. Comparison of Meteoroid Flux Models for Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolshagen, G.; Liou, J.-C.; Dikarev, V.; Landgraf, M.; Krag, H.; Kuiper, W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade several new models for the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux have been developed. These include the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), the Divine-Staubach model and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM). They typically cover mass ranges from 10-12 g (or lower) to 1 g and are applicable for model specific sun distance ranges between 0.2 A.U. and 10 A.U. Near 1 A.U. averaged fluxes (over direction and velocities) for all these models are tuned to the well established interplanetary model by Gr?n et. al. However, in many respects these models differ considerably. Examples are the velocity and directional distributions and the assumed meteoroid sources. In this paper flux predictions by the various models to Earth orbiting spacecraft are compared. Main differences are presented and analysed. The persisting differences even for near Earth space can be seen as surprising in view of the numerous ground based (optical, radar) and in-situ (captured IDPs, in-situ detectors and analysis of retrieved hardware) measurements and simulations. Remaining uncertainties and potential additional studies to overcome the existing model discrepancies are discussed.

  7. Predicting lower mantle heterogeneity from 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Bower, Dan J.

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's lower mantle is characterized by two large-low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs), approximately ˜15000 km in diameter and 500-1000 km high, located under Africa and the Pacific Ocean. The spatial stability and chemical nature of these LLSVPs are debated. Here, we compare the lower mantle structure predicted by forward global mantle flow models constrained by tectonic reconstructions (Bower et al., 2015) to an analysis of five global tomography models. In the dynamic models, spanning 230 million years, slabs subducting deep into the mantle deform an initially uniform basal layer containing 2% of the volume of the mantle. Basal density, convective vigour (Rayleigh number Ra), mantle viscosity, absolute plate motions, and relative plate motions are varied in a series of model cases. We use cluster analysis to classify a set of equally-spaced points (average separation ˜0.45°) on the Earth's surface into two groups of points with similar variations in present-day temperature between 1000-2800 km depth, for each model case. Below ˜2400 km depth, this procedure reveals a high-temperature cluster in which mantle temperature is significantly larger than ambient and a low-temperature cluster in which mantle temperature is lower than ambient. The spatial extent of the high-temperature cluster is in first-order agreement with the outlines of the African and Pacific LLSVPs revealed by a similar cluster analysis of five tomography models (Lekic et al., 2012). Model success is quantified by computing the accuracy and sensitivity of the predicted temperature clusters in predicting the low-velocity cluster obtained from tomography (Lekic et al., 2012). In these cases, the accuracy varies between 0.61-0.80, where a value of 0.5 represents the random case, and the sensitivity ranges between 0.18-0.83. The largest accuracies and sensitivities are obtained for models with Ra ≈ 5 x 107, no asthenosphere (or an asthenosphere restricted to the oceanic domain), and a

  8. Representing Reservoir Stratification in Land Surface and Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigzaw, W.; Li, H. Y.; Leung, L. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Voisin, N.; Payn, R. A.; Demissie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A one-dimensional reservoir stratification modeling has been developed as part of Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), which is the river transport model used in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) and Community Earth System Model (CESM). Reservoirs play an important role in modulating the dynamic water, energy and biogeochemical cycles in the riverine system through nutrient sequestration and stratification. However, most earth system models include lake models that assume a simplified geometry featuring a constant depth and a constant surface area. As reservoir geometry has important effects on thermal stratification, we developed a new algorithm for deriving generic, stratified area-elevation-storage relationships that are applicable at regional and global scales using data from Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD). This new reservoir geometry dataset is then used to support the development of a reservoir stratification module within MOSART. The mixing of layers (energy and mass) in the reservoir is driven by eddy diffusion, vertical advection, and reservoir inflow and outflow. Upstream inflow into a reservoir is treated as an additional source/sink of energy, while downstream outflow represented a sink. Hourly atmospheric forcing from North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) Phase II and simulated daily runoff by ACME land component are used as inputs for the model over the contiguous United States for simulations between 2001-2010. The model is validated using selected observed temperature profile data in a number of reservoirs that are subject to various levels of regulation. The reservoir stratification module completes the representation of riverine mass and heat transfer in earth system models, which is a major step towards quantitative understanding of human influences on the terrestrial hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical cycles.

  9. A new model for early Earth: heat-pipe cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, A. G.; Moore, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    In the study of heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth, current models depend upon plate tectonic and vertical tectonic concepts. Plate tectonic models adequately account for regions with diverse lithologies juxtaposed along ancient shear zones, as seen at the famous Eoarchean Isua supracrustal belt of West Greenland. Vertical tectonic models to date have involved volcanism, sub- and intra-lithospheric diapirism, and sagduction, and can explain the geology of the best-preserved low-grade ancient terranes, such as the Paleoarchean Barberton and Pilbara greenstone belts. However, these models do not offer a globally-complete framework consistent with the geologic record. Plate tectonics models suggest that paired metamorphic belts and passive margins are among the most likely features to be preserved, but the early rock record shows no evidence of these terranes. Existing vertical tectonics models account for the >300 million years of semi-continuous volcanism and diapirism at Barberton and Pilbara, but when they explain the shearing record at Isua, they typically invoke some horizontal motion that cannot be differentiated from plate motion and is not a salient feature of the lengthy Barberton and Pilbara records. Despite the strengths of these models, substantial uncertainty remains about how early Earth evolved from magma ocean to plate tectonics. We have developed a new model, based on numerical simulations and analysis of the geologic record, that provides a coherent, global geodynamic framework for Earth's evolution from magma ocean to subduction tectonics. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling offers a viable mechanism for the lithospheric dynamics of early Earth. Our numerical simulations of heat-pipe cooling on early Earth indicate that a cold, thick, single-plate lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downward. The constant resurfacing and downward advection caused compression as the

  10. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.

  11. Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that

  12. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  13. Progress in Earth System Modeling since the ENIAC Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.

    2009-05-01

    The success of the first numerical weather prediction experiment on the ENIAC computer in 1950 was hinged on the expansion of the meteorological observing network, which led to theoretical advances in atmospheric dynamics and subsequently the implementation of the simplified equations on the computer. This paper briefly reviews the progress in Earth System Modeling and climate observations, and suggests a strategy to sustain and expand the observations needed to advance climate science and prediction.

  14. 3D climate-carbon modelling of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Le Hir, G.; Fluteau, F.; Forget, F.; Catling, D.

    2017-09-01

    We revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. Our resultsfavor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8°C (281 K) and 30°C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean.

  15. A geostationary Earth orbit satellite model using Easy Java Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Hwee Goh, Giam

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic 3D view and associated learning in the real world; (2) comparative visualization of permanent geostationary satellites; (3) examples of non-geostationary orbits of different rotation senses, periods and planes; and (4) an incorrect physics model for conceptual discourse. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the computer model useful in their own classes.

  16. A new stomatal paradigm for earth system models? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2013-12-01

    The land component of climate, and now earth system, models has simulated stomatal conductance since the introduction in the mid-1980s of the so-called second generation models that explicitly represented plant canopies. These second generation models used the Jarvis-style stomatal conductance model, which empirically relates stomatal conductance to photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentration, and other factors. Subsequent models of stomatal conductance were developed from a more mechanistic understanding of stomatal physiology, particularly that stomata are regulated so as to maximize net CO2 assimilation (An) and minimize water loss during transpiration (E). This concept is embodied in the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model, which relates stomatal conductance (gs) to net assimilation (An), scaled by the ratio of leaf surface relative humidity to leaf surface CO2 concentration, or the Leuning variant which replaces relative humidity with a vapor pressure deficit term. This coupled gs-An model has been widely used in climate and earth system models since the mid-1990s. An alternative approach models stomatal conductance by directly optimizing water use efficiency, defined as the ratio An/gs or An/E. Conceptual developments over the past several years have shown that the Ball-Berry style model can be derived from optimization theory. However, an explicit optimization model has not been tested in an earth system model. We compare the Ball-Berry model with an explicit optimization model, both implemented in a new plant canopy parameterization developed for the Community Land Model, the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The optimization model is from the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model, which integrates plant and soil hydraulics, carbon assimilation, and gas diffusion. The canopy parameterization is multi-layer and resolves profiles of radiation, temperature, vapor pressure, leaf water stress

  17. Improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dukes, J.; Bonan, G. B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Dietze, M.; Kattge, J.; Leakey, A. D.; Mercado, L. M.; Niinemets, U.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Serbin, S.; Sitch, S.; Way, D. A.; Zaehle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Continued use of fossil fuel drives an accelerating increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and is the principal cause of global climate change. Many of the observed and projected impacts of rising [CO2] portend increasing environmental and economic risk, yet the uncertainty surrounding the projection of our future climate by Earth System Models (ESMs) is unacceptably high. Improving confidence in our estimation of future [CO2] is essential if we seek to project global change with greater confidence. There are critical uncertainties over the long term response of terrestrial CO2 uptake to global change, more specifically, over the size of the terrestrial carbon sink and over its sensitivity to rising [CO2] and temperature. Reducing the uncertainty associated with model representation of the largest CO2 flux on the planet is therefore an essential part of improving confidence in projections of global change. Here we have examined model representation of photosynthesis in seven process models including several global models that underlie the representation of photosynthesis in the land surface model component of ESMs that were part of the recent Fifth Assessment Report from the IPCC. Our approach was to focus on how physiological responses are represented by these models, and to better understand how structural and parametric differences drive variation in model responses to light, CO2, nutrients, temperature, vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture. We challenged each model to produce leaf and canopy responses to these factors to help us identify areas in which current process knowledge and emerging data sets could be used to improve model skill, and also identify knowledge gaps in current understanding that directly impact model outputs. We hope this work will provide a roadmap for the scientific activity that is necessary to advance process representation, parameterization and scaling of photosynthesis in the next generation of Earth System Models.

  18. Soil warming response: field experiments to Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Bradford, M.; Wieder, W. R.; Crowther, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The soil carbon response to climate change is extremely uncertain at the global scale, in part because of the uncertainty in the magnitude of the temperature response. To address this uncertainty we collected data from 48 soil warming manipulations studies and examined the temperature response using two different methods. First, we constructed a mixed effects model and extrapolated the effect of soil warming on soil carbon stocks under anticipated shifts in surface temperature during the 21st century. We saw significant vulnerability of soil carbon stocks, especially in high carbon soils. To place this effect in the context of anticipated changes in carbon inputs and moisture shifts, we applied a one pool decay model with temperature sensitivities to the field data and imposed a post-hoc correction on the Earth system model simulations to integrate the field with the simulated temperature response. We found that there was a slight elevation in the overall soil carbon losses, but that the field uncertainty of the temperature sensitivity parameter was as large as the variation in the among model soil carbon projections. This implies that model-data integration is unlikely to constrain soil carbon simulations and highlights the importance of representing parameter uncertainty in these Earth system models to inform emissions targets.

  19. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  20. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  1. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Thrust and Torque Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andy; Ahmad, Naeem; Miller, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout is a solar sail mission whose objective is to scout at least one Near Earth Asteroid to help prepare for human missions to Near Earth Asteroids. NEA Scout will launch as a secondary payload on the first SLS-Orion mission. NEA Scout will perform a small trim maneuver shortly after deploy from the spent SLS upper stage using a cold gas propulsion system, but from that point on will depend entirely on the solar sail for thrust. As such, it is important to accurately characterize the thrust of the sail in order to achieve mission success. Additionally, the solar sail creates a relatively large solar disturbance torque that must be mitigated. For early mission design studies a flat plate model of the solar sail with a fixed center of pressure was adequate, but as mission concepts and the sail design matured, greater fidelity was required. Here we discuss the progress to a three-dimensional sail model that includes the effects of tension and thermal deformation that has been derived from a large structural Finite Element Model (FEM) developed by the Langley Research Center. We have found that the deformed sail membrane affects torque relatively much more than thrust; a flat plate model could potentially model thrust well enough to close mission design studies, but a three-dimensional solar sail is essential to control system design. The three-dimensional solar sail model revealed that thermal deformations of unshielded booms would create unacceptably large solar disturbance torques. The original large FEM model was used in control and mission simulations, but was resulted in simulations with prohibitive run times. This led us to adapt the Generalized Sail Model (GSM) of Rios-Reyes. A design reference sail model has been baselined for NEA Scout and has been used to design the mission and control system for the sailcraft. Additionally, since NEA Scout uses reaction wheels for attitude pointing and control, the solar torque model is

  2. Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation 3-D Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2013-04-01

    For a long time as a most convenient had been the model of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation models are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical model. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are modeling distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3D- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in

  3. Learning from History: A Lesson on the Model of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2006-01-01

    It is suggested that historical material concerning the model of the earth be utilised in the science classroom to construct narrative explanations. The article includes the various ancient models of the earth, the discovery of the spherical earth model, and the arguments and experiments coupled with it. Its instructional gain may lie in the…

  4. Integration of Earth System Models and Workflow Management under iRODS for the Northeast Regional Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, F.; Yang, P.; Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM, NSF Award #1049181) integrates weather research and forecasting models, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, a water balance/transport model, and mesoscale and energy systems input-out economic models developed by interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy. NE-RESM is intended to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. Integration of model components and the development of cyberinfrastructure for interacting with the system is facilitated with the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS), a distributed data grid that provides archival storage with metadata facilities and a rule-based workflow engine for automating and auditing scientific workflows.

  5. Using the Model Coupling Toolkit to couple earth system models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Perlin, N.; Skyllingstad, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continued advances in computational resources are providing the opportunity to operate more sophisticated numerical models. Additionally, there is an increasing demand for multidisciplinary studies that include interactions between different physical processes. Therefore there is a strong desire to develop coupled modeling systems that utilize existing models and allow efficient data exchange and model control. The basic system would entail model "1" running on "M" processors and model "2" running on "N" processors, with efficient exchange of model fields at predetermined synchronization intervals. Here we demonstrate two coupled systems: the coupling of the ocean circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to the surface wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of ROMS to the atmospheric model Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS). Both coupled systems use the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) as a mechanism for operation control and inter-model distributed memory transfer of model variables. In this paper we describe requirements and other options for model coupling, explain the MCT library, ROMS, SWAN and COAMPS models, methods for grid decomposition and sparse matrix interpolation, and provide an example from each coupled system. Methods presented in this paper are clearly applicable for coupling of other types of models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forward modeling of the Earth's lithospheric field using spherical prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykiev, Eldar; Ebbing, Jörg; Brönner, Marco; Fabian, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The ESA satellite mission Swarm consists of three satellites that measure the magnetic field of the Earth at average flight heights of about 450 km and 530 km above surface. Realistic forward modeling of the expected data is an indispensible first step for both, evaluation and inversion of the real data set. This forward modeling requires a precise definition of the spherical geometry of the magnetic sources. At satellite height only long wavelengths of the magnetic anomalies are reliably measured. Because these are very sensitive to the modeling error in case of a local flat Earth approximation, conventional magnetic modeling tools cannot be reliably used. For an improved modeling approach, we start from the existing gravity modeling code "tesseroids" (http://leouieda.github.io/tesseroids/), which calculates gravity gradient tensor components for any collection of spherical prisms (tesseroids). By Poisson's relation the magnetic field is mathematically equivalent to the gradient of a gravity field. It is therefore directly possible to apply "tesseroids" for magnetic field modeling. To this end, the Earth crust is covered by spherical prisms, each with its own prescribed magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetization. Induced magnetizations are then derived from the products of the local geomagnetic fields for the chosen main field model (such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field), and the corresponding tesseroid susceptibilities. Remanent magnetization vectors are directly set. This method inherits the functionality of the original "tesseroids" code and performs parallel computation of the magnetic field vector components on any given grid. Initial global calculations for a simplified geometry and piecewise constant magnetization for each tesseroid show that the method is self-consistent and reproduces theoretically expected results. Synthetic induced crustal magnetic fields and total field anomalies of the CRUST1.0 model converted to magnetic

  7. Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunt, D.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Schmidt, G.A.; Salzmann, U.; Valdes, P.J.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the equilibrium response of global temperatures to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is one of the cornerstones of climate research. Components of the Earths climate system that vary over long timescales, such as ice sheets and vegetation, could have an important effect on this temperature sensitivity, but have often been neglected. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to simulate the climate of the mid-Pliocene warm period (about three million years ago), and analyse the forcings and feedbacks that contributed to the relatively warm temperatures. Furthermore, we compare our simulation with proxy records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature. Taking these lines of evidence together, we estimate that the response of the Earth system to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is 30-50% greater than the response based on those fast-adjusting components of the climate system that are used traditionally to estimate climate sensitivity. We conclude that targets for the long-term stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations aimed at preventing a dangerous human interference with the climate system should take into account this higher sensitivity of the Earth system. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. A long time span relativistic precession model of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Soffel, Michael H.; Tao, Jin-He; Han, Wen-Biao; Tang, Zheng-Hong

    2015-04-01

    A numerical solution to the Earth's precession in a relativistic framework for a long time span is presented here. We obtain the motion of the solar system in the Barycentric Celestial Reference System by numerical integration with a symplectic integrator. Special Newtonian corrections accounting for tidal dissipation are included in the force model. The part representing Earth's rotation is calculated in the Geocentric Celestial Reference System by integrating the post-Newtonian equations of motion published by Klioner et al. All the main relativistic effects are included following Klioner et al. In particular, we consider several relativistic reference systems with corresponding time scales, scaled constants and parameters. Approximate expressions for Earth's precession in the interval ±1 Myr around J2000.0 are provided. In the interval ±2000 years around J2000.0, the difference compared to the P03 precession theory is only several arcseconds and the results are consistent with other long-term precession theories. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  9. An Earth-based Model of Microgravity Pulmonary Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.; Grotberg, James B.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently only two practical methods of achieving microgravity for experimentation: parabolic flight in an aircraft or space flight, both of which have limitations. As a result, there are many important aspects of pulmonary physiology that have not been investigated in microgravity. We propose to develop an earth-based animal model of microgravity by using liquid ventilation, which will allow us to fill the lungs with perfluorocarbon, and submersing the animal in water such that the density of the lungs is the same as the surrounding environment. By so doing, we will eliminate the effects of gravity on respiration. We will first validate the model by comparing measures of pulmonary mechanics, to previous space flight and parabolic flight measurements. After validating the model, we will investigate the impact of microgravity on aspects of lung physiology that have not been previously measured. These will include pulmonary blood flow distribution, ventillation distribution, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ventilation-perfusion matching and pleural pressures and flows. We expect that this earth-based model of microgravity will enhance our knowledge and understanding of lung physiology in space which will increase in importance as space flights increase in time and distance.

  10. An Earth-Based Model of Microgravity Pulmonary Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.; Grothberg, James B.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently only two practical methods of achieving micro G for experimentation: parabolic flight in an aircraft or space flight, both of which have limitations. As a result, there are many important aspects of pulmonary physiology that have not been investigated in micro G. We propose to develop an earth-based animal model of micro G by using liquid ventilation, which will allow us to fill the lungs with perfluorocarbon, and submersing the animal in water such that the density of the lungs is the same as the surrounding environment. By so doing, we will eliminate the effects of gravity on respiration. We will first validate the model by comparing measures of pulmonary physiology, including cardiac output, central venous pressures, lung volumes, and pulmonary mechanics, to previous space flight and parabolic flight measurements. After validating the model, we will investigate the impact of micro G on aspects of lung physiology that have not been previously measured. These will include pulmonary blood flow distribution, ventilation distribution, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ventilation-perfusion matching, and pleural pressures and flows. We expect that this earth-based model of micro G will enhance our knowledge and understanding of lung physiology in space which will increase in importance as space flights increase in time and distance.

  11. An improved model for the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.

  12. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Thrust and Torque Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew; Ahmad, Naeem; Miller, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout is a solar sail mission whose objective is to scout at least one Near Earth Asteroid in preparation for manned missions to asteroids. NEA Scout will use a solar sail as the primary means of propulsion. Thus it is important for mission planning to accurately characterize the thrust of the sail. Additionally, the solar sail creates a relatively large solar disturbance torque that must be mitigated. For early mission design studies a flat plate model of the solar sail with a fixed center of pressure was adequate, but as mission concepts and the sail design matured, greater fidelity was required. Here we discuss the progress to a three-dimensional sail model that includes the effects of tension and thermal deformation that has been derived from a large structural Finite Element Model (FEM) developed by the Langley Research Center. We have found that the deformed sail membrane affects torque relatively much more than thrust. We have also found that other than uncertainty over the precise shape, the effect of small (approximately millimeter scale) wrinkles on the diffusivity of the sail is the leading remaining source of uncertainty. We demonstrate that millimeter-scale wrinkles can be modeled analytically as a change in the fraction of specular reflection. Finally we discuss the implications of these results for the NEA Scout mission.

  13. Modelling the core magnetic field of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Carle, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that radial off-center dipoles located within the core of the earth be used instead of spherical harmonics of the magnetic potential in modeling the core magnetic field. The off-center dipoles, in addition to more realistically modeling the physical current systems within the core, are if located deep within the core more effective at removing long wavelength signals of either potential or field. Their disadvantage is that their positions and strengths are more difficult to compute, and such effects as upward and downward continuation are more difficult to manipulate. It is nevertheless agreed with Cox (1975) and Alldredge and Hurwitz (1964) that physical realism in models is more important than mathematical convenience. A radial dipole model is presented which agrees with observations of secular variation and excursions.

  14. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  15. Inverse Problems in Complex Models and Applications to Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The inference of the subsurface earth structure and properties requires the integration of different types of data, information and knowledge, by combined processes of analysis and synthesis. To support the process of integrating information, the regular concept of data inversion is evolving to expand its application to models with multiple inner components (properties, scales, structural parameters) that explain multiple data (geophysical survey data, well-logs, core data). The probabilistic inference methods provide the natural framework for the formulation of these problems, considering a posterior probability density function (PDF) that combines the information from a prior information PDF and the new sets of observations. To formulate the posterior PDF in the context of multiple datasets, the data likelihood functions are factorized assuming independence of uncertainties for data originating across different surveys. A realistic description of the earth medium requires modeling several properties and structural parameters, which relate to each other according to dependency and independency notions. Thus, conditional probabilities across model components also factorize. A common setting proceeds by structuring the model parameter space in hierarchical layers. A primary layer (e.g. lithology) conditions a secondary layer (e.g. physical medium properties), which conditions a third layer (e.g. geophysical data). In general, less structured relations within model components and data emerge from the analysis of other inverse problems. They can be described with flexibility via direct acyclic graphs, which are graphs that map dependency relations between the model components. Examples of inverse problems in complex models can be shown at various scales. At local scale, for example, the distribution of gas saturation is inferred from pre-stack seismic data and a calibrated rock-physics model. At regional scale, joint inversion of gravity and magnetic data is applied

  16. Snow in Earth System Models: Recent Progress and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Slater, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Snow is the most variable of terrestrial boundary conditions. Some 50 million km^2 of the Northern Hemisphere typically sees periods of accumulation and ablation in the annual cycle. The wonderous properties of snow, such as high albedo, thermal insulation and its ability to act as a water store make it an integral part of the global climate system. Earliest inclusions of snow within climate models were simple adjustments to albedo and a moisture store. Modern Earth Syetem Models now represent snow through a myriad of model architectures and parameterizations that span a broad range of complexity. Understanding the impacts of modeling decisions upon simulation of snow and other Earth System components (either directly or via feedbacks) is an ongoing area of research. Snow models are progressing with multi-layer representations and capabilities such as complex albedo schemes that include contaminants. While considerable advances have been made, numerous challenges also remain. Simply getting a grasp on the mass of snow (seasonal or permanent) has proved more difficult than expected over the past 30 years. Snow interactions with vegetation has improved but the details of vegetation masking and emergence are still limited. Inclusion of blowing snow processes, in terms of transport and sublimation, is typically rare and sublimation remains a difficult quantity to measure. Contemplation of snow crystal form within models and integration with radiative transfer schemes for better understanding of full spectrum interations (from UV to long microwave) may simultaneously advance simulation and remote sensing. A series of international modeling experiments and directed field campaigns are planned in the near future with the aim of pushing our knowledge forward.

  17. Active earth pressure model tests versus finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare failure mechanisms observed in small scale model tests on granular sample in active state, and simulated by finite element method (FEM) using Plaxis 2D software. Small scale model tests were performed on rectangular granular sample retained by a rigid wall. Deformation of the sample resulted from simple wall translation in the direction `from the soil" (active earth pressure state. Simple Coulomb-Mohr model for soil can be helpful in interpreting experimental findings in case of granular materials. It was found that the general alignment of strain localization pattern (failure mechanism) may belong to macro scale features and be dominated by a test boundary conditions rather than the nature of the granular sample.

  18. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time

  19. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  20. Run Environment and Data Management for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Fast, I.; Legutke, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrating Model and Data Infrastructure (IMDI) developed and maintained by the Model and Data Group (M&D) comprises the Standard Compile Environment (SCE) and the Standard Run Environment (SRE). The IMDI software has a modular design, which allows to combine and couple a suite of model components and as well to execute the tasks independently and on various platforms. Furthermore the modular structure enables the extension to new model combinations and new platforms. The SRE presented here enables the configuration and performance of earth system model experiments from model integration up to storage and visualization of data. We focus on recently implemented tasks such as synchronous data base filling, graphical monitoring and automatic generation of meta data in XML forms during run time. As well we address the capability to run experiments in heterogeneous IT environments with different computing systems for model integration, data processing and storage. These features are demonstrated for model configurations and on platforms used in current or upcoming projects, e.g. MILLENNIUM or IPCC AR5.

  1. Fostering Team Awareness in Earth System Modeling Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, S. M.; Lawson, A.; Strong, S.

    2009-12-01

    Existing Global Climate Models are typically managed and controlled at a single site, with varied levels of participation by scientists outside the core lab. As these models evolve to encompass a wider set of earth systems, this central control of the modeling effort becomes a bottleneck. But such models cannot evolve to become fully distributed open source projects unless they address the imbalance in the availability of communication channels: scientists at the core site have access to regular face-to-face communication with one another, while those at remote sites have access to only a subset of these conversations - e.g. formally scheduled teleconferences and user meetings. Because of this imbalance, critical decision making can be hidden from many participants, their code contributions can interact in unanticipated ways, and the community loses awareness of who knows what. We have documented some of these problems in a field study at one climate modeling centre, and started to develop tools to overcome these problems. We report on one such tool, TracSNAP, which analyzes the social network of the scientists contributing code to the model by extracting the data in an existing project code repository. The tool presents the results of this analysis to modelers and model users in a number of ways: recommendation for who has expertise on particular code modules, suggestions for code sections that are related to files being worked on, and visualizations of team communication patterns. The tool is currently available as a plugin for the Trac bug tracking system.

  2. Model for the formation of the earth's core

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.A.; Ringwood, A.E.; Jackson, I.

    1983-02-15

    The recent discovery of a phase transformation in Fe/sub 0.94/O by Jeanloz and Ahrens has allowed a more detailed development of a model for core formation involving oxygen as the principal light alloying element in the core. It is predicted, based on calculations, that an increasing pressure in the system FeO-MgO will result in a gradual exsolution of an almost pure high-pressure phase FeO(hpp), leaving an iron-depleted (Fe,Mg)O rocksalt (B1) phase. We also predict that FeO(hhp) will form a low-melting point alloy with Fe at high temperature and high pressure. On the basis of our interpretations, we have constructed amore » model for core segregation. Assuming the earth to have accreted from the primordial solar nebula as a relatively homogeneous mixture of metallic iron and silicate-oxide phases, core segregation involving oxygen would commence at a depth where pressure is sufficiently high to cause exsolution of FeO(hpp) from the rocksalt phase, and temperature is sufficiently high to allow formation of an Fe-FeO(hpp) melt. A gravitational instability arises, leading to vertical differentiation of the earth as molten blobs of the metal sink downwards to form the core and the residual depleted silicate material coalesces to form large bodies which rise diapirically upwards to form the mantle.« less

  3. Dynamical modelling of river deltas on Titan and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Piotr P.; Czechowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    The surface of Titan hosts a unique Earth-like environment with lakes and rivers, and active 'hydrologic' cycle of methane. We investigate sediment transport in Titanian rivers and deposition in Titanian lakes with particular attention to formation of river deltas. The obtained results are compared with analogous terrestrial processes. The numerical model based on Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional turbulent flow and additional equations for bed-load and suspended-load sediment transport was used in our research. It is found that transport of icy grains in Titanian rivers is more effective than silicate grains of the same size in terrestrial rivers for the same assumed total discharge. This effect is explained theoretically using dimensionless form of equations or comparing forces acting on the grains. Our calculations confirm previous results (Burr et al., 2006. Icarus. 181, 235-242). We calculate also models with organic sediments of different densities, namely 1500 and 800 kg m-3. We found substantial differences between materials of varying densities on Titan, but they are less pronounced than differences between Titan and Earth.

  4. A Unified Approach to Quantifying Feedbacks in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, K. E.

    2008-12-01

    In order to speed progress in reducing uncertainty in climate projections, the processes that most strongly influence those projections must be identified. It is of some importance, therefore, to assess the relative strengths of various climate feedbacks and to determine the degree to which various earth system models (ESMs) agree in their simulations of these processes. Climate feedbacks have been traditionally quantified in terms of their impact on the radiative balance of the planet, whereas carbon cycle responses have been assessed in terms of the size of the perturbations to the surface fluxes of carbon dioxide. In this study we introduce a diagnostic strategy for unifying the two approaches, which allows us to directly compare the strength of carbon-climate feedbacks with other conventional climate feedbacks associated with atmospheric and surface changes. Applying this strategy to a highly simplified model of the carbon-climate system demonstrates the viability of the approach. In the simple model we find that even if the strength of the carbon-climate feedbacks is very large, the uncertainty associated with the overall response of the climate system is likely to be dominated by uncertainties in the much larger feedbacks associated with clouds. This does not imply that the carbon cycle itself is unimportant, only that changes in the carbon cycle that are associated with climate change have a relatively small impact on global temperatures. This new, unified diagnostic approach is suitable for assessing feedbacks in even the most sophisticated earth system models. It will be interesting to see whether our preliminary conclusions are confirmed when output from the more realistic models is analyzed. This work was carried out at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  5. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  6. GeoFramework: A Modeling Framework for Solid Earth Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Tromp, J.; Tan, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Liu, Q.; Choi, E.; Dicaprio, C.; Chen, M.; Simons, M.; Quenette, S.; Appelbe, B.; Aagaard, B.; Williams, C.; Lavier, L.; Moresi, L.; Law, H.

    2003-12-01

    As data sets in geophysics become larger and of greater relevance to other earth science disciplines, and as earth science becomes more interdisciplinary in general, modeling tools are being driven in new directions. There is now a greater need to link modeling codes to one another, link modeling codes to multiple datasets, and to make modeling software available to non modeling specialists. Coupled with rapid progress in computer hardware (including the computational speed afforded by massively parallel computers), progress in numerical algorithms, and the introduction of software frameworks, these lofty goals of merging software in geophysics are now possible. The GeoFramework project, a collaboration between computer scientists and geoscientists, is a response to these needs and opportunities. GeoFramework is based on and extends Pyre, a Python-based modeling framework, recently developed to link solid (Lagrangian) and fluid (Eulerian) models, as well as mesh generators, visualization packages, and databases, with one another for engineering applications. The utility and generality of Pyre as a general purpose framework in science is now being recognized. Besides its use in engineering and geophysics, it is also being used in particle physics and astronomy. Geology and geophysics impose their own unique requirements on software frameworks which are not generally available in existing frameworks and so there is a need for research in this area. One of the special requirements is the way Lagrangian and Eulerian codes will need to be linked in time and space within a plate tectonics context. GeoFramework has grown beyond its initial goal of linking a limited number of exiting codes together. The following codes are now being reengineered within the context of Pyre: Tecton, 3-D FE Visco-elastic code for lithospheric relaxation; CitComS, a code for spherical mantle convection; SpecFEM3D, a SEM code for global and regional seismic waves; eqsim, a FE code for dynamic

  7. Nutrient cycle benchmarks for earth system land model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Zhao, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting future biosphere-climate feedbacks using Earth system models (ESMs) relies heavily on robust modeling of land surface carbon dynamics. More importantly, soil nutrient (particularly, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) dynamics strongly modulate carbon dynamics, such as plant sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Prevailing ESM land models all consider nitrogen as a potentially limiting nutrient, and several consider phosphorus. However, including nutrient cycle processes in ESM land models potentially introduces large uncertainties that could be identified and addressed by improved observational constraints. We describe the development of two nutrient cycle benchmarks for ESM land models: (1) nutrient partitioning between plants and soil microbes inferred from 15N and 33P tracers studies and (2) nutrient limitation effects on carbon cycle informed by long-term fertilization experiments. We used these benchmarks to evaluate critical hypotheses regarding nutrient cycling and their representation in ESMs. We found that a mechanistic representation of plant-microbe nutrient competition based on relevant functional traits best reproduced observed plant-microbe nutrient partitioning. We also found that for multiple-nutrient models (i.e., N and P), application of Liebig's law of the minimum is often inaccurate. Rather, the Multiple Nutrient Limitation (MNL) concept better reproduces observed carbon-nutrient interactions.

  8. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-01

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land-atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.

  9. A generic biogeochemical module for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Huang, M.; Liu, C.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.

    2013-06-01

    Physical and biogeochemical processes regulate soil carbon dynamics and CO2 flux to and from the atmosphere, influencing global climate changes. Integration of these processes into earth system models (e.g. community land models - CLM), however, currently faces three major challenges: (1) extensive efforts are required to modify modeling structures and to rewrite computer programs to incorporate new or updated processes as new knowledge is being generated, (2) computational cost is prohibitively expensive to simulate biogeochemical processes in land models due to large variations in the rates of biogeochemical processes, and (3) various mathematical representations of biogeochemical processes exist to incorporate different aspects of fundamental mechanisms, but systematic evaluation of the different mathematical representations is difficult, if not impossible. To address these challenges, we propose a new computational framework to easily incorporate physical and biogeochemical processes into land models. The new framework consists of a new biogeochemical module with a generic algorithm and reaction database so that new and updated processes can be incorporated into land models without the need to manually set up the ordinary differential equations to be solved numerically. The reaction database consists of processes of nutrient flow through the terrestrial ecosystems in plants, litter and soil. This framework facilitates effective comparison studies of biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem using different conceptual models under the same land modeling framework. The approach was first implemented in CLM and benchmarked against simulations from the original CLM-CN code. A case study was then provided to demonstrate the advantages of using the new approach to incorporate a phosphorus cycle into the CLM model. To our knowledge, the phosphorus-incorporated CLM is a new model that can be used to simulate phosphorus limitation on the productivity of terrestrial

  10. Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Prentice, I. Colin; Cornell, Sarah; Davies-Barnard, T; Finzi, Adrien; Franklin, Oskar; Janssens, Ivan; Larmola, Tuula; Manzoni, Stefano; Näsholm, Torgny; Raven, John; Rebel, Karin; Reed, Sasha C.; Vicca, Sara; Wiltshire, Andy; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the degree to which nitrogen (N) availability limits land carbon (C) uptake under global environmental change represents an unresolved challenge. First-generation ‘C-only’vegetation models, lacking explicit representations of N cycling,projected a substantial and increasing land C sink under rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This prediction was questioned for not taking into account the potentially limiting effect of N availability, which is necessary for plant growth (Hungate et al.,2003). More recent global models include coupled C and N cycles in land ecosystems (C–N models) and are widely assumed to be more realistic. However, inclusion of more processes has not consistently improved their performance in capturing observed responses of the global C cycle (e.g. Wenzel et al., 2014). With the advent of a new generation of global models, including coupled C, N, and phosphorus (P) cycling, model complexity is sure to increase; but model reliability may not, unless greater attention is paid to the correspondence of model process representations ande mpirical evidence. It was in this context that the ‘Nitrogen Cycle Workshop’ at Dartington Hall, Devon, UK was held on 1–5 February 2016. Organized by I. Colin Prentice and Benjamin D. Stocker (Imperial College London, UK), the workshop was funded by the European Research Council,project ‘Earth system Model Bias Reduction and assessing Abrupt Climate change’ (EMBRACE). We gathered empirical ecologists and ecosystem modellers to identify key uncertainties in terrestrial C–N cycling, and to discuss processes that are missing or poorly represented in current models.

  11. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; ...

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO 2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in somemore » parts of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  12. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  13. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; ...

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  14. Electromagnetic forward modelling for realistic Earth models using unstructured tetrahedral meshes and a meshfree approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, C.; Long, J.; Lu, X.; Lelievre, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Real-life geology is complex, and so, even when allowing for the diffusive, low resolution nature of geophysical electromagnetic methods, we need Earth models that can accurately represent this complexity when modelling and inverting electromagnetic data. This is particularly the case for the scales, detail and conductivity contrasts involved in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and development, but also for the larger scale of lithospheric studies. Unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide a flexible means of discretizing a general, arbitrary Earth model. This is important when wanting to integrate a geophysical Earth model with a geological Earth model parameterized in terms of surfaces. Finite-element and finite-volume methods can be derived for computing the electric and magnetic fields in a model parameterized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. A number of such variants have been proposed and have proven successful. However, the efficiency and accuracy of these methods can be affected by the "quality" of the tetrahedral discretization, that is, how many of the tetrahedral cells in the mesh are long, narrow and pointy. This is particularly the case if one wants to use an iterative technique to solve the resulting linear system of equations. One approach to deal with this issue is to develop sophisticated model and mesh building and manipulation capabilities in order to ensure that any mesh built from geological information is of sufficient quality for the electromagnetic modelling. Another approach is to investigate other methods of synthesizing the electromagnetic fields. One such example is a "meshfree" approach in which the electromagnetic fields are synthesized using a mesh that is distinct from the mesh used to parameterized the Earth model. There are then two meshes, one describing the Earth model and one used for the numerical mathematics of computing the fields. This means that there are no longer any quality requirements on the model mesh, which

  15. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  16. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  17. Spatiotemporal stochastic models for earth science and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaochun

    1998-12-01

    Spatiotemporal processes occur in many areas of earth sciences and engineering. However, most of the available theoretical tools and techniques of space-time daft processing have been designed to operate exclusively in time or in space, and the importance of spatiotemporal variability was not fully appreciated until recently. To address this problem, a systematic framework of spatiotemporal random field (S/TRF) models for geoscience/engineering applications is presented and developed in this thesis. The space-tune continuity characterization is one of the most important aspects in S/TRF modelling, where the space-time continuity is displayed with experimental spatiotemporal variograms, summarized in terms of space-time continuity hypotheses, and modelled using spatiotemporal variogram functions. Permissible spatiotemporal covariance/variogram models are addressed through permissibility criteria appropriate to spatiotemporal processes. The estimation of spatiotemporal processes is developed in terms of spatiotemporal kriging techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the singularity analysis of spatiotemporal kriging systems. The impacts of covariance, functions, trend forms, and data configurations on the singularity of spatiotemporal kriging systems are discussed. In addition, the tensorial invariance of universal spatiotemporal kriging systems is investigated in terms of the space-time trend. The conditional simulation of spatiotemporal processes is proposed with the development of the sequential group Gaussian simulation techniques (SGGS), which is actually a series of sequential simulation algorithms associated with different group sizes. The simulation error is analyzed with different covariance models and simulation grids. The simulated annealing technique honoring experimental variograms, is also proposed, providing a way of conditional simulation without the covariance model fitting which is prerequisite for most simulation algorithms. The proposed

  18. Eratosthenes Visits Middle School: Assessing the Ability of Students to Work with Models of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Sergio; Powers, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    In the exciting, "out of this world" activity described here, students measure the Earth using meter sticks while measuring their shadows in two distant locations. To obtain the size of the Earth, students discover the connection between the measurements of the shadows and a model of the spherical Earth following the method developed by…

  19. A laboratory model for solidification of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Michael I.; Macleod-Silberstein, Marget; Haskel, Michael; Chandler, Benjamin; Akpan, Nsikan

    2005-11-01

    To better understand the influence of rotating convection in the outer core on the solidification of the inner core we have constructed a laboratory model for solidification of Earth's core. The model consists of a 15 cm radius hemispherical acrylic tank concentric with a 5 cm radius hemispherical aluminum heat exchanger that serves as the incipient inner core onto which we freeze ice from salt water. Long exposure photographs of neutrally buoyant particles in illuminated planes suggest reduction of flow parallel to the rotation axis. Thermistors in the tank near the heat exchanger show that in experiments with rotation the temperature near the pole is lower than near the equator, unlike for control experiments without rotation or with a polymer that increases the fluid viscosity. The photographs and thermistors suggest that our observation that ice grows faster near the pole than near the equator for experiments with rotation is a result of colder water not readily convecting away from the pole. Because of the reversal of the thermal gradient, we expect faster equatorial solidification in the Earth's core. Such anisotropy in solidification has been suggested as a cause of inner core elastic (and attenuation) anisotropy, though the plausibility of this suggestion will depend on the core Nusselt number and the slope of the liquidus, and the effects of post-solidification deformation. Previous experiments on hexagonal close-packed alloys such as sea ice and zinc-tin have shown that fluid flow in the melt can result in a solidification texture transverse to the solidification direction, with the texture depending on the nature of the flow. A comparison of the visualized flow and the texture of columnar ice crystals in thin sections from these experiments confirms flow-induced transverse textures. This suggests that the convective pattern at the base of the outer core is recorded in the texture of the inner core, and that outer core convection might contribute to the

  20. New tools for linking human and earth system models: The Toolbox for Human-Earth System Interaction & Scaling (THESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Kauffman, B.; Lawrence, P.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated analysis of questions regarding land, water, and energy resources often requires integration of models of different types. One type of integration is between human and earth system models, since both societal and physical processes influence these resources. For example, human processes such as changes in population, economic conditions, and policies govern the demand for land, water and energy, while the interactions of these resources with physical systems determine their availability and environmental consequences. We have begun to develop and use a toolkit for linking human and earth system models called the Toolbox for Human-Earth System Integration and Scaling (THESIS). THESIS consists of models and software tools to translate, scale, and synthesize information from and between human system models and earth system models (ESMs), with initial application to linking the NCAR integrated assessment model, iPETS, with the NCAR earth system model, CESM. Initial development is focused on urban areas and agriculture, sectors that are both explicitly represented in both CESM and iPETS. Tools are being made available to the community as they are completed (see https://www2.cgd.ucar.edu/sections/tss/iam/THESIS_tools). We discuss four general types of functions that THESIS tools serve (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Properties, Consistency, and Outcome Evaluation). Tools are designed to be modular and can be combined in order to carry out more complex analyses. We illustrate their application to both the exposure of population to climate extremes and to the evaluation of climate impacts on the agriculture sector. For example, projecting exposure to climate extremes involves use of THESIS tools for spatial population, spatial urban land cover, the characteristics of both, and a tool to bring urban climate information together with spatial population information. Development of THESIS tools is continuing and open to the research community.

  1. Fire in the Earth System: Bridging data and modeling research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hantson, Srijn; Kloster, Silvia; Coughlan, Michael; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Vanniere, Boris; Bruecher, Tim; Kehrwald, Natalie; Magi, Brian I.

    2016-01-01

    Significant changes in wildfire occurrence, extent, and severity in areas such as western North America and Indonesia in 2015 have made the issue of fire increasingly salient in both the public and scientific spheres. Biomass combustion rapidly transforms land cover, smoke pours into the atmosphere, radiative heat from fires initiates dramatic pyrocumulus clouds, and the repeated ecological and atmospheric effects of fire can even impact regional and global climate. Furthermore, fires have a significant impact on human health, livelihoods, and social and economic systems.Modeling and databased methods to understand fire have rapidly coevolved over the past decade. Satellite and ground-based data about present-day fire are widely available for applications in research and fire management. Fire modeling has developed in part because of the evolution in vegetation and Earth system modeling efforts, but parameterizations and validation are largely focused on the present day because of the availability of satellite data. Charcoal deposits in sediment cores have emerged as a powerful method to evaluate trends in biomass burning extending back to the Last Glacial Maximum and beyond, and these records provide a context for present-day fire. The Global Charcoal Database version 3 compiled about 700 charcoal records and more than 1,000 records are expected for the future version 4. Together, these advances offer a pathway to explore how the strengths of fire data and fire modeling could address the weaknesses in the overall understanding of human-climate–fire linkages.A community of researchers studying fire in the Earth system with individual expertise that included paleoecology, paleoclimatology, modern ecology, archaeology, climate, and Earth system modeling, statistics, geography, biogeochemistry, and atmospheric science met at an intensive workshop in Massachusetts to explore new research directions and initiate new collaborations. Research themes, which emerged from

  2. Calculation of the 3D density model of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskarev, A.; Butsenko, V.; Poselov, V.; Savin, V.

    2009-04-01

    The study of the Earth's crust is a part of investigation aimed at extension of the Russian Federation continental shelf in the Sea of Okhotsk Gathered data allow to consider the Sea of Okhotsk' area located outside the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation as the natural continuation of Russian territory. The Sea of Okhotsk is an Epi-Mesozoic platform with Pre-Cenozoic heterogeneous folded basement of polycyclic development and sediment cover mainly composed of Paleocene - Neocene - Quaternary deposits. Results of processing and complex interpretation of seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data along profile 2-DV-M, as well as analysis of available geological and geophysical information on the Sea of Okhotsk region, allowed to calculate of the Earth crust model. 4 layers stand out (bottom-up) in structure of the Earth crust: granulite-basic (density 2.90 g/cm3), granite-gneiss (limits of density 2.60-2.76 g/cm3), volcanogenic-sedimentary (2.45 g/cm3) and sedimentary (density 2.10 g/cm3). The last one is absent on the continent; it is observed only on the water area. Density of the upper mantle is taken as 3.30 g/cm3. The observed gravity anomalies are mostly related to the surface relief of the above mentioned layers or to the density variations of the granite-metamorphic basement. So outlining of the basement blocks of different constitution preceded to the modeling. This operation is executed after Double Fourier Spectrum analysis of the gravity and magnetic anomalies and following compilation of the synthetic anomaly maps, related to the basement density and magnetic heterogeneity. According to bathymetry data, the Sea of Okhotsk can be subdivided at three mega-blocks. Taking in consideration that central Sea of Okhotsk area is aseismatic, i.e. isostatic compensated, it is obvious that Earth crust structure of these three blocks is different. The South-Okhotsk depression is characteristics by 3200-3300 m of sea depths. Moho surface in this area is at

  3. Model Meets Data: Challenges and Opportunities to Implement Land Management in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Dolman, A. J.; Don, A.; Erb, K. H.; Fuchs, R.; Herold, M.; Jones, C.; Luyssaert, S.; Kuemmerle, T.; Meyfroidt, P.

    2016-12-01

    Land-based demand for food and fibre is projected to increase in the future. In light of global sustainability challenges only part of this increase will be met by expansion of land use into relatively untouched regions. Additional demand will have to be fulfilled by intensification and other adjustments in management of land that already is under agricultural and forestry use. Such land management today occurs on about half of the ice-free land surface, as compared to only about one quarter that has undergone a change in land cover. As the number of studies revealing substantial biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of land management is increasing, moving beyond land cover change towards including land management has become a key focus for Earth system modeling. However, a basis for prioritizing land management activities for implementation in models is lacking. We lay this basis for prioritization in a collaborative project across the disciplines of Earth system modeling, land system science, and Earth observation. We first assess the status and plans of implementing land management in Earth system and dynamic global vegetation models. A clear trend towards higher complexity of land use representation is visible. We then assess five criteria for prioritizing the implementation of land management activities: (1) spatial extent, (2) evidence for substantial effects on the Earth system, (3) process understanding, (4) possibility to link the management activity to existing concepts and structures of models, (5) availability of data required as model input. While the first three criteria have been assessed by an earlier study for ten common management activities, we review strategies for implementation in models and the availability of required datasets. We can thus evaluate the management activities for their performance in terms of importance for the Earth system, possibility of technical implementation in models, and data availability. This synthesis reveals

  4. Model meets data: Challenges and opportunities to implement land management in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Dolman, Han; Don, Axel; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Jones, Chris; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Naudts, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Land-based demand for food and fibre is projected to increase in the future. In light of global sustainability challenges only part of this increase will be met by expansion of land use into relatively untouched regions. Additional demand will have to be fulfilled by intensification and other adjustments in management of land that already is under agricultural and forestry use. Such land management today occurs on about half of the ice-free land surface, as compared to only about one quarter that has undergone a change in land cover. As the number of studies revealing substantial biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of land management is increasing, moving beyond land cover change towards including land management has become a key focus for Earth system modeling. However, a basis for prioritizing land management activities for implementation in models is lacking. We lay this basis for prioritization in a collaborative project across the disciplines of Earth system modeling, land system science, and Earth observation. We first assess the status and plans of implementing land management in Earth system and dynamic global vegetation models. A clear trend towards higher complexity of land use representation is visible. We then assess five criteria for prioritizing the implementation of land management activities: (1) spatial extent, (2) evidence for substantial effects on the Earth system, (3) process understanding, (4) possibility to link the management activity to existing concepts and structures of models, (5) availability of data required as model input. While the first three criteria have been assessed by an earlier study for ten common management activities, we review strategies for implementation in models and the availability of required datasets. We can thus evaluate the management activities for their performance in terms of importance for the Earth system, possibility of technical implementation in models, and data availability. This synthesis reveals

  5. Improving the Representation of Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Whitney, M. M.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The exchange of freshwater between the rivers and estuaries and the open ocean represents a unique form of scale-interaction in the climate system. The local variability in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle is integrated by rivers over potentially large drainage basins (up to semi-continental scales), and is then imposed on the coastal ocean at the scale of a river mouth. Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. A physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM has a two-layer structure representing the mixing processes driven by tides and shear flow within the estuaries. It predicts the magnitude of the mixing driven exchange flow, bringing saltier lower-layer shelf water into the estuary to mix with river water prior to discharge to the upper-layer open ocean. The EBM has been tested against observations and high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the Columbia River estuary, showing excellent agreement in the predictions of the strength of the exchange flow and the salinity of the discharged water, including modulation with the spring-neap tidal cycle. The EBM is implemented globally at every river discharge point of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In coupled ocean-sea ice experiments driven by CORE surface forcing, the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the coastal ocean is increased globally compared to the standard model, contributing to a decrease in coastal stratification. The SSS near the mouths of some of the largest rivers is decreased due to the reduction in the area over which riverine fresh water is discharged. The

  6. SPITFIRE within the MPI Earth system model: Model development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Kloster, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    Quantification of the role of fire within the Earth system requires an adequate representation of fire as a climate-controlled process within an Earth system model. To be able to address questions on the interaction between fire and the Earth system, we implemented the mechanistic fire model SPITFIRE, in JSBACH, the land surface model of the MPI Earth system model. Here, we document the model implementation as well as model modifications. We evaluate our model results by comparing the simulation to the GFED version 3 satellite-based data set. In addition, we assess the sensitivity of the model to the meteorological forcing and to the spatial variability of a number of fire relevant model parameters. A first comparison of model results with burned area observations showed a strong correlation of the residuals with wind speed. Further analysis revealed that the response of the fire spread to wind speed was too strong for the application on global scale. Therefore, we developed an improved parametrization to account for this effect. The evaluation of the improved model shows that the model is able to capture the global gradients and the seasonality of burned area. Some areas of model-data mismatch can be explained by differences in vegetation cover compared to observations. We achieve benchmarking scores comparable to other state-of-the-art fire models. The global total burned area is sensitive to the meteorological forcing. Adjustment of parameters leads to similar model results for both forcing data sets with respect to spatial and seasonal patterns. This article was corrected on 29 SEP 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  7. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin; ...

    2017-01-01

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  8. Virtual Observation System for Earth System Model: An Application to ACME Land Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Yuan, Fengming; Hernandez, Benjamin

    Investigating and evaluating physical-chemical-biological processes within an Earth system model (EMS) can be very challenging due to the complexity of both model design and software implementation. A virtual observation system (VOS) is presented to enable interactive observation of these processes during system simulation. Based on advance computing technologies, such as compiler-based software analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and high-performance data transport, the VOS provides run-time observation capability, in-situ data analytics for Earth system model simulation, model behavior adjustment opportunities through simulation steering. A VOS for a terrestrial land model simulation within the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy model is also presentedmore » to demonstrate the implementation details and system innovations.« less

  9. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this models must accurately represent the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small relative to global carbon fluxes, uncertainty is large. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis and most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is typically fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT). Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for a range of Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. We found that the values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic plants in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured, and contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax, however we found that the JVratio of Arctic plants is higher than current estimates suggesting that Arctic PFTs will be more responsive to rising carbon dioxide than currently projected. In addition we are exploring remotely sensed methods to scale up key biochemical (e.g. leaf N, leaf mass area) and physiological (e.g. Vc,max and Jmax) properties that drive model representation of photosynthesis in the Arctic. Our data suggest that the Arctic tundra has a much greater capacity for CO2 uptake, particularly at low temperature, and will be more CO2 responsive

  10. Modeling the Surface Temperature of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Murante, Giuseppe; Filippi, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface energy balance model (EBM) complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (ɛ ≲ 45{}^\\circ ). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ≈ 5 K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5≲ {Ω }/{{{Ω }}\\oplus }≲ 2, 0.75≲ S/{{S}\\circ }≲ 1.25, 0.3≲ p/(1 bar)≲ 10, and 0.5≲ R/{{R}\\oplus }≲ 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely low computational cost and can be used when the planetary parameters are scarcely known (as for most exoplanets) and/or whenever many runs for different parameter configurations are needed. Model simulations of a test-case exoplanet (Kepler-62e) indicate that an uncertainty in surface pressure within the range expected for terrestrial planets may impact the mean temperature by ˜ 60 K. Within the limits of validity of the ESTM, the impact of surface pressure is larger than that predicted by uncertainties in rotation rate, axis obliquity, and ocean fractions. We discuss the possibility of performing a statistical ranking of planetary habitability taking advantage of the flexibility of the ESTM.

  11. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  12. A Model of Volcanic Outgassing for Earth's Early Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, J. K.; Kasting, J. F.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We build on historical paradigms of volcanic degassing [1] to account for non-linear relations among C-O-H-S volatiles, their speciation, solubility and concentrations in magmatic melts, and the resulting contribution to atmospheric volatile inventories. We focus on the build-up of greenhouse-relevant carbon species (CO2 and CH4) and molecular oxygen to better understand the environments of early life and the Great Oxygenation Event [2,3,4]. The mantle is an important reservoir of C-O-H-S volatiles [5], and melt concentrations depend on temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. We present a preliminary chemical model that simulates volatile concentrations released into the Earth's atmosphere at 1 bar, or pressures corresponding to the early Earth prior to 2.4 Ga. We maintain redox balance in the system using H+ [2, 6] because the melt oxidation state evolves with volatile melt concentrations [7] and affects the composition of degassed compounds. For example, low fO2 in the melt degasses CO, CH4, H2S and H2 while high fO2 yields CO2, SO2 and H2O [1,8,9]. Our calculations incorporate empirical relations from experimental petrology studies [e.g., 10, 11] to account for inter-dependencies among volatile element solubility trends. This model has implications for exploring planetary atmospheric evolution and potential greenhouse effects on Venus and Mars [12]­, and possibly exoplanets. A future direction of this work would be to link this chemical degassing model with different tectonic regimes [13] to account for degassing and ingassing, such as during subduction. References: [1] Holland, H. D. (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans [2] Kasting, J. F. (2013) Chem. Geo. 362, 13-25 [3] Kasting, J.F. (1993) Sci. 259, 920-926 [4] Duncan, M.S. & Dasgupta, R. (2017) Nat. Geoscience 10, 387-392. [5] Hier-Majumder, S. & Hirschmann, M.M. (2017) G3, doi: 10.1002/2017GC006937 [6] Gaillard, F. et al. (2003) GCA 67, 2427- 2441 [7] Moussalam, Y. et al. (2014

  13. Effective Coulomb force modeling for spacecraft in Earth orbit plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Carl R.; Stiles, Laura A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2014-07-01

    Coulomb formation flight is a concept that utilizes electrostatic forces to control the separations of close proximity spacecraft. The Coulomb force between charged bodies is a product of their size, separation, potential and interaction with the local plasma environment. A fast and accurate analytic method of capturing the interaction of a charged body in a plasma is shown. The Debye-Hückel analytic model of the electrostatic field about a charged sphere in a plasma is expanded to analytically compute the forces. This model is fitted to numerical simulations with representative geosynchronous and low Earth orbit (GEO and LEO) plasma environments using an effective Debye length. This effective Debye length, which more accurately captures the charge partial shielding, can be up to 7 times larger at GEO, and as great as 100 times larger at LEO. The force between a sphere and point charge is accurately captured with the effective Debye length, as opposed to the electron Debye length solutions that have errors exceeding 50%. One notable finding is that the effective Debye lengths in LEO plasmas about a charged body are increased from centimeters to meters. This is a promising outcome, as the reduced shielding at increased potentials provides sufficient force levels for operating the electrostatically inflated membrane structures concept at these dense plasma altitudes.

  14. Model of load distribution for earth observation satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shumin; Du, Min; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    For the system of multiple types of EOS (Earth Observing Satellites), it is a vital issue to assure that each type of payloads carried by the group of EOS can be used efficiently and reasonably for in astronautics fields. Currently, most of researches on configuration of satellite and payloads focus on the scheduling for launched satellites. However, the assignments of payloads for un-launched satellites are bit researched, which are the same crucial as the scheduling of tasks. Moreover, the current models of satellite resources scheduling lack of more general characteristics. Referring the idea about roles-based access control (RBAC) of information system, this paper brings forward a model based on role-mining of RBAC to improve the generality and foresight of the method of assignments of satellite-payload. By this way, the assignment of satellite-payload can be mapped onto the problem of role-mining. A novel method will be introduced, based on the idea of biclique-combination in graph theory and evolutionary algorithm in intelligence computing, to address the role-mining problem of satellite-payload assignments. The simulation experiments are performed to verify the novel method. Finally, the work of this paper is concluded.

  15. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Several modelling studies reported potential impacts of soil moisture anomalies on regional climate. In particular for short prediction periods, perturbations of the soil moisture state may result in significant alteration of surface temperature in the following season. However, it is not clear yet whether or not soil moisture anomalies affect climate also on larger temporal and spatial scales. In an earlier study, we showed that soil moisture anomalies can persist for several seasons in the deeper soil layers of a land surface model. Additionally, those anomalies can influence root zone moisture, in particular during explicitly dry or wet periods. Thus, one prerequisite for predictability, namely the existence of long term memory, is evident for simulated soil moisture and might be exploited to improve climate predictions. The second prerequisite is the sensitivity of the climate system to soil moisture. In order to investigate this sensitivity for decadal simulations, we implemented a soil moisture assimilation scheme into the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The assimilation scheme is based on a simple nudging algorithm and updates the surface soil moisture state once per day. In our experiments, the MPI-ESM is used which includes model components for the interactive simulation of atmosphere, land and ocean. Artificial assimilation data is created from a control simulation to nudge the MPI-ESM towards predominantly dry and wet states. First analyses are focused on the impact of the assimilation on land surface variables and reveal distinct differences in the long-term mean values between wet and dry state simulations. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are larger in the wet state compared to the dry state, resulting in an increased moisture transport from the land to atmosphere and ocean. Consequently, surface temperatures are lower in the wet state simulations by more than one Kelvin. In terms of spatial pattern

  16. Climate Variability and Wildfires: Insights from Global Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the relationship between variability in global climate and emissions from wildfires is needed for predictions of fire activity on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. Here we investigate this relationship using the long, preindustrial control simulations and historical ensembles of two Earth System models; CESM1 and the NOAA/GFDL ESM2Mb. There is smaller interannual variability of global fires in both models than in present day inventories, especially in boreal regions where observed fires vary substantially from year to year. Patterns of fire response to climate oscillation indices, including the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) are explored with the model results and compared to the response derived from satellite measurements and proxy observations. Increases in fire emissions in southeast Asia and boreal North America are associated with positive ENSO and PDO, while United States fires and Sahel fires decrease for the same climate conditions. Boreal fire emissions decrease in CESM1 for the warm phase of the AMO, while ESM2Mb did not produce a reliable AMO. CESM1 produces a weak negative trend in global fire emissions for the period 1920 to 2005, while ESM2Mb produces a positive trend over the same period. Both trends are statistically significant at a confidence level of 95% or greater given the variability derived from the respective preindustrial controls. In addition to climate variability impacts on fires, we also explore the impacts of fire emissions on climate variability and atmospheric chemistry. We analyze three long, free-evolving ESM2Mb simulations; one without fire emissions, one with constant year-over-year fire emissions based on a present day inventory, and one with interannually varying fire emissions coupled between the terrestrial and atmospheric components of the model, to gain a better understanding of the role of fire emissions in

  17. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM99): Short Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Earth-GRAM is a FORTRAN software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. For any time and location in the Earth's atmosphere, Earth-GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc.. Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and have realistic correlations, means, and variances - useful for Monte Carlo analysis. Earth-GRAM is driven by observations including a tropospheric database available from the National Climatic Data Center. Although Earth-GRAM can be run in a "stand-alone" mode, many users incorporate it into their trajectory codes. The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  18. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  19. A comparative study of spherical and flat-Earth geopotential modeling at satellite elevations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, M. H.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Flat-Earth and spherical-Earth geopotential modeling of crustal anomaly sources at satellite elevations are compared by computing gravity and scalar magnetic anomalies perpendicular to the strike of variably dimensioned rectangular prisms at altitudes of 150, 300, and 450 km. Results indicate that the error caused by the flat-Earth approximation is less than 10% in most geometric conditions. Generally, error increase with larger and wider anomaly sources at higher altitudes. For most crustal source modeling applications at conventional satellite altitudes, flat-Earth modeling can be justified and is numerically efficient.

  20. Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial 2016 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    For the 2016 tutorial, NCAR/CGD requested a total budget of $70,000 split equally between DOE and NSF. The funds were used to support student participation (travel, lodging, per diem, etc.). Lectures and practical session support was primarily provided by local participants at no additional cost (see list below). The seventh annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial (2016) for students and early career scientists was held 8 – 12 August 2016. As has been the case over the last few years, this event was extremely successful and there was greater demand than could be met. There was continued interest inmore » support of the NSF’s EaSM Infrastructure awards, to train these awardees in the application of the CESM. Based on suggestions from previous tutorial participants, the 2016 tutorial experience again provided direct connection to Yellowstone for each individual participant (rather than pairs), and used the NCAR Mesa Library. The 2016 tutorial included lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These were targeted to the graduate student level. In addition, specific talks (“Application” talks) were introduced this year to provide participants with some in-depth knowledge of some specific aspects of CESM.« less

  1. A hierarchy of ocean biogeochemical comprehensiveness for Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    As Earth System Models mature towards more quantitative explanations of ocean carbon cycle interactions and are applied to an increasingly diverse array of living marine resource communities, the draw towards biogeochemical and ecological comprehensiveness intensifies. However, this draw to comprehensiveness must also be balanced with the added cost of handling additional tracers. One way that GFDL has addressed this constraint is by developing a series of biogeochemical modules based on the 30 tracer TOPAZ formulation used in GFDL's CMIP5 contribution in both simplifying the biogeochemistry down to the 6 tracer BLING formulation and 3 tracer mini-BLING formulation, and in the other direction improving on ecosystem comprehensiveness with the 33 tracer COBALT formulation. We discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages along this continuum of complexity in terms of both biogeochemical and ecological fidelity and applicability. We also discuss a related approach to separate out other modules for ideal age, 14C, CFCs, SF6, Argon and other tracer suites, allowing use to run an array of experimental designs to suite different needs.

  2. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  3. Improving the representation of Arctic photosynthesis in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Sloan, V. L.; Wyatt, R. A.; Kubien, D. S.; Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Although Arctic carbon fluxes are small - relative to global carbon fluxes - uncertainty is large. As part of a multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we are examining the photosynthetic parameterization of the Arctic plant functional type (PFT) in ESMs. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. Most ESMs use a derivation of the FvCB model to calculate gross primary productivity. Two key parameters required by the FvCB model are an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given PFT. Only four ESMs currently have an explicit Arctic PFT and the data used to derive Vc,max for the Arctic PFT in these models relies on small data sets and unjustified assumptions. We examined the derivation of Vc,max and Jmax in current Arctic PFTs and estimated Vc,max and Jmax for 7 species representing both dominant vegetation and key Arctic PFTs growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are 70% lower than the values we measured in these species. Examination of the derivation of Vc,max in ESMs identified that the cause of the relatively low Vc,max value was the result of underestimating both the leaf N content and the investment of that N in Rubisco. Contemporary temperature response functions for Vc,max also appear to underestimate Vc,max at low temperature. ESMs typically use a single multiplier (JVratio) to convert Vc,max to Jmax for all PFTs. We found that the JVratio of

  4. Parametric Thermal Soak Model for Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Samareh, Jamshid; Doan, Quy D.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. An integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. Integration of a multidisciplinary problem is a challenging task. Automation of the execution process and data transfer among disciplines can be accomplished to provide significant benefits. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various interior components of entry vehicle, including the impact foam and payload container are part of the solution that M-SAPE will offer to spacecraft designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into M-SAPE. One of the main objectives is to be able to identify the important parameters and to develop correlation coefficients so that, for a given trajectory, can estimate the peak payload temperature based on relevant trajectory parameters and vehicle geometry. The models are being developed for two primary thermal protection (TPS) materials: 1) carbon phenolic that was used for Galileo and Pioneer Venus probes and, 2) Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), TPS material for Mars Science Lab mission. Several representative trajectories were selected from a very large trade space to include in the thermal analysis in order to develop an effective parametric thermal soak model. The selected trajectories covered a wide range of heatload and heatflux combinations. Non-linear, fully transient, thermal finite element simulations were performed for the selected trajectories to generate the temperature histories at the interior of the vehicle. Figure 1 shows the finite element model

  5. Parallel Optimization of an Earth System Model (100 Gigaflops and Beyond?)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, L. A.; Farrara, J. D.; Mechoso, C. R.; Spahr, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Katz, S.; Lou, J. Z.; Wang, P.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing an Earth System Model (ESM) to be used in research aimed to better understand the interactions between the components of the Earth System and to eventually predict their variations. Currently, our ESM includes models of the atmosphere, oceans and the important chemical tracers therein.

  6. An improved empirical model for diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    An empirical model was generated to estimate diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths as a function of Earth terminal separation distance, link frequency, elevation angle, and angle between the baseline and the path azimuth. The resulting model reproduces the entire experimental data set with an RMS error of 0.73 dB.

  7. A Field-Based Curriculum Model for Earth Science Teacher-Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, David D.

    1979-01-01

    This study proposed a model set of cognitive-behavioral objectives for field-based teacher education programs for earth science teachers. It describes field experience integration into teacher education programs. The model is also applicable for evaluation of earth science teacher education programs. (RE)

  8. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open-source terms or to credentialed users. Furthermore, the ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the United States. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC)more » Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. Our shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multiagency development of coupled modeling systems; controlled experimentation and testing; and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model.« less

  9. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    DOE PAGES

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; ...

    2016-08-22

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open-source terms or to credentialed users. Furthermore, the ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the United States. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC)more » Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. Our shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multiagency development of coupled modeling systems; controlled experimentation and testing; and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model.« less

  10. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  11. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  12. A Numerical-Analytical Approach to Modeling the Axial Rotation of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Perepelkin, V. V.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Filippova, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    A model for the non-uniform axial rotation of the Earth is studied using a celestial-mechanical approach and numerical simulations. The application of an approximate model containing a small number of parameters to predict variations of the axial rotation velocity of the Earth over short time intervals is justified. This approximate model is obtained by averaging variable parameters that are subject to small variations due to non-stationarity of the perturbing factors. The model is verified and compared with predictions over a long time interval published by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).

  13. Angular radiation models for earth-atmosphere system. Volume 2: Longwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    The longwave angular radiation models that are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. The models contain limb-darkening characteristics and mean fluxes. Limb-darkening characteristics are the longwave anisotropic factor and the standard deviation of the longwave radiance. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) data set is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the limb-darkening and mean-flux models.

  14. Earth Model with Laser Beam Simulating Seismic Ray Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Arthur; Handzus, Thomas Jay, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a simple device, that uses a laser beam to simulate P waves. It allows students to follow ray paths, reflections and refractions within the earth. Included is a set of exercises that lead students through the steps by which the presence of the outer and inner cores can be recognized. (Author/CW)

  15. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  16. ESPC Common Model Architecture Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) Software and Application Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    originate from NASA , NOAA , and community modeling efforts, and support for creation of the suite was shared by sponsors from other agencies. ESPS...Framework (ESMF) Software and Application Development Cecelia Deluca NESII/CIRES/ NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory 325 Broadway Boulder, CO...Capability (NUOPC) was established between NOAA and Navy to develop a common software architecture for easy and efficient interoperability. The

  17. Earth Conductivity Estimation from Through-the-Earth Measurements of 94 Coal Mines Using Different Electromagnetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lincan; Waynert, Joseph; Sunderman, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Through-the-Earth (TTE) communication systems require minimal infrastructure to operate. Hence, they are assumed to be more survivable and more conventional than other underground mine communications systems. This survivability is a major advantage for TTE systems. In 2006, Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER Act), which requires all underground coal mines to install wireless communications systems. The intent behind this mandate is for trapped miners to be able to communicate with surface personnel after a major accident-hence, the interest in TTE communications. To determine the likelihood of establishing a TTE communication link, it would be ideal to be able to predict the apparent conductivity of the overburden above underground mines. In this paper, all 94 mine TTE measurement data collected by Bureau of Mines in the 1970s and early 1980s, are analyzed for the first time to determine the apparent conductivity of the overburden based on three different models: a homogenous half-space model, a thin sheet model, and an attenuation factor or Q-factor model. A statistical formula is proposed to estimate the apparent earth conductivity for a specific mine based on the TTE modeling results given the mine depth and signal frequency. PMID:26213457

  18. Earth Conductivity Estimation from Through-the-Earth Measurements of 94 Coal Mines Using Different Electromagnetic Models.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lincan; Waynert, Joseph; Sunderman, Carl

    2014-10-01

    Through-the-Earth (TTE) communication systems require minimal infrastructure to operate. Hence, they are assumed to be more survivable and more conventional than other underground mine communications systems. This survivability is a major advantage for TTE systems. In 2006, Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act (MINER Act), which requires all underground coal mines to install wireless communications systems. The intent behind this mandate is for trapped miners to be able to communicate with surface personnel after a major accident-hence, the interest in TTE communications. To determine the likelihood of establishing a TTE communication link, it would be ideal to be able to predict the apparent conductivity of the overburden above underground mines. In this paper, all 94 mine TTE measurement data collected by Bureau of Mines in the 1970s and early 1980s, are analyzed for the first time to determine the apparent conductivity of the overburden based on three different models: a homogenous half-space model, a thin sheet model, and an attenuation factor or Q-factor model. A statistical formula is proposed to estimate the apparent earth conductivity for a specific mine based on the TTE modeling results given the mine depth and signal frequency.

  19. Models meet data: Challenges and opportunities in implementing land management in Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, Julia; Dolman, Han; Don, Axel; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Fuchs, Richard; Herold, Martin; Jones, Chris; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Naudts, Kim

    2018-04-01

    As the applications of Earth system models (ESMs) move from general climate projections toward questions of mitigation and adaptation, the inclusion of land management practices in these models becomes crucial. We carried out a survey among modeling groups to show an evolution from models able only to deal with land-cover change to more sophisticated approaches that allow also for the partial integration of land management changes. For the longer term a comprehensive land management representation can be anticipated for all major models. To guide the prioritization of implementation, we evaluate ten land management practices-forestry harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, crop harvest, crop species selection, irrigation, wetland drainage, fertilization, tillage, and fire-for (1) their importance on the Earth system, (2) the possibility of implementing them in state-of-the-art ESMs, and (3) availability of required input data. Matching these criteria, we identify "low-hanging fruits" for the inclusion in ESMs, such as basic implementations of crop and forestry harvest and fertilization. We also identify research requirements for specific communities to address the remaining land management practices. Data availability severely hampers modeling the most extensive land management practice, grazing and mowing harvest, and is a limiting factor for a comprehensive implementation of most other practices. Inadequate process understanding hampers even a basic assessment of crop species selection and tillage effects. The need for multiple advanced model structures will be the challenge for a comprehensive implementation of most practices but considerable synergy can be gained using the same structures for different practices. A continuous and closer collaboration of the modeling, Earth observation, and land system science communities is thus required to achieve the inclusion of land management in ESMs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  1. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  2. A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model for Radiating Earth Re-entry Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    model was a short half-cylinder made of isomolded graphite and was tested in 8.6 km/ s Earth entry ow. The model surface was heated within a temperature...capsule [98, 49, 112]. For the Star- dust return capsule that had an Earth entry velocity of 12 km/ s , equilibrium surface recession was over predicted...was tested at 8.6 km/ s Earth entry ow monitored by ultraviolet (UV) spec- trometry. The experiments pre-heated the model to high temperatures to

  3. Angular radiation models for Earth-atmosphere system. Volume 1: Shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Staylor, W. F.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Young, D. F.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are shortwave angular radiation models which are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those fro the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The models consist of both bidirectional and directional parameters. The bidirectional parameters are anisotropic function, standard deviation of mean radiance, and shortwave-longwave radiance correlation coefficient. The directional parameters are mean albedo as a function of Sun zenith angle and mean albedo normalized to overhead Sun. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data sets is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the bidirectional and directional modes.

  4. Simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols with the climate model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Le Sager, P.; Segers, A. J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Krol, M. C.; Hazeleger, W.

    2014-03-01

    We have integrated the atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5 into the global climate model EC-Earth version 2.4. We present an overview of the TM5 model and the two-way data exchange between TM5 and the integrated forecasting system (IFS) model from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the atmospheric general circulation model of EC-Earth. In this paper we evaluate the simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in a one-way coupled configuration. We have carried out a decadal simulation for present-day conditions and calculated chemical budgets and climatologies of tracer concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For comparison we have also performed offline simulations driven by meteorological fields from ECMWF's ERA-Interim reanalysis and output from the EC-Earth model itself. Compared to the offline simulations, the online-coupled system produces more efficient vertical mixing in the troposphere, which likely reflects an improvement of the treatment of cumulus convection. The chemistry in the EC-Earth simulations is affected by the fact that the current version of EC-Earth produces a cold bias with too dry air in large parts of the troposphere. Compared to the ERA-Interim driven simulation, the oxidizing capacity in EC-Earth is lower in the tropics and higher in the extratropics. The methane lifetime is 7% higher in EC-Earth, but remains well within the range reported in the literature. We evaluate the model by comparing the simulated climatologies of surface carbon monoxide, tropospheric and surface ozone, and aerosol optical depth against observational data. The work presented in this study is the first step in the development of EC-Earth into an Earth system model with fully interactive atmospheric chemistry and aerosols.

  5. Simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols with the climate model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noije, T. P. C.; Le Sager, P.; Segers, A. J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Krol, M. C.; Hazeleger, W.; Williams, A. G.; Chambers, S. D.

    2014-10-01

    We have integrated the atmospheric chemistry and transport model TM5 into the global climate model EC-Earth version 2.4. We present an overview of the TM5 model and the two-way data exchange between TM5 and the IFS model from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the atmospheric general circulation model of EC-Earth. In this paper we evaluate the simulation of tropospheric chemistry and aerosols in a one-way coupled configuration. We have carried out a decadal simulation for present-day conditions and calculated chemical budgets and climatologies of tracer concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For comparison we have also performed offline simulations driven by meteorological fields from ECMWF's ERA-Interim reanalysis and output from the EC-Earth model itself. Compared to the offline simulations, the online-coupled system produces more efficient vertical mixing in the troposphere, which reflects an improvement of the treatment of cumulus convection. The chemistry in the EC-Earth simulations is affected by the fact that the current version of EC-Earth produces a cold bias with too dry air in large parts of the troposphere. Compared to the ERA-Interim driven simulation, the oxidizing capacity in EC-Earth is lower in the tropics and higher in the extratropics. The atmospheric lifetime of methane in EC-Earth is 9.4 years, which is 7% longer than the lifetime obtained with ERA-Interim but remains well within the range reported in the literature. We further evaluate the model by comparing the simulated climatologies of surface radon-222 and carbon monoxide, tropospheric and surface ozone, and aerosol optical depth against observational data. The work presented in this study is the first step in the development of EC-Earth into an Earth system model with fully interactive atmospheric chemistry and aerosols.

  6. THE EARTH SYSTEM PREDICTION SUITE: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability.

    PubMed

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C; Campbell, T; Liu, F; Saint, K; Vertenstein, M; Chen, J; Oehmke, R; Doyle, J; Whitcomb, T; Wallcraft, A; Iredell, M; Black, T; da Silva, A M; Clune, T; Ferraro, R; Li, P; Kelley, M; Aleinov, I; Balaji, V; Zadeh, N; Jacob, R; Kirtman, B; Giraldo, F; McCarren, D; Sandgathe, S; Peckham, S; Dunlap, R

    2016-07-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users. The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS ® ); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model.

  7. THE EARTH SYSTEM PREDICTION SUITE: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    PubMed Central

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; Liu, F.; Saint, K.; Vertenstein, M.; Chen, J.; Oehmke, R.; Doyle, J.; Whitcomb, T.; Wallcraft, A.; Iredell, M.; Black, T.; da Silva, AM; Clune, T.; Ferraro, R.; Li, P.; Kelley, M.; Aleinov, I.; Balaji, V.; Zadeh, N.; Jacob, R.; Kirtman, B.; Giraldo, F.; McCarren, D.; Sandgathe, S.; Peckham, S.; Dunlap, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users. The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. PMID:29568125

  8. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; Liu, F.; Saint, K.; Vertenstein, M.; Chen, J.; Oehmke, R.; Doyle, J.; Whitcomb, T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users.The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model.

  9. Low degree Earth's gravity coefficients determined from different space geodetic observations and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    Large scale mass redistribution and its transport within the Earth system causes changes in the Earth's rotation in space, gravity field and Earth's ellipsoid shape. These changes are observed in the ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 spherical harmonics gravity coefficients, which are proportional to the mass load-induced Earth rotational excitations. In this study, linear trend, decadal, inter-annual, and seasonal variations of low degree spherical harmonics coefficients of Earth's gravity field, determined from different space geodetic techniques, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Earth rotation, and climate models, are examined. In this way, the contribution of each measurement technique to interpreting the low degree surface mass density of the Earth is shown. Especially, we evaluate an usefulness of several climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the low degree Earth's gravity coefficients using GRACE satellite observations. To do that, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) changes from several CMIP5 climate models are determined and then these simulated data are compared with the GRACE observations. Spherical harmonics ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 changes are calculated as the sum of atmosphere and ocean mass effect (GAC values) taken from GRACE and a land surface hydrological estimate from the selected CMIP5 climate models. Low degree Stokes coefficients of the surface mass density determined from GRACE, SLR, GNSS, Earth rotation measurements and climate models are compared to each other in order to assess their consistency. The comparison is done by using different types of statistical and signal processing methods.

  10. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  11. Development of a new model for short period ocean tidal variations of Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Within project SPOT (Short Period Ocean Tidal variations in Earth rotation) we develop a new high frequency Earth rotation model based on empirical ocean tide models. The main purpose of the SPOT model is its application to space geodetic observations such as GNSS and VLBI.We consider an empirical ocean tide model, which does not require hydrodynamic ocean modeling to determine ocean tidal angular momentum. We use here the EOT11a model of Savcenko & Bosch (2012), which is extended for some additional minor tides (e.g. M1, J1, T2). As empirical tidal models do not provide ocean tidal currents, which are re- quired for the computation of oceanic relative angular momentum, we implement an approach first published by Ray (2001) to estimate ocean tidal current veloci- ties for all tides considered in the extended EOT11a model. The approach itself is tested by application to tidal heights from hydrodynamic ocean tide models, which also provide tidal current velocities. Based on the tidal heights and the associated current velocities the oceanic tidal angular momentum (OTAM) is calculated.For the computation of the related short period variation of Earth rotation, we have re-examined the Euler-Liouville equation for an elastic Earth model with a liquid core. The focus here is on the consistent calculation of the elastic Love num- bers and associated Earth model parameters, which are considered in the Euler- Liouville equation for diurnal and sub-diurnal periods in the frequency domain.

  12. Livingstone Model-Based Diagnosis of Earth Observing One Infusion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing One satellite, launched in November 2000, is an active earth science observation platform. This paper reports on the progress of an infusion experiment in which the Livingstone 2 Model-Based Diagnostic engine is deployed on Earth Observing One, demonstrating the capability to monitor the nominal operation of the spacecraft under command of an on-board planner, and demonstrating on-board diagnosis of spacecraft failures. Design and development of the experiment, specification and validation of diagnostic scenarios, characterization of performance results and benefits of the model- based approach are presented.

  13. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) Overview and Updates: DOLWG Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    What is Earth-GRAM (Global Reference Atmospheric Model): Provides monthly mean and standard deviation for any point in atmosphere - Monthly, Geographic, and Altitude Variation; Earth-GRAM is a C++ software package - Currently distributed as Earth-GRAM 2016; Atmospheric variables included: pressure, density, temperature, horizontal and vertical winds, speed of sound, and atmospheric constituents; Used by engineering community because of ability to create dispersions in atmosphere at a rapid runtime - Often embedded in trajectory simulation software; Not a forecast model; Does not readily capture localized atmospheric effects.

  14. Observational and Modeling Studies of Radiative, Chemical, and Dynamical Interactions in the Earth''s Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry

    1998-01-01

    A 3-dimensional model was developed to support mechanistic studies. The model solves the global primitive equations in isentropic coordinates, which directly characterize diabatic processes forcing the Brewer-Dobson circulation of the middle atmosphere. It's numerical formulation is based on Hough harmonics, which partition horizontal motion into its rotational and divergent components. These computational features, along with others, enable 3D integrations to be performed practically on RISC computer architecture, on which they can be iterated to support mechanistic studies. The model conserves potential vorticity quite accurately under adiabatic conditions. Forced by observed tropospheric structure, in which integrations are anchored, the model generates a diabatic circulation that is consistent with satellite observations of tracer behavior and diabatic cooling rates. The model includes a basic but fairly complete treatment of gas-phase photochemistry that represents some 20 chemical species and 50 governing reactions with diurnally-varying shortwave absorption. The model thus provides a reliable framework to study transport and underlying diabatic processes, which can then be compared against chemical and dynamical structure observed and in GCM integrations. Integrations with the Langley GCM were performed to diagnose feedback between simulated convection and the tropical circulation. These were studied in relation to tropospheric properties controlling moisture convergence and environmental conditions supporting deep convection, for comparison against mechanistic integrations of wave CISK that successfully reproduce the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) of the tropical circulation. These comparisons were aimed at identifying and ultimately improving aspects of the convective simulation, with the objective of recovering a successful simulation of the MJO in the Langley GCM, behavior that should be important to budgets of upper-tropospheric water vapor and

  15. Two planets: Earth and Mars - One salt model: The Hydrothermal SCRIW-Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Indreiten, T.

    2011-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth's surface-environment can be regarded as 'water-friendly' and 'salt hostile', the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, 'salt-friendly'. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed 'evaporites', meaning that they formed by the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, with a similar model, as surface water, representing a large ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (i.e., a pressure, P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will form a supercritical water 'vapor' (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (above 400 C and 300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the

  16. Teleconnections in complex human-Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J.

    2017-12-01

    Human systems and physical Earth systems are closely coupled and interact in complex ways that are sometimes surprising. This presentation discusses a few examples of system interactions. We consider the coupled energy-water-land-economy systems. We show how reductions in fossil fuel emissions are inversely coupled to land rents, food prices and deforestation. We discuss how water shortages in one part of the world is propagated to other distant parts of the world. We discuss the sensitivity of international trade patterns to energy and land systems technology and markets, and the potentially unanticipated results that can emerge.

  17. Earth's energy imbalance since 1960 in observations and CMIP5 models: Earth's energy imbalance since 1960

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Doug M.; Allan, Richard P.; Coward, Andrew C.; ...

    2015-02-19

    Observational analyses of running 5 year ocean heat content trends (Ht) and net downward top of atmosphere radiation (N) are significantly correlated (r ~ 0.6) from 1960 to 1999, but a spike in Ht in the early 2000s is likely spurious since it is inconsistent with estimates of N from both satellite observations and climate model simulations. Variations in N between 1960 and 2000 were dominated by volcanic eruptions and are well simulated by the ensemble mean of coupled models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Here, we find an observation-based reduction in N of -0.31 ± 0.21more » W m -2 between 1999 and 2005 that potentially contributed to the recent warming slowdown, but the relative roles of external forcing and internal variability remain unclear. Finally, while present-day anomalies of N in the CMIP5 ensemble mean and observations agree, this may be due to a cancelation of errors in outgoing longwave and absorbed solar radiation.« less

  18. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  19. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Hong -Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu; ...

    2015-10-29

    A new large-scale stream temperature model has been developed within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The model is coupled with the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) that represents river routing and a water management model (WM) that represents the effects of reservoir operations and water withdrawals on flow regulation. The coupled models allow the impacts of reservoir operations and withdrawals on stream temperature to be explicitly represented in a physically based and consistent way. The models have been applied to the Contiguous United States driven by observed meteorological forcing. It is shown that the model ismore » capable of reproducing stream temperature spatiotemporal variation satisfactorily by comparison against the observed streamflow from over 320 USGS stations. Including water management in the models improves the agreement between the simulated and observed streamflow at a large number of stream gauge stations. Both climate and water management are found to have important influence on the spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature. More interestingly, it is quantitatively estimated that reservoir operation could cool down stream temperature in the summer low-flow season (August – October) by as much as 1~2oC over many places, as water management generally mitigates low flow, which has important implications to aquatic ecosystems. In conclusion, sensitivity of the simulated stream temperature to input data and reservoir operation rules used in the WM model motivates future directions to address some limitations in the current modeling framework.« less

  20. Towards a paradigm shift in the modeling of soil organic carbon decomposition for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yujie

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon pools and contain approximately 2200 Pg of carbon. Thus, the dynamics of soil carbon plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Earth System Models are used to project future interactions between terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate. However, these models often predict a wide range of soil carbon responses and their formulations have lagged behind recent soil science advances, omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms. In contrast, recent mechanistically-based biogeochemical models that explicitly account for microbial biomass pools and enzyme kinetics that catalyze soil carbon decomposition produce notably different results and provide a closer match to recent observations. However, a systematic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the microbial models and how they differ from empirical, first-order formulations in soil decomposition models for soil organic carbon is still needed. This dissertation consists of a series of model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses and identifies dominant decomposition processes in determining soil organic carbon dynamics. Poorly constrained processes or parameters that require more experimental data integration are also identified. This dissertation also demonstrates the critical role of microbial life-history traits (e.g. microbial dormancy) in the modeling of microbial activity in soil organic matter decomposition models. Finally, this study surveys and synthesizes a number of recently published microbial models and provides suggestions for future microbial model developments.

  1. An Earth Albedo Model: A Mathematical Model for the Radiant Energy Input to an Orbiting Spacecraft Due to the Diffuse Reflectance of Solar Radiation from the Earth Below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatley, Thomas W.; Moore, Wendy A.

    1994-01-01

    Past missions have shown that the earth's albedo can have a significant effect on the sun sensors used for spacecraft attitude control information. In response to this concern, an algorithm was developed to simulate this phenomenon, consisting of two parts, the physical model of albedo and its effect on the sun sensors. This paper contains the theoretical development of this model, practical operational notes, and its implementation in a FORTRAN subroutine.

  2. A new model of the Earth system nitrogen cycle: how plates and life affect the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen is the main component of Earth's atmosphere. It plays a key role in the evolution of the biosphere and surface of Earth [1]. There are contrasting views, however, on how N has evolved on the surface of the Earth over time. Some modeling efforts [e.g., 2] indicate a steady-state level of N in the atmosphere over geologic time, while geochemical [e.g., 3], other proxies [e.g., 4], and more recent models [5] indicate the mass of N in the atmosphere can change dramatically over Earth history. This conundrum, and potential solutions to it, present distinct interpretations of the history of Earth, and teleconnections between the surface and interior of the planet have applications to other terrestrial bodies as well. To help investigate this conundrum, we have constructed an Earth-system N cycle box model. To our knowledge, this is the most capable model for addressing evolution of the N reservoirs of Earth through time. The model combines biologic and geologic processes, driven by a mantle cooling history, to more fully describe the N cycle through geologic history. In addition to a full biologic N cycle (fixing, nitrification, denitrification), we also dynamically solve for PO4 through time and we have a prescribed O2 history. Results indicate that the atmosphere of Earth could have experienced major changes in mass over geologic time. Importantly, the amount of N in the atmosphere today appears to be directly related to the total N budget of the silicate Earth. For example, high initial atmospheric mass, suggested as a solution to the Faint Young Sun Paradox [1], is drawn down over time. This supports work that indicates the mantle has significantly more N than the atmosphere does today [6]. Contrastingly, model runs with low total N result in a crash in atmospheric mass. In nearly all model runs the bulk silicate Earth contains the majority of the planet's N. [1] Goldblatt et al. (2009) Nat. Geosci., 2, 891-896. [2] Berner, R. (2006) Geology., 34, 413

  3. Visualizing Three-dimensional Slab Geometries with ShowEarthModel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Kreylos, O.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic data that characterize the morphology of modern subducted slabs on Earth suggest that a two-dimensional paradigm is no longer adequate to describe the subduction process. Here we demonstrate the effect of data exploration of three-dimensional (3D) global slab geometries with the open source program ShowEarthModel. ShowEarthModel was designed specifically to support data exploration, by focusing on interactivity and real-time response using the Vrui toolkit. Sixteen movies are presented that explore the 3D complexity of modern subduction zones on Earth. The first movie provides a guided tour through the Earth's major subduction zones, comparing the global slab geometry data sets of Gudmundsson and Sambridge (1998), Syracuse and Abers (2006), and Hayes et al. (2012). Fifteen regional movies explore the individual subduction zones and regions intersecting slabs, using the Hayes et al. (2012) slab geometry models where available and the Engdahl and Villasenor (2002) global earthquake data set. Viewing the subduction zones in this way provides an improved conceptualization of the 3D morphology within a given subduction zone as well as the 3D spatial relations between the intersecting slabs. This approach provides a powerful tool for rendering earth properties and broadening capabilities in both Earth Science research and education by allowing for whole earth visualization. The 3D characterization of global slab geometries is placed in the context of 3D slab-driven mantle flow and observations of shear wave splitting in subduction zones. These visualizations contribute to the paradigm shift from a 2D to 3D subduction framework by facilitating the conceptualization of the modern subduction system on Earth in 3D space.

  4. Ocean tide models for satellite geodesy and Earth rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    A theory is presented which predicts tides in turbulent, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing linearized bottom friction, realistic bathymetry, and continents (at coastal boundaries no-flow conditions are imposed). The theory is phrased in terms of spherical harmonics, which allows the tide equations to be reduced to linear matrix equations. This approach also allows an ocean-wide mass conservation constraint to be applied. Solutions were obtained for 32 long and short period luni-solar tidal constituents (and the pole tide), including the tidal velocities in addition to the tide height. Calibrating the intensity of bottom friction produces reasonable phase lags for all constituents; however, tidal amplitudes compare well with those from observation and other theories only for long-period constituents. In the most recent stage of grant research, traditional theory (Liouville equations) for determining the effects of angular momentum exchange on Earth's rotation were extended to encompass high-frequency excitations (such as short-period tides).

  5. Noise model for low-frequency through-the-Earth communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Frederick H.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis and simulation of through-the-Earth communication links and signal processing techniques require a more complete noise model than is needed for the analysis of conventional communication systems. This paper presents a multicomponent noise model that includes impulsive characteristics, direction-of-arrival characteristics, and effects of local geology. The noise model is derived from theoretical considerations and confirmed by field tests.

  6. A comparative study of spherical and flat-Earth geopotential modeling at satellite elevations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, M. H.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Flat-Earth modeling is a desirable alternative to the complex spherical-Earth modeling process. These methods were compared using 2 1/2 dimensional flat-earth and spherical modeling to compute gravity and scalar magnetic anomalies along profiles perpendicular to the strike of variably dimensioned rectangular prisms at altitudes of 150, 300, and 450 km. Comparison was achieved with percent error computations (spherical-flat/spherical) at critical anomaly points. At the peak gravity anomaly value, errors are less than + or - 5% for all prisms. At 1/2 and 1/10 of the peak, errors are generally less than 10% and 40% respectively, increasing to these values with longer and wider prisms at higher altitudes. For magnetics, the errors at critical anomaly points are less than -10% for all prisms, attaining these magnitudes with longer and wider prisms at higher altitudes. In general, in both gravity and magnetic modeling, errors increase greatly for prisms wider than 500 km, although gravity modeling is more sensitive than magnetic modeling to spherical-Earth effects. Preliminary modeling of both satellite gravity and magnetic anomalies using flat-Earth assumptions is justified considering the errors caused by uncertainties in isolating anomalies.

  7. Modeling and characterization of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner and scanner sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is making high-absolute-accuracy measurements of the reflected solar and Earth-emitted radiation as well as the incoming solar radiation from three satellites: ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10. Each satellite has four Earth-looking nonscanning radiometers and three scanning radiometers. A fifth nonscanner, the solar monitor, measures the incoming solar radiation. The development of the ERBE sensor characterization procedures are described using the calibration data for each of the Earth-looking nonscanners and scanners. Sensor models for the ERBE radiometers are developed including the radiative exchange, conductive heat flow, and electronics processing for transient and steady state conditions. The steady state models are used to interpret the sensor outputs, resulting in the data reduction algorithms for the ERBE instruments. Both ground calibration and flight calibration procedures are treated and analyzed. The ground and flight calibration coefficients for the data reduction algorithms are presented.

  8. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. Here, we argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled withmore » Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections.This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. Lastly, the importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less

  9. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Humanmore » System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less

  10. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; ...

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. Here, we argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled withmore » Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections.This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. Lastly, the importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.« less

  11. An improved model of the Earth's gravitational field: GEM-T1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F. J.; Christodoulidis, D. C.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Smith, D. E.; Klosko, S. M.; Martin, T. V.; Pavlis, E. C.

    1987-01-01

    Goddard Earth Model T1 (GEM-T1), which was developed from an analysis of direct satellite tracking observations, is the first in a new series of such models. GEM-T1 is complete to degree and order 36. It was developed using consistent reference parameters and extensive earth and ocean tidal models. It was simultaneously solved for gravitational and tidal terms, earth orientation parameters, and the orbital parameters of 580 individual satellite arcs. The solution used only satellite tracking data acquired on 17 different satellites and is predominantly based upon the precise laser data taken by third generation systems. In all, 800,000 observations were used. A major improvement in field accuracy was obtained. For marine geodetic applications, long wavelength geoidal modeling is twice as good as in earlier satellite-only GEM models. Orbit determination accuracy has also been substantially advanced over a wide range of satellites that have been tested.

  12. The Croton-Yorktown Model of Individualized Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, George F.; Snyder, Edward B.

    1980-01-01

    The individualized learning model, discussed in this article, uses an efficient feedback mechanism which incorporates an innovative student evaluation program and a unique system of classroom management. The design provides a model for monitoring student progress. (Author/SA)

  13. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  14. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  15. A conceptual model of oceanic heat transport in the Snowball Earth scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, Darin; Kurtze, Douglas A.; Restrepo, Juan M.

    2016-12-01

    Geologic evidence suggests that the Earth may have been completely covered in ice in the distant past, a state known as Snowball Earth. This is still the subject of controversy, and has been the focus of modeling work from low-dimensional models up to state-of-the-art general circulation models. In our present global climate, the ocean plays a large role in redistributing heat from the equatorial regions to high latitudes, and as an important part of the global heat budget, its role in the initiation a Snowball Earth, and the subsequent climate, is of great interest. To better understand the role of oceanic heat transport in the initiation of Snowball Earth, and the resulting global ice covered climate state, the goal of this inquiry is twofold: we wish to propose the least complex model that can capture the Snowball Earth scenario as well as the present-day climate with partial ice cover, and we want to determine the relative importance of oceanic heat transport. To do this, we develop a simple model, incorporating thermohaline dynamics from traditional box ocean models, a radiative balance from energy balance models, and the more contemporary "sea glacier" model to account for viscous flow effects of extremely thick sea ice. The resulting model, consisting of dynamic ocean and ice components, is able to reproduce both Snowball Earth and present-day conditions through reasonable changes in forcing parameters. We find that including or neglecting oceanic heat transport may lead to vastly different global climate states, and also that the parameterization of under-ice heat transfer in the ice-ocean coupling plays a key role in the resulting global climate state, demonstrating the regulatory effect of dynamic ocean heat transport.

  16. A New Discrete Element Sea-Ice Model for Earth System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Adrian Keith

    Sea ice forms a frozen crust of sea water oating in high-latitude oceans. It is a critical component of the Earth system because its formation helps to drive the global thermohaline circulation, and its seasonal waxing and waning in the high north and Southern Ocean signi cantly affects planetary albedo. Usually 4{6% of Earth's marine surface is covered by sea ice at any one time, which limits the exchange of heat, momentum, and mass between the atmosphere and ocean in the polar realms. Snow accumulates on sea ice and inhibits its vertical growth, increases its albedo, and contributes to pooledmore » water in melt ponds that darken the Arctic ice surface in the spring. Ice extent and volume are subject to strong seasonal, inter-annual and hemispheric variations, and climatic trends, which Earth System Models (ESMs) are challenged to simulate accurately (Stroeve et al., 2012; Stocker et al., 2013). This is because there are strong coupled feedbacks across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary layers, including the ice-albedo feedback, whereby a reduced ice cover leads to increased upper ocean heating, further enhancing sea-ice melt and reducing incident solar radiation re ected back into the atmosphere (Perovich et al., 2008). A reduction in perennial Arctic sea-ice during the satellite era has been implicated in mid-latitude weather changes, including over North America (Overland et al., 2015). Meanwhile, most ESMs have been unable to simulate observed inter-annual variability and trends in Antarctic sea-ice extent during the same period (Gagne et al., 2014).« less

  17. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  18. Error model for the SAO 1969 standard earth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.; Roy, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating an error model for geopotential coefficients using satellite tracking data. A single station's apparent timing error for each pass is attributed to geopotential errors. The root sum of the residuals for each station also depends on the geopotential errors, and these are used to select an error model. The model chosen is 1/4 of the difference between the SAO M1 and the APL 3.5 geopotential.

  19. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  20. Climate Science: How Earth System Models are Reshaping the Science Policy Interface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This talk is oriented at a general audience including the largest French utility company, and will describe the basics of climate change before moving into emissions scenarios and agricultural impacts that we can test with our earth system models and impacts models.

  1. Canopies to Continents: What spatial scales are needed to represent landcover distributions in earth system models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.; Duhl, T.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing computational resources have enabled a steady improvement in the spatial resolution used for earth system models. Land surface models and landcover distributions have kept ahead by providing higher spatial resolution than typically used in these models. Satellite observations have played a major role in providing high resolution landcover distributions over large regions or the entire earth surface but ground observations are needed to calibrate these data and provide accurate inputs for models. As our ability to resolve individual landscape components improves, it is important to consider what scale is sufficient for providing inputs to earth system models. The required spatial scale is dependent on the processes being represented and the scientific questions being addressed. This presentation will describe the development a contiguous U.S. landcover database using high resolution imagery (1 to 1000 meters) and surface observations of species composition and other landcover characteristics. The database includes plant functional types and species composition and is suitable for driving land surface models (CLM and MEGAN) that predict land surface exchange of carbon, water, energy and biogenic reactive gases (e.g., isoprene, sesquiterpenes, and NO). We investigate the sensitivity of model results to landcover distributions with spatial scales ranging over six orders of magnitude (1 meter to 1000000 meters). The implications for predictions of regional climate and air quality will be discussed along with recommendations for regional and global earth system modeling.

  2. Carbon-climate-human interactions in an integrated human-Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Jones, A. D.; Shi, X.

    2016-12-01

    The C4MIP and CMIP5 results highlighted large uncertainties in climate projections, driven to a large extent by limited understanding of the interactions between terrestrial carbon-cycle and climate feedbacks, and their associated uncertainties. These feedbacks are dominated by uncertainties in soil processes, disturbance dynamics, ecosystem response to climate change, and agricultural productivity, and land-use change. This research addresses three questions: (1) how do terrestrial feedbacks vary across different levels of climate change, (2) what is the relative contribution of CO2 fertilization and climate change, and (3) how robust are the results across different models and methods? We used a coupled modeling framework that integrates an Integrated Assessment Model (modeling economic and energy activity) with an Earth System Model (modeling the natural earth system) to examine how business-as-usual (RCP 8.5) climate change will affect ecosystem productivity, cropland extent, and other aspects of the human-Earth system. We find that higher levels of radiative forcing result in higher productivity growth, that increases in CO2 concentrations are the dominant contributors to that growth, and that our productivity increases fall in the middle of the range when compared to other CMIP5 models and the AgMIP models. These results emphasize the importance of examining both the anthropogenic and natural components of the earth system, and their long-term interactive feedbacks.

  3. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Morozova, Polina; Nevecherja, Artiom

    2018-03-01

    Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we apply two different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account for orographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of a rather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

  4. Introducing a boreal wetland model within the Earth System model framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzieh, R. J.; Brovkin, V.; Reick, C.; Kleinen, T.; Raddatz, T.; Raivonen, M.; Sevanto, S.

    2009-04-01

    Wetlands of the northern high latitudes with their low temperatures and waterlogged conditions are prerequisite for peat accumulation. They store at least 25% of the global soil organic carbon and constitute currently the largest natural source of methane. These boreal and subarctic peat carbon pools are sensitive to climate change since the ratio of carbon sequestration and emission is closely dependent on hydrology and temperature. Global biogeochemistry models used for simulations of CO2 dynamics in the past and future climates usually ignore changes in the peat storages. Our approach aims at the evaluation of the boreal wetland feedback to climate through the CO2 and CH4 fluxes on decadal to millennial time scales. A generic model of organic matter accumulation and decay in boreal wetlands is under development in the MPI for Meteorology in cooperation with the University of Helsinki. Our approach is to develop a wetland model which is consistent with the physical and biogeochemical components of the land surface module JSBACH as a part of the Earth System model framework ECHAM5-MPIOM-JSBACH. As prototypes, we use modelling approach by Frolking et al. (2001) for the peat dynamics and the wetland model by Wania (2007) for vegetation cover and plant productivity. An initial distribution of wetlands follows the GLWD-3 map by Lehner and Döll (2004). First results of the modelling approach will be presented. References: Frolking, S. E., N. T. Roulet, T. R. Moore, P. J. H. Richard, M. Lavoie and S. D. Muller (2001): Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation, Ecosystems, 4, 479-498. Lehner, B., Döll P. (2004): Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296 (1-4), 1-22. Wania, R. (2007): Modelling northern peatland land surface processes, vegetation dynamics and methane emissions. PhD thesis, University of Bristol, 122 pp.

  5. A test of general relativity using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites and a GRACE Earth gravity model: Measurement of Earth's dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Matzner, Richard; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a test of general relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames. Our result is obtained using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. We measure [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its general relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is our preliminary estimate of systematic error mainly due to the uncertainties in the Earth gravity model GGM05S. Our result is in agreement with the prediction of general relativity.

  6. Numerical modeling of solar irradiance on earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, E.; Gutierez, L.; Da Silva, L.; Miranda, E.

    2016-05-01

    Modeling studies and estimation of solar radiation in base area, touch from the problems of estimating equation of time, distance equation solar space, solar declination, calculation of surface irradiance, considering that there are a lot of studies you reported the inability of these theoretical equations to be accurate estimates of radiation, many authors have proceeded to make corrections through calibrations with Pyranometers field (solarimeters) or the use of satellites, this being very poor technique last because there a differentiation between radiation and radiant kinetic effects. Because of the above and considering that there is a weather station properly calibrated ground in the Susques Salar in the Jujuy Province, Republic of Argentina, proceeded to make the following modeling of the variable in question, it proceeded to perform the following process: 1. Theoretical Modeling, 2. graphic study of the theoretical and actual data, 3. Adjust primary calibration data through data segmentation on an hourly basis, through horizontal and adding asymptotic constant, 4. Analysis of scatter plot and contrast series. Based on the above steps, the modeling data obtained: Step One: Theoretical data were generated, Step Two: The theoretical data moved 5 hours, Step Three: an asymptote of all negative emissivity values applied, Solve Excel algorithm was applied to least squares minimization between actual and modeled values, obtaining new values of asymptotes with the corresponding theoretical reformulation of data. Add a constant value by month, over time range set (4:00 pm to 6:00 pm). Step Four: The modeling equation coefficients had monthly correlation between actual and theoretical data ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  7. Gravitational field models for study of Earth mantle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The tectonic forces or stresses due to the small scale mantle flow under the South American plate are detected and determined by utilizing the harmonics of the geopotential field model. The high degree harmonics are assumed to describe the small scale mantle convection patterns. The input data used in the derivation of this model is made up of 840,000 optical, electronic, and laser observations and 1,656 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air anomalies. Although there remain some statistically questionable aspects of the high degree harmonics, it seems appropriate now to explore their implications for the tectonic forces or stress field under the crust.

  8. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X DataSlice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  9. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X Data Slice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  10. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM). We have made substantial progress in model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation, as discussed in Sections 2-4. Section 5 presents our success in data dissemination, while Section 6 discussesmore » the scientific impacts of our work. Section 7 discusses education and mentoring success of our project, while Section 8 lists our relevant DOE services. All peer-reviewed papers that acknowledged this project are listed in Section 9. Highlights of our achievements include: • We have finished 20 papers (most published already) on model development and evaluation, computational efficiencies and software engineering, and data development and evaluation • The global datasets developed under this project have been permanently archived and publicly available • Some of our research results have already been implemented in WRF and CLM • Patrick Broxton and Michael Brunke have received their Ph.D. • PI Zeng has served on DOE proposal review panels and DOE lab scientific focus area (SFA) review panels« less

  11. [Aluminum mobilization models of forest yellow earth in South China].

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan; Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei

    2009-07-15

    For the application of acidification models in predicting effects of acid deposition and formulating control strategy in China, it is important selecting regionally applicable models of soil aluminum mobilization and determining their parameters. Based on the long-term monitoring results of soil water chemistry from four forested watersheds in South China, the applicability of a range of equilibriums describing aluminum mobilization was evaluated. The tested equilibriums included those for gibbsite, jurbanite, kaolinite, imogolite, and SOM-Al: Results show that the gibbsite equilibrium commonly used in several acidification models is not suitable for the typical forest soil in South China, while the modified empirical gibbsite equation is applicable with pK = - 2.40, a = 1.65 (for upper layer) and pK = - 2.82, a = 1.66 (for lower layers) at only pH > or = 4. Comparing with the empirical gibbsite equation, the other equilibriums do not perform better. It can also be seen that pAl varies slightly with pH decreases at pH < 4, which is unexplainable by any of these suggested equilibriums.

  12. Superposition-model analysis of rare-earth doped BaY2F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, N.; Amoretti, G.; Baraldi, A.; Capelletti, R.

    The energy level schemes of four rare-earth dopants (Ce3+ , Nd3+ , Dy3+ , and Er3+) in BaY2 F-8 , as determined by optical absorption spectra, were fitted with a single-ion Hamiltonian and analysed within Newman's Superposition Model for the crystal field. A unified picture for the four dopants was obtained, by assuming a distortion of the F- ligand cage around the RE site; within the framework of the Superposition Model, this distortion is found to have a marked anisotropic behaviour for heavy rare earths, while it turns into an isotropic expansion of the nearest-neighbours polyhedron for light rare earths. It is also inferred that the substituting ion may occupy an off-center position with respect to the original Y3+ site in the crystal.

  13. The computational future for climate and Earth system models: on the path to petaflop and beyond.

    PubMed

    Washington, Warren M; Buja, Lawrence; Craig, Anthony

    2009-03-13

    The development of the climate and Earth system models has had a long history, starting with the building of individual atmospheric, ocean, sea ice, land vegetation, biogeochemical, glacial and ecological model components. The early researchers were much aware of the long-term goal of building the Earth system models that would go beyond what is usually included in the climate models by adding interactive biogeochemical interactions. In the early days, the progress was limited by computer capability, as well as by our knowledge of the physical and chemical processes. Over the last few decades, there has been much improved knowledge, better observations for validation and more powerful supercomputer systems that are increasingly meeting the new challenges of comprehensive models. Some of the climate model history will be presented, along with some of the successes and difficulties encountered with present-day supercomputer systems.

  14. Modeling Earth's Disk-Integrated, Time-Dependent Spectrum: Applications to Directly Imaged Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Fujii, Yuka; NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, ISSI 'The Exo-Cartography Inverse Problem'

    2016-10-01

    Earth is our only example of a habitable world and is a critical reference point for potentially habitable exoplanets. While disk-averaged views of Earth that mimic exoplanet data can be obtained by interplanetary spacecraft, these datasets are often restricted in wavelength range, and are limited to the Earth phases and viewing geometries that the spacecraft can feasibly access. We can overcome these observational limitations using a sophisticated UV-MIR spectral model of Earth that has been validated against spacecraft observations in wavelength-dependent brightness and phase (Robinson et al., 2011; 2014). This model can be used to understand the information content - and the optimal means for extraction of that information - for multi-wavelength, time-dependent, disk-averaged observations of the Earth. In this work, we explore key telescope parameters and observing strategies that offer the greatest insight into the wavelength-, phase-, and rotationally-dependent variability of Earth as if it were an exoplanet. Using a generalized coronagraph instrument simulator (Robinson et al., 2016), we synthesize multi-band, time-series observations of the Earth that are consistent with large space-based telescope mission concepts, such as the Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor. We present fits to this dataset that leverage the rotationally-induced variability to infer the number of large-scale planetary surface types, as well as their respective longitudinal distributions and broadband albedo spectra. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of using such methods to identify and map terrestrial exoplanets surfaces with the next generation of space-based telescopes.

  15. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  16. A Quantitative Geochemical Target for Modeling the Formation of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Jeremy W.; Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has been one of geochemical, isotopic, and computational advances that are bringing the laboratory measurements and computational modeling neighborhoods of the Earth-Moon community to ever closer proximity. We are now however in the position to become even better neighbors: modelers can generate testable hypthotheses for geochemists; and geochemists can provide quantitive targets for modelers. Here we present a robust example of the latter based on Cl isotope measurements of mare basalts.

  17. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    DOE PAGES

    Jahn, A.; Lindsay, K.; Giraud, X.; ...

    2015-08-05

    Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air–sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, themore » 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. Lastly, at the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.« less

  18. Application of New Chorus Wave Model from Van Allen Probe Observations in Earth's Radiation Belt Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Shprits, Y.; Spasojevic, M.; Zhu, H.; Aseev, N.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    In situ satellite observations, theoretical studies and model simulations suggested that chorus waves play a significant role in the dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. In this study, we developed new wave frequency and amplitude models that depend on Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-, L-shell, latitude- and geomagnetic conditions indexed by Kp for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves using measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes. Utilizing the quasi-linear full diffusion code, we calculated corresponding diffusion coefficients in each MLT sector (1 hour resolution) for upper-band and lower-band chorus waves according to the new developed wave models. Compared with former parameterizations of chorus waves, the new parameterizations result in differences in diffusion coefficients that depend on energy and pitch angle. Utilizing obtained diffusion coefficients, lifetime of energetic electrons is parameterized accordingly. In addition, to investigate effects of obtained diffusion coefficients in different MLT sectors and under different geomagnetic conditions, we performed simulations using four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt simulations and validated results against observations.

  19. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, S.; Grenfell, J. L.; Stock, J. W.; Lehmann, R.; Godolt, M.; von Paris, P.; Rauer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2, whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis. The O2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. (2006) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH4 with increasing O2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O2 is unique. Mixing, CH4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases remove O2 that

  20. Modeling the Conducting Stably-Stratified Layer of the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, L.; Philidet, J.; Gissinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the Earth magnetic field as well as recent theoretical works tend to show that the Earth's outer liquid core is mostly comprised of a convective zone in which the Earth's magnetic field is generated - likely by dynamo action -, but also features a thin, stably stratified layer at the top of the core.We carry out direct numerical simulations by modeling this thin layer as an axisymmetric spherical Couette flow for a stably stratified fluid embedded in a dipolar magnetic field. The dynamo region is modeled by a conducting inner core rotating slightly faster than the insulating mantle due to magnetic torques acting on it, such that a weak differential rotation (low Rossby limit) can develop in the stably stratified layer.In the case of a non-stratified fluid, the combined action of the differential rotation and the magnetic field leads to the well known regime of `super-rotation', in which the fluid rotates faster than the inner core. Whereas in the classical case, this super-rotation is known to vanish in the magnetostrophic limit, we show here that the fluid stratification significantly extends the magnitude of the super-rotation, keeping this phenomenon relevant for the Earth core. Finally, we study how the shear layers generated by this new state might give birth to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or waves impacting the secular variations or jerks of the Earth's magnetic field.

  1. A model for attenuation and scattering in the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toksöz, M. Nafi; Dainty, Anton M.; Reiter, Edmund; Wu, Ru-Shan

    1988-03-01

    The mechanisms contributing to the attenuation of earthquake ground motion in the distance range of 10 to 200 km are studied with the aid of laboratory data, coda waves Rg attenuation, strong motion attenuation measurements in the northeast United States and Canada, and theoretical models. The frequency range 1 10 Hz has been studied. The relative contributions to attenuation of anelasticity of crustal rocks (constant Q), fluid flow and scattering are evaluated. Scattering is found to be strong with an albedo B 0=0.8 0.9 and a scattering extinction length of 17 32 km. The albedo is defined as the ratio of the total extinction length to the scattering extinction length. The Rg results indicate that Q increases with depth in the upper kilometer or two of the crust, at least in New England. Coda Q appears to be equivalent to intrinsic (anelastic) Q and indicates that this Q increases with frequency as Q=Q o f n , where n is in the range of 0.2 0.9. The intrinsic attenuation in the crust can be explained by a high constant Q (500≤ Q o≤2000) and a frequency dependent mechanism most likely due to fluid effects in rocks and cracks. A fluid-flow attenuation model gives a frequency dependence ( Q≃ Q o f 0.5) similar to those determined from the analysis of coda waves of regional seismograms. Q is low near the surface and high in the body of the crust.

  2. Improving Earth/Prediction Models to Improve Network Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) primaryseismic network consists of a relatively small number of arrays andthree-component stations. The relatively small number of stationsin the USAEDS primary network make it both necessary and feasibleto optimize both station and network processing.Station processing improvements include detector tuning effortsthat use Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to helpjudiciously set acceptable Type 1 (false) vs. Type 2 (miss) errorrates. Other station processing improvements include the use ofempirical/historical observations and continuous background noisemeasurements to compute time-varying, maximum likelihood probabilityof detection thresholds.The USAEDS network processing software makes extensive use of theazimuth and slowness information provided by frequency-wavenumberanalysis at array sites, and polarization analysis at three-componentsites. Most of the improvements in USAEDS network processing aredue to improvements in the models used to predict azimuth, slowness,and probability of detection. Kriged travel-time, azimuth andslowness corrections-and associated uncertainties-are computedusing a ground truth database. Improvements in station processingand the use of improved models for azimuth, slowness, and probabilityof detection have led to significant improvements in USADES networkprocessing.

  3. Multiscale Methods for Accurate, Efficient, and Scale-Aware Models of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, Steve; Holland, Marika

    The major goal of this project was to contribute improvements to the infrastructure of an Earth System Model in order to support research in the Multiscale Methods for Accurate, Efficient, and Scale-Aware models of the Earth System project. In support of this, the NCAR team accomplished two main tasks: improving input/output performance of the model and improving atmospheric model simulation quality. Improvement of the performance and scalability of data input and diagnostic output within the model required a new infrastructure which can efficiently handle the unstructured grids common in multiscale simulations. This allows for a more computationally efficient model, enablingmore » more years of Earth System simulation. The quality of the model simulations was improved by reducing grid-point noise in the spectral element version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-SE). This was achieved by running the physics of the model using grid-cell data on a finite-volume grid.« less

  4. New earth system model for optical performance evaluation of space instruments.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Breault, Robert P

    2017-03-06

    In this study, a new global earth system model is introduced for evaluating the optical performance of space instruments. Simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic results are provided using this global earth system model with fully resolved spatial, spectral, and temporal coverage of sub-models of the Earth. The sun sub-model is a Lambertian scattering sphere with a 6-h scale and 295 lines of solar spectral irradiance. The atmospheric sub-model has a 15-layer three-dimensional (3D) ellipsoid structure. The land sub-model uses spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) defined by a semi-empirical parametric kernel model. The ocean is modeled with the ocean spectral albedo after subtracting the total integrated scattering of the sun-glint scatter model. A hypothetical two-mirror Cassegrain telescope with a 300-mm-diameter aperture and 21.504 mm × 21.504-mm focal plane imaging instrument is designed. The simulated image results are compared with observational data from HRI-VIS measurements during the EPOXI mission for approximately 24 h from UTC Mar. 18, 2008. Next, the defocus mapping result and edge spread function (ESF) measuring result show that the distance between the primary and secondary mirror increases by 55.498 μm from the diffraction-limited condition. The shift of the focal plane is determined to be 5.813 mm shorter than that of the defocused focal plane, and this result is confirmed through the estimation of point spread function (PSF) measurements. This study shows that the earth system model combined with an instrument model is a powerful tool that can greatly help the development phase of instrument missions.

  5. Ocean carbon and heat variability in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean carbon and heat content are very important for regulating global climate. Furthermore, due to lack of observations and dependence on parameterizations, there has been little consensus in the modeling community on the magnitude of realistic ocean carbon and heat content variability, particularly in the Southern Ocean. We assess the differences between global oceanic heat and carbon content variability in GFDL ESM2Mc using a 500-year, pre-industrial control simulation. The global carbon and heat content are directly out of phase with each other; however, in the Southern Ocean the heat and carbon content are in phase. The global heat mutli-decadal variability is primarily explained by variability in the tropics and mid-latitudes, while the variability in global carbon content is primarily explained by Southern Ocean variability. In order to test the robustness of this relationship, we use three additional pre-industrial control simulations using different mesoscale mixing parameterizations. Three pre-industrial control simulations are conducted with the along-isopycnal diffusion coefficient (Aredi) set to constant values of 400, 800 (control) and 2400 m2 s-1. These values for Aredi are within the range of parameter settings commonly used in modeling groups. Finally, one pre-industrial control simulation is conducted where the minimum in the Gent-McWilliams parameterization closure scheme (AGM) increased to 600 m2 s-1. We find that the different simulations have very different multi-decadal variability, especially in the Weddell Sea where the characteristics of deep convection are drastically changed. While the temporal frequency and amplitude global heat and carbon content changes significantly, the overall spatial pattern of variability remains unchanged between the simulations.

  6. Improved Analysis of Earth System Models and Observations using Simple Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiga, B. T.; Urban, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are the most comprehensive tools we have to study climate change and develop climate projections. However, the computational infrastructure required and the cost incurred in running such ESMs precludes direct use of such models in conjunction with a wide variety of tools that can further our understanding of climate. Here we are referring to tools that range from dynamical systems tools that give insight into underlying flow structure and topology to tools that come from various applied mathematical and statistical techniques and are central to quantifying stability, sensitivity, uncertainty and predictability to machine learning tools that are now being rapidly developed or improved. Our approach to facilitate the use of such models is to analyze output of ESM experiments (cf. CMIP) using a range of simpler models that consider integral balances of important quantities such as mass and/or energy in a Bayesian framework.We highlight the use of this approach in the context of the uptake of heat by the world oceans in the ongoing global warming. Indeed, since in excess of 90% of the anomalous radiative forcing due greenhouse gas emissions is sequestered in the world oceans, the nature of ocean heat uptake crucially determines the surface warming that is realized (cf. climate sensitivity). Nevertheless, ESMs themselves are never run long enough to directly assess climate sensitivity. So, we consider a range of models based on integral balances--balances that have to be realized in all first-principles based models of the climate system including the most detailed state-of-the art climate simulations. The models range from simple models of energy balance to those that consider dynamically important ocean processes such as the conveyor-belt circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation, MOC), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and eddy mixing. Results from Bayesian analysis of such models using

  7. AxiSEM3D: broadband seismic wavefields in 3-D aspherical Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Zad, K. H.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is the primary tool for data-informed inference of Earth structure and dynamics. Simulating seismic wave propagation at a global scale is fundamental to seismology, but remains as one of most challenging problems in scientific computing, because of both the multiscale nature of Earth's interior and the observable frequency band of seismic data. We present a novel numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. Our method, named AxiSEM3D, is a hybrid of spectral element method and pseudospectral method. It reduces the azimuthal dimension of wavefields by means of a global Fourier series parameterization, of which the number of terms can be locally adapted to the inherent azimuthal smoothness of the wavefields. AxiSEM3D allows not only for material heterogeneities, such as velocity, density, anisotropy and attenuation, but also for finite undulations on radial discontinuities, both solid-solid and solid-fluid, and thereby a variety of aspherical Earth features such as ellipticity, topography, variable crustal thickness, and core-mantle boundary topography. Such interface undulations are equivalently interpreted as material perturbations of the contiguous media, based on the "particle relabelling transformation". Efficiency comparisons show that AxiSEM3D can be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional 3-D methods, with the speedup increasing with simulation frequency and decreasing with model complexity, but for all realistic structures the speedup remains at least one order of magnitude. The observable frequency range of global seismic data (up to 1 Hz) has been covered for wavefield modelling upon a 3-D Earth model with reasonable computing resources. We show an application of surface wave modelling within a state-of-the-art global crustal model (Crust1.0), with the synthetics compared to real data. The high-performance C++ code is released at github.com/AxiSEM3D/AxiSEM3D.

  8. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    PubMed

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  9. Unique Moon Formation Model: Two Impacts of Earth and After Moon's Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Moon rocks are mixed with two impact-processes of Earth's impact breccias and airless Moon's impact breccias; discussed voids-rich texture and crust-like composition. The present model might be explained as cave-rich interior on the airless-and waterless Moon.

  10. Structural Responses and Finite Element Modeling of Hakka Tulou Rammed Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sranislawski, Daniel

    Hakka Tulous are rammed earth structures that have survived the effects of aging and natural elements upwards of even over a thousand years. These structures have housed the Hakka people of the Fujian Province, China in natural yet modern housing that has provided benefits over newer building materials. The key building material, rammed earth, which is used for the walls of the Hakka Tulou structures, has provided structural stability along with thermal comfort to the respective inhabitants of the Hakka Tulous. Through material testing and analysis this study has examined how the Tulou structures have maintained their structural stability while also providing thermal comfort. Reports of self healing cracks in the rammed earth walls were also analyzed for their validity in this study. The study has found that although the story of the self healing crack cannot be validated, there is reason to believe that with the existence of lime, some type of autogenous healing could occur on a small scale. The study has also found, through the use of nondestructive testing, that both the internal wooden systems (flooring, roof, and column support) and the rammed earth walls, are still structurally sound. Also, rammed earth's high thermal mass along with the use of sufficient shading has allowed for a delay release of heat energy from the walls of the Tulous, thus providing thermal comfort that can be felt during both night and day temperatures. The Hakka Tulou structures have been found to resist destruction from natural disasters such as strong earthquakes even when more modern construction has not. Through finite element modeling, this study has shown that the high volume of rammed earth used in the construction of the Hakka Tulous helps dissipate lateral force energy into much lower stresses for the rammed earth wall. This absorption of lateral force energy allows the rammed earth structures to survive even the strongest of earthquakes experienced in the region. The Hakka

  11. The Effects of Earth's Outer Core's Viscosity on Geodynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C.; Jiao, L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamo process is controlled by mathematic equations and input parameters. To study effects of parameters on geodynamo system, MoSST model has been used to simulate geodynamo outputs under different outer core's viscosity ν. With spanning ν for nearly three orders when other parameters fixed, we studied the variation of each physical field and its typical length scale. We find that variation of ν affects the velocity field intensely. The magnetic field almost decreases monotonically with increasing of ν, while the variation is no larger than 30%. The temperature perturbation increases monotonically with ν, but by a very small magnitude (6%). The averaged velocity field (u) of the liquid core increases with ν as a simple fitted scaling relation: u∝ν0.49. The phenomenon that u increases with ν is essentially that increasing of ν breaks the Taylor-Proudman constraint and drops the critical Rayleigh number, and thus u increases under the same thermal driving force. Forces balance is analyzed and balance mode shifts with variation of ν. When compared with former studies of scaling laws, this study supports the conclusion that in a certain parameter range, the magnetic field strength doesn't vary much with the viscosity, but opposes to the assumption that the velocity field has nothing to do with the outer core viscosity.

  12. A Community Framework for Integrative, Coupled Modeling of Human-Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Lee, A.; Porter, C.; Ullah, I.; Hutton, E.; Hoogenboom, G.; Rogers, K. G.; Pritchard, C.

    2017-12-01

    We live today in a humanized world, where critical zone dynamics are driven by coupled human and biophysical processes. First generation modeling platforms have been invaluable in providing insight into dynamics of biophysical systems and social systems. But to understand today's humanized planet scientifically and to manage it sustainably, we need integrative modeling of this coupled human-Earth system. To address both scientific and policy questions, we also need modeling that can represent variable combinations of human-Earth system processes at multiple scales. Simply adding more code needed to do this to large, legacy first generation models is impractical, expensive, and will make them even more difficult to evaluate or understand. We need an approach to modeling that mirrors and benefits from the architecture of the complexly coupled systems we hope to model. Building on a series of international workshops over the past two years, we present a community framework to enable and support an ecosystem of diverse models as components that can be interconnected as needed to facilitate understanding of a range of complex human-earth systems interactions. Models are containerized in Docker to make them platform independent. A Basic Modeling Interface and Standard Names ontology (developed by the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) is applied to make them interoperable. They are then transformed into RESTful micro-services to allow them to be connected and run in a browser environment. This enables a flexible, multi-scale modeling environment to help address diverse issues with combinations of smaller, focused, component models that are easier to understand and evaluate. We plan to develop, deploy, and maintain this framework for integrated, coupled modeling in an open-source collaborative development environment that can democratize access to advanced technology and benefit from diverse global participation in model development. We also present an initial

  13. Asymmetric Subductions in an Asymmetric Earth: Geodynamics and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Zilio, L.; Ficini, E.; Doglioni, C.; Gerya, T.

    2016-12-01

    The driving mechanism of plate tectonics is still controversial. Moreover, mantle kinematics is still poorly constrained due to the limited information available on its composition, thermal state, and physical parameters. The net rotation of the lithosphere, or so-called W-ward drift, however, indicates a decoupling of the plates relative to the underlying asthenosphere at about 100-200 km depth in the Low-Velocity Zone and a relative "E-ward" mantle counterflow. This mantle flow can account for a number of tectonic asymmetries on subduction dynamics such as steep versus shallow slab dip, diverging versus converging subduction hinge, low versus high topography of mountain belts, etc. This asymmetry is generally interpreted to reflect the age-dependent negative buoyancy of the subducting lithosphere. However, slab dip is insensitive to the age of the lithosphere. Here we investigate the role of mantle flow in controlling subduction dynamics using a high-resolution rheologically consistent two-dimensional numerical modeling. Results show the evolution of a subducting oceanic plate beneath a continent: when the subducting plate is dipping in opposite direction with respect to the mantle flow, the slab is sub-vertically deflected by the mantle flow, thus leading the coeval development of a back-arc basin. In contrast, agreement between mantle flow and dipping of the subducting slab relieves shallow dipping subduction zone, which in turn controls the development of a pronounced topography. Moreover, this study confirms that the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere (i.e. its negative buoyancy) has a second order effect on the dip angle of the slab and, more generally, on subduction dynamics. Our numerical experiments show strong similarities to the observed evolution of subduction zone worldwide and demonstrate that the possibility of a horizontal mantle flow is universally valid.

  14. Modelling of charged satellite motion in Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Bar, S. E.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work Lagrange's planetary equations for a charged satellite subjected to the Earth's gravitational and magnetic force fields are solved. The Earth's gravity, and magnetic and electric force components are obtained and expressed in terms of orbital elements. The variational equations of orbit with the considered model in Keplerian elements are derived. The solution of the problem in a fully analytical way is obtained. The temporal rate of changes of the orbital elements of the spacecraft are integrated via Lagrange's planetary equations and integrals of the normalized Keplerian motion obtained by Ahmed (Astron. J. 107(5):1900, 1994).

  15. Effects of Earth's curvature in full-wave modeling of VLF propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.; Stanford VLF Group

    2011-12-01

    We show how to include curvature in the full-wave finite element approach to calculate ELF/VLF wave propagation in horizontally stratified earth-ionosphere waveguide. A general curvilinear stratified system is considered, and the numerical solutions of full-wave method in curvilinear system are compared with the analytic solutions in the cylindrical and spherical waveguides filled with an isotropic medium. We calculate the attenuation and height gain for modes in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, taking into account the anisotropicity of ionospheric plasma, for different assumptions about the Earth's curvature, and quantify the corrections due to the curvature. The results are compared with the results of previous models, such as LWPC, as well as with ground and satellite observations, and show improved accuracy compared with full-wave method without including the curvature effect.

  16. A Comprehensive Model of the Near-Earth Magnetic Field. Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Langel, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    The near-Earth magnetic field is due to sources in Earth's core, ionosphere, magnetosphere, lithosphere, and from coupling currents between ionosphere and magnetosphere and between hemispheres. Traditionally, the main field (low degree internal field) and magnetospheric field have been modeled simultaneously, and fields from other sources modeled separately. Such a scheme, however, can introduce spurious features. A new model, designated CMP3 (Comprehensive Model: Phase 3), has been derived from quiet-time Magsat and POGO satellite measurements and observatory hourly and annual means measurements as part of an effort to coestimate fields from all of these sources. This model represents a significant advancement in the treatment of the aforementioned field sources over previous attempts, and includes an accounting for main field influences on the magnetosphere, main field and solar activity influences on the ionosphere, seasonal influences on the coupling currents, a priori characterization of ionospheric and magnetospheric influence on Earth-induced fields, and an explicit parameterization and estimation of the lithospheric field. The result of this effort is a model whose fits to the data are generally superior to previous models and whose parameter states for the various constituent sources are very reasonable.

  17. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatz, Roland; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Li, Li; Weintraub, Samantha R.; Loescher, Henry W.; Mirtl, Michael; Groffman, Peter M.; Wall, Diana H.; Young, Michael; White, Tim; Wen, Hang; Zacharias, Steffen; Kühn, Ingolf; Tang, Jianwu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Braud, Isabelle; Flores, Alejandro N.; Kumar, Praveen; Lin, Henry; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Jones, Julia; Gholz, Henry L.; Vereecken, Harry; Van Looy, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1) widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2) develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3) identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Models of the Earth's Gravity: 3. Accuracy of Predicting EAS Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E. D.; Berland, V. E.; Wiebe, Yu. S.; Glamazda, D. V.; Kajzer, G. T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Khremli, G. P.

    2002-05-01

    This paper continues a comparative analysis of modern satellite models of the Earth's gravity which we started in [6, 7]. In the cited works, the uniform norms of spherical functions were compared with their gradients for individual harmonics of the geopotential expansion [6] and the potential differences were compared with the gravitational accelerations obtained in various models of the Earth's gravity [7]. In practice, it is important to know how consistently the EAS motion is represented by various geopotential models. Unless otherwise stated, a model version in which the equations of motion are written using the classical Encke scheme and integrated together with the variation equations by the implicit one-step Everhart's algorithm [1] was used. When calculating coordinates and velocities on the integration step (at given instants of time), the approximate Everhart formula was employed.

  19. Modeling long-term changes in forested landscapes and their relation to the Earth's energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shugart, H. H.; Emanuel, W. R.; Solomon, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of the forested parts of the Earth's surface on time scales from decades to centuries are discussed. A set of computer models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere are applied as tools. These models simulate a landscape by duplicating the dynamics of growth, death and birth of each tree living on a 0.10 ha element of the landscape. This spatial unit is generally referred to as a gap in the case of the forest models. The models were tested against and applied to a diverse array of forests and appear to provide a reasonable representation for investigating forest-cover dynamics. Because of the climate linkage, one important test is the reconstruction of paleo-landscapes. Detailed reconstructions of changes in vegetation in response to changes in climate are crucial to understanding the association of the Earth's vegetation and climate and the response of the vegetation to climate change.

  20. 8 years of experience in international, interdisciplinary and structured doctoral training in Earth system modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.

  1. Modeling viscoelastic deformation of the earth due to surface loading by commercial finite element package - ABAQUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit Wong, Ching; Wu, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Wu (2004) developed a transformation scheme to model viscoelatic deformation due to glacial loading by commercial finite element package - ABAQUS. Benchmark tests confirmed that this method works extremely well on incompressible earth model. Bangtsson & Lund (2008),however, showed that the transformation scheme would lead to incorrect results if compressible material parameters are used. Their study implies that Wu's method of stress transformation is inadequate to model the load induced deformation of a compressible earth under the framework of ABAQUS. In light of this, numerical experiments are carried out to find if there exist other methods that serve this purpose. All the tested methods are not satisfying as the results failed to converge through iterations, except at the elastic limit. Those tested methods will be outlined and the results will be presented. Possible reasons of failure will also be discussed. Bängtsson, E., & Lund, B. (2008). A comparison between two solution techniques to solve the equations of glacially induced deformation of an elastic Earth. International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 75(4), 479-502. Wu, P. (2004). Using commercial finite element packages for the study of earth deformations, sea levels and the state of stress. Geophysical Journal International, 158(2), 401-408.

  2. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  3. Representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi

    Drainage systems can be categorized into natural or geomorphological drainage systems, agricultural drainage systems and urban drainage systems. They interact closely among themselves and with climate and human society, particularly under extreme climate and hydrological events such as floods. This editorial articulates the need to holistically understand and model drainage systems in the context of climate change and human influence, and discusses the requirements and examples of feasible approaches to representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework.

  4. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O 2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O 2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O 2 , whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O 2 is formed abiotically via CO 2 photolysis. The O 2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH 4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH 4 with increasing O 2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O 2 is unique. Mixing, CH 4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O 2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O 2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases

  5. Sea-level and solid-Earth deformation feedbacks in ice sheet modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Hannes; Sasgen, Ingo; Klemann, Volker; Thoma, Malte; Grosfeld, Klaus; Martinec, Zdeněk

    2014-05-01

    The interactions of ice sheets with the sea level and the solid Earth are important factors for the stability of the ice shelves and the tributary inland ice (e.g. Thomas and Bentley, 1978; Gomez et al, 2012). First, changes in ice extent and ice thickness induce viscoelastic deformation of the Earth surface and Earth's gravity field. In turn, global and local changes in sea level and bathymetry affect the grounding line and, subsequently, alter the ice dynamic behaviour. Here, we investigate these feedbacks for a synthetic ice sheet configuration as well as for the Antarctic ice sheet using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet and shelf model, coupled to a viscoelastic solid-Earth and gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model. The respective ice sheet undergoes a forcing from rising sea level, warming ocean, and/or changing surface mass balance. The coupling is realized by exchanging ice thickness, Earth surface deformation and sea level periodically. We apply several sets of viscoelastic Earth parameters to our coupled model, e.g. simulating a low-viscous upper mantle present at the Antarctic Peninsula (Ivins et al., 2011). Special focus of our study lies on the evolution of Earth surface deformation and local sea level changes, as well as on the accompanying grounding line evolution. N. Gomez, D. Pollard, J. X. Mitrovica, P. Huybers, and P. U. Clark 2012. Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet-sea level model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01013, doi:10.1029/2011JF002128. E. R. Ivins, M. M. Watkins, D.-N. Yuan, R. Dietrich, G. Casassa, and A. Rülke 2011. On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003-2009, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B02403, doi: 10.1029/2010JB007607 R. H. Thomas and C. R. Bentley 1978. A model for Holocene retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Quaternary Research, 10 (2), pages 150-170, doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(78)90098-4.

  6. Modernizing Earth and Space Science Modeling Workflows in the Big Data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinter, J. L.; Feigelson, E.; Walker, R. J.; Tino, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling is a major aspect of the Earth and space science research. The development of numerical models of the Earth system, planetary systems or astrophysical systems is essential to linking theory with observations. Optimal use of observations that are quite expensive to obtain and maintain typically requires data assimilation that involves numerical models. In the Earth sciences, models of the physical climate system are typically used for data assimilation, climate projection, and inter-disciplinary research, spanning applications from analysis of multi-sensor data sets to decision-making in climate-sensitive sectors with applications to ecosystems, hazards, and various biogeochemical processes. In space physics, most models are from first principles, require considerable expertise to run and are frequently modified significantly for each case study. The volume and variety of model output data from modeling Earth and space systems are rapidly increasing and have reached a scale where human interaction with data is prohibitively inefficient. A major barrier to progress is that modeling workflows isn't deemed by practitioners to be a design problem. Existing workflows have been created by a slow accretion of software, typically based on undocumented, inflexible scripts haphazardly modified by a succession of scientists and students not trained in modern software engineering methods. As a result, existing modeling workflows suffer from an inability to onboard new datasets into models; an inability to keep pace with accelerating data production rates; and irreproducibility, among other problems. These factors are creating an untenable situation for those conducting and supporting Earth system and space science. Improving modeling workflows requires investments in hardware, software and human resources. This paper describes the critical path issues that must be targeted to accelerate modeling workflows, including script modularization, parallelization, and

  7. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  8. Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra. I: The Earth model.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Fishbein, Evan; Turnbull, Margaret; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2006-02-01

    Over the next 2 decades, NASA and ESA are planning a series of space-based observatories to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. This first generation of observatories will not be able to spatially resolve the terrestrial planets detected. Instead, these planets will be characterized by disk-averaged spectroscopy. To assess the detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra, we have developed a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the Earth. This model uses atmospheric and surface properties from existing observations and modeling studies as input, and generates spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the Spectral Mapping Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model. Synthetic spectra were generated for a variety of conditions, including cloud coverage, illumination fraction, and viewing angle geometry, over a wavelength range extending from the ultraviolet to the farinfrared. Here we describe the model and validate it against disk-averaged visible to infrared observations of the Earth taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, the ESA Mars Express Omega instrument, and ground-based observations of earthshine reflected from the unilluminated portion of the Moon. The comparison between the data and model indicates that several atmospheric species can be identified in disk-averaged Earth spectra, and potentially detected depending on the wavelength range and resolving power of the instrument. At visible wavelengths (0.4-0.9 microm) O3, H2O, O2, and oxygen dimer [(O2)2] are clearly apparent. In the mid-infrared (5-20 microm) CO2, O3, and H2O are present. CH4, N2O, CO2, O3, and H2O are visible in the near-infrared (1-5 microm). A comprehensive three-dimensional model of the Earth is needed to produce a good fit with the observations.

  9. Uncertainty in Earth System Models: Benchmarks for Ocean Model Performance and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Elliott, S.; Collier, N.; Wingenter, O. W.; Deal, C.; Fu, W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The mean ocean CO2 sink is a major component of the global carbon budget, with marine reservoirs holding about fifty times more carbon than the atmosphere. Phytoplankton play a significant role in the net carbon sink through photosynthesis and drawdown, such that about a quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions end up in the ocean. Biology greatly increases the efficiency of marine environments in CO2 uptake and ultimately reduces the impact of the persistent rise in atmospheric concentrations. However, a number of challenges remain in appropriate representation of marine biogeochemical processes in Earth System Models (ESM). These threaten to undermine the community effort to quantify seasonal to multidecadal variability in ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. In a bid to improve analyses of marine contributions to climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, we have developed new analysis methods and biogeochemistry metrics as part of the International Ocean Model Benchmarking (IOMB) effort. Our intent is to meet the growing diagnostic and benchmarking needs of ocean biogeochemistry models. The resulting software package has been employed to validate DOE ocean biogeochemistry results by comparison with observational datasets. Several other international ocean models contributing results to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were analyzed simultaneously. Our comparisons suggest that the biogeochemical processes determining CO2 entry into the global ocean are not well represented in most ESMs. Polar regions continue to show notable biases in many critical biogeochemical and physical oceanographic variables. Some of these disparities could have first order impacts on the conversion of atmospheric CO2 to organic carbon. In addition, single forcing simulations show that the current ocean state can be partly explained by the uptake of anthropogenic emissions. Combined effects of two or more of these forcings on ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems

  10. The 3D Reference Earth Model (REM-3D): Update and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekic, V.; Moulik, P.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Elastic properties of the Earth's interior (e.g. density, rigidity, compressibility, anisotropy) vary spatially due to changes in temperature, pressure, composition, and flow. In the 20th century, seismologists have constructed reference models of how these quantities vary with depth, notably the PREM model of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). These 1D reference earth models have proven indispensable in earthquake location, imaging of interior structure, understanding material properties under extreme conditions, and as a reference in other fields, such as particle physics and astronomy. Over the past three decades, more sophisticated efforts by seismologists have yielded several generations of models of how properties vary not only with depth, but also laterally. Yet, though these three-dimensional (3D) models exhibit compelling similarities at large scales, differences in the methodology, representation of structure, and dataset upon which they are based, have prevented the creation of 3D community reference models. We propose to overcome these challenges by compiling, reconciling, and distributing a long period (>15 s) reference seismic dataset, from which we will construct a 3D seismic reference model (REM-3D) for the Earth's mantle, which will come in two flavors: a long wavelength smoothly parameterized model and a set of regional profiles. Here, we summarize progress made in the construction of the reference long period dataset, and present preliminary versions of the REM-3D in order to illustrate the two flavors of REM-3D and their relative advantages and disadvantages. As a community reference model and with fully quantified uncertainties and tradeoffs, REM-3D will facilitate Earth imaging studies, earthquake characterization, inferences on temperature and composition in the deep interior, and be of improved utility to emerging scientific endeavors, such as neutrino geoscience. In this presentation, we outline the outlook for setting up advisory community

  11. Seismic anisotropy in the Earth's innermost inner core: Testing structural models against mineral physics predictions

    DOE PAGES

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Cao, Aimin; Godwal, Budhiram; ...

    2016-01-06

    Using an updated data set of ballistic PKIKP travel time data at antipodal distances, we test different models of anisotropy in the Earth's innermost inner core (IMIC) and obtain significantly better fits for a fast axis aligned with Earth's rotation axis, rather than a quasi-equatorial direction, as proposed recently. Reviewing recent results on the single crystal structure and elasticity of iron at core conditions, we find that an hcp structure with the fast c axis parallel to Earth's rotation is more likely but a body-centered cubic structure with the [111] axis aligned in that direction results in very similar predictionsmore » for seismic anisotropy. These models are therefore not distinguishable based on current seismological data. In addition, to match the seismological observations, the inferred strength of anisotropy in the IMIC (6–7%) implies almost perfect alignment of iron crystals, an intriguing, albeit unlikely situation, especially in the presence of heterogeneity, which calls for further studies. Fast axis of anisotropy in the central part of the inner core aligned with Earth's axis of rotation Lastly, the structure of iron in the inner core is most likely hcp, not bcc Not currently possible to distinguish between hcp and bcc structures from seismic observations« less

  12. AMOC decadal variability in Earth system models: Mechanisms and climate impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Alexey

    This is the final report for the project titled "AMOC decadal variability in Earth system models: Mechanisms and climate impacts". The central goal of this one-year research project was to understand the mechanisms of decadal and multi-decadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) within a hierarchy of climate models ranging from realistic ocean GCMs to Earth system models. The AMOC is a key element of ocean circulation responsible for oceanic transport of heat from low to high latitudes and controlling, to a large extent, climate variations in the North Atlantic. The questions of the AMOC stability, variability andmore » predictability, directly relevant to the questions of climate predictability, were at the center of the research work.« less

  13. Magnetic Local Time Dependant Low Energy Electron Flux Models at Geostationary Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, R.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The low energy electron fluxes in the outer radiation belts at Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) can vary widely in Magnetic Local Time (MLT). This spatial variation is due to the convective and substorm-associated electric fields and can take place on short time scales. This makes it difficult to deduce a data based model of the low energy electrons. For higher energies, where there is negligible spatial variation at a particular L-star, data based models employ averaged fluxes over the orbit. This removes the diurnal variation as GEO passes through various L-star due to the structure of Earth's magnetic field. This study develops a number of models for the low energy electron fluxes measured by GOES 13 and 15 for different MLT to capture the dynamics of the spatial variations.

  14. Evaluation of Gravitational Field Models Based on the Laser Range Observation of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong-bo, Wang; Chang-yin, Zhao; Wei, Zhang; Jin-wei, Zhan; Sheng-xian, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The Earth gravitational field model is one of the most important dynamic models in satellite orbit computation. Several space gravity missions made great successes in recent years, prompting the publishing of several gravitational filed models. In this paper, two classical (JGM3, EGM96) and four latest (EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, EGM2008) models are evaluated by employing them in the precision orbit determination (POD) and prediction. These calculations are performed based on the laser ranging observation of four Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, including CHAMP, GFZ-1, GRACE-A, and SWARM-A. The residual error of observation in POD is adopted to describe the accuracy of six gravitational field models. The main results we obtained are as follows. (1) For the POD of LEOs, the accuracies of 4 latest models are at the same level, and better than those of 2 classical models; (2) Taking JGM3 as reference, EGM96 model's accuracy is better in most situations, and the accuracies of the 4 latest models are improved by 12%-47% in POD and 63% in prediction, respectively. We also confirm that the model's accuracy in POD is enhanced with the increasing degree and order if they are smaller than 70, and when they exceed 70, the accuracy keeps constant, implying that the model's degree and order truncated to 70 are sufficient to meet the requirement of LEO computation of centimeter precision.

  15. Modular Approaches to Earth Science Scientific Computing: 3D Electromagnetic Induction Modeling as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, K.; Egbert, G.; Siripunvaraporn, W.

    2003-12-01

    We are developing a modular system for three-dimensional inversion of electromagnetic (EM) induction data, using an object oriented programming approach. This approach allows us to modify the individual components of the inversion scheme proposed, and also reuse the components for variety of problems in earth science computing howsoever diverse they might be. In particular, the modularity allows us to (a) change modeling codes independently of inversion algorithm details; (b) experiment with new inversion algorithms; and (c) modify the way prior information is imposed in the inversion to test competing hypothesis and techniques required to solve an earth science problem. Our initial code development is for EM induction equations on a staggered grid, using iterative solution techniques in 3D. An example illustrated here is an experiment with the sensitivity of 3D magnetotelluric inversion to uncertainties in the boundary conditions required for regional induction problems. These boundary conditions should reflect the large-scale geoelectric structure of the study area, which is usually poorly constrained. In general for inversion of MT data, one fixes boundary conditions at the edge of the model domain, and adjusts the earth?s conductivity structure within the modeling domain. Allowing for errors in specification of the open boundary values is simple in principle, but no existing inversion codes that we are aware of have this feature. Adding a feature such as this is straightforward within the context of the modular approach. More generally, a modular approach provides an efficient methodology for setting up earth science computing problems to test various ideas. As a concrete illustration relevant to EM induction problems, we investigate the sensitivity of MT data near San Andreas Fault at Parkfield (California) to uncertainties in the regional geoelectric structure.

  16. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Virmore » b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.« less

  17. Numerical modelling of sedimentary structures in rivers on Titan and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    On Titan surface we can expect a few different geomorphological forms, e.g. fluvial valley and river channels. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine the limits of different fluvial parameters that play important roles in evolution of the rivers on Titan and on Earth. We have found that transport of sediments as suspended load is the main way of transport for Titan. We also determined the range of the river's parameters for which braided river is developed rather than meandering river. 2. Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This work is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. 3. Numerical model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. For more information about equations see [1]. 4. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few different parameters of liquid and material transported by a river. For Titan we consider liquid corresponding to a Titan's rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen), for Earth, of course, the water. Material transported in rivers on Titan is water ice, for Earth - quartz. Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. 5. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the flow and of sedimentation on Titan and on the Earth. Our

  18. Global Modeling and Projection of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    In predicting and mitigating future global warming, short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced

  19. Simulating modern-day cropland and pasture burning in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Sam; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Magi, Brian; Pacala, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the Holocene, humans have extended our influence across a larger and larger fraction of ecosystems, even creating some new ones in the process. Herds of livestock grazing either native vegetation (rangeland) or specially planted species (pasture) have modified huge areas of land. We have even developed new plant species and cultivated them as crops. The extent of our ecosystem modification intensified dramatically with the advent of industrialized agriculture, to the point where cropland and pasture (which will henceforth encompass rangeland as well) now cover over a third of the Earth's land area. One way we have altered the terrestrial biosphere is by intentionally and unintentionally altering fire's frequency, intensity, and seasonal timing. This is especially true for agricultural ecosystems. Because their maintenance and use require a level of human control, cropland and pasture often experience fire regimes substantially different from those of the ecosystems they replaced or what would occur in the absence of active fire management. For example, farmers might burn to prepare land for planting or to dispose of crop residues, and pastoralists often use fire to prevent encroachment of unpalatable woody plants. Due to the vast global extent of agriculture, and considering the myriad ways fire affects the Earth system, it is critical that we understand (a) the ways people manage fire on cropland and pasture and (b) the effects of this management on the Earth system. Earth system models are an ideal tool for examining this kind of question. By simulating the processes within and interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, land, and terrestrial ecosystems, Earth system models allow phenomena such as fire to be examined in their global context. However, while the past fifteen years have seen great progress in the simulation of vegetation fire within Earth system models, the direct human influence via cropland and pasture management burning has been mostly

  20. The Jena Diversity Model: Towards a Richer Representation of the Terrestrial Biosphere for Earth System Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Reu, B.; Bohn, K.; Dyke, J.; Kleidon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a complex, self-organizing system which is continually both adapting to and altering its global environment. It also exhibits a vast diversity of vegetation forms and functioning. However, the terrestrial biosphere components within current state-of-the-art Earth System Models abstract this diversity in to a handful of relatively static plant functional types. These coarse and static representations of functional diversity might contribute to overly pessimistic projections regarding terrestrial ecosystem responses to scenarios of global change (e.g. Amazonian and boreal forest diebacks). In the Jena Diversity (JeDi) model, we introduce a new approach to vegetation modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity, based not on plant functional types, but on unavoidable plant ecophysiological trade-offs, which we hypothesize should be more stable in time. The JeDi model tests a large number of plant growth strategies. Each growth strategy is simulated using a set of randomly generated parameter values, which characterize its functioning in terms of carbon allocation, ecophysiology, and phenology, which are then linked to the growing conditions at the land surface. The model is constructed in such a way that these parameters inherently lead to ecophysiological trade-offs, which determine whether a growth strategy is able to survive and reproduce under the prevalent climatic conditions. Kleidon and Mooney (2000) demonstrated that this approach is capable of reproducing the geographic distribution of species richness. More recently, we have shown the JeDi model can explain other biogeographical phenomena including the present-day global pattern of biomes (Reu et al., accepted), ecosystem evenness (Kleidon et al. 2009), and possible mechanisms for biome shifts and biodiversity changes under scenarios of global warming (Reu et al., submitted). We have also evaluated the simulated biogeochemical fluxes from JeDi against a variety

  1. Lunar shadow eclipse prediction models for the Earth orbiting spacecraft: Comparison and application to LEO and GEO spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Bhaskar, M. K.; Kushvah, Badam Singh; Shiggavi, Prakash; Vallado, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A solar eclipse occurs when the Sun, Moon and Earth are aligned in such a way that shadow of the Moon falls on the Earth. The Moon's shadow also falls on the Earth orbiting spacecraft. In this case, the alignment of the Sun, Moon, and spacecraft is similar to that of the Sun, Moon, and Earth but this phenomenon is often referred as a lunar eclipse falling on the spacecraft. Lunar eclipse is not as regular in terms of times of occurrence, duration, and depth as the Earth shadow eclipse and number of its occurrence per orbital location per year ranges from zero to four with an average of two per year; a spacecraft may experience two to three lunar eclipses within a twenty-four hour period [2]. These lunar eclipses can cause severe spacecraft operational problems. This paper describes two lunar shadow eclipse prediction models using a projection map approach and a line of intersection method by extending the Earth shadow eclipse models described by Srivastava et al. [10,11] for the Earth orbiting spacecraft. The attractive feature of both models is that they are much easier to implement. Both mathematical models have been simulated for two Indian low Earth orbiting spacecrafts: Oceansat-2, Saral-1, and two geostationary spacecrafts: GSAT-10, INSAT-4CR. Results obtained by the models compare well with lunar shadow model given by Escobal and Robertson [12], and high fidelity commercial software package, Systems Tool Kit (STK) of AGI.

  2. Harnessing Big Data to Represent 30-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, N.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Van Huijgevoort, M.; Milly, C.; Sulman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial land surface processes play a critical role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (˜30 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing global environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles. The state-of-the-art Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model is then used to simulate these tiles and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  3. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    Co-seismic deformation and stress changes, which reflect the elasticity of the earth, are very important in the earthquake dynamics, and also to other issues, such as the evaluation of the seismic risk, fracture process and triggering of earthquake. Lots of scholars have researched the dislocation theory and co-seismic deformation and obtained the half-space homogeneous model, half-space stratified model, spherical stratified model, and so on. Especially, models of Okada (1992) and Wang (2003, 2006) are widely applied in the research of calculating co-seismic and post-seismic effects. However, since both semi-infinite space model and layered model do not take the role of the earth curvature or heterogeneity or topography into consideration, there are large errors in calculating the co-seismic displacement of a great earthquake in its impacted area. Meanwhile, the computational methods of calculating the co-seismic strain and stress are different between spherical model and plane model. Here, we adopted the finite element method which could well deal with the complex characteristics (such as anisotropy, discontinuities) of rock and different conditions. We use the mash adaptive technique to automatically encrypt the mesh at the fault and adopt the equivalent volume force replace the dislocation source, which can avoid the difficulty in handling discontinuity surface with conventional (Zhang et al., 2015). We constructed an earth model that included earth's layered structure and curvature, the upper boundary was set as a free surface and the core-mantle boundary was set under buoyancy forces. Firstly, based on the precision requirement, we take a testing model - - a strike-slip fault (the length of fault is 500km and the width is 50km, and the slippage is 10m) for example. Because of the curvature of the Earth, some errors certainly occur in plane coordinates just as previous studies (Dong et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2012). However, we also found that: 1) the co

  4. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  5. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  6. Coupling integrated assessment and earth system models: concepts and an application to land use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Lawrence, P.; Ren, X.

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration between the integrated assessment modeling (IAM) and earth system modeling (ESM) communities is increasing, driven by a growing interest in research questions that require analysis integrating both social and natural science components. This collaboration often takes the form of integrating their respective models. There are a number of approaches available to implement this integration, ranging from one-way linkages to full two-way coupling, as well as approaches that retain a single modeling framework but improve the representation of processes from the other framework. We discuss the pros and cons of these different approaches and the conditions under which a two-way coupling of IAMs and ESMs would be favored over a one-way linkage. We propose a criterion that is necessary and sufficient to motivate two-way coupling: A human process must have an effect on an earth system process that is large enough to cause a change in the original human process that is substantial compared to other uncertainties in the problem being investigated. We then illustrate a test of this criterion for land use-climate interactions based on work using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and land use scenarios from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), in which we find that the land use effect on regional climate is unlikely to meet the criterion. We then show an example of implementing a one-way linkage of land use and agriculture between an IAM, the integrated Population-Economy-Technology-Science (iPETS) model, and CESM that produces fully consistent outcomes between iPETS and the CESM land surface model. We use the linked system to model the influence of climate change on crop yields, agricultural land use, crop prices and food consumption under two alternative future climate scenarios. This application demonstrates the ability to link an IAM to a global land surface and climate model in a computationally efficient manner.

  7. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  8. Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth' simulations with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model.

    PubMed

    Hyde, W T; Crowley, T J; Baum, S K; Peltier, W R

    2000-05-25

    Ice sheets may have reached the Equator in the late Proterozoic era (600-800 Myr ago), according to geological and palaeomagnetic studies, possibly resulting in a 'snowball Earth'. But this period was a critical time in the evolution of multicellular animals, posing the question of how early life survived under such environmental stress. Here we present computer simulations of this unusual climate stage with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model. To simulate a snowball Earth, we use only a reduction in the solar constant compared to present-day conditions and we keep atmospheric CO2 concentrations near present levels. We find rapid transitions into and out of full glaciation that are consistent with the geological evidence. When we combine these results with a general circulation model, some of the simulations result in an equatorial belt of open water that may have provided a refugium for multicellular animals.

  9. A model for the enantiomeric enrichment of polypeptides on the primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Bonner, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A potential model is presented for the origin of optical activity in polypeptides on the primitive earth due to enantiomeric enrichment in succeeding polymerization-hydrolysis cycles. The model was developed in experiments with the polymerization of a DL-leucine N-carboxyanhydride mixture with a 31.2% enantiomeric excess of the L isomer with sodium methoxide initiator to yield a polyleucine product which was in turn partially hydrolyzed by acid. The polymerization-hydrolysis was found to produce a net 23.8% increase in the enantiomeric excess of the remaining unhydrolyzed polypeptide (14.2% from the polymerization and 9.6% from the partial hydrolysis). On the basis of these results, it is suggested that a slight excess produced by an appropriate chiral physical process may be enhanced by cycles of stereoselective polymerization and hydrolysis driven by fluctuating wet and dry environmental cycles on the primitive earth.

  10. Simple model to estimate the contribution of atmospheric CO2 to the Earth's greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Derrek J.; Gea-Banacloche, Julio

    2012-04-01

    We show how the CO2 contribution to the Earth's greenhouse effect can be estimated from relatively simple physical considerations and readily available spectroscopic data. In particular, we present a calculation of the "climate sensitivity" (that is, the increase in temperature caused by a doubling of the concentration of CO2) in the absence of feedbacks. Our treatment highlights the important role played by the frequency dependence of the CO2 absorption spectrum. For pedagogical purposes, we provide two simple models to visualize different ways in which the atmosphere might return infrared radiation back to the Earth. The more physically realistic model, based on the Schwarzschild radiative transfer equations, uses as input an approximate form of the atmosphere's temperature profile, and thus includes implicitly the effect of heat transfer mechanisms other than radiation.

  11. The cloud-phase feedback in the Super-parameterized Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, M. A.; Randall, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent comparisons of observations and climate model simulations by I. Tan and colleagues have suggested that the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process tends to be too active in climate models, making too much cloud ice, and resulting in an exaggerated negative cloud-phase feedback on climate change. We explore the WBF process and its effect on shortwave cloud forcing in present-day and future climate simulations with the Community Earth System Model, and its super-parameterized counterpart. Results show that SP-CESM has much less cloud ice and a weaker cloud-phase feedback than CESM.

  12. Effect of 3-D heterogeneous-earth on rheology inference of postseismic model following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, C.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.; Tabei, T.; Kimata, F.; Gunawan, E.; Ohta, Y.; Yamashina, T.; Ismail, N.; Muksin, U.; Maulida, P.; Meilano, I.; Nurdin, I.; Sugiyanto, D.; Efendi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Postseismic deformation following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake has been modeled by several studies (Han et al. 2015, Hu et al. 2016, Masuti et al. 2016). Although each study used different method and dataset, the previous studies constructed a significant difference of earth structure. Han et al. (2015) ignored subducting slab beneath Sumatra while Masuti et al. (2016) neglect sphericity of the earth. Hu et al. (2016) incorporated elastic slab and spherical earth but used uniform rigidity in each layer of the model. As a result, Han et al. (2015) model estimated one order higher Maxwell viscosity than the Hu et al. (2016) and half order lower Kelvin viscosity than the Masuti et al. (2016) model predicted. In the present study, we conduct a quantitative analysis of each heterogeneous geometry and parameter effect on rheology inference. We develop heterogeneous three-dimensional spherical-earth finite element models. We investigate the effect of subducting slab, spherical earth, and three-dimensional earth rigidity on estimated lithosphere-asthenosphere rheology beneath the Indian Ocean. A wide range of viscosity structure from time constant rheology to time dependent rheology was chosen as previous studies have been modeled. In order to evaluate actual displacement, we compared the model to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observation. We incorporate the GNSS data from previous studies and introduce new GNSS site as a part of the Indonesian Continuously Operating Reference Stations (InaCORS) located in Sumatra that has not been used in the last analysis. As a preliminary result, we obtained the effect of the spherical earth and elastic slab when we assumed burgers rheology. The model that incorporates the sphericity of the earth needs a one third order lower viscosity than the model that neglects earth curvature. The model that includes elastic slab needs half order lower viscosity than the model that excluding the elastic slab.

  13. Sustainability, collapse and oscillations in a simple World-Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitzbon, Jan; Heitzig, Jobst; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Anthropocene is characterized by close interdependencies between the natural Earth system and the global human society, posing novel challenges to model development. Here we present a conceptual model describing the long-term co-evolution of natural and socio-economic subsystems of Earth. While the climate is represented via a global carbon cycle, we use economic concepts to model socio-metabolic flows of biomass and fossil fuels between nature and society. A well-being-dependent parametrization of fertility and mortality governs human population dynamics. Our analysis focuses on assessing possible asymptotic states of the Earth system for a qualitative understanding of its complex dynamics rather than quantitative predictions. Low dimension and simple equations enable a parameter-space analysis allowing us to identify preconditions of several asymptotic states and hence fates of humanity and planet. These include a sustainable co-evolution of nature and society, a global collapse and everlasting oscillations. We consider different scenarios corresponding to different socio-cultural stages of human history. The necessity of accounting for the ‘human factor’ in Earth system models is highlighted by the finding that carbon stocks during the past centuries evolved opposing to what would ‘naturally’ be expected on a planet without humans. The intensity of biomass use and the contribution of ecosystem services to human well-being are found to be crucial determinants of the asymptotic state in a (pre-industrial) biomass-only scenario without capital accumulation. The capitalistic, fossil-based scenario reveals that trajectories with fundamentally different asymptotic states might still be almost indistinguishable during even a centuries-long transient phase. Given current human population levels, our study also supports the claim that besides reducing the global demand for energy, only the extensive use of renewable energies may pave the way into a

  14. β4 systematics in rare-earth and actinide nuclei: sdg interacting boson model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Y. D.; Kota, V. K. B.

    1992-07-01

    The observed variation of hexadecupole deformation parameter β4 with mass number A in rare-earth and actinide nuclei is studied in the sdg interacting boson model (IBM) using single j-shell Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapped and IBM-2 to IBM-1 projected hexadecupole transition operator together with SUsdg(3) and SUsdg(5) coherent states. The SUsdg(3) limit is found to provide a good description of data.

  15. Models of earth structure inferred from neodymium and strontium isotopic abundances

    PubMed Central

    Wasserburg, G. J.; DePaolo, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified model of earth structure based on the Nd and Sr isotopic characteristics of oceanic and continental tholeiitic flood basalts is presented, taking into account the motion of crustal plates and a chemical balance for trace elements. The resulting structure that is inferred consists of a lower mantle that is still essentially undifferentiated, overlain by an upper mantle that is the residue of the original source from which the continents were derived. PMID:16592688

  16. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  17. Simultaneous Modeling of Gradual SEP Events at the Earth and the Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) event is the number one space hazard for spacecraft instruments and astronauts' safety. Recent studies have shown that both longitudinal and radial extent of SEP events can be very significant. In this work, we use the improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model to simulate gradual SEP events that have impacts upon both the Earth and the Mars. We follow the propagation of a 2D CME-driven shock. Particles are accelerated at the shock via the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Transport of the escaped particles to the Earth and the Mars is then followed using a backward stochastic differential equation method. Perpendicular diffusion is considered in both the DSA and the transport process. Model results such as time intensity profile and energetic particle spectrum at the two locations are compared to understand the spatial extent of an SEP event. Observational data at the Earth and the Mars are also studied to validate the model.

  18. Nonlinear whistler wave model for lion roars in the Earth's magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, N. K.; Singh, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we construct a nonlinear whistler wave model to explain the magnetic field spectra observed for lion roars in the Earth's magnetosheath region. We use two-fluid theory and semi-analytical approach to derive the dynamical equation of whistler wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field. We examine the magnetic field localization of parallel propagating whistler wave in the intermediate beta plasma applicable to the Earth's magnetosheath. In addition, we investigate spectral features of the magnetic field fluctuations and the spectral slope value. The magnetic field spectrum obtained by semi-analytical approach shows a spectral break point and becomes steeper at higher wave numbers. The observations of IMP 6 plasma waves and magnetometer experiment reveal the existence of short period magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath. The observation shows the broadband spectrum with a spectral slope of -4.5 superimposed with a narrow band peak. The broadband fluctuations appear due to the energy cascades attributed by low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes, whereas, a narrow band peak is observed due to the short period lion roars bursts. The energy spectrum predicted by the present theoretical model shows a similar broadband spectrum in the wave number domain with a spectral slope of -3.2, however, it does not show any narrow band peak. Further, we present a comparison between theoretical energy spectrum and the observed spectral slope in the frequency domain. The present semi-analytical model provides exposure to the whistler wave turbulence in the Earth's magnetosheath.

  19. Sensitivity of grounding line dynamics to viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth: Inferences from a fully coupled ice sheet - solid Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, H.; Sasgen, I.; Thoma, M.; Klemann, V.; Grosfeld, K.; Martinec, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The interactions of ice sheets with the sea level and the solid Earth are important factors for the stability of the ice shelves and the tributary inland ice (e.g. Thomas and Bentley, 1978; Gomez et al, 2012). First, changes in ice extent and ice thickness induce viscoelastic deformation of the Earth surface and Earth's gravity field. In turn, global and local changes in sea level and bathymetry affect the grounding line and, subsequently, alter the ice dynamic behaviour. Here, we investigate these feedbacks for a synthetic ice sheet configuration as well as for the Antarctic ice sheet using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice sheet and shelf model, coupled to a viscoelastic solid-Earth and gravitationally self-consistent sea-level model. The respective ice sheet undergoes a forcing from rising sea level, warming ocean, and/or changing surface mass balance. The coupling is realized by exchanging ice thickness, Earth surface deformation, and sea level periodically. We apply several sets of viscoelastic Earth parameters to our coupled model, e.g. simulating a low-viscous upper mantle present at the Antarctic Peninsula (Ivins et al., 2011). Special focus of our study lies on the evolution of Earth surface deformation and local sea level changes, as well as on the accompanying grounding line evolution. N. Gomez, D. Pollard, J. X. Mitrovica, P. Huybers, and P. U. Clark 2012. Evolution of a coupled marine ice sheet-sea level model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01013, doi:10.1029/2011JF002128. E. R. Ivins, M. M. Watkins, D.-N. Yuan, R. Dietrich, G. Casassa, and A. Rülke 2011. On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003-2009, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B02403, doi: 10.1029/2010JB007607 R. H. Thomas and C. R. Bentley 1978. A model for Holocene retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Quaternary Research, 10 (2), pages 150-170, doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(78)90098-4.

  20. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  1. Magnetic Local Time dependency in modeling of the Earth radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Damien; Maget, Vincent; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Rolland, Guy

    2017-04-01

    For many years, ONERA has been at the forefront of the modeling of the Earth radiation belts thanks to the Salammbô model, which accurately reproduces their dynamics over a time scale of the particles' drift period. This implies that we implicitly assume an homogeneous repartition of the trapped particles along a given drift shell. However, radiation belts are inhomogeneous in Magnetic Local Time (MLT). So, we need to take this new coordinate into account to model rigorously the dynamical structures, particularly induced during a geomagnetic storm. For this purpose, we are working on both the numerical resolution of the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation included in the model and on the MLT dependency of physic-based processes acting in the Earth radiation belts. The aim of this talk is first to present the 4D-equation used and the different steps we used to build Salammbô 4D model before focusing on physical processes taken into account in the Salammbô code, specially transport due to convection electric field. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the Salammbô 4D code developped by talking about its numerical scheme and physic-based processes modeled. Then, we will focus our attention on the impact of the outer boundary condition (localisation and spectrum) at lower L∗ shell by comparing modeling performed with geosynchronous data from LANL-GEO satellites. Finally, we will discuss the prime importance of the convection electric field to the radial and drift transport of low energy particles around the Earth.

  2. Earth observation data based rapid flood-extent modelling for tsunami-devastated coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hese, Sören; Heyer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Earth observation (EO)-based mapping and analysis of natural hazards plays a critical role in various aspects of post-disaster aid management. Spatial very high-resolution Earth observation data provide important information for managing post-tsunami activities on devastated land and monitoring re-cultivation and reconstruction. The automatic and fast use of high-resolution EO data for rapid mapping is, however, complicated by high spectral variability in densely populated urban areas and unpredictable textural and spectral land-surface changes. The present paper presents the results of the SENDAI project, which developed an automatic post-tsunami flood-extent modelling concept using RapidEye multispectral satellite data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM V2) data of the eastern coast of Japan (captured after the Tohoku earthquake). In this paper, the authors developed both a bathtub-modelling approach and a cost-distance approach, and integrated the roughness parameters of different land-use types to increase the accuracy of flood-extent modelling. Overall, the accuracy of the developed models reached 87-92%, depending on the analysed test site. The flood-modelling approach was explained and results were compared with published approaches. We came to the conclusion that the cost-factor-based approach reaches accuracy comparable to published results from hydrological modelling. However the proposed cost-factor approach is based on a much simpler dataset, which is available globally.

  3. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: A Model to Guide Development of Student Expertise in Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, Lauren N.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Herbert, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in problem-solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves developing student conceptualization of the Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge to the problems using practices that model those used by professionals. In this article, we review geoscience education research…

  4. Conceptual Change in Astronomy: Models of the Earth and of the Day/Night Cycle in American-Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna; Vosniadou, Stella; Hawks, Jackson D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines perceptions concerning the shape of the earth and the causes of the day/night cycle among American Indian children. Interviews with 26 Lakota/Dakota elementary children revealed a preference for a synthetic model of the earth and animistic explanations for the day/night cycle. Includes excerpts from the interviews. (MJP)

  5. A 3D Visualization and Analysis Model of the Earth Orbit, Milankovitch Cycles and Insolation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, Tihomir; Gilb, Roy

    2013-04-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism. Although controversies remain, ample geologic evidence supports the major role of the Milankovitch cycles in climate, e.g. glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity (main periodicities of ~100,000 and ~400,000 years), precession (quantified as the longitude of perihelion, main periodicities 19,000-24,000 years) and obliquity of the ecliptic (Earth's axial tilt, main periodicity 41,000 years). The combination of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing of the seasons with respect to perihelion, as well as season duration. The complex interplay of the Milankovitch orbital parameters on various time scales makes assessment and visualization of Earth's orbit and insolation variability challenging. It is difficult to appreciate the pivotal importance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion in controlling the effects of Milankovitch cycles on insolation patterns. These factors also make Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, an astronomically precise and accurate Earth orbit visualization model is presented. The model offers 3D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcings. Both research and educational uses are envisioned for the model, which is developed in Matlab® as a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). We present the user with a choice between the Berger et al. (1978) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the three Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other (and over much larger ranges than the naturally occurring ones), so the user can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry

  6. Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for

  7. Connecting the dots: a versatile model for the atmospheres of tidally locked Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, L.; Keppens, R.; Decin, L.

    2014-11-01

    Radiative equilibrium temperatures are calculated for the troposphere of a tidally locked Super-Earth based on a simple greenhouse model, using Solar system data as a guideline. These temperatures provide in combination with a Newtonian relaxation scheme thermal forcing for a 3D atmosphere model using the dynamical core of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology global circulation model. Our model is of the same conceptional simplicity than the model of Held & Suarez and is thus computationally fast. Furthermore, because of the coherent, general derivation of radiative equilibrium temperatures, our model is easily adaptable for different planets and atmospheric scenarios. As a case study relevant for Super-Earths, we investigate a Gl581g-like planet with Earth-like atmosphere and irradiation and present results for two representative rotation periods of Prot = 10 d and Prot = 36.5 d. Our results provide proof of concept and highlight interesting dynamical features for the rotating regime 3 < Prot < 100 d, which was shown by Edson et al. to be an intermediate regime between equatorial superrotation and divergence. We confirm that the Prot = 10 d case is more dominated by equatorial superrotation dynamics than the Prot = 36.5 d case, which shows diminishing influence of standing Rossby-Kelvin waves and increasing influence of divergence at the top of the atmosphere. We argue that this dynamical regime change relates to the increase in Rossby deformation radius, in agreement with previous studies. However, we also pay attention to other features that are not or only in partial agreement with other studies, like, e.g. the number of circulation cells and their strength, the role and extent of thermal inversion layers, and the details of heat transport.

  8. Evaluating atmospheric blocking in the global climate model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Kerstin; Hense, Andreas; Kjellström, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric blocking is a phenomenon of the midlatitudal troposphere, which plays an important role in climate variability. Therefore a correct representation of blocking in climate models is necessary, especially for evaluating the results of climate projections. In my master's thesis a validation of blocking in the coupled climate model EC-Earth is performed. Blocking events are detected based on the Tibaldi-Molteni Index. At first, a comparison with the reanalysis dataset ERA-Interim is conducted. The blocking frequency depending on longitude shows a small general underestimation of blocking in the model - a well known problem. Scaife et al. (2011) proposed the correction of model bias as a way to solve this problem. However, applying the correction to the higher resolution EC-Earth model does not yield any improvement. Composite maps show a link between blocking events and surface variables. One example is the formation of a positive surface temperature anomaly north and a negative anomaly south of the blocking anticyclone. In winter the surface temperature in EC-Earth can be reproduced quite well, but in summer a cold bias over the inner-European ocean is present. Using generalized linear models (GLMs) I want to study the connection between regional blocking and global atmospheric variables further. GLMs have the advantage of being applicable to non-Gaussian variables. Therefore the blocking index at each longitude, which is Bernoulli distributed, can be analysed statistically with GLMs. I applied a logistic regression between the blocking index and the geopotential height at 500 hPa to study the teleconnection of blocking events at midlatitudes with global geopotential height. GLMs also offer the possibility of quantifying the connections shown in composite maps. The implementation of the logistic regression can even be expanded to a search for trends in blocking frequency, for example in the scenario simulations.

  9. A space-time multiscale modelling of Earth's gravity field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    The mass distribution within the Earth varies over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, generating variations in the Earth's gravity field in space and time. These variations are monitored by satellites as the GRACE mission, with a 400 km spatial resolution and 10 days to 1 month temporal resolution. They are expressed in the form of gravity field models, often with a fixed spatial or temporal resolution. The analysis of these models allows us to study the mass transfers within the Earth system. Here, we have developed space-time multi-scale models of the gravity field, in order to optimize the estimation of gravity signals resulting from local processes at different spatial and temporal scales, and to adapt the time resolution of the model to its spatial resolution according to the satellites sampling. For that, we first build a 4D wavelet family combining spatial Poisson wavelets with temporal Haar wavelets. Then, we set-up a regularized inversion of inter-satellites gravity potential differences in a bayesian framework, to estimate the model parameters. To build the prior, we develop a spectral analysis, localized in time and space, of geophysical models of mass transport and associated gravity variations. Finally, we test our approach to the reconstruction of space-time variations of the gravity field due to hydrology. We first consider a global distribution of observations along the orbit, from a simplified synthetic hydrology signal comprising only annual variations at large spatial scales. Then, we consider a regional distribution of observations in Africa, and a larger number of spatial and temporal scales. We test the influence of an imperfect prior and discuss our results.

  10. Comparisons of global topographic/isostatic models to the Earth's observed gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Rapp, Richard H.; Suenkel, Hans; Tscherning, C. Christian

    1988-01-01

    The Earth's gravitational potential, as described by a spherical harmonic expansion to degree 180, was compared to the potential implied by the topography and its isostatic compensation using five different hypothesis. Initially, series expressions for the Airy/Heiskanen topographic isostatic model were developed to the third order in terms of (h/R), where h is equivalent rock topography and R is a mean Earth radius. Using actual topographic developments for the Earth, it was found that the second and third terms of the expansion contributed 30 and 3 percents, of the first of the expansion. With these new equations it is possible to compute depths (D) of compensation, by degree, using 3 different criteria. The results show that the average depth implied by criterion I is 60 km while it is about 33 km for criteria 2 and 3 with smaller compensation depths at the higher degrees. Another model examined was related to the Vening-Meinesz regional hypothesis implemented in the spectral domain. Finally, oceanic and continental response functions were derived for the global data sets and comparisons made to locally determined values.

  11. Evaluation of Gravitational Field Models Based on the Laser Range Observation of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, J. W.; Yu, S. X.

    2015-09-01

    The Earth gravitational filed model is a kind of important dynamic model in satellite orbit computation. In recent years, several space gravity missions have obtained great success, prompting a lot of gravitational filed models to be published. In this paper, 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96) and 4 latest models, including EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008 are evaluated by being employed in the precision orbit determination (POD) and prediction, based on the laser range observation of four low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, including CHAMP, GFZ-1, GRACE-A, and SWARM-A. The residual error of observation in POD is adopted to describe the accuracy of six gravitational field models. We show the main results as follows: (1) for LEO POD, the accuracies of 4 latest models (EIGEN-CHAMP05S, GGM03S, GOCE02S, and EGM2008) are at the same level, and better than those of 2 classical models (JGM3, EGM96); (2) If taking JGM3 as reference, EGM96 model's accuracy is better in most situations, and the accuracies of the 4 latest models are improved by 12%-47% in POD and 63% in prediction, respectively. We also confirm that the model's accuracy in POD is enhanced with the increasing degree and order if they are smaller than 70, and when they exceed 70 the accuracy keeps stable, and is unrelated with the increasing degree, meaning that the model's degree and order truncated to 70 are sufficient to meet the requirement of LEO orbit computation with centimeter level precision.

  12. Introducing Multisensor Satellite Radiance-Based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, T.; Santanello, J.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Wu, D.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kemp, E.; Chin, M.; Starr, D.; Sekiguchi, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Earth System modeling has become more complex, and its evaluation using satellite data has also become more difficult due to model and data diversity. Therefore, the fundamental methodology of using satellite direct measurements with instrumental simulators should be addressed especially for modeling community members lacking a solid background of radiative transfer and scattering theory. This manuscript introduces principles of multisatellite, multisensor radiance-based evaluation methods for a fully coupled regional Earth System model: NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model. We use a NU-WRF case study simulation over West Africa as an example of evaluating aerosol-cloud-precipitation-land processes with various satellite observations. NU-WRF-simulated geophysical parameters are converted to the satellite-observable raw radiance and backscatter under nearly consistent physics assumptions via the multisensor satellite simulator, the Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit. We present varied examples of simple yet robust methods that characterize forecast errors and model physics biases through the spatial and statistical interpretation of various satellite raw signals: infrared brightness temperature (Tb) for surface skin temperature and cloud top temperature, microwave Tb for precipitation ice and surface flooding, and radar and lidar backscatter for aerosol-cloud profiling simultaneously. Because raw satellite signals integrate many sources of geophysical information, we demonstrate user-defined thresholds and a simple statistical process to facilitate evaluations, including the infrared-microwave-based cloud types and lidar/radar-based profile classifications.

  13. An improved model of the Earth's gravity field - GEM-T3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Putney, B. H.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Pavlis, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    An improved model of the Earth's gravitational field is developed from a combination of conventional satellite tracking, satellite altimeter measurements, and surface gravimetric data (GEM-T3). This model gives improved performance for the computation of satellite orbital effects as well as a superior representation of the geoid from that achieved in any previous Goddard Earth Model. The GEM-T3 model uses altimeter data directly to define the orbits, geoid, and dynamic height fields. Altimeter data acquired during the GEOS-3 (1975-1976), SEASAT (1978), and GEOSAT (1986-1987) missions were used to compute GEM-T3. In order to accommodate the non-gravitational signal mapped by these altimeters, spherical harmonic models of the dynamic height of the ocean surface were recovered for each mission simultaneously with the gravitational field. The tracking data utilized in the solution includes more than 1300 arcs of data encompassing 31 different satellites. The observational data base is highly dependent on SLR, but also includes TRANET Doppler, optical, S-Band average range-rate and satellite-to-satellite tracking acquired between ATS-6 and GEOS-3. The GEM-T3 model has undergone extensive error calibration.

  14. Modeling and Analysis Compute Environments, Utilizing Virtualization Technology in the Climate and Earth Systems Science domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Wang, W.; Votava, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Given the increasing complexity of climate modeling and analysis tools, it is often difficult and expensive to build or recreate an exact replica of the software compute environment used in past experiments. With the recent development of new technologies for hardware virtualization, an opportunity exists to create full modeling, analysis and compute environments that are “archiveable”, transferable and may be easily shared amongst a scientific community or presented to a bureaucratic body if the need arises. By encapsulating and entire modeling and analysis environment in a virtual machine image, others may quickly gain access to the fully built system used in past experiments, potentially easing the task and reducing the costs of reproducing and verify past results produced by other researchers. Moreover, these virtual machine images may be used as a pedagogical tool for others that are interested in performing an academic exercise but don't yet possess the broad expertise required. We built two virtual machine images, one with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and one with Weather Research Forecast Model (WRF), then ran several small experiments to assess the feasibility, performance overheads costs, reusability, and transferability. We present a list of the pros and cons as well as lessoned learned from utilizing virtualization technology in the climate and earth systems modeling domain.

  15. Climate, ecosystems, and planetary futures: The challenge to predict life in Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Bonan, Gordon B; Doney, Scott C

    2018-02-02

    Many global change stresses on terrestrial and marine ecosystems affect not only ecosystem services that are essential to humankind, but also the trajectory of future climate by altering energy and mass exchanges with the atmosphere. Earth system models, which simulate terrestrial and marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, offer a common framework for ecological research related to climate processes; analyses of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation; and climate change mitigation. They provide an opportunity to move beyond physical descriptors of atmospheric and oceanic states to societally relevant quantities such as wildfire risk, habitat loss, water availability, and crop, fishery, and timber yields. To achieve this, the science of climate prediction must be extended to a more multifaceted Earth system prediction that includes the biosphere and its resources. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Alternative Models for Large-Group Introductory Earth Science Courses: Dual-Structured Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, John R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An introductory college course in which both the instructional staff and students have input into the content has been successfully implemented into a spectrum of instructor-centered to student-centered introductory earth science courses. Grading by point accumulation method reduced the grade threat and induced student responsibility for learning.…

  17. Toward an in-situ analytics and diagnostics framework for earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Wolf, Matthew; Rasch, Philip; Klasky, Scott; Williams, Dean; Jacob, Rob; Ma, Po-Lun; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2017-04-01

    The development roadmaps for many earth system models (ESM) aim for a globally cloud-resolving model targeting the pre-exascale and exascale systems of the future. The ESMs will also incorporate more complex physics, chemistry and biology - thereby vastly increasing the fidelity of the information content simulated by the model. We will then be faced with an unprecedented volume of simulation output that would need to be processed and analyzed concurrently in order to derive the valuable scientific results. We are already at this threshold with our current generation of ESMs at higher resolution simulations. Currently, the nominal I/O throughput in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) via Parallel IO (PIO) library is around 100 MB/s. If we look at the high frequency I/O requirements, it would require an additional 1 GB / simulated hour, translating to roughly 4 mins wallclock / simulated-day => 24.33 wallclock hours / simulated-model-year => 1,752,000 core-hours of charge per simulated-model-year on the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. There is also a pending need for 3X more volume of simulation output . Meanwhile, many ESMs use instrument simulators to run forward models to compare model simulations against satellite and ground-based instruments, such as radars and radiometers. The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) is used in CESM as well as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME), one of the ESMs specifically targeting current and emerging leadership-class computing platforms These simulators can be computationally expensive, accounting for as much as 30% of the computational cost. Hence the data are often written to output files that are then used for offline calculations. Again, the I/O bottleneck becomes a limitation. Detection and attribution studies also use large volume of data for pattern recognition and feature extraction to analyze weather and climate phenomenon such as tropical cyclones

  18. Truncation effects in computing free wobble/nutation modes explored using a simple Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, Behnam; Rochester, Michael G.; Rogers, Christopher M.

    2017-06-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincaré problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble and free core nutation are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 ± 1 sd, as more terms are included, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous

  19. Truncation Effects in Computing Free Wobble/Nutation Modes Explored Using a Simple Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogers, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincare problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode (TOM) is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble (CW) and free core nutation (FCN) are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble (ICW) is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 sd, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous. We

  20. PyMT: A Python package for model-coupling in the Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, E.

    2016-12-01

    The current landscape of Earth-system models is not only broad in scientific scope, but also broad in type. On the one hand, the large variety of models is exciting, as it provides fertile ground for extending or linking models together in novel ways to answer new scientific questions. However, the heterogeneity in model type acts to inhibit model coupling, model development, or even model use. Existing models are written in a variety of programming languages, operate on different grids, use their own file formats (both for input and output), have different user interfaces, have their own time steps, etc. Each of these factors become obstructions to scientists wanting to couple, extend - or simply run - existing models. For scientists whose main focus may not be computer science these barriers become even larger and become significant logistical hurdles. And this is all before the scientific difficulties of coupling or running models are addressed. The CSDMS Python Modeling Toolkit (PyMT) was developed to help non-computer scientists deal with these sorts of modeling logistics. PyMT is the fundamental package the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System uses for the coupling of models that expose the Basic Modeling Interface (BMI). It contains: Tools necessary for coupling models of disparate time and space scales (including grid mappers) Time-steppers that coordinate the sequencing of coupled models Exchange of data between BMI-enabled models Wrappers that automatically load BMI-enabled models into the PyMT framework Utilities that support open-source interfaces (UGRID, SGRID,CSDMS Standard Names, etc.) A collection of community-submitted models, written in a variety of programminglanguages, from a variety of process domains - but all usable from within the Python programming language A plug-in framework for adding additional BMI-enabled models to the framework In this presentation we intoduce the basics of the PyMT as well as provide an example of coupling

  1. A radiogenic heating evolution model for cosmochemically Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2014-11-01

    Discoveries of rocky worlds around other stars have inspired diverse geophysical models of their plausible structures and tectonic regimes. Severe limitations of observable properties require many inexact assumptions about key geophysical characteristics of these planets. We present the output of an analytical galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model that quantitatively constrains one of those key properties: radiogenic heating. Earth's radiogenic heat generation has evolved since its formation, and the same will apply to exoplanets. We have fit simulations of the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium in the solar annulus to the chemistry of our Solar System at the time of its formation and then applied the carbonaceous chondrite/Earth's mantle ratio to determine the chemical composition of what we term ;cosmochemically Earth-like; exoplanets. Through this approach, predictions of exoplanet radiogenic heat productions as a function of age have been derived. The results show that the later a planet forms in galactic history, the less radiogenic heat it begins with; however, due to radioactive decay, today, old planets have lower heat outputs per unit mass than newly formed worlds. The long half-life of 232Th allows it to continue providing a small amount of heat in even the most ancient planets, while 40K dominates heating in young worlds. Through constraining the age-dependent heat production in exoplanets, we can infer that younger, hotter rocky planets are more likely to be geologically active and therefore able to sustain the crustal recycling (e.g. plate tectonics) that may be a requirement for long-term biosphere habitability. In the search for Earth-like planets, the focus should be made on stars within a billion years or so of the Sun's age.

  2. Using Google Earth to Explore Strain Rate Models of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Bell, E. A.; Holt, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    A series of strain rate models for the Transverse Ranges of southern California were developed based on Quaternary fault slip data and geodetic data from high precision GPS stations in southern California. Pacific-North America velocity boundary conditions are applied for all models. Topography changes are calculated using the model dilatation rates, which predict crustal thickness changes under the assumption of Airy isostasy and a specified rate of crustal volume loss through erosion. The models were designed to produce graphical and numerical output representing the configuration of the region from 3 million years ago to 3 million years into the future at intervals of 50 thousand years. Using a North American reference frame, graphical output for the topography and faults and numerical output for locations of faults and points on the crust marked by the locations on cities were used to create data in KML format that can be used in Google Earth to represent time intervals of 50 thousand years. As markers familiar to students, the cities provide a geographic context that can be used to quantify crustal movement, using the Google Earth ruler tool. By comparing distances that markers for selected cities have moved in various parts of the region, students discover that the greatest amount of crustal deformation has occurred in the vicinity of the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Students can also identify areas of compression or extension by finding pairs of city markers that have converged or diverged, respectively, over time. The Google Earth layers also reveal that faults that are not parallel to the plate boundary have tended to rotate clockwise due to the right lateral motion along the plate boundary zone. KML TimeSpan markup was added to two versions of the model, enabling the layers to be displayed in an automatic sequenced loop for a movie effect. The data is also available as QuickTime (.mov) and Graphics Interchange Format (.gif

  3. An improved Rosetta pedotransfer function and evaluation in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Schaap, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters are often difficult and expensive to measure, leading to the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) an alternative to predict those parameters. Rosetta (Schaap et al., 2001, denoted as Rosetta1) are widely used PTFs, which is based on artificial neural network (ANN) analysis coupled with the bootstrap re-sampling method, allowing the estimation of van Genuchten water retention parameters (van Genuchten, 1980, abbreviated here as VG), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), as well as their uncertainties. We present an improved hierarchical pedotransfer functions (Rosetta3) that unify the VG water retention and Ks submodels into one, thus allowing the estimation of uni-variate and bi-variate probability distributions of estimated parameters. Results show that the estimation bias of moisture content was reduced significantly. Rosetta1 and Posetta3 were implemented in the python programming language, and the source code are available online. Based on different soil water retention equations, there are diverse PTFs used in different disciplines of earth system modelings. PTFs based on Campbell [1974] or Clapp and Hornberger [1978] are frequently used in land surface models and general circulation models, while van Genuchten [1980] based PTFs are more widely used in hydrology and soil sciences. We use an independent global scale soil database to evaluate the performance of diverse PTFs used in different disciplines of earth system modelings. PTFs are evaluated based on different soil characteristics and environmental characteristics, such as soil textural data, soil organic carbon, soil pH, as well as precipitation and soil temperature. This analysis provides more quantitative estimation error information for PTF predictions in different disciplines of earth system modelings.

  4. Kinetic models for space plasmas: Recent progress for the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrard, V.; Moschou, S. P.; Lazar, M.; Borremans, K.; Rosson, G. Lopez

    2016-11-01

    Recent models for the solar wind and the inner magnetosphere have been developed using the kinetic approach. The solution of the evolution equation is used to determine the velocity distribution function of the particles and their moments. The solutions depend on the approximations and assumptions made in the development of the models. Effects of suprathermal particles often observed in space plasmas are taken into account to show their influence on the characteristics of the plasma, with specific applications for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We describe in particular the results obtained with the collisionless exospheric approximation based on the Lorentzian velocity distribution function for the electrons and its recent progress in three dimensions. The effects of Coulomb collisions obtained by using a Fokker-Planck term in the evolution equation were also investigated, as well as effects of the whistler wave turbulence at electron scale and the kinetic Alfven waves at the proton scale. For solar wind especially, modelling efforts with both magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic treatments have been compared and combined in order to improve the predictions in the vicinity of the Earth. Photospheric magnetograms serve as observational input in semi-empirical coronal models used for estimating the plasma characteristics up to coronal heliocentric distances taken as boundary conditions in solar wind models. The solar wind fluctuations may influence the dynamics of the space environment of the Earth and generate geomagnetic storms. In the magnetosphere of the Earth, the trajectories of the particles are simulated to study the plasmasphere, the extension of the ionosphere along closed magnetic field lines and to better understand the physical mechanisms involved in the radiation belts dynamics.

  5. Light-weight Parallel Python Tools for Earth System Modeling Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, S. A.; Paul, K.; Xu, H.; Dennis, J.; Brown, D. I.

    2015-12-01

    With the growth in computing power over the last 30 years, earth system modeling codes have become increasingly data-intensive. As an example, it is expected that the data required for the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report (AR6) will increase by more than 10x to an expected 25PB per climate model. Faced with this daunting challenge, developers of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) have chosen to change the format of their data for long-term storage from time-slice to time-series, in order to reduce the required download bandwidth needed for later analysis and post-processing by climate scientists. Hence, efficient tools are required to (1) perform the transformation of the data from time-slice to time-series format and to (2) compute climatology statistics, needed for many diagnostic computations, on the resulting time-series data. To address the first of these two challenges, we have developed a parallel Python tool for converting time-slice model output to time-series format. To address the second of these challenges, we have developed a parallel Python tool to perform fast time-averaging of time-series data. These tools are designed to be light-weight, be easy to install, have very few dependencies, and can be easily inserted into the Earth system modeling workflow with negligible disruption. In this work, we present the motivation, approach, and testing results of these two light-weight parallel Python tools, as well as our plans for future research and development.

  6. A proposed-standard format to represent and distribute tomographic models and other earth spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postpischl, L.; Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Formats used to represent (and distribute) tomographic earth models differ considerably and are rarely self-consistent. In fact, each earth scientist, or research group, uses specific conventions to encode the various parameterizations used to describe, e.g., seismic wave speed or density in three dimensions, and complete information is often found in related documents or publications (if available at all) only. As a consequence, use of various tomographic models from different authors requires considerable effort, is more cumbersome than it should be and prevents widespread exchange and circulation within the community. We propose a format, based on modern web standards, able to represent different (grid-based) model parameterizations within the same simple text-based environment, easy to write, to parse, and to visualise. The aim is the creation of self-describing data-structures, both human and machine readable, that are automatically recognised by general-purpose software agents, and easily imported in the scientific programming environment. We think that the adoption of such a representation as a standard for the exchange and distribution of earth models can greatly ease their usage and enhance their circulation, both among fellow seismologists and among a broader non-specialist community. The proposed solution uses semantic web technologies, fully fitting the current trends in data accessibility. It is based on Json (JavaScript Object Notation), a plain-text, human-readable lightweight computer data interchange format, which adopts a hierarchical name-value model for representing simple data structures and associative arrays (called objects). Our implementation allows integration of large datasets with metadata (authors, affiliations, bibliographic references, units of measure etc.) into a single resource. It is equally suited to represent other geo-referenced volumetric quantities — beyond tomographic models — as well as (structured and unstructured

  7. Seismic generated infrasounds on Telluric Planets: Modeling and comparisons between Earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.; Karakostas, F. G.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Banerdt, W. B.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth, Venus and Mars are all planets in which infrasounds can propagate and interact with the solid surface. This leads to infrasound generation for internal sources (e.g. quakes) and to seismic waves generations for atmospheric sources (e.g. meteor, impactor explosions, boundary layer turbulences). Both the atmospheric profile, surface density, atmospheric wind and viscous/attenuation processes are however greatly different, including major differences between Mars/Venus and Earth due to the CO2 molecular relaxation. We present modeling results and compare the seismic/acoustic coupling strength for Earth, Mars and Venus. This modeling is made through normal modes modelling for models integrating the interior, atmosphere, both with realistic attenuation (intrinsic Q for solid part, viscosity and molecular relaxation for the atmosphere). We complete these modeling, made for spherical structure, by integration of wind, assuming the later to be homogeneous at the scale of the infrasound wavelength. This allows us to compute either the Seismic normal modes (e.g. Rayleigh surface waves), or the acoustic or the atmospheric gravity modes. Comparisons are done, for either a seismic source or an atmospheric source, on the amplitude of expected signals as a function of distance and frequency. Effects of local time are integrated in the modeling. We illustrate the Rayleigh waves modelling by Earth data (for large quakes and volcanoes eruptions). For Venus, very large coupling can occur at resonance frequencies between the solid part and atmospheric part of the planet through infrasounds/Rayleigh waves coupling. If the atmosphere reduced the Q (quality coefficient) of Rayleigh waves in general, the atmosphere at these resonance soffers better propagation than Venus crust and increases their Q. For Mars, Rayleigh waves excitations by atmospheric burst is shown and discussed for the typical yield of impacts. The new data of the Nasa INSIGHT mission which carry both seismic and

  8. Three-dimensional FDTD Modeling of Earth-ionosphere Cavity Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Pasko, V. P.

    2003-12-01

    Resonance properties of the earth-ionosphere cavity were first predicted by W. O. Schumann in 1952 [Schumann, Z. Naturforsch. A, 7, 149, 1952]. Since then observations of extremely low frequency (ELF) signals in the frequency range 1-500 Hz have become a powerful tool for monitoring of global lightning activity and planetary scale variability of the lower ionosphere, as well as, in recent years, for location and remote sensing of sprites, jets and elves and associated lightning discharges [e.g., Sato et al., JASTP, 65, 607, 2003; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; and references cited therein]. The simplicity and flexibility of finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique for finding first principles solutions of electromagnetic problems in a medium with arbitrary inhomogeneities and ever-increasing computer power make FDTD an excellent candidate to be the technique of the future in development of realistic numerical models of VLF/ELF propagation in Earth-ionosphere waveguide [Cummer, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 48, 1420, 2000], and several reports about successful application of the FDTD technique for solution of related problems have recently appeared in the literature [e.g., Thevenot et al., Ann. Telecommun., 54, 297, 1999; Cummer, 2000; Berenger, Ann. Telecommun., 57, 1059, 2002, Simpson and Taflove, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., 1, 53, 2002]. In this talk we will present results from a new three-dimensional spherical FDTD model, which is designed for studies of ELF electromagnetic signals under 100 Hz in the earth-ionosphere cavity. The model accounts for a realistic latitudinal and longitudinal variation of ground conductivity (i.e., for the boundaries between oceans and continents) by employing a broadband surface impedance technique proposed in [Breggs et al., IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat., 41, 118, 1993]. The realistic distributions of atmospheric/lower ionospheric conductivity are derived from the international reference ionosphere model

  9. A Dynamic/Anisotropic Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Ionizing Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; West, Katie J.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Abrahms, Briana L.; Luetke, Nathan J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of ionizing radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms, and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation.

  10. Modelling the Climate - Greenland Ice Sheet Interaction in the Coupled Ice-sheet/Climate Model EC-EARTH - PISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Madsen, M. S.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Svendsen, S. H.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations show that the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass with an increasing speed during the past decades. Predicting the GrIS changes and their climate consequences relies on the understanding of the interaction of the GrIS with the climate system on both global and local scales, and requires climate model systems with an explicit and physically consistent ice sheet module. A fully coupled global climate model with a dynamical ice sheet model for the GrIS has recently been developed. The model system, EC-EARTH - PISM, consists of the EC-EARTH, an atmosphere, ocean and sea ice model system, and the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). The coupling of PISM includes a modified surface physical parameterization in EC-EARTH adapted to the land ice surface over glaciated regions in Greenland. The PISM ice sheet model is forced with the surface mass balance (SMB) directly computed inside the EC-EARTH atmospheric module and accounting for the precipitation, the surface evaporation, and the melting of snow and ice over land ice. PISM returns the simulated basal melt, ice discharge and ice cover (extent and thickness) as boundary conditions to EC-EARTH. This coupled system is mass and energy conserving without being constrained by any anomaly correction or flux adjustment, and hence is suitable for investigation of ice sheet - climate feedbacks. Three multi-century experiments for warm climate scenarios under (1) the RCP85 climate forcing, (2) an abrupt 4xCO2 and (3) an idealized 1% per year CO2 increase are performed using the coupled model system. The experiments are compared with their counterparts of the standard CMIP5 simulations (without the interactive ice sheet) to evaluate the performance of the coupled system and to quantify the GrIS feedbacks. In particular, the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet under the warm climate and its impacts on the climate system are investigated. Freshwater fluxes from the Greenland ice sheet melt to the Arctic

  11. The Earth's radiation belts modelling : main issues and key directions for improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, Vincent; Boscher, Daniel

    The Earth's radiation belts can be considered as an opened system covering a wide part of the inner magnetosphere which closely interacts with the surrounding cold plasma. Although its population constitutes only the highly energetic tail of the global inner magnetosphere plasma (electrons from a few tens of keV to more than 5 MeV and protons up to 500MeV), their modelling is of prime importance for satellite robustness design. They have been modelled at ONERA for more than 15 years now through the Salammbˆ code, which models the dynamic of the Earth's radiation belts at the drift timescale (order of the hour). It takes into accounts the main processes acting on the trapped particles, which depends on the electromagnetic configuration and on the characteristics of the surrounding cold plasma : the ionosphere as losses terms, the plasmasheet as sources ones and the plasmasphere through interactions (waves-particles interactions, coulomb scattering, electric fields shielding, . . . ). Consequently, a fine knowledge of these environments and their interactions with the radiation belts is of prime importance in their modelling. Issues in the modelling currently exist, but key directions for improvements can also be highlighted. This talk aims at presenting both of them according to recent developments performed at ONERA besides the Salammbˆ code. o

  12. Evaluating Land-Atmosphere Moisture Feedbacks in Earth System Models With Spaceborne Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, P. A.; Randerson, J. T.; Lawrence, D. M.; Swenson, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a set of metrics for measuring the feedback loop between the land surface moisture state and the atmosphere globally on an interannual time scale. These metrics consider both the forcing of terrestrial water storage (TWS) on subsequent atmospheric conditions as well as the response of TWS to antecedent atmospheric conditions. We designed our metrics to take advantage of more than one decade's worth of satellite observations of TWS from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) along with atmospheric variables from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), and Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES). Metrics derived from spaceborne observations were used to evaluate the strength of the feedback loop in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (LENS) and in several models that contributed simulations to Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We found that both forcing and response limbs of the feedback loop were generally stronger in tropical and temperate regions in CMIP5 models and even more so in LENS compared to satellite observations. Our analysis suggests that models may overestimate the strength of the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere, which is consistent with previous studies conducted across different spatial and temporal scales.

  13. PyrE, an interactive fire module within the NASA-GISS Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezuman, K.; Bauer, S. E.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2017-12-01

    Fires directly affect the composition of the atmosphere and Earth's radiation balance by emitting a suite of reactive gases and particles. Having an interactive fire module in an Earth System Model allows us to study the natural and anthropogenic drivers, feedbacks, and interactions of biomass burning in different time periods. To do so we have developed PyrE, the NASA-GISS interactive fire emissions model. PyrE uses the flammability, ignition, and suppression parameterization proposed by Pechony and Shindell (2009), and is coupled to a burned area and surface recovery parameterization. The burned area calculation follows CLM's approach (Li et al., 2012), paired with an offline recovery scheme based on Ent's Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) carbon pool turnover time. PyrE is driven by environmental variables calculated by climate simulations, population density data, MODIS fire counts and LAI retrievals, as well as GFED4s emissions. Since the model development required extensive use of reference datasets, in addition to comparing it to GFED4s BA, we evaluate it by studying the effect of fires on atmospheric composition and climate. Our results show good agreement globally, with some regional differences. Finally, we quantify the present day fire radiative forcing. The development of PyrE allowed us for the first time to interactively simulate climate and fire activity with GISS-ModelE3

  14. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; MacCready, Parker

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. Tomore » develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.« less

  15. The UK Earth System Models Marine Biogeochemical Evaluation Toolkit, BGC-val

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mora, Lee

    2017-04-01

    The Biogeochemical Validation toolkit, BGC-val, is a model and grid independent python-based marine model evaluation framework that automates much of the validation of the marine component of an Earth System Model. BGC-val was initially developed to be a flexible and extensible system to evaluate the spin up of the marine UK Earth System Model (UKESM). However, the grid-independence and flexibility means that it is straightforward to adapt the BGC-val framework to evaluate other marine models. In addition to the marine component of the UKESM, this toolkit has been adapted to compare multiple models, including models from the CMIP5 and iMarNet inter-comparison projects. The BGC-val toolkit produces multiple levels of analysis which are presented in a simple to use interactive html5 document. Level 1 contains time series analyses, showing the development over time of many important biogeochemical and physical ocean metrics, such as the Global primary production or the Drake passage current. The second level of BGC-val is an in-depth spatial analyses of a single point in time. This is a series of point to point comparison of model and data in various regions, such as a comparison of Surface Nitrate in the model vs data from the world ocean atlas. The third level analyses are specialised ad-hoc packages to go in-depth on a specific question, such as the development of Oxygen minimum zones in the Equatorial Pacific. In additional to the three levels, the html5 document opens with a Level 0 table showing a summary of the status of the model run. The beta version of this toolkit is available via the Plymouth Marine Laboratory Gitlab server and uses the BSD 3 clause license.

  16. Toward more realistic projections of soil carbon dynamics by Earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yiqi; Ahlstrom, Anders; Allison, Steven D.; ...

    2016-01-21

    Soil carbon (C) is a critical component of Earth system models (ESMs), and its diverse representations are a major source of the large spread across models in the terrestrial C sink from the third to fifth assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Improving soil C projections is of a high priority for Earth system modeling in the future IPCC and other assessments. To achieve this goal, we suggest that (1) model structures should reflect real-world processes, (2) parameters should be calibrated to match model outputs with observations, and (3) external forcing variables should accurately prescribe themore » environmental conditions that soils experience. First, most soil C cycle models simulate C input from litter production and C release through decomposition. The latter process has traditionally been represented by first-order decay functions, regulated primarily by temperature, moisture, litter quality, and soil texture. While this formulation well captures macroscopic soil organic C (SOC) dynamics, better understanding is needed of their underlying mechanisms as related to microbial processes, depth-dependent environmental controls, and other processes that strongly affect soil C dynamics. Second, incomplete use of observations in model parameterization is a major cause of bias in soil C projections from ESMs. Optimal parameter calibration with both pool-and flux-based data sets through data assimilation is among the highest priorities for near-term research to reduce biases among ESMs. Third, external variables are represented inconsistently among ESMs, leading to differences in modeled soil C dynamics. Furthermore, we recommend the implementation of traceability analyses to identify how external variables and model parameterizations influence SOC dynamics in different ESMs. Overall, projections of the terrestrial C sink can be substantially improved when reliable data sets are available to select the most representative

  17. CPMIP: measurements of real computational performance of Earth system models in CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Venkatramani; Maisonnave, Eric; Zadeh, Niki; Lawrence, Bryan N.; Biercamp, Joachim; Fladrich, Uwe; Aloisio, Giovanni; Benson, Rusty; Caubel, Arnaud; Durachta, Jeffrey; Foujols, Marie-Alice; Lister, Grenville; Mocavero, Silvia; Underwood, Seth; Wright, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    A climate model represents a multitude of processes on a variety of timescales and space scales: a canonical example of multi-physics multi-scale modeling. The underlying climate system is physically characterized by sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and natural stochastic variability, so very long integrations are needed to extract signals of climate change. Algorithms generally possess weak scaling and can be I/O and/or memory-bound. Such weak-scaling, I/O, and memory-bound multi-physics codes present particular challenges to computational performance. Traditional metrics of computational efficiency such as performance counters and scaling curves do not tell us enough about real sustained performance from climate models on different machines. They also do not provide a satisfactory basis for comparative information across models. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We introduce a set of metrics that can be used for the study of computational performance of climate (and Earth system) models. These measures do not require specialized software or specific hardware counters, and should be accessible to anyone. They are independent of platform and underlying parallel programming models. We show how these metrics can be used to measure actually attained performance of Earth system models on different machines, and identify the most fruitful areas of research and development for performance engineering. codes present particular challenges to computational performance. We present results for these measures for a diverse suite of models from several modeling centers, and propose to use these measures as a basis for a CPMIP, a computational performance model intercomparison project (MIP).

  18. Landlab: an Open-Source Python Library for Modeling Earth Surface Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Adams, J. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Hutton, E.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Landlab is an open-source Python modeling library that enables users to easily build unique models to explore earth surface dynamics. The Landlab library provides a number of tools and functionalities that are common to many earth surface models, thus eliminating the need for a user to recode fundamental model elements each time she explores a new problem. For example, Landlab provides a gridding engine so that a user can build a uniform or nonuniform grid in one line of code. The library has tools for setting boundary conditions, adding data to a grid, and performing basic operations on the data, such as calculating gradients and curvature. The library also includes a number of process components, which are numerical implementations of physical processes. To create a model, a user creates a grid and couples together process components that act on grid variables. The current library has components for modeling a diverse range of processes, from overland flow generation to bedrock river incision, from soil wetting and drying to vegetation growth, succession and death. The code is freely available for download (https://github.com/landlab/landlab) or can be installed as a Python package. Landlab models can also be built and run on Hydroshare (www.hydroshare.org), an online collaborative environment for sharing hydrologic data, models, and code. Tutorials illustrating a wide range of Landlab capabilities such as building a grid, setting boundary conditions, reading in data, plotting, using components and building models are also available (https://github.com/landlab/tutorials). The code is also comprehensively documented both online and natively in Python. In this presentation, we illustrate the diverse capabilities of Landlab. We highlight existing functionality by illustrating outcomes from a range of models built with Landlab - including applications that explore landscape evolution and ecohydrology. Finally, we describe the range of resources available for new

  19. Toward more realistic projections of soil carbon dynamics by Earth system models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Ahlström, Anders; Allison, Steven D.; Batjes, Niels H.; Brovkin, V.; Carvalhais, Nuno; Chappell, Adrian; Ciais, Philippe; Davidson, Eric A.; Finzi, Adien; Georgiou, Katerina; Guenet, Bertrand; Hararuk, Oleksandra; Harden, Jennifer; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Jiang, L.; Koven, Charles; Jackson, Robert B.; Jones, Chris D.; Lara, M.; Liang, J.; McGuire, A. David; Parton, William; Peng, Changhui; Randerson, J.; Salazar, Alejandro; Sierra, Carlos A.; Smith, Matthew J.; Tian, Hanqin; Todd-Brown, Katherine E. O; Torn, Margaret S.; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Wang, Ying; West, Tristram O.; Wei, Yaxing; Wieder, William R.; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xia; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) is a critical component of Earth system models (ESMs), and its diverse representations are a major source of the large spread across models in the terrestrial C sink from the third to fifth assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Improving soil C projections is of a high priority for Earth system modeling in the future IPCC and other assessments. To achieve this goal, we suggest that (1) model structures should reflect real-world processes, (2) parameters should be calibrated to match model outputs with observations, and (3) external forcing variables should accurately prescribe the environmental conditions that soils experience. First, most soil C cycle models simulate C input from litter production and C release through decomposition. The latter process has traditionally been represented by first-order decay functions, regulated primarily by temperature, moisture, litter quality, and soil texture. While this formulation well captures macroscopic soil organic C (SOC) dynamics, better understanding is needed of their underlying mechanisms as related to microbial processes, depth-dependent environmental controls, and other processes that strongly affect soil C dynamics. Second, incomplete use of observations in model parameterization is a major cause of bias in soil C projections from ESMs. Optimal parameter calibration with both pool- and flux-based data sets through data assimilation is among the highest priorities for near-term research to reduce biases among ESMs. Third, external variables are represented inconsistently among ESMs, leading to differences in modeled soil C dynamics. We recommend the implementation of traceability analyses to identify how external variables and model parameterizations influence SOC dynamics in different ESMs. Overall, projections of the terrestrial C sink can be substantially improved when reliable data sets are available to select the most representative model structure

  20. Making interdisciplinary solid Earth modeling and analysis tools accessible in a diverse undergraduate and graduate classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    I present results from ongoing, NSF-CAREER funded educational and research efforts that center around making numerical tools in seismology and geodynamics more accessible to a broader audience. The goal is not only to train students in quantitative, interdisciplinary research, but also to make methods more easily accessible to practitioners across disciplines. I describe the two main efforts that were funded, the Solid Earth Research and Teaching Environment (SEATREE, geosys.usc.edu/projects/seatree/), and a new Numerical Methods class. SEATREE is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate using solid Earth research tools in the undergraduate and graduate classroom and for interdisciplinary, scientific collaboration. We use only open-source software, and most programming is done in the Python computer language. We strive to make use of modern software design and development concepts while remaining compatible with traditional scientific coding and existing, legacy software. Our goals are to provide a fully contained, yet transparent package that lets users operate in an easy, graphically supported "black box" mode, while also allowing to look under the hood, for example to conduct numerous forward models to explore parameter space. SEATREE currently has several implemented modules, including on global mantle flow, 2D phase velocity tomography, and 2D mantle convection and was used at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and at a 2010 CIDER summer school tutorial. SEATREE was developed in collaboration with engineering and computer science undergraduate students, some of which have gone on to work in Earth Science projects. In the long run, we envision SEATREE to contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research, and making (numerical) experiments truly reproducible again. The other project is a set of lecture notes and Matlab exercises on Numerical Methods in solid Earth, focusing on finite difference and element methods. The

  1. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

  2. Displacements Study of an Earth Fill Dam Based on High Precision Geodetic Monitoring and Numerical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Luis Enrique; de Lacy, M Clara; Ramos, M Isabel; Cano, Juan Pedro; Herrera, Antonio Manuel; Avilés, Manuel; Gil, Antonio José

    2018-04-27

    The aim of this paper is to study the behavior of an earth fill dam, analyzing the deformations determined by high precision geodetic techniques and those obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM). A large number of control points were established around the area of the dam, and the measurements of their displacements took place during several periods. In this study, high-precision leveling and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) techniques were used to monitor vertical and horizontal displacements respectively. Seven surveys were carried out: February and July 2008, March and July 2013, August 2014, September 2015 and September 2016. Deformations were predicted, taking into account the general characteristics of an earth fill dam. A comparative evaluation of the results derived from predicted (FEM) and observed deformations shows the differences on average being 20 cm for vertical displacements, and 6 cm for horizontal displacements at the crest. These differences are probably due to the simplifications assumed during the FEM modeling process: critical sections are considered homogeneous along their longitude, and the properties of the materials were established according to the general characteristics of an earth fill dam. These characteristics were taken from the normative and similar studies in the country. This could also be due to the geodetic control points being anchored in the superficial layer of the slope when the construction of the dam was finished.

  3. Observation and excitation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in numerical models of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teed, R.; Hori, K.; Tobias, S.; Jones, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Several types of magnetohydrodynamic waves are theorised to operate in Earth's outer core but their detection is limited by the inability to probe the fluid core directly. Secular variation data and periodic changes in Earth's length-of-day provide evidence for the possible existence of waves. Numerical simulations of core dynamics enable us to search directly for waves and determine their properties. With this information it is possible to consider whether they can be the origin of features observed in observational data. We focus on two types of wave identified in our numerical experiments: i) torsional waves and ii) slow magnetic Rossby waves. Our models display periodic, Earth-like torsional waves that travel outwards from the tangent cylinder circumscribing the inner core. We discuss the properties of these waves and their similarites to observational data. Excitation is via a matching of the Alfvén frequency with that of small modes of convection focused at the tangent cylinder. The slow magnetic Rossby waves observed in our simulations show that these waves may account for some geomagnetic westward drifts observed at mid-latitudes. We present analysis showing excitation of waves by the convective instability and we discuss how the detection of these waves could also provide an estimate of the strength of the toroidal component of the magnetic field within the planetary fluid core.

  4. Earth Observations, Models and Geo-Design in Support of SDG Implementation and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H. P.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2016-12-01

    Implementation and Monitoring of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires support from Earth observation and scientific communities. Applying a goal-based approach to determine the data needs to the Targets and Indicators associated with the SDGs demonstrates that integration of environmental with socio-economic and statistical data is required. Large data gaps exist for the built environment. A Geo-Design platform can provide the infrastructure and conceptual model for the data integration. The development of policies and actions to foster the implementation of SDGs in many cases requires research and the development of tools to answer "what if" questions. Here, agent-based models and model webs combined with a Geo-Design platform are promising avenues. This advanced combined infrastructure can also play a crucial role in the necessary capacity building. We will use the example of SDG 5 (Gender equality) to illustrate these approaches. SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is used to underline the cross-goal linkages and the joint benefits of Earth observations, data integration, and modeling tools for multiple SDGs.

  5. VESL: The Virtual Earth Sheet Laboratory for Ice Sheet Modeling and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Larour, E. Y.; Quinn, J. D.; Halkides, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL), a scientific modeling and visualization tool delivered through an integrated web portal. This allows for the dissemination of data, simulation of physical processes, and promotion of climate literacy. The current iteration leverages NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), a state-of-the-art polar ice sheet dynamics model developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab and UC Irvine. We utilize the Emscripten source-to-source compiler to convert the C/C++ ISSM engine core to JavaScript, and bundled pre/post-processing JS scripts to be compatible with the existing ISSM Python/Matlab API. Researchers using VESL will be able to effectively present their work for public dissemination with little-to-no additional post-processing. Moreover, the portal allows for real time visualization and editing of models, cloud based computational simulation, and downloads of relevant data. This allows for faster publication in peer-reviewed journals and adaption of results for educational applications. Through application of this concept to multiple aspects of the Earth System, VESL is able to broaden data applications in the geosciences and beyond. At this stage, we still seek feedback from the greater scientific and public outreach communities regarding the ease of use and feature set of VESL. As we plan its expansion, we aim to achieve more rapid communication and presentation of scientific results.

  6. Approximation to cutoffs of higher modes of Rayleigh waves for a layered earth model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A cutoff defines the long-period termination of a Rayleigh-wave higher mode and, therefore is a key characteristic of higher mode energy relationship to several material properties of the subsurface. Cutoffs have been used to estimate the shear-wave velocity of an underlying half space of a layered earth model. In this study, we describe a method that replaces the multilayer earth model with a single surface layer overlying the half-space model, accomplished by harmonic averaging of velocities and arithmetic averaging of densities. Using numerical comparisons with theoretical models validates the single-layer approximation. Accuracy of this single-layer approximation is best defined by values of the calculated error in the frequency and phase velocity estimate at a cutoff. Our proposed method is intuitively explained using ray theory. Numerical results indicate that a cutoffs frequency is controlled by the averaged elastic properties within the passing depth of Rayleigh waves and the shear-wave velocity of the underlying half space. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  7. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research.

  8. Are Earth System model software engineering practices fit for purpose? A case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, S. M.; Johns, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    We present some analysis and conclusions from a case study of the culture and practices of scientists at the Met Office and Hadley Centre working on the development of software for climate and Earth System models using the MetUM infrastructure. The study examined how scientists think about software correctness, prioritize their requirements in making changes, and develop a shared understanding of the resulting models. We conclude that highly customized techniques driven strongly by scientific research goals have evolved for verification and validation of such models. In a formal software engineering context these represents costly, but invaluable, software integration tests with considerable benefits. The software engineering practices seen also exhibit recognisable features of both agile and open source software development projects - self-organisation of teams consistent with a meritocracy rather than top-down organisation, extensive use of informal communication channels, and software developers who are generally also users and science domain experts. We draw some general conclusions on whether these practices work well, and what new software engineering challenges may lie ahead as Earth System models become ever more complex and petascale computing becomes the norm.

  9. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  10. Reduced ENSO Variability at the LGM Revealed by an Isotope-Enabled Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Zhengyu; Brady, Esther; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Zhang, Jiaxu; Noone, David; Tomas, Robert; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Wong, Tony; Jahn, Alexandra; hide

    2017-01-01

    Studying the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the past can help us better understand its dynamics and improve its future projections. However, both paleoclimate reconstructions and model simulations of ENSO strength at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka B.P.) have led to contradicting results. Here we perform model simulations using the recently developed water isotope-enabled Community Earth System Model (iCESM). For the first time, model-simulated oxygen isotopes are directly compared with those from ENSO reconstructions using the individual foraminifera analysis (IFA). We find that the LGM ENSO is most likely weaker comparing with the preindustrial. The iCESM suggests that total variance of the IFA records may only reflect changes in the annual cycle instead of ENSO variability as previously assumed. Furthermore, the interpretation of subsurface IFA records can be substantially complicated by the habitat depth of thermocline-dwelling foraminifera and their vertical migration with a temporally varying thermocline.

  11. The effects of atmospheric chemistry on radiation budget in the Community Earth Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Czader, B.; Diao, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Jeong, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Earth Systems Model (CESM)-Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) simulations were performed to study the impact of atmospheric chemistry on the radiation budget over the surface within a weather prediction time scale. The secondary goal is to get a simplified and optimized chemistry module for the short time period. Three different chemistry modules were utilized to represent tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, which differ in how their reactions and species are represented: (1) simplified tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (approximately 30 species), (2) simplified tropospheric chemistry and comprehensive stratospheric chemistry from the Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 3 (MOZART-3, approximately 60 species), and (3) comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (MOZART-4, approximately 120 species). Our results indicate the different details in chemistry treatment from these model components affect the surface temperature and impact the radiation budget.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of earth and environmental models: a systematic review to guide scientific advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Pianosi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Sensitivity Analysis (SA) investigates how the variation in the output of a numerical model can be attributed to variations of its input factors. SA is increasingly being used in earth and environmental modelling for a variety of purposes, including uncertainty assessment, model calibration and diagnostic evaluation, dominant control analysis and robust decision-making. Here we provide some practical advice regarding best practice in SA and discuss important open questions based on a detailed recent review of the existing body of work in SA. Open questions relate to the consideration of input factor interactions, methods for factor mapping and the formal inclusion of discrete factors in SA (for example for model structure comparison). We will analyse these questions using relevant examples and discuss possible ways forward. We aim at stimulating the discussion within the community of SA developers and users regarding the setting of good practices and on defining priorities for future research.

  13. Gas-dynamic model and experimental study of the plasma properties in the Earth's magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobreva, Polya; Zastenker, Georgy; Kartalev, Monio; Borodkova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    This paper uses numerical self-consistent model to investigate the boundaries and structures in the Earth's magnetosheath. The model is developed to represent the interaction between the regions of the magnetosheath and magnetosphere. In the magnetosheath, the gas-dynamic approach is used for the description of the solar wind flow. The magnetosphere module is based on the modified Tsyganenko magnetic field model, where the magnetopause currents are calculated self-consistently. The magnetosheath boundaries are determined from the boundary conditions. WIND and ACE data are used as a solar wind monitor. The model calculations are compared with real satellite measurements of the boundary positions. The plasma parameters behavior in the magnetosheath is also discussed.

  14. Evaluating the Ocean Component of the US Navy Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean currents, temperature, and salinity observations are used to evaluate the ocean component of the US Navy Earth System Model. The ocean and atmosphere components of the system are an eddy-resolving (1/12.5° equatorial resolution) version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and a T359L50 version of the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), respectively. The system was integrated in hindcast mode and the ocean results are compared against unassimilated observations, a stand-alone version of HYCOM, and the Generalized Digital Environment Model ocean climatology. The different observation types used in the system evaluation are: drifting buoys, temperature profiles, salinity profiles, and acoustical proxies (mixed layer depth, sonic layer depth, below layer gradient, and acoustical trapping). To evaluate the system's performance in each different metric, a scorecard is used to translate the system's errors into scores, which provide an indication of the system's skill in both space and time.

  15. Numerical Mantle Convection Models of Crustal Formation in an Oceanic Environment in the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Thienen, P.; van den Berg, A. P.; Vlaar, N. J.

    2001-12-01

    The generation of basaltic crust in the early Earth by partial melting of mantle rocks, subject to investigation in this study, is thought to be a first step in the creation of proto-continents (consisting largely of felsic material), since partial melting of basaltic material was probably an important source for these more evolved rocks. In the early Archean the earth's upper mantle may have been hotter than today by as much as several hundred degrees centigrade. As a consequence, partial melting in shallow convective upwellings would have produced a layering of basaltic crust and underlying depleted (lherzolitic-harzburgitic) mantle peridotite which is much thicker than found under modern day oceanic ridges. When a basaltic crustal layer becomes sufficiently thick, a phase transition to eclogite may occur in the lower parts, which would cause delamination of this dense crustal layer and recycling of dense eclogite into the upper mantle. This recycling mechanism may have contributed significantly to the early cooling of the earth during the Archean (Vlaar et al., 1994). The delamination mechanism which limits the build-up of a thick basaltic crustal layer is switched off after sufficient cooling of the upper mantle has taken place. We present results of numerical modelling experiments of mantle convection including pressure release partial melting. The model includes a simple approximate melt segregation mechanism and basalt to eclogite phase transition, to account for the dynamic accumulation and recycling of the crust in an upper mantle subject to secular cooling. Finite element methods are used to solve for the viscous flow field and the temperature field, and lagrangian particle tracers are used to represent the evolving composition due to partial melting and accumulation of the basaltic crust. We find that this mechanism creates a basaltic crust of several tens of kilometers thickness in several hundreds of million years. This is accompanied by a cooling of

  16. Impact of orbit modeling on DORIS station position and Earth rotation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Filler, Vratislav

    2014-04-01

    The high precision of estimated station coordinates and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) obtained from satellite geodetic techniques is based on the precise determination of the satellite orbit. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of different orbit parameterizations on the accuracy of station coordinates and the ERPs derived from DORIS observations. In a series of experiments the DORIS data from the complete year 2011 were processed with different orbit model settings. First, the impact of precise modeling of the non-conservative forces on geodetic parameters was compared with results obtained with an empirical-stochastic modeling approach. Second, the temporal spacing of drag scaling parameters was tested. Third, the impact of estimating once-per-revolution harmonic accelerations in cross-track direction was analyzed. And fourth, two different approaches for solar radiation pressure (SRP) handling were compared, namely adjusting SRP scaling parameter or fixing it on pre-defined values. Our analyses confirm that the empirical-stochastic orbit modeling approach, which does not require satellite attitude information and macro models, results for most of the monitored station parameters in comparable accuracy as the dynamical model that employs precise non-conservative force modeling. However, the dynamical orbit model leads to a reduction of the RMS values for the estimated rotation pole coordinates by 17% for x-pole and 12% for y-pole. The experiments show that adjusting atmospheric drag scaling parameters each 30 min is appropriate for DORIS solutions. Moreover, it was shown that the adjustment of cross-track once-per-revolution empirical parameter increases the RMS of the estimated Earth rotation pole coordinates. With recent data it was however not possible to confirm the previously known high annual variation in the estimated geocenter z-translation series as well as its mitigation by fixing the SRP parameters on pre-defined values.

  17. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multiphysics problems in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Cian R.; Spiegelman, Marc; van Keken, Peter E.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce and describe a new software infrastructure TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler, for the rapid and reproducible description and solution of coupled multiphysics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced, and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and Earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high-level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multiphysics problems (PETSc), and an options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible, while still permitting the individual researcher considerable latitude in model construction. TerraFERMA solves partial differential equations using the finite element method. It is particularly well suited for nonlinear problems with complex coupling between components. TerraFERMA is open-source and available at http://terraferma.github.io, which includes links to documentation and example input files.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS) Snow and Ice Products for Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Kaminski, M.; Cavalieri, D.; Dickinson, R.; Marquis, M.; Riggs, G.; Robinson, D.; VanWoert, M.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Snow and ice are the key components of the Earth's cryosphere, and their influence on the Earth's energy balance is very significant due at least in part to the large areal extent and high albedo characterizing these features. Large changes in the cryosphere have been measured over the last century and especially over the past decade, and remote sensing plays a pivotal role in documenting these changes. Many of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) products derived from instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites are useful for measuring changes in features that are associated with climate change. The utility of the products is continually enhanced as the length of the time series increases. To gain a more coherent view of the cryosphere and its historical and recent changes, the EOS products may be employed together, in conjunction with other sources of data, and in models. To further this goal, the first EOS Snow and Ice Products Workshop was convened. The specific goals of the workshop were to provide current and prospective users of EOS snow and ice products up-to-date information on the products, their validation status and future enhancements, to help users utilize the data products through hands-on demonstrations, and to facilitate the integration of EOS products into models. Oral and poster sessions representing a wide variety of snow and ice topics were held; three panels were also convened to discuss workshop themes. Panel discussions focused on data fusion and assimilation of the products into models. Approximately 110 people attended, representing a wide array of interests and organizations in the cryospheric community.

  19. Increasing the Use of Earth Science Data and Models in Air Quality Management.

    PubMed

    Milford, Jana B; Knight, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had. The air quality managers we surveyed identified meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter, emissions from mobile sources, and interstate air pollution transport as top challenges in need of improved information. Most survey respondents viewed inadequate coverage or frequency of satellite observations, data uncertainty, and lack of staff time or resources as barriers to increased use of satellite data by their organizations. Managers who have been involved with AQAST indicated that the program has helped build awareness of NASA Earth science products, and assisted their organizations with retrieval and interpretation of satellite data and with application of global chemistry and climate models. AQAST has also helped build a network between researchers and air quality managers with potential for further collaborations. NASA's Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) aims to increase the use of satellite data and global chemistry and climate models for air quality management purposes, by supporting research and tool development projects of interest to both groups. Our survey and interviews of air quality managers indicate they found value in many AQAST projects and particularly appreciated the connections to the research community that the program facilitated. Managers expressed interest in receiving continued support for their organizations' use of

  20. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the world's space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organism's self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as "pathfinders," which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes. In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  1. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the worlds space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organisms self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as pathfinders, which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes.In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  2. Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.

  3. The Community Earth System Model-Polar Climate Working Group and the status of CESM2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.; DuVivier, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Polar Climate Working Group (PCWG) is a consortium of scientists who are interested in modeling and understanding the climate in the Arctic and the Antarctic, and how polar climate processes interact with and influence climate at lower latitudes. Our members come from universities and laboratories, and our interests span all elements of polar climate, from the ocean depths to the top of the atmosphere. In addition to conducting scientific modeling experiments, we are charged with contributing to the development and maintenance of the state-of-the-art sea ice model component (CICE) used in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). A recent priority for the PCWG has been to come up with innovative ways to bring the observational and modeling communities together. This will allow for more robust validation of climate model simulations, the development and implementation of more physically-based model parameterizations, improved data assimilation capabilities, and the better use of models to design and implement field experiments. These have been informed by topical workshops and scientific visitors that we have hosted in these areas. These activities will be discussed and information on how the better integration of observations and models has influenced the new version of the CESM, which is due to be released in late 2017, will be provided. Additionally, we will address how enhanced interactions with the observational community will contribute to model developments and validation moving forward.

  4. Atmospheric Constituents in GEOS-5: Components for an Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawson, Steven; Douglass, Anne; Duncan, Bryan; Nielsen, Eric; Ott, Leslie; Strode, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The GEOS-S model is being developed for weather and climate processes, including the implementation of "Earth System" components. While the stratospheric chemistry capabilities are mature, we are presently extending this to include predictions of the tropospheric composition and chemistry - this includes CO2, CH4, CO, nitrogen species, etc. (Aerosols are also implemented, but are beyond the scope of this paper.) This work will give an overview of our chemistry modules, the approaches taken to represent surface emissions and uptake of chemical species, and some studies of the sensitivity of the atmospheric circulation to changes in atmospheric composition. Results are obtained through focused experiments and multi-decadal simulations.

  5. On analytic modeling of lunar perturbations of artificial satellites of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, M. T.

    1989-06-01

    Two different procedures for analytically modeling the effects of the moon's direct gravitational force on artificial earth satellites are discussed from theoretical and numerical viewpoints. One is developed using classical series expansions of inclination and eccentricity for both the satellite and the moon, and the other employs the method of averaging. Both solutions are seen to have advantages, but it is shown that while the former is more accurate in special situations, the latter is quicker and more practical for the general orbit determination problem where observed data are used to correct the orbit in near real time.

  6. Three-dimensional spherical models of convection in the earth's mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercovici, Dave; Schubert, Gerald; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional spherical models of mantle convection in the earth reveal that upwelling cylindrical plumes and downwelling planar sheets are the primary features of mantle circulation. Thus subduction zones and descending sheetlike slabs in the mantle are fundamental characteristics of thermal convection in a spherical shell and are not merely the consequences of the rigidity of the slabs, which are cooler than the surrounding mantle. Cylindrical mantle plumes that cause hot spots such as Hawaii are probably the only form of active upwelling and are therefore not just secondary convective currents separate from the large-scale mantle circulation.

  7. An assessment of crater erosional histories on the Earth and Mars using digital terrain models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. L.; Muller, J.-P.; Murray, J. B.

    The research will examine quantitatively the geomorphology of both Terrestrial and Martian craters. The erosional and sub-surface processes will be investigated to understand how these affect a crater's morphology. For example, the Barringer crater in Arizona has an unusual shape. The Earth has a very high percentage of water both in the atmosphere as clouds or rain and under the surface. The presence of water will therefore affect a crater's formation and its subsequent erosional modification. On Mars there is little or no water present currently, though recent observations suggest there may be near-surface ice in some areas. How do craters formed in the Martian environment therefore differ from Terrestrial ones? How has the structure of Martian craters changed in areas of possible fluvial activity? How does the surface material affect crater formation? How does the Earth's fluvial activity affect a crater's evolution? At present, four measurements of circularity have been used to describe a crater (Murray & Guest, 1972). These parameters will be re-examined to see how effectively they describe Terrestrial and Martian craters using high resolution DTMs which were not available at the time of the original study. The model described by Forsberg-Taylor et al. 2004, and others will also be applied to results obtained from the chosen craters to assess how effectively these craters are described. Both hypsometric curves and hydrological analysis will be used to assess crater evolution. A suitable criterion for the selection of Terrestrial and Martian craters is essential for this type of research. Terrestrial craters have been selected in arid or semi-arid terrain with crater diameters larger than one kilometre. Craters less than five million years old would be ideal. However, this was too restrictive and so a variety of crater ages have had to be used. Eight terrestrial craters have been selected in arid or semi-arid areas for study, using the Earth Impact Database and

  8. Normal Mode Derived Models of the Physical Properties of Earth's Outer Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's outer core, the largest reservoir of metal in our planet, is comprised of an iron alloy of an uncertain composition. Its dynamical behaviour is responsible for the generation of Earth's magnetic field, with convection driven both by thermal and chemical buoyancy fluxes. Existing models of the seismic velocity and density of the outer core exhibit some variation, and there are only a small number of models which aim to represent the outer core's density.It is therefore important that we develop a better understanding of the physical properties of the outer core. Though most of the outer core is likely to be well mixed, it is possible that the uppermost outer core is stably stratified: it may be enriched in light elements released during the growth of the solid, iron enriched, inner core; by elements dissolved from the mantle into the outer core; or by exsolution of compounds previously dissolved in the liquid metal which will eventually be swept into the mantle. The stratified layer may host MAC or Rossby waves and it could impede communication between the chemically differentiated mantle and outer core, including screening out some of the geodynamo's signal. We use normal mode center frequencies to estimate the physical properties of the outer core in a Bayesian framework. We estimate the mineral physical parameters needed to best produce velocity and density models of the outer core which are consistent with the normal mode observations. We require that our models satisfy realistic physical constraints. We create models of the outer core with and without a distinct uppermost layer and assess the importance of this region.Our normal mode-derived models are compared with observations of body waves which travel through the outer core. In particular, we consider SmKS waves which are especially sensitive to the uppermost outer core and are therefore an important way to understand the robustness of our models.

  9. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  10. Dynamic Electrothermal Model of a Sputtered Thermopile Thermal Radiation Detector for Earth Radiation Budget Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weckmann, Stephanie

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a program sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aimed at evaluating the global energy balance. Current scanning radiometers used for CERES consist of thin-film thermistor bolometers viewing the Earth through a Cassegrain telescope. The Thermal Radiation Group, a laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, is currently studying a new sensor concept to replace the current bolometer: a thermopile thermal radiation detector. This next-generation detector would consist of a thermal sensor array made of thermocouple junction pairs, or thermopiles. The objective of the current research is to perform a thermal analysis of the thermopile. Numerical thermal models are particularly suited to solve problems for which temperature is the dominant mechanism of the operation of the device (through the thermoelectric effect), as well as for complex geometries composed of numerous different materials. Feasibility and design specifications are studied by developing a dynamic electrothermal model of the thermopile using the finite element method. A commercial finite element-modeling package, ALGOR, is used.

  11. Comparison of eigenvectors for coupled seismo-electromagnetic layered-Earth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobbe, N.; Slob, E. C.; Thorbecke, J. W.

    2016-07-01

    We study the accuracy and numerical stability of three eigenvector sets for modelling the coupled poroelastic and electromagnetic layered-Earth response. We use a known eigenvector set, its flux-normalized version and a newly derived flux-normalized set. The new set is chosen such that the system is properly uncoupled when the coupling between the poroelastic and electromagnetic fields vanishes. We carry out two different numerical stability tests: the first test focuses on the internal system, eigenvector and eigenvalue consistency; the second test investigates the stability and preciseness of the flux-normalized systems by looking at identity relations. We find that the known set shows the largest deviation for both tests, whereas the new set performs best. In two additional numerical modelling experiments, these numerical inaccuracies are shown to generate numerical noise levels comparable to small signals, such as signals coming from the important interface conversion responses, especially when the coupling coefficient is small. When coupling vanishes completely, the known set does not produce proper results. The new set produces numerically stable and accurate results in all situations. We therefore strongly recommend to use this newly derived set for future layered-Earth seismo-electromagnetic modelling experiments.

  12. VESL: The Virtual Earth Sheet Laboratory for Ice Sheet Modeling and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Larour, E. Y.; Quinn, J. D.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL), a scientific modeling and visualization tool delivered through an integrated web portal for dissemination of data, simulation of physical processes, and promotion of climate literacy. The current prototype leverages NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), a state-of-the-art polar ice sheet dynamics model developed at the Jet Propulsion Lab and UC Irvine. We utilize the Emscripten source-to-source compiler to convert the C/C++ ISSM engine core to JavaScript, and bundled pre/post-processing JS scripts to be compatible with the existing ISSM Python/Matlab API. Researchers using VESL will be able to effectively present their work for public dissemination with little-to-no additional post-processing. This will allow for faster publication in peer-reviewed journals and adaption of results for educational applications. Through future application of this concept to multiple aspects of the Earth System, VESL has the potential to broaden data applications in the geosciences and beyond. At this stage, we seek feedback from the greater scientific and public outreach communities regarding the ease of use and feature set of VESL, as we plan its expansion, and aim to achieve more rapid communication and presentation of scientific results.

  13. Earth System Models Underestimate Soil Carbon Diagnostic Times in Dry and Cold Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, W.; Xia, J.; Zhou, X.; Huang, K.; Huang, Y.; Jian, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xu, X.; Liang, J.; Wang, Y. P.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Soils contain the largest organic carbon (C) reservoir in the Earth's surface and strongly modulate the terrestrial feedback to climate change. Large uncertainty exists in current Earth system models (ESMs) in simulating soil organic C (SOC) dynamics, calling for a systematic diagnosis on their performance based on observations. Here, we built a global database of SOC diagnostic time (i.e.,turnover times; τsoil) measured at 320 sites with four different approaches. We found that the estimated τsoil was comparable among approaches of 14C dating () (median with 25 and 75 percentiles), 13C shifts due to vegetation change () and the ratio of stock over flux (), but was shortest from laboratory incubation studies (). The state-of-the-art ESMs underestimated the τsoil in most biomes, even by >10 and >5 folds in cold and dry regions, respectively. Moreover,we identified clear negative dependences of τsoil on temperature and precipitation in both of the observational and modeling results. Compared with Community Land Model (version 4), the incorporation of soil vertical profile (CLM4.5) could substantially extend the τsoil of SOC. Our findings suggest the accuracy of climate-C cycle feedback in current ESMs could be enhanced by an improved understanding of SOC dynamics under the limited hydrothermal conditions.

  14. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    DOE PAGES

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; ...

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH MODEL: ANALYSIS OF EXOPLANET LIGHT CURVES AND MAPPING THE NEXT EARTH WITH THE NEW WORLDS OBSERVER

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, P. H. H.; Cash, W.

    2009-08-01

    The orbital light curve of a terrestrial exoplanet will likely contain valuable information about the surface and atmospheric features of the planet, both in its overall shape and hourly variations. We have constructed an empirically based code capable of simulating observations of the Earth from any orientation, at any time of year with continuously updated cloud and snow coverage with a New Worlds Observatory. By simulating these observations over a full orbital revolution at a distance of 10 pc we determine that the detection of an obliquity or seasonal terrain change is possible at low inclinations. In agreement with othermore » studies, a 4 m New Worlds Observer can accurately determine the rotation rate of the planet at a success rate from {approx}30% to 80% with only 5 days of observations depending on the signal to noise of the observations. We also attempt simple inversions of these diurnal light curves to sketch a map of the reflecting planet's surface features. This mapping technique is only successful with highly favorable systems and in particular requires that the cloud coverage must be lower than the Earth's average. Our test case of a 2 M {sub +} planet at 7 pc distance with low exo-zodiacal light and 25% cloud coverage produced crude, but successful results. Additionally, with these highly favorable systems NWO may be able to discern the presence of liquid surface water (or other smooth surfaces) though it requires a complex detection available only at crescent phases in high inclination systems.« less

  16. PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX): Modelling Platform for Earth System Observations and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    As the part of the PEEX initiative, for the purpose of supporting the PEEX observational system and answering on the PEEX scientific questions, a hierarchy/ framework of modern multi-scale models for different elements of the Earth System integrated with the observation system is needed. One of the acute topics in the international debate on land-atmosphere interactions in relation to global change is the Earth System Modeling (ESM). The question is whether the ESM components actually represent how the Earth is functioning. The ESMs consist of equations describing the processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, terrestrial and marine biosphere. ESMs are the best tools for analyzing the effect of different environmental changes on future climate or for studying the role of whole processes in the Earth System. These types of analysis and prediction of the future change are especially important in the Arctic latitudes, where climate change is proceeding fastest and where near-surface warming has been about twice the global average during the recent decades. The processes, and hence parameterization, in ESMs are still based on insufficient knowledge of physical, chemical and biological mechanisms involved in the climate system and the resolution of known processes is insufficient. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere-ocean interactions using ESMs provides a way to explore the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of land system and on climate. There is a lack, however, ways to forward a necessary process understanding effectively to ESMs and to link all this to the decision-making process. Arctic-boreal geographical domain plays significant role in terms of green-house gases and anthropogenic emissions and as an aerosol source area in the Earth System. The PEEX Modelling Platform (PEEX-MP) is characterized by: • An ensemble approach with the integration of modelling results from different models/ countries etc.; • A hierarchy of

  17. Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balter, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

  18. Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activiy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Vishal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communication (Ecom) Modeling, Analysis, and Testbed (EMAT) activity performed by Code 540 in support of the Ecom project. Ecom is the ground-to-ground data transport system for operational EOS traffic. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Communications (Nascom) Division, Code 540, is responsible for implementing Ecom. Ecom interfaces with various systems to transport EOS forward link commands, return link telemetry, and science payload data. To understand the complexities surrounding the design and implementation of Ecom, it is necessary that sufficient testbedding, modeling, and analysis be conducted prior to the design phase. These activities, when grouped, are referred to as the EMAT activity. This paper describes work accomplished to date in each of the three major EMAT activities: modeling, analysis, and testbedding.

  19. A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair; Medlyn, Belinda E; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Bonan, Gordon; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Dietze, Michael C; Kattge, Jens; Leakey, Andrew D B; Mercado, Lina M; Niinemets, Ülo; Prentice, I Colin; Serbin, Shawn P; Sitch, Stephen; Way, Danielle A; Zaehle, Sönke

    2017-01-01

    Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO 2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content. We identified research areas where limited process knowledge prevents inclusion of physiological phenomena in current TBMs and research areas where data are urgently needed for model parameterization or evaluation. We provide a roadmap for new science needed to improve the representation of photosynthesis in the next generation of terrestrial biosphere and Earth system models. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half-space and lithosphere-asthenosphere earth models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    By virtue of the images used in the dislocation solution, the deformation at the free surface produced throughout the earthquake cycle by slippage on a long strike-slip fault in an Earth model consisting of an elastic plate (lithosphere) overlying a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere) can be duplicated by prescribed slip on a vertical fault embedded in an elastic half-space. Inversion of 1973-1988 geodetic measurements of deformation across the segment of the San Andreas fault in the Transverse Ranges north of Los Angeles for the half-space equivalent slip distribution suggests no significant slip on the fault above 30 km and a uniform slip rate of 36 mm/yr below 30 km. One equivalent lithosphere-asthenosphere model would have a 30-km thick lithosphere and an asthenosphere relaxation time greater than 33 years, but other models are possible. -from Author

  1. Observed changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness from GRACE data and geophysical models.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Ditmar, P; Riva, R

    A new methodology is proposed to estimate changes in the Earth's dynamic oblateness ([Formula: see text] or equivalently, [Formula: see text]) on a monthly basis. The algorithm uses monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity solutions, an ocean bottom pressure model and a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model. The resulting time series agree remarkably well with a solution based on satellite laser ranging (SLR) data. Seasonal variations of the obtained time series show little sensitivity to the choice of GRACE solutions. Reducing signal leakage in coastal areas when dealing with GRACE data and accounting for self-attraction and loading effects when dealing with water redistribution in the ocean is crucial in achieving close agreement with the SLR-based solution in terms of de-trended solutions. The obtained trend estimates, on the other hand, may be less accurate due to their dependence on the GIA models, which still carry large uncertainties.

  2. Evaluation of EGM2008 Earth Gravitational Model in Algeria using gravity and GPS/levelling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benahmed Daho, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present work focuses on the evaluation of the EGM2008 geopotential model that was recently released by the NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, U.S)/EGM-development team, in Algeria using the free air gravity anomalies supplied by BGI and GETECH, some of the precise GPS data collected from the international TYRGEONET (TYRhenian GEOdynamical NETwork) and ALGEONET (ALGerian GEOdynamical NETwork) projects and the last Algerian local gravimetric geoid model. Additional comparisons of the terrestrial point data with the corresponding values obtained from other geopotential models were made. Five global geopotential models were used in this comparison: the Preliminary Earth Gravitational Model PGM2007A, the combined CHAMP and GRACE model EIGEN-CG01C, the combined GRACE and LAGEOS model EIGEN-GL04C, OSU91A and EGM96. The study shows that all tested models are an improvement over OSU91A geopotential model used in all previous Algerian geoid computations and that new released combined model (EGM2008) is relatively superior to other tested models in the Algerian region. According to our numerical results, the new EGM2008 model fits better the observed values used in this investigation. Its standard deviations fit with GPS/levelling data are 21.4cm and 18.7cm before and after fitting using four-parameters transformation model. We strongly recommend the use of this new model in the remove-restore technique for the computation of the improved geoid for Algeria. In addition to these more general investigations, special GPS campaign has been performed for altimetric auscultation of a storage tank in which we wanted to test the possibilities to replace levelling by GPS measurements. The evaluation revealed promising results but also that much attention has to be paid on the GPS evaluation method. Key words: Geopotential model, TYRGEONET and ALGEONET projects, GPS/levelling data.

  3. Enhancing Earth Observation and Modeling for Tsunami Disaster Response and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Post, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In the aftermath of catastrophic natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, our society has experienced significant difficulties in assessing disaster impact in the limited amount of time. In recent years, the quality of satellite sensors and access to and use of satellite imagery and services has greatly improved. More and more space agencies have embraced data-sharing policies that facilitate access to archived and up-to-date imagery. Tremendous progress has been achieved through the continuous development of powerful algorithms and software packages to manage and process geospatial data and to disseminate imagery and geospatial datasets in near-real time via geo-web-services, which can be used in disaster-risk management and emergency response efforts. Satellite Earth observations now offer consistent coverage and scope to provide a synoptic overview of large areas, repeated regularly. These can be used to compare risk across different countries, day and night, in all weather conditions, and in trans-boundary areas. On the other hand, with use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, the great advances of real-time simulation have been achieved. The data and information derived from satellite Earth observations, integrated with in situ information and simulation modeling provides unique value and the necessary complement to socio-economic data. Emphasis also needs to be placed on ensuring space-based data and information are used in existing and planned national and local disaster risk management systems, together with other data and information sources as a way to strengthen the resilience of communities. Through the case studies of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster, we aim to discuss how earth observations and modeling, in combination with local, in situ data and information sources, can support the decision-making process before, during and after a disaster strikes.

  4. Constraints on Climate and Habitability for Earth-like Exoplanets Determined from a General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Eric T.; Toon, Owen B.; Shields, Aomawa L.

    Conventional definitions of habitability require abundant liquid surface water to exist continuously over geologic timescales. Water in each of its thermodynamic phases interacts with solar and thermal radiation and is the cause for strong climatic feedbacks. Thus, assessments of the habitable zone require models to include a complete treatment of the hydrological cycle over geologic time. Here, we use the Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study the evolution of climate for an Earth-like planet at constant CO{sub 2}, under a wide range of stellar fluxes from F-, G-, and K-dwarf main sequence stars. Aroundmore » each star we find four stable climate states defined by mutually exclusive global mean surface temperatures ( T {sub s}); snowball ( T {sub s} ≤ 235 K), waterbelt (235 K ≤ T {sub s} ≤ 250 K), temperate (275 K ≤ T {sub s} ≤ 315 K), and moist greenhouse ( T {sub s} ≥ 330 K). Each is separated by abrupt climatic transitions. Waterbelt, temperate, and cooler moist greenhouse climates can maintain open-ocean against both sea ice albedo and hydrogen escape processes respectively, and thus constitute habitable worlds. We consider the warmest possible habitable planet as having T {sub s} ∼ 355 K, at which point diffusion limited water-loss could remove an Earth ocean in ∼1 Gyr. Without long timescale regulation of non-condensable greenhouse species at Earth-like temperatures and pressures, such as CO{sub 2}, habitability can be maintained for an upper limit of ∼2.2, ∼2.4, and ∼4.7 Gyr around F-, G-, and K-dwarf stars respectively, due to main sequence brightening.« less

  5. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s-1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.

  6. Recent results on modelling the spatial and temporal structure of the Earth's gravity field.

    PubMed

    Moore, P; Zhang, Q; Alothman, A

    2006-04-15

    The Earth's gravity field plays a central role in sea-level change. In the simplest application a precise gravity field will enable oceanographers to capitalize fully on the altimetric datasets collected over the past decade or more by providing a geoid from which absolute sea-level topography can be recovered. However, the concept of a static gravity field is now redundant as we can observe temporal variability in the geoid due to mass redistribution in or on the total Earth system. Temporal variability, associated with interactions between the land, oceans and atmosphere, can be investigated through mass redistributions with, for example, flow of water from the land being balanced by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, as ocean transport is an important contributor to the mass redistribution the time varying gravity field can also be used to validate Global Ocean Circulation models. This paper will review the recent history of static and temporal gravity field recovery, from the 1980s to the present day. In particular, mention will be made of the role of satellite laser ranging and other space tracking techniques, satellite altimetry and in situ gravity which formed the basis of gravity field determination until the last few years. With the launch of Challenging Microsatellite Payload and Gravity and Circulation Experiment (GRACE) our knowledge of the spatial distribution of the Earth's gravity field is taking a leap forward. Furthermore, GRACE is now providing insight into temporal variability through 'monthly' gravity field solutions. Prior to this data we relied on satellite tracking, Global Positioning System and geophysical models to give us insight into the temporal variability. We will consider results from these methodologies and compare them to preliminary results from the GRACE mission.

  7. Constraints on Climate and Habitability for Earth-like Exoplanets Determined from a General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Eric T.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Kopparapu, Ravi K.; Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Toon, Owen B.

    2017-03-01

    Conventional definitions of habitability require abundant liquid surface water to exist continuously over geologic timescales. Water in each of its thermodynamic phases interacts with solar and thermal radiation and is the cause for strong climatic feedbacks. Thus, assessments of the habitable zone require models to include a complete treatment of the hydrological cycle over geologic time. Here, we use the Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study the evolution of climate for an Earth-like planet at constant CO2, under a wide range of stellar fluxes from F-, G-, and K-dwarf main sequence stars. Around each star we find four stable climate states defined by mutually exclusive global mean surface temperatures (T s); snowball (T s ≤ 235 K), waterbelt (235 K ≤ T s ≤ 250 K), temperate (275 K ≤ T s ≤ 315 K), and moist greenhouse (T s ≥ 330 K). Each is separated by abrupt climatic transitions. Waterbelt, temperate, and cooler moist greenhouse climates can maintain open-ocean against both sea ice albedo and hydrogen escape processes respectively, and thus constitute habitable worlds. We consider the warmest possible habitable planet as having T s ˜ 355 K, at which point diffusion limited water-loss could remove an Earth ocean in ˜1 Gyr. Without long timescale regulation of non-condensable greenhouse species at Earth-like temperatures and pressures, such as CO2, habitability can be maintained for an upper limit of ˜2.2, ˜2.4, and ˜4.7 Gyr around F-, G-, and K-dwarf stars respectively, due to main sequence brightening.

  8. The Earth Microbiome Project and modeling the planets microbial potential (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of Earth's climate and ecology requires multiscale observations of the biosphere, of which microbial life are a major component. However, to acquire and process physical samples of soil, water and air that comprise the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution to capture the immense variation in microbial dynamics, would require a herculean effort and immense financial resources dwarfing even the most ambitious projects to date. To overcome this hurdle we created the Earth Microbiome Project, a crowd-sourced effort to acquire physical samples from researchers around the world that are, importantly, contextualized with physical, chemical and biological data detailing the environmental properties of that sample in the location and time it was acquired. The EMP leverages these existing efforts to target a systematic analysis of microbial taxonomic and functional dynamics across a vast array of environmental parameter gradients. The EMP captures the environmental gradients, location, time and sampling protocol information about every sample donated by our valued collaborators. Physical samples are then processed using a standardized DNA extraction, PCR, and shotgun sequencing protocol to generate comparable data regarding the microbial community structure and function in each sample. To date we have processed >17,000 samples from 40 different biomes. One of the key goals of the EMP is to map the spatiotemporal variability of microbial communities to capture the changes in important functional processes that need to be appropriately expressed in models to provide reliable forecasts of ecosystem phenotype across our changing planet. This is essential if we are to develop economically sound strategies to be good stewards of our Earth. The EMP recognizes that environments are comprised of complex sets of interdependent parameters and that the development of useful predictive computational models of both terrestrial and atmospheric systems requires

  9. Landlab: A numerical modeling framework for evolving Earth surfaces from mountains to the coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Adams, J. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Hutton, E.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Nudurupati, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    Landlab is an open-source, user-friendly, component-based modeling framework for exploring the evolution of Earth's surface. Landlab itself is not a model. Instead, it is a computational framework that facilitates the development of numerical models of coupled earth surface processes. The Landlab Python library includes a gridding engine and process components, along with support functions for tasks such as reading in DEM data and input variables, setting boundary conditions, and plotting and outputting data. Each user of Landlab builds his or her own unique model. The first step in building a Landlab model is generally initializing a grid, either regular (raster) or irregular (e.g. delaunay or radial), and process components. This initialization process involves reading in relevant parameter values and data. The process components act on the grid to alter grid properties over time. For example, a component exists that can track the growth, death, and succession of vegetation over time. There are also several components that evolve surface elevation, through processes such as fluvial sediment transport and linear diffusion, among others. Users can also build their own process components, taking advantage of existing functions in Landlab such as those that identify grid connectivity and calculate gradients and flux divergence. The general nature of the framework makes it applicable to diverse environments - from bedrock rivers to a pile of sand - and processes acting over a range of spatial and temporal scales. In this poster we illustrate how a user builds a model using Landlab and propose a number of ways in which Landlab can be applied in coastal environments - from dune migration to channelization of barrier islands. We seek input from the coastal community as to how the process component library can be expanded to explore the diverse phenomena that act to shape coastal environments.

  10. Evolution of errors in the altimetric bathymetry model used by Google Earth and GEBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze errors in the global bathymetry models of Smith and Sandwell that combine satellite altimetry with acoustic soundings and shorelines to estimate depths. Versions of these models have been incorporated into Google Earth and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). We use Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) multibeam surveys not previously incorporated into the models as "ground truth" to compare against model versions 7.2 through 12.1, defining vertical differences as "errors." Overall error statistics improve over time: 50th percentile errors declined from 57 to 55 to 49 m, and 90th percentile errors declined from 257 to 235 to 219 m, in versions 8.2, 11.1 and 12.1. This improvement is partly due to an increasing number of soundings incorporated into successive models, and partly to improvements in the satellite gravity model. Inspection of specific sites reveals that changes in the algorithms used to interpolate across survey gaps with altimetry have affected some errors. Versions 9.1 through 11.1 show a bias in the scaling from gravity in milliGals to topography in meters that affected the 15-160 km wavelength band. Regionally averaged (>160 km wavelength) depths have accumulated error over successive versions 9 through 11. These problems have been mitigated in version 12.1, which shows no systematic variation of errors with depth. Even so, version 12.1 is in some respects not as good as version 8.2, which employed a different algorithm.

  11. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  12. Characteristics of Quasi-Biennial Oscillation simulation in the Meteorological Research Institute earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Naoe, H.

    2016-12-01

    Whether climate models drive Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) appropriately is important to assess QBO impact on climate change such as global warming and solar related variation. However, there were few models generating QBO in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). This study focuses on dynamical structure of the QBO and its sensitivity to background wind pattern and model configuration. We present preliminary results of experiments designed by "Towards Improving the QBO in Global Climate Models (QBOi)", which is derived from the Stratosphere-troposphere processes and their role in climate (SPARC), in the Meteorological Research Institute earth system model, MRI-ESM2. The simulations were performed in present-day climate condition, repeated annual cycle condition with various CO2 level and sea surface temperatures, and QBO hindcast. In the present climate simulation, zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere generally exhibits realistic behavior of the QBO. Equatorial zonal wind variability associated with QBO is overestimated in upper stratosphere and underestimated in lower stratosphere. In the MRI-ESM2, the QBO behavior is mainly driven by gravity wave drag parametrization (GWDP) introduced in Hines (1997). Comparing to reanalyses, shortage of resolved wave forcing is found especially in equatorial lower stratosphere. These discrepancies can be attributed to difference in wave forcing, background wind pattern and model configuration. We intend to show results of additional sensitivity experiments to examine how model configuration and background wind pattern affect resolved wave source, wave propagation characteristics, and QBO behavior.

  13. Flexible climate modeling systems: Lessons from Snowball Earth, Titan and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models are only useful to the extent that real understanding can be extracted from them. Most leading- edge problems in climate change, paleoclimate and planetary climate require a high degree of flexibility in terms of incorporating model physics -- for example in allowing methane or CO2 to be a condensible substance instead of water vapor. This puts a premium on model design that allows easy modification, and on physical parameterizations that are close to fundamentals with as little empirical ad-hoc formulation as possible. I will provide examples from two approaches to this problem we have been using at the University of Chicago. The first is the FOAM general circulation model, which is a clean single-executable Fortran-77/c code supported by auxiliary applications in Python and Java. The second is a new approach based on using Python as a shell for assembling building blocks in compiled-code into full models. Applications to Snowball Earth, Titan and Mars, as well as pedagogical uses, will be discussed. One painful lesson we have learned is that Fortran-95 is a major impediment to portability and cross-language interoperability; in this light the trend toward Fortran-95 in major modelling groups is seen as a significant step backwards. In this talk, I will focus on modeling projects employing a full representation of atmospheric fluid dynamics, rather than "intermediate complexity" models in which the associated transports are parameterized.

  14. Challenges in the development of very high resolution Earth System Models for climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Xie, Shaocheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Lin, Wuyin; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun

    2017-04-01

    The authors represent the 20+ members of the ACME atmosphere development team. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has, like many other organizations around the world, identified the need for an Earth System Model capable of rapid completion of decade to century length simulations at very high (vertical and horizontal) resolution with good climate fidelity. Two years ago DOE initiated a multi-institution effort called ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) to meet this an extraordinary challenge, targeting a model eventually capable of running at 10-25km horizontal and 20-400m vertical resolution through the troposphere on exascale computational platforms at speeds sufficient to complete 5+ simulated years per day. I will outline the challenges our team has encountered in development of the atmosphere component of this model, and the strategies we have been using for tuning and debugging a model that we can barely afford to run on today's computational platforms. These strategies include: 1) evaluation at lower resolutions; 2) ensembles of short simulations to explore parameter space, and perform rough tuning and evaluation; 3) use of regionally refined versions of the model for probing high resolution model behavior at less expense; 4) use of "auto-tuning" methodologies for model tuning; and 5) brute force long climate simulations.

  15. Improvements to an earth observing statistical performance model with applications to LWIR spectral variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Runchen; Ientilucci, Emmett J.

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing systems provide spectral data composed of hundreds of narrow spectral bands. Spectral remote sensing systems can be used to identify targets, for example, without physical interaction. Often it is of interested to characterize the spectral variability of targets or objects. The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize the LWIR spectral variability of targets based on an improved earth observing statistical performance model, known as the Forecasting and Analysis of Spectroradiometric System Performance (FASSP) model. FASSP contains three basic modules including a scene model, sensor model and a processing model. Instead of using mean surface reflectance only as input to the model, FASSP transfers user defined statistical characteristics of a scene through the image chain (i.e., from source to sensor). The radiative transfer model, MODTRAN, is used to simulate the radiative transfer based on user defined atmospheric parameters. To retrieve class emissivity and temperature statistics, or temperature / emissivity separation (TES), a LWIR atmospheric compensation method is necessary. The FASSP model has a method to transform statistics in the visible (ie., ELM) but currently does not have LWIR TES algorithm in place. This paper addresses the implementation of such a TES algorithm and its associated transformation of statistics.

  16. [Study on the modeling of earth-atmosphere coupling over rugged scenes for hyperspectral remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Jie; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Guo-Rui

    2014-01-01

    Adjacency effects may introduce errors in the quantitative applications of hyperspectral remote sensing, of which the significant item is the earth-atmosphere coupling radiance. However, the surrounding relief and shadow induce strong changes in hyperspectral images acquired from rugged terrain, which is not accurate to describe the spectral characteristics. Furthermore, the radiative coupling process between the earth and the atmosphere is more complex over the rugged scenes. In order to meet the requirements of real-time processing in data simulation, an equivalent reflectance of background was developed by taking into account the topography and the geometry between surroundings and targets based on the radiative transfer process. The contributions of the coupling to the signal at sensor level were then evaluated. This approach was integrated to the sensor-level radiance simulation model and then validated through simulating a set of actual radiance data. The results show that the visual effect of simulated images is consistent with that of observed images. It was also shown that the spectral similarity is improved over rugged scenes. In addition, the model precision is maintained at the same level over flat scenes.

  17. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  18. MS PHD'S: A Synergistic Model for Diversifying the Earth Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardi, L.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Braxton, L.; Johnson, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) program focuses on increasing the number of underrepresented minorities (URM) receiving advanced degrees in Earth system sciences (ESS). Subscribing to Aristotle's philosophy that the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts", MS PHD'S uses a synergistic model of tiered mentoring practices, successful minority scientist role models, peer-to-peer community building activities, professional development training techniques, networking opportunities, and state of the art virtual communication tools to facilitate the retention and advancement of underrepresented ESS scientists. Using a three-phase program structure supported by a virtual community, URM students in ESS are afforded opportunities to establish mentoring relationships with successful scientists, build meaningful ties with URM peers and future colleagues, strengthen oral and written communication skills, engage in networking opportunities within premier scientific venues, and maintain continuity of networks formed through program participation. Established in 2003, MS PHD'S is now in its ninth cohort. From the original cohort of 24 participants, the program has grown to support 213 participants. Of these 213 participants, 42 have obtained the doctorate and are employed within the ESS workforce. Another 71 are enrolled in doctoral programs. Looking to the future with the purpose of continually furthering its synergistic philosophy, MS PHD'S has developed a new initiative, Beyond the PhD, designed to support and advance the representation of URM scientists within a global workforce.

  19. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Gretchen L.; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. PMID:27304966

  20. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols on Dust Transport and Mobilization in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarco, P. R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Darmenov, A.; Bloecker, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation, impacting the energy budget of the Earth system which in turns feeds back on the dynamical processes responsible for mobilization of dust in the first place. In previous work with radiatively interactive aerosols in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System global model (GEOS-5) we found a positive feedback between dust absorption and emissions. Emissions were the largest for the highest shortwave absorption considered, which additionally produced simulated dust transport in the best agreement with observations. The positive feedback found was in contrast to other modeling studies which instead found a negative feedback, where the impact of dust absorption was to stabilize the surface levels of the atmosphere and so reduce wind speeds. A key difference between our model and other models was that in GEOS-5 we simulated generally larger dust particles, with correspondingly larger infrared absorption that led to a pronounced difference in the diurnal cycle of dust emissions versus simulations where these long wave effects were not considered. In this paper we seek to resolve discrepancies between our previous simulations and those of other modeling groups. We revisit the question of dust radiative feedback on emissions with a recent version of the GEOS-5 system running at a higher spatial resolution and including updates to the parameterizations for dust mobilization, initial dust particle size distribution, loss processes, and radiative transfer, and identify key uncertainties that remain based on dust optical property assumptions.

  1. Climate and atmospheric modeling studies. Climate applications of Earth and planetary observations. Chemistry of Earth and environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during the past year in the climate and atmospheric modeling programs concentrated on the development of appropriate atmospheric and upper ocean models, and preliminary applications of these models. Principal models are a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, a three-dimensional global climate model, and an upper ocean model. Principal applications have been the study of the impact of CO2, aerosols and the solar 'constant' on climate. Progress was made in the 3-D model development towards physically realistic treatment of these processes. In particular, a map of soil classifications on 1 degree x 1 degree resolution has been digitized, and soil properties have been assigned to each soil type. Using this information about soil properties, a method was developed to simulate the hydraulic behavior of soils of the world. This improved treatment of soil hydrology, together with the seasonally varying vegetation cover, will provide a more realistic study of the role of the terrestrial biota in climate change. A new version of the climate model was created which follows the isotopes of water and sources of water (or colored water) throughout the planet. Each isotope or colored water source is a fraction of the climate model's water. It participates in condensation and surface evaporation at different fractionation rates and is transported by the dynamics. A major benefit of this project has been to improve the programming techniques and physical simulation of the water vapor budget of the climate model.

  2. Development of a model to compute the extension of life supporting zones for Earth-like exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, David; Vrtala, Aron; Leitner, Johannes J; Firneis, Maria G; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2011-12-01

    A radiative convective model to calculate the width and the location of the life supporting zone (LSZ) for different, alternative solvents (i.e. other than water) is presented. This model can be applied to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in the solar system as well as (hypothetical, Earth-like) terrestrial exoplanets. Cloud droplet formation and growth are investigated using a cloud parcel model. Clouds can be incorporated into the radiative transfer calculations. Test runs for Earth, Mars and Titan show a good agreement of model results with observations.

  3. Obtaining a Pragmatic Representation of Fire Disturbance in Dynamic Vegetation Models by Assimilating Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantzas, Euripides; Quegan, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Fire constitutes a violent and unpredictable pathway of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere into the atmosphere. Despite fire emissions being in many biomes of similar magnitude to that of Net Ecosystem Exchange, even the most complex Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) embedded in IPCC General Circulation Models poorly represent fire behavior and dynamics, a fact which still remains understated. As DVMs operate on a deterministic, grid cell-by-grid cell basis they are unable to describe a host of important fire characteristics such as its propagation, magnitude of area burned and stochastic nature. Here we address these issues by describing a model-independent methodology which assimilates Earth Observation (EO) data by employing image analysis techniques and algorithms to offer a realistic fire disturbance regime in a DVM. This novel approach, with minimum model restructuring, manages to retain the Fire Return Interval produced by the model whilst assigning pragmatic characteristics to its fire outputs thus allowing realistic simulations of fire-related processes such as carbon injection into the atmosphere and permafrost degradation. We focus our simulations in the Arctic and specifically Canada and Russia and we offer a snippet of how this approach permits models to engage in post-fire dynamics hitherto absent from any other model regardless of complexity.

  4. On application of asymmetric Kan-like exact equilibria to the Earth magnetotail modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovinskiy, Daniil B.; Kubyshkina, Darya I.; Semenov, Vladimir S.; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Kiehas, Stefan A.

    2018-04-01

    A specific class of solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, developed by means of generalization of the well-known Harris-Fadeev-Kan-Manankova family of exact two-dimensional equilibria, is studied. The examined model reproduces the current sheet bending and shifting in the vertical plane, arising from the Earth dipole tilting and the solar wind nonradial propagation. The generalized model allows magnetic configurations with equatorial magnetic fields decreasing in a tailward direction as slow as 1/x, contrary to the original Kan model (1/x3); magnetic configurations with a single X point are also available. The analytical solution is compared with the empirical T96 model in terms of the magnetic flux tube volume. It is found that parameters of the analytical model may be adjusted to fit a wide range of averaged magnetotail configurations. The best agreement between analytical and empirical models is obtained for the midtail at distances beyond 10-15 RE at high levels of magnetospheric activity. The essential model parameters (current sheet scale, current density) are compared to Cluster data of magnetotail crossings. The best match of parameters is found for single-peaked current sheets with medium values of number density, proton temperature and drift velocity.

  5. Regional patterns of future runoff changes from Earth system models constrained by observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Feng; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Mengtian; Chen, Anping; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Peng, Shushi; Zeng, Zhenzhong

    2017-06-01

    In the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment, multimodel ensembles (arithmetic model averaging, AMA) were constructed with equal weights given to Earth system models, without considering the performance of each model at reproducing current conditions. Here we use Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to construct a weighted model ensemble for runoff projections. Higher weights are given to models with better performance in estimating historical decadal mean runoff. Using the BMA method, we find that by the end of this century, the increase of global runoff (9.8 ± 1.5%) under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 is significantly lower than estimated from AMA (12.2 ± 1.3%). BMA presents a less severe runoff increase than AMA at northern high latitudes and a more severe decrease in Amazonia. Runoff decrease in Amazonia is stronger than the intermodel difference. The intermodel difference in runoff changes is mainly caused not only by precipitation differences among models, but also by evapotranspiration differences at the high northern latitudes.

  6. Modeling Urban Energy Savings Scenarios Using Earth System Microclimate and Urban Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Rose, A.; New, J. R.; Yuan, J.; Omitaomu, O.; Sylvester, L.; Branstetter, M. L.; Carvalhaes, T. M.; Seals, M.; Berres, A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze and quantify the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, population, land cover, and energy use so that these relationships can be used to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. We integrate different approaches across three research areas: earth system modeling; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and urban planning in order to address three major gaps in the existing capability in these areas: i) neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes and their effect on and from regional climate; ii) projections for future energy use under urbanization and climate change scenarios identifying best strategies for urban morphological development and energy savings; iii) analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections.

  7. Multiscale optical imaging of rare-earth-doped nanocomposites in a small animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Laura M.; Ganapathy, Vidya; Kantamneni, Harini; Zhao, Xinyu; Sheng, Yang; Tan, Mei-Chee; Roth, Charles M.; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2018-03-01

    Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo. Visible upconversion emissions and tissue autofluorescence were imaged in biopsy specimens, alongside optical coherence tomography imaging of tissue microstructure. We anticipate that this work will provide guidance for researchers seeking to image these nanomaterials across a wide range of biological models.

  8. Three-Dimensional Spherical Models of Convection in the Earth's Mantle.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, D; Schubert, G; Glatzmaier, G A

    1989-05-26

    Three-dimensional, spherical models of mantle convection in the earth reveal that upwelling cylindrical plumes and downwelling planar sheets are the primary features of mantle circulation. Thus, subduction zones and descending sheetlike slabs in the mantle are fundamental characteristics of thermal convection in a spherical shell and are not merely the consequences of the rigidity of the slabs, which are cooler than the surrounding mantle. Cylindrical mantle plumes that cause hotspots such as Hawaii are probably the only form of active upwelling and are therefore not just secondary convective currents separate from the large-scale mantle circulation. Active sheetlike upwellings that could be associated with mid-ocean ridges did not develop in the model simulations, a result that is in agreement with evidence suggesting that ridges are passive phenomena resulting from the tearing of surface plates by the pull of descending slabs.

  9. Multiscale optical imaging of rare-earth-doped nanocomposites in a small animal model.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Laura M; Ganapathy, Vidya; Kantamneni, Harini; Zhao, Xinyu; Sheng, Yang; Tan, Mei-Chee; Roth, Charles M; Riman, Richard E; Moghe, Prabhas V; Pierce, Mark C

    2018-03-01

    Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo. Visible upconversion emissions and tissue autofluorescence were imaged in biopsy specimens, alongside optical coherence tomography imaging of tissue microstructure. We anticipate that this work will provide guidance for researchers seeking to image these nanomaterials across a wide range of biological models. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. A Coupled Ice-Atmosphere-Dust Model for a Neoproterozoic "Mudball Earth"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. C.; Strom, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" glaciations remain a subject of intense debate. While many have used field data to argue for either a totally or partially ice-covered Earth, fewer efforts have been made to establish the basic physical climate state and internal dynamics of these alternatives. Description of feedbacks is especially important: how does a globally ice-covered Earth reinforce itself as a stable climate system, and/or sow the seeds for its own destruction? In previous work, we investigated the flow properties of thick floating global ice sheets, and found that flow from pole to equator tends to eliminate regions of thin ice in the tropics. We briefly mentioned that ice flow and sublimation could lead to a "lag deposit" of dust on top of the tropical ice. The consequences of this were explored in detail by Dorian Abbott and others, who found that the accumulation of dust atop tropical ice causes a strong warming effect, which strongly promotes deglaciation of a Snowball climate. However, Abbott et al specified a dust layer ab initio in their GCM simulations, leaving aside the processes which produce it. Here, we present the results of our efforts to add dust processes to an earlier coupled atmosphere/ocean/ice model originally developed by David Pollard and Jim Kasting. Their model includes energy balance equations for the atmosphere and an ice mechanics model for glacial flow. To this we have added variables tracking the fraction of dust incorporated into snow and ice; the transport and accumulation of this dust through ice flow; the effects of dust on albedo and penetration of sunlight into the ice; restriction of evaporation from dust-covered surfaces; and density and buoyancy effects of dusty ice. Dust is added to the surface globally at a fixed rate, and is removed by meltwater runoff. We find that ice in tropical regions of net evaporation quickly develops a surface dust layer which drastically lowers its albedo. This dust layer develops

  11. Using DORIS measurements for modeling the vertical total electron content of the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) system was originally developed for precise orbit determination of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. Beyond that, it is highly qualified for modeling the distribution of electrons within the Earth's ionosphere. It measures with two frequencies in L-band with a relative frequency ratio close to 5. Since the terrestrial ground beacons are distributed quite homogeneously and several LEOs are equipped with modern receivers, a good applicability for global vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling can be expected. This paper investigates the capability of DORIS dual-frequency phase observations for deriving VTEC and the contribution of these data to global VTEC modeling. The DORIS preprocessing is performed similar to commonly used global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) preprocessing. However, the absolute DORIS VTEC level is taken from global ionospheric maps (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) as the DORIS data contain no absolute information. DORIS-derived VTEC values show good consistency with IGS GIMs with a RMS between 2 and 3 total electron content units (TECU) depending on solar activity which can be reduced to less than 2 TECU when using only observations with elevation angles higher than . The combination of DORIS VTEC with data from other space-geodetic measurement techniques improves the accuracy of global VTEC models significantly. If DORIS VTEC data is used to update IGS GIMs, an improvement of up to 12 % can be achieved. The accuracy directly beneath the DORIS satellites' ground-tracks ranges between 1.5 and 3.5 TECU assuming a precision of 2.5 TECU for altimeter-derived VTEC values which have been used for validation purposes.

  12. Probabilistic calibration of the SPITFIRE fire spread model using Earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Dans, Jose; Wooster, Martin; Lewis, Philip; Spessa, Allan

    2010-05-01

    There is a great interest in understanding how fire affects vegetation distribution and dynamics in the context of global vegetation modelling. A way to include these effects is through the development of embedded fire spread models. However, fire is a complex phenomenon, thus difficult to model. Statistical models based on fire return intervals, or fire danger indices need large amounts of data for calibration, and are often prisoner to the epoch they were calibrated to. Mechanistic models, such as SPITFIRE, try to model the complete fire phenomenon based on simple physical rules, making these models mostly independent of calibration data. However, the processes expressed in models such as SPITFIRE require many parameters. These parametrisations are often reliant on site-specific experiments, or in some other cases, paremeters might not be measured directly. Additionally, in many cases, changes in temporal and/or spatial resolution result in parameters becoming effective. To address the difficulties with parametrisation and the often-used fitting methodologies, we propose using a probabilistic framework to calibrate some areas of the SPITFIRE fire spread model. We calibrate the model against Earth Observation (EO) data, a global and ever-expanding source of relevant data. We develop a methodology that tries to incorporate the limitations of the EO data, reasonable prior values for parameters and that results in distributions of parameters, which can be used to infer uncertainty due to parameter estimates. Additionally, the covariance structure of parameters and observations is also derived, whcih can help inform data gathering efforts and model development, respectively. For this work, we focus on Southern African savannas, an important ecosystem for fire studies, and one with a good amount of EO data relevnt to fire studies. As calibration datasets, we use burned area data, estimated number of fires and vegetation moisture dynamics.

  13. LEOrbit: A program to calculate parameters relevant to modeling Low Earth Orbit spacecraft-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, R.; Purschke, D.; Samson, J.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the physics of interaction between satellites and the space environment is essential in planning and exploiting space missions. Several computer models have been developed over the years to study this interaction. In all cases, simulations are carried out in the reference frame of the spacecraft and effects such as charging, the formation of electrostatic sheaths and wakes are calculated for given conditions of the space environment. In this paper we present a program used to compute magnetic fields and a number of space plasma and space environment parameters relevant to Low Earth Orbits (LEO) spacecraft-plasma interaction modeling. Magnetic fields are obtained from the International Geophysical Reference Field (IGRF) and plasma parameters are obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. All parameters are computed in the spacecraft frame of reference as a function of its six Keplerian elements. They are presented in a format that can be used directly in most spacecraft-plasma interaction models. Catalogue identifier: AENY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270308 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2323222 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90. Computer: Non specific. Operating system: Non specific. RAM: 7.1 MB Classification: 19, 4.14. External routines: IRI, IGRF (included in the package). Nature of problem: Compute magnetic field components, direction of the sun, sun visibility factor and approximate plasma parameters in the reference frame of a Low Earth Orbit satellite. Solution method: Orbit integration, calls to IGRF and IRI libraries and transformation of coordinates from geocentric to spacecraft

  14. Description and evaluation of the Earth System Regional Climate Model (RegCM-ES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farneti, Riccardo; Sitz, Lina; Di Sante, Fabio; Fuentes-Franco, Ramon; Coppola, Erika; Mariotti, Laura; Reale, Marco; Sannino, Gianmaria; Barreiro, Marcelo; Nogherotto, Rita; Giuliani, Graziano; Graffino, Giorgio; Solidoro, Cosimo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    The increasing availability of satellite remote sensing data, of high temporal frequency and spatial resolution, has provided a new and enhanced view of the global ocean and atmosphere, revealing strong air-sea coupling processes throughout the ocean basins. In order to obtain an accurate representation and better understanding of the climate system, its variability and change, the inclusion of all mechanisms of interaction among the different sub-components, at high temporal and spatial resolution, becomes ever more desirable. Recently, global coupled models have been able to progressively refine their horizontal resolution to attempt to resolve smaller-scale processes. However, regional coupled ocean-atmosphere models can achieve even finer resolutions and provide additional information on the mechanisms of air-sea interactions and feedbacks. Here we describe a new, state-of-the-art, Earth System Regional Climate Model (RegCM-ES). RegCM-ES presently includes the coupling between atmosphere, ocean, land surface and sea-ice components, as well as an hydrological and ocean biogeochemistry model. The regional coupled model has been implemented and tested over some of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) domains. RegCM-ES has shown improvements in the representation of precipitation and SST fields over the tested domains, as well as realistic representations of coupled air-sea processes and interactions. The RegCM-ES model, which can be easily implemented over any regional domain of interest, is open source making it suitable for usage by the large scientific community.

  15. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Earth's Inner Core Boundary From Semi-Automatic Waveform Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Song, X.; Sun, D.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    The structure of the Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) is complex. Hemispherical differences and local variations of velocity and attenuation structures, as well as the ICB topography have been reported in previous studies. We are using an automatic waveform modeling method to improve the resolution of the ICB structures. The full waveforms of triplicated PKP phases at distance ranges from 120 to 165 degrees are used to model the lowermost 200 km of the outer core and the uppermost 600km of the inner core. Given a 1D velocity and attenuation model, synthetic seismograms are generated by Generalized Ray Theory. We are also experimenting 2D synthetic methods (WKM, AXISEM, and 2D FD) for 2D models (in the mantle and the inner core). The source time function is determined by observed seismic data. We use neighborhood algorithm to search for a group of models that minimize the misfit between predictions and observations. Tests on synthetic data show the efficiency of this method in resolving detailed velocity and attenuation structures of the ICB simultaneously. We are analyzing seismic record sections at dense arrays along different paths and will report our modeling and inversion results in the meeting.

  16. Intercomparison of terrestrial carbon fluxes and carbon use efficiency simulated by CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Jeong, Su-Jong; Im, Jungho; Cha, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2017-12-01

    This study compares historical simulations of the terrestrial carbon cycle produced by 10 Earth System Models (ESMs) that participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Using MODIS satellite estimates, this study validates the simulation of gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and carbon use efficiency (CUE), which depend on plant function types (PFTs). The models show noticeable deficiencies compared to the MODIS data in the simulation of the spatial patterns of GPP and NPP and large differences among the simulations, although the multi-model ensemble (MME) mean provides a realistic global mean value and spatial distributions. The larger model spreads in GPP and NPP compared to those of surface temperature and precipitation suggest that the differences among simulations in terms of the terrestrial carbon cycle are largely due to uncertainties in the parameterization of terrestrial carbon fluxes by vegetation. The models also exhibit large spatial differences in their simulated CUE values and at locations where the dominant PFT changes, primarily due to differences in the parameterizations. While the MME-simulated CUE values show a strong dependence on surface temperatures, the observed CUE values from MODIS show greater complexity, as well as non-linear sensitivity. This leads to the overall underestimation of CUE using most of the PFTs incorporated into current ESMs. The results of this comparison suggest that more careful and extensive validation is needed to improve the terrestrial carbon cycle in terms of ecosystem-level processes.

  17. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  18. CRUST1.0: An Updated Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Ma, Z.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    We present an updated global model of Earth's crustal structure. The new model, CRUST1.0, serves as starting model in a more comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0. CRUST1.0 is defined on a 1-degree grid and is based on a new database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially follows the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html). Crustal types representing properties in the crystalline crust are assigned according to basement age or tectonic setting. The classification of the latter loosely follows that of an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001) (http://www.lithosphere.info). Statistical averages of crustal properties in each of these crustal types are extrapolated to areas with no local seismic or gravity constraint. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3-layer sediment cover and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is essentially that of our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with several near-coastal updates. In the sediment cover and the crystalline crust, updated scaling relationships are used to assign compressional and shear velocit