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Sample records for earth uv exists

  1. Life and the solar uv environment on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, G.; Lammer, H.; Kargl, G.; Kömle, N.; Bauer, S.

    2003-04-01

    The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B and the UV-C ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B ind UV-C range penetrated through the unprotected atmosphere to the surface on early Earth, associated biological consequences may be expected. For DNA-based terrestrial solar UV dosimetry, bacteriophage T7, isolated phage-DNA ind polycrystalline Uracil samples have been used. The effect of solar UV radiation can be measured by detecting the biological-structural consequences of the damage induced by UV photons. We show model calculations for the Biological Effective Dose (BED) rate of Uracil and bacteriophage T7, for various ozone concentrations representing early atmospheric conditions on Earth up to a UV protecting ozone layer comparable to present times. Further, we discuss experimental data which show the photo-reverse effect of Uracil molecules caused by short UV wavelengths. These photoreversion effect highly depend on the wavelength of the radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerisation, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerisation. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of an Uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both, dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV exposure on organisms in the terrestrial environment more than 2 Gyr ago where Earth had no UV protecting ozone layer as well as

  2. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Gaidos, Eric; Kasting, James; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have started a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study of the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the atmosphere of of the early Earth. We plan to model the chemistry of the Earth atmosphere during its evolution, using observed UV flux distributions of early solar analogs as boundary conditions in photochemical models of the Earth's atmosphere. The study has four distinct but interlinked parts: (1) Establishing the radiation of the early Sun; (2) Determining the photochemistry of the early Earth's atmosphere; (3) Estimating the rates of H2 loss from the atmosphere; and (4) Ascertaining how sensitive is the photochemistry to the metallicity of the Sun. We are currently using STIS and EUVE to obtain high-quality far-UV and extreme-UV observations of three early-solar analogs. We will perform a detailed non-LTE study of each stars, and construct theoretical model photosphere, and an empirical model chromospheres, which can be used to extrapolate the continuum to the Lyman continuum region. Given a realistic flux distribution of the early Sun, we will perform photochemical modeling of weakly reducing primitive atmospheres to determine the lifetime and photochemistry of CH4. In particular, we will make estimates of the amount of CH4 present in the prebiotic atmosphere, and estimate the atmospheric CH4 concentration during the Late Archean (2.5-3.0 b.y. ago) and determine whether it would have been sufficiently abundant to help offset reduced solar luminosity at that time. Having obtained a photochemical model, we will solve for the concentrations of greenhouse gasses and important pre-biotic molecules, and perform a detailed radiative transfer calculations to compute the UV flux reaching the surface.

  3. Penetration of UV Radiation in the Earth's Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg; Lubin, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This project was a collaboration between SIO/UCSD and NASA/GSFC to develop a global estimation of the penetration of UV light into open ocean waters, and into coastal waters. We determined the ocean UV reflectance spectra seen by satellites above the atmosphere by combining existing sophisticated radiative transfer models with in situ UV Visible data sets to improve coupled radiance estimates both underwater and within the atmosphere. Results included improved estimates of surface spectral irradiance, 0.3-1.0 micron, and estimates of photosynthetic inhibition, DNA mutation, and CO production. Data sets developed under this proposal have been made publicly available via submission to the SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System. Numerous peer-reviewed publications and conference proceedings and abstracts resulted from the work supported by this research award.

  4. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Gaidos, E.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T. M.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield, and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program: to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We are presently obtaining ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun. We are currently making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to unobserved spectral regions, and to proceed to the next step: to develop photochemical models of the pre-biotic and Archean atmosphere of the Earth.

  5. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life On Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.; Gaidos, E.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We have obtained ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun We are making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. Once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to other metallicities and to unobserved spectral regions.

  6. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars: UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  7. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars -- UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  8. A Simple Evolutional Model of the UV Habitable Zone and the Possibility of the Persistent Life Existence: The Effects of Mass and Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Midori; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    In addition to the habitable zone (HZ), the UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) is important when considering the existence of persistent life in the universe. The UV-HZ is defined as the area where the UV radiation field from a host star is moderate for persistent life existence. This is because UV is necessary for the synthesis of biochemical compounds. The UV-HZ must overlap the HZ when life appears and evolves. In this paper, following our previous study of the HZ, we examine the UV-HZ in cases with a stellar mass range from 0.08 to 4.00 M ⊙ with various metallicities during the main sequence phase. This mass range was chosen because we are interested in an environment similar to that of Earth. The effect of metallicity is reflected in the spectrum of the host stars, and we reexamine it in the context of the UV-HZ. The present work shows the effect of metallicity when that in the UV-HZ is less than that in the HZ. Furthermore, we find that the chance of persistent life existence declines as the metallicity decreases, as long as the UV radiation is not protected and/or boosted by any mechanisms. This is because the overlapped region of a persistent HZ and UV-HZ decreases. We find that the most appropriate stellar mass for the persistence of life existence is from 1.0 to 1.5 M ⊙ with metallicity Z = 0.02, and only about 1.2 M ⊙ with Z = 0.002. When Z = 0.0002, the chance of persistent life existence is very low, assuming that the ocean does not protect the life from UV radiation.

  9. UV 380 nm Reflectivity of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2000-01-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979 to 1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice). Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicates the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. Statistical analysis of 14 years of daily data show that most snow/ice-free regions of the Earth have their largest fraction of days each year when the reflectivity is low (R less than 10%). The 380 nm reflectivity data shows that the true surface reflectivity is 2 to 3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene. The most likely cause of this could be a combination of frequently occurring boundary-layer water or aerosol haze. For most regions, the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain-forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R greater than 15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes, the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show the presence of large nearly clear ocean areas and the effects

  10. UV photography of the earth and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental aim of this experiment was the acquisition of ultraviolet photographs of the earth and the moon that could be used to interpret similar imagery of Mars and Venus. Venus shows no markings whatever when viewed in visible light, a phenomenon that is in keeping with its immensely thick atmosphere and perpetual cloud cover, but in the near ultraviolet, the planet exhibits low contrast markings which vary in position and appearance with time. Mars posed just the opposite problem from Venus at wavelengths below 4500 A, Mars shows very little detail, sometimes none at all, whereas at longer wavelengths, the surface is clearly visible. Occasionally observers have reported that this obscuration has lifted and the ground has become visible at the shorter wavelengths as well. Such events have been labeled blue clearings and led to the suggestion that the ultraviolet obscuration was caused by an atmospheric haze. Mariner 6 and 7 observations of Mars failed to find such a haze and lent support to the alternative view that ascribed the absence of detail on UV photographs to a simple lack of contrast between Martian surface features at these wavelengths.

  11. Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan UV Laboratory Aeronomy by Electron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, C. P.; Ajello, J. M.; McClintock, W. E.; Eastes, R.; Evans, J. S.; Holsclaw, G.; Schneider, N. M.; Jain, S.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Hoskins, A.

    2017-12-01

    The UV response of the Mars, Earth, Titan and Venus upper atmospheres to the solar radiation fields [solar wind and solar EUV] is the focus of the present generation of Mars, Earth, Titan and Venus missions. These missions are Mars Express (MEX), the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), Cassini at Titan, Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission for Earth and Venus Express (VEX). Each spacecraft is equipped with a UV spectrometer that senses far ultraviolet (FUV) emissions from 110-190 nm, whose dayglow intensities are proportional to three quantities:1) particle (electron, ion) fluxes, 2) the altitude distribution of species in the ionosphere: CO, CO2, O, N2 at Venus and Mars and N2, O and O2 at Titan and Earth and 3) the emission cross section for the interaction process. UV spectroscopy provides a benchmark to the present space environment and indicates pathways for removing upper atmosphere gas (e.g., water escape from Mars and Earth) or N2 escape at Titan over eons. We present a UV laboratory program that utilizes an instrument, unique in the world, at the University of Colorado that can measure excitation mechanisms by particle (electron, ion) impact and the resulting emission cross sections that include processes occurring in a planetary atmosphere, particularly the optically forbidden emissions presented by the Cameron bands, the Lyman Birge Hopfield bands and the OI 135.6 nm multiplet. There are presently uncertainties by a factor of two in the existing measurements of the emission cross section, affecting modeling of electron transport. We have utilized the MAVEN Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) engineering model which operates at moderate spectral resolution ( 0.5-1.0nm FWHM) to obtain the full vibrational spectra of the Cameron band system CO(a 3Π → X 1Σ+) from both CO direct excitation and CO2 dissociative excitation, and for the dipole-allowed Fourth Positive band system of CO, while for N2 we have

  12. A SIMPLE EVOLUTIONAL MODEL OF THE UV HABITABLE ZONE AND THE POSSIBILITY OF PERSISTENT LIFE EXISTENCE: THE EFFECTS OF MASS AND METALLICITY

    SciT

    Oishi, Midori; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    In addition to the habitable zone (HZ), the UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) is important when considering the existence of persistent life in the universe. The UV-HZ is defined as the area where the UV radiation field from a host star is moderate for persistent life existence. This is because UV is necessary for the synthesis of biochemical compounds. The UV-HZ must overlap the HZ when life appears and evolves. In this paper, following our previous study of the HZ, we examine the UV-HZ in cases with a stellar mass range from 0.08 to 4.00 M {sub ☉} with various metallicities during the main sequencemore » phase. This mass range was chosen because we are interested in an environment similar to that of Earth. The effect of metallicity is reflected in the spectrum of the host stars, and we reexamine it in the context of the UV-HZ. The present work shows the effect of metallicity when that in the UV-HZ is less than that in the HZ. Furthermore, we find that the chance of persistent life existence declines as the metallicity decreases, as long as the UV radiation is not protected and/or boosted by any mechanisms. This is because the overlapped region of a persistent HZ and UV-HZ decreases. We find that the most appropriate stellar mass for the persistence of life existence is from 1.0 to 1.5 M {sub ☉} with metallicity Z  = 0.02, and only about 1.2 M {sub ☉} with Z  = 0.002. When Z  = 0.0002, the chance of persistent life existence is very low, assuming that the ocean does not protect the life from UV radiation.« less

  13. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    SciT

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UVmore » flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.« less

  14. Does a DNA-less cellular organism exist on Earth?

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Akira; Miyahara, Kohji; Kato, Chiaki; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2011-12-01

    All the self-reproducing cellular organisms so far examined have DNA as the genome. However, a DNA-less organism carrying an RNA genome is suggested by the fact that many RNA viruses exist and the widespread view that an RNA world existed before the present DNA world. Such a possibility is most plausible in the microbial world where biological diversity is enormous and most organisms have not been identified. We have developed experimental methodology to search DNA-less microorganisms, which is based on cultivation with drugs that inhibit replication or expression of DNA, detection of DNA in colonies with a fluorescent dye and double staining for DNA and RNA at a cellular level. These methods have been applied for about 100 microbial samples from various waters including hot springs, soils including deep sea sediments, and organisms. We found many colonies and cells which apparently looked DNA-less and examined them further. So far, all such colonies that reformed colonies on isolation were identified to be DNA-positive. However, considering the difficulty in cultivation, we think it possible for DNA-less microorganisms to live around us. We believe that our ideas and results will be of interest and useful to discover one in the future. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effect of UV Radiation on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with Teff = 2300 K to Teff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4-20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. To observe signatures of life—O2/O3 in combination with reducing species like CH4—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O2 spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N2O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH3Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N2O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  16. Earth's UV Reflectivity Data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS-Aura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larko, D. E.; Mao, J.; Herman, J. R.; Huang, L.; Qin, W.; Labow, G. J.; Lloyd, S. A.; DeLand, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Lambert Equivalent Reflectivity (LER), derived from satellite ultraviolet (UV) radiance measurements, represents the equivalent scene reflectivity of the Earth's surface and atmosphere without Rayleigh scattering. It provides a better opportunity to quantify variations of the planetary reflectance and albedo associated with snow/ice, atmospheric aerosols and clouds, since UV reflectance is very low over most land surfaces and water. LER values at 340 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS-Aura have been generated as a new product from the OMI TO3 ozone retrieval algorithm and provided to users in HDF format. The wide field of view of OMI (~2200 km) provides complete global coverage every day with 13 km x 24 km resolution at nadir. These data are then mapped to 1 degree x 1 degree latitude-longitude grid as daily and monthly means for weather and climate studies. The OMI LER data set has been used to validate other UV LER data sets from NOAA and NASA polar orbiting satellites, and has been combined with these data sets to construct a continuous long-term data record of terrestrial UV reflectivity. This paper will present details about the data processing and format of the OMI LER product. Applications of this data set in global climate studies will be demonstrated and discussed in this presentation.

  17. Existence of a component corotating with the earth in high-latitude disturbance magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the data from the high-latitude North American IMS network of magnetic stations suggests that there is a component in substorm perturbations that corotates with the earth. It is as yet not certain whether the existence of this component stems from the corotation of a part of the magnetospheric plasma involved in the substorm mechanism or if it is a 'phase change' resulting from the control of the substorm manifestations by the earth's main magnetic field which is not axially symmetric. There are other geophysical phenomena showing a persistence of longitudinal variations corotating with the earth. These phenomena are of significance for a better understanding of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  18. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  19. Exo-Earth Discovery and Characterization with Large UV-Optical-IR Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Avi; Stark, Christopher; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Robinson, Tyler; Clampin, Mark; Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley

    2015-07-01

    A Large UV-Optical-InfraRed (LUVOIR) telescope was recommended by the recent AURA Beyond JWST report [1] and our study team is developing the concept further for consideration by the US National Research Council 2020 Decadal Survey. A critical metric for constraining requirements of this mission is the discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars using high-contrast imaging, and we have focused on using exo-Earth yield to provide constraints on technical requirements early in the design process. An estimate of the detection yield for Earth-like planets can be calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation of a design reference mission (DRM), allowing the exploration of a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We have developed a new strategy called altruistic yield optimazation (AYO) that optimizes the target list, exposure times, and number of revisits to maximize mission yield for a specific set of mission parameters [2]. In this presentation we discuss the various physical and technological parameters that go into the DRM simulations, and the associated uncertainties based on the current state of research. We will also discuss the potential follow-up science capabilities for spectroscopic characterization facilitated by a large aperture. For example, a telescope of aperture ≥10 meters would be able to measure integrated exo-Earth fluxes with multi-hour integration times, providing a map of albedo variations as the planet rotates. A large aperture would also provide reasonable inner working angles for coronographic observations beyond the visible wavelength range, enabling detections of important atmospheric molecules such as CH4 and CO2.

  20. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes

  1. The history of the UV radiation climate of the earth--theoretical and space-based observations.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Horneck, G

    2001-04-01

    In the Archean era (3.8-2.5 Ga ago) the Earth probably lacked a protective ozone column. Using data obtained in the Earth's orbit on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores we quantitatively estimate the potential biological effects of such an environment. We combine this practical data with theoretical calculations to propose a history of the potential UV stress on the surface of the Earth over time. The data suggest that an effective ozone column was established at a pO2 of approximately 5 x 10(-3) present atmospheric level. The improvement in the UV environment on the early Proterozoic Earth might have been a much more rapid event than has previously been supposed, with DNA damage rates dropping by two orders of magnitude in the space of just a few tens of millions of years. We postulate that a coupling between reduced UV stress and increased pO2 production could have contributed toward a positive feedback in the production of ozone in the early Proterozoic atmosphere. This would contribute to the apparent rapidity of the oxidation event. The data provide an evolutionary perspective on present-day Antarctic ozone depletion.

  2. UV 380 nm reflectivity of the Earth's surface, clouds and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Celarier, E.; Larko, D.

    2001-03-01

    The 380 nm radiance measurements of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) have been converted into a global data set of daily (1979-1992) Lambert equivalent reflectivities R of the Earth's surface and boundary layer (clouds, aerosols, surface haze, and snow/ice) and then corrected to RPC for the presence of partly clouded scenes. Since UV surface reflectivity is between 2 and 8% for both land and water during all seasons of the year (except for ice and snow cover), reflectivities larger than the surface value indicate the presence of clouds, haze, or aerosols in the satellite field of view. A statistical analysis of 14 years of daily reflectivity data shows that most snow-/ice-free scenes observed by TOMS have a reflectivity less than 10% for the majority of days during a year. The 380 nm reflectivity data show that the true surface reflectivity is 2-3% lower than the most frequently occurring reflectivity value for each TOMS scene as seen from space. Most likely the cause is a combination of frequently occurring boundary layer water and/or aerosol haze. For most regions the observation of extremely clear conditions needed to estimate the surface reflectivity from space is a comparatively rare occurrence. Certain areas (e.g., Australia, southern Africa, portions of northern Africa) are cloud-free more than 80% of the year, which exposes these regions to larger amounts of UV radiation than at comparable latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Regions over rain forests, jungle areas, Europe and Russia, the bands surrounding the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and many ocean areas have significant cloud cover (R>15%) more than half of each year. In the low to middle latitudes the areas with the heaviest cloud cover (highest reflectivity for most of the year) are the forest areas of northern South America, southern Central America, the jungle areas of equatorial Africa, and high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Andes. The TOMS reflectivity data show both

  3. Increasing UV-B radiation at the earth's surface and potential effects on aqueous mercury cycling and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bonzongo, Jean Claude J; Donkor, Augustine K

    2003-09-01

    In the past two decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to the environmental fate of mercury (Hg), and this is exemplified by the growing number of international conferences devoted uniquely to Hg cycling and its impacts on ecosystem functions and life. This interest in the biogeochemistry of Hg has resulted in a significant improvement of our understanding of its impact on the environment and human health. However, both past and current research, have been primarily oriented toward the study of direct impact of anthropogenic activities on Hg cycling. Besides a few indirect effects such as the increase in Hg methylation observed in acid-rain impacted aquatic systems or the reported enhanced Hg bioaccumulation in newly flooded water reservoirs; changes in Hg transformations/fluxes that may be related to global change have received little attention. A case in point is the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting increase in solar UV-radiation reaching the Earth. This review and critical discussion suggest that increasing UV-B radiation at earth's surface could have a significant and complex impact on Hg cycling including effects on Hg volatilization (photo-reduction), solubilization (photo-oxidation), methyl-Hg demethylation, and Hg methylation. Therefore, this paper is written to provoke discussions, and more importantly, to stimulate research on potential impacts of incoming solar UV-radiation on global Hg fluxes and any toxicity aspects of Hg that may become exacerbated by UV-radiation.

  4. Influence of clouds on UV-B penetration to the earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Radiometric measurements of cloud influence on ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) were obtained. Mathematical models of the influence were defined to lay the groundwork for the construction of the global UV-B climatology from satellite determined ozone data. More refined measurements comparing UV-B radiation with total solar radiation were carried out. The cloudy case is referred to the cloudless sky irradiance and convenient transmission ratios are given An approach to the inversion of scattering data is summarized. An improved characterization of the UV-B radiation from a cloudless sky is also presented.

  5. DSCOVR: A New Perspective for Earth Observations from Space. Synergism and Complementarity with Existing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, F. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Sun-Earth Lagrange points L-1 and L-2 mark positions where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun precisely equals the centripetal force required to rotate with the Earth about the Sun with the same orbital period as the Earth. Therefore, a satellite maintained at one of these Lagrange points would keep the same relative position to the Sun and the Earth and be able to observe most points on the planet as the Earth rotates during the day. L-1 and L-2 are of particular interest because a satellite at either location can easily be maintained near the Sun-Earth line and views the entire daytime hemisphere from L-1 and the entire nighttime hemisphere from L-2. Since L-1 and L-2 are in the ecliptic plane, synoptic, high temporal-resolution observations would be obtained as every point on the planet, including both polar regions, transits from sunrise to sunset (L-1) or from sunset to sunrise (L-2). In summary, a pair of deep-space observatories, one at L-1 (daytime) and one at L-2 (nighttime), could acquire minute by minute climate quality data for essentially every point on Earth, all observations simultaneously for the whole planet. Such unique attributes are incorporated in the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) that will systematically observe climate drivers (radiation, aerosols, ozone, clouds, oxygen A-band) from L-1 in ways not possible but synergistically complementary with platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). The combination of Solar Lagrange Points (located in the ecliptic plane) GEO (located in the equatorial plane) and LEO platforms would certainly provide a powerful observational tool as well as enriched data sets for Earth sciences. Such synergism is greatly enhanced when one considers the potential of utilizing LEO, GEO, and Lagrange point satellites as components of an integrated observational system. For example, satellites at L-1 and L-2 will view the Earth plus the Moon while simultaneously having in

  6. UVolution, a photochemistry experiment in low earth orbit: investigation of the photostability of carboxylic acids exposed to mars surface UV radiation conditions.

    PubMed

    Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, François; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The detection and identification of organic molecules on Mars are of prime importance to establish the existence of a possible ancient prebiotic chemistry or even a biological activity. To date, however, no complex organic compounds have been detected on Mars. The harsh environmental conditions at the surface of Mars are commonly advocated to explain this nondetection, but few studies have been implemented to test this hypothesis. To investigate the nature, abundance, and stability of organic molecules that could survive under such environmental conditions, we exposed, in low Earth orbit, organic molecules of martian astrobiological relevance to solar UV radiation (>200 nm). The experiment, called UVolution, was flown on board the Biopan ESA module, which was situated outside a Russian Foton automated capsule and exposed to space conditions for 12 days in September 2007. The targeted organic molecules [alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), mellitic acid, phthalic acid, and trimesic acid] were exposed with, and without, an analogous martian soil. Here, we present experimental results of the impact of solar UV radiation on the targeted molecules. Our results show that none of the organic molecules studied seemed to be radiotolerant to the solar UV radiation when directly exposed to it. Moreover, the presence of a mineral matrix seemed to increase the photodestruction rate. AIB, mellitic acid, phthalic acid, and trimesic acid should not be considered as primary targets for in situ molecular analyses during future surface missions if samples are only collected from the first centimeters of the top surface layer.

  7. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  8. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150 h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions.

  9. The effect of simulated low earth orbit radiation on polyimides (UV degradation study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John S.; George, Graeme A.; Hill, David J. T.; Odonnell, James H.; Pomery, Peter J.; Rasoul, Firas A.

    1995-01-01

    UV degradation of polyimide films in air and vacuum were studied using UV-visible, ESR, FTIR, and XPS spectroscopies. The UV-visible spectra of polyimide films showed a blue shift in the absorption compared to Kapton. This behavior was attributed to the presence of bulky groups and kinks along the polymer chains which disrupt the formation of a charge transfer complex. The UV-visible spectra showed also that UV irradiation of polyimides result extensively in surface degradation, leaving the bulk of the polymer intact. ESR spectra of polyimides irradiated in vacuum revealed the formation of stable carbon-centered radicals which give a singlet ESR spectrum, while polyimides irradiated in air produced an asymmetric signal shifted to a lower magnetic field, with a higher g value and line width. This signal was attributed to oxygen-cenetered radicals of peroxy and/or alkoxy type. The rate of radical formation in air was two fold higher than for vacuum irradiation, and reached a plateau after a short time. This suggests a continuous depletion of radicals on the surface via an ablative degradation process. FTIR, XPS, and weight loss studies supported this postulate. An XPS study of the surface indicated a substantial increase in the surface oxidation after irradiation in air. The sharp increase in the C-O binding energy peak relative to the C-C peak was believed to be associated with an aromatic ring opening reaction.

  10. Diversification of the rare-earth business in the existing enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Grishaev, S. I.; Yazev, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The development of the modern rare-earth business is analyzed, and the possibilities of using a mathematical description of the prospects of this business on the basis of nonlinear evolution equations are estimated. The well-known methods of describing the life cycle of the economic activity of a commercial company in the closed multisector model of market economics is used to determine the boundaries of changing the average labor productivity during the diversification of business on operating Russian enterprises that produce a wide range of products and are intended to manufacture new types of high-technology rare-earth metal products.

  11. Earth Observing System: Information on NASA’s Incorporation of Existing Data Into EOSDIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-25

    oceanography, and marine resources can be derived from this data set. The Landsat Pathfinder Project comprises three separate activities, two of which...contain informnation about atmospheric properties such as water vapor and rain rate, ocean surface properties such as surface wind speed, and land...Ferrari, Assignment Manager anagement and Elizabeth L. Johnston, Evaluator-in-Charge ,chnology Division, ashington, D.C. Page 11 GAO/ AMTEC -92-79 Earth

  12. Existence of collisional trajectories of Mercury, Mars and Venus with the Earth.

    PubMed

    Laskar, J; Gastineau, M

    2009-06-11

    It has been established that, owing to the proximity of a resonance with Jupiter, Mercury's eccentricity can be pumped to values large enough to allow collision with Venus within 5 Gyr (refs 1-3). This conclusion, however, was established either with averaged equations that are not appropriate near the collisions or with non-relativistic models in which the resonance effect is greatly enhanced by a decrease of the perihelion velocity of Mercury. In these previous studies, the Earth's orbit was essentially unaffected. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution of the Solar System over 5 Gyr, including contributions from the Moon and general relativity. In a set of 2,501 orbits with initial conditions that are in agreement with our present knowledge of the parameters of the Solar System, we found, as in previous studies, that one per cent of the solutions lead to a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity-an increase large enough to allow collisions with Venus or the Sun. More surprisingly, in one of these high-eccentricity solutions, a subsequent decrease in Mercury's eccentricity induces a transfer of angular momentum from the giant planets that destabilizes all the terrestrial planets approximately 3.34 Gyr from now, with possible collisions of Mercury, Mars or Venus with the Earth.

  13. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850-2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Yokohata, T.; Kawase, H.

    2012-06-01

    The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280-315 nm) radiation through 1850-2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N-60° N and 120° E-150° E), where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70%) dominates the total UV-B change.

  14. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850-2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Yokohata, T.; Kawase, H.

    2012-02-01

    The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280-315 nm) radiation through 1850-2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface all-sky UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N-60° N and 120° E-150° E), where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70%) dominates the total UV-B change.

  15. Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

  16. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    PubMed Central

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle. PMID:25675890

  17. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle.

  18. Challenges for Future UV Imaging of the Earth's Ionosphere and High Latitude Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2006-01-01

    Large scale imaging of Geospace has played a significant role in the recent advances in the comprehension of the coupled Solar-Terrestrial System. The Earth's ionospheric far ultraviolet emissions provide a rich tapestry of observations that play a key role in sorting out the dominant mechanisms and phenomena associated with the coupling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere (MI). The MI coupling is an integral part of the Solar-Terrestrial and as such, future observations in this region should focus on understanding the coupling and the impact of solar variability. This talk will focus on the outstanding problems associated with the coupled Solar-Terrestrial system that can be best addressed using far ultraviolet imaging of the Earthls ionosphere. Challenges of global scale imaging and high-resolution imaging will be discussed and how these are driven by unresolved compelling science questions of magnetospheric configuration, and auroral dynamics.

  19. The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Schuerger, Andrew C; Setlow, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments. Spores of various Bacillus species are among the organisms most resistant to the lethal effects of high vacuum and UV radiation, and as a consequence are of major concern for planetary contamination via unmanned spacecraft or even natural processes. This review focuses on the spores of various Bacillus species: (i) their mechanisms of UV resistance; (ii) their survival in unmanned spacecraft, space flight and simulated space flight and Martian conditions; (iii) the UV flux in space and on Mars; (iv) factors affecting spore survival in such high UV flux environments.

  20. UV-active plasmons in alkali and alkaline-earth intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despoja, V.; Marušić, L.

    2018-05-01

    The interband π and π +σ plasmons in pristine graphene and the Dirac plasmon in doped graphene are not applicable, since they are broad or weak, and weakly couple to an external longitudinal or electromagnetic probe. Therefore, the ab initio density functional theory is used to demonstrate that the chemical doping of the graphene by the alkali or alkaline-earth atoms dramatically changes the poor graphene excitation spectrum in the ultraviolet frequency range (4-10 eV). Four prominent modes are detected. Two of them are the intralayer plasmons with square-root dispersion, characteristic of the two-dimensional modes. The remaining two are the interlayer plasmons, very strong in the long-wavelength limit but damped for larger wave vectors. The optical absorption calculations show that the interlayer plasmons are both optically active, which makes these materials suitable for small-organic-molecule sensing. This is particularly intriguing because the optically active two-dimensional plasmons have not been detected in other materials.

  1. Mini-EUSO: A Precursor Mission on the International Space Station for the Observation of Atmosphere and Earth in the UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Marco

    For any experiment aiming at the observation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from space, one key measurement is related to the UV emissions produced in the Earth's atmosphere. In view of the planned missions under study (KLYPVE-EUSO, JEM-EUSO, EUSO-FF) at the International Space Station (ISS) and on board of free-flyer satellites, a small, compact UV telescope, Mini-EUSO, is being developed by the JEM-EUSO International Collaboration to be placed at the UV-transparent, nadir looking window of the Russian module of the ISS. In addition to the main purpose of mapping the Earth in the UV range (300-400 nm), Mini-EUSO will also perform studies of atmospheric phenomena, observation of meteors, strange quark matter search and space debris tracking. It will as well enhance the technological readiness level of the EUSO concept and instruments. Mini-EUSO is a mission approved and selected by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and, under the name "UV atmosphere", by the Russian Space Agency Roscosmos.

  2. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO2 in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV-Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Broch, Laurent; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fleury, Benjamin; Vettier, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO2 on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO2 to a N2:CH4 gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO2/CH4 ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc-Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV-visible (270-600 nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc-Lorentz model, as the CO2/CH4 ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ˜177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV-vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.

  3. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  4. An asymptotic method for estimating the vertical ozone distribution in the Earth's atmosphere from satellite measurements of backscattered solar UV-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    An asymptotic approach to solution of the inverse problems of remote sensing is presented. It consists in changing integral operators characteristic of outgoing radiation into their asymptotic analogues. Such approach does not add new principal uncertainties into the problem and significantly reduces computation time that allows to develop the real (or about) time algorithms for interpretation of satellite measurements. The asymptotic approach has been realized for estimating vertical ozone distribution from satellite measurements of backscatter solar UV radiation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  5. ACTIVE MEDIA: BaY2F8 single crystals doped with rare-earth ions as promising up-conversion media for UV and VUV lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkar', A. A.; Uvarova, T. V.; Molchanov, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    BaY2F8 crystals are studied as promising active media for UV and VUV lasers. The up-conversion pumping of rare-earth activators is proposed to solve problems related to the solarisation of the medium and the selection of pump sources. The technology of growing oriented BaY2F8 single crystals is developed and the influence of the crystal orientation on the growth rate and quality of single crystals is determined.

  6. Nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide for the photocatalytic degradation studies on Acid Blue 113: A di-azo compound under UV slurry photoreactor.

    PubMed

    Suganya Josephine, G A; Mary Nisha, U; Meenakshi, G; Sivasamy, A

    2015-11-01

    Preventive measures for the control of environmental pollution and its remediation has received much interest in recent years due to the world-wide increase in the contamination of water bodies. Contributions of these harmful effluents are caused by the leather processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile, agricultural and other chemical industries. Nowadays, advanced oxidation processes considered to be better option for the complete destruction of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. Acid Blue 113 is a most widely used di-azo compound in leather, textile, dying and food industry as a color rending compound. In the present study, we have reported the photo catalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 using a nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide as a photo catalyst under UV light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a simple precipitation technique and were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-DRS and FE-SEM analysis. The experimental results proved that the prepared photo catalyst was nanocrystalline and highly active in the UV region. The UV-DRS results showed the band gap energy was 3.15eV for the prepared photo catalyst. The photodegradation efficiency was analyzed by various experimental parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, variation of substrate concentration and effect of electrolyte addition. The photo degradation process followed a pseudo first order kinetics and was continuously monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The experimental results proved the efficacy of the nanocrystalline zinc oxide doped dysprosium oxide which are highly active under UV light irradiations. It is also suggested that the prepared material would find wider applications in environmental remediation technologies to remove the carcinogenic and toxic moieties present in the industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Climatology of Ultra Violet(UV) Irradiance at the Surface of the Earth as Measured by the Belgian UV Radiation Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Praveen; Gillotay, Didier; Depiesse, Cedric

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we describe the network of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring stations in Belgium. The evolution of the entire network, together with the details of measuring instruments is given. The observed cumulative irradiations -UVB, UVA and total solar irradiation (TSI)- over the course of measurement for three stations -a northern (Ostende), central (Uccle) and a southern (Redu)- are shown. The longest series of measurement shown in this study is at Uccle, Brussels, from 1995 till 2014. Thus, the variation of the UV index, together with the variation of irradiations during summer and winter months at Uccle are shown as a part of this climatological study. The trend of UVB irradiance over the above mentioned three stations is shown. This UVB trend is studied in conjunction with the long-term satellite-based total column ozone value over Belgium, which shows two distinct trends marked by a change point. The total column ozone trend following the change point is positive. It is also seen that the UVB trend is positive for the urban/sub-urban sites: Uccle and Redu. Whereas the UVB trend at Ostende, which is a coastal site, is not positive. A possible explanation of this relation between total column ozone and UVB trend could be associated with aerosols, which is shown in this paper by means of a radiative transfer model based study -as a part of a preliminary investigation. It is seen that the UVI is influenced by the type of aerosols.

  8. On the existence of another source of heat production for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.

    PubMed

    Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum

    2013-01-01

    Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface heat flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) heat production is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another heat production in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced heat flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the heat generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's heat balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating.

  9. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago.

    PubMed

    Wilde, S A; Valley, J W; Peck, W H; Graham, C M

    2001-01-11

    No crustal rocks are known to have survived since the time of the intense meteor bombardment that affected Earth between its formation about 4,550 Myr ago and 4,030 Myr, the age of the oldest known components in the Acasta Gneiss of northwestern Canada. But evidence of an even older crust is provided by detrital zircons in metamorphosed sediments at Mt Narryer and Jack Hills in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, where grains as old as approximately 4,276 Myr have been found. Here we report, based on a detailed micro-analytical study of Jack Hills zircons, the discovery of a detrital zircon with an age as old as 4,404+/-8 Myr--about 130 million years older than any previously identified on Earth. We found that the zircon is zoned with respect to rare earth elements and oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O values from 7.4 to 5.0%), indicating that it formed from an evolving magmatic source. The evolved chemistry, high delta18O value and micro-inclusions of SiO2 are consistent with growth from a granitic melt with a delta18O value from 8.5 to 9.5%. Magmatic oxygen isotope ratios in this range point toward the involvement of supracrustal material that has undergone low-temperature interaction with a liquid hydrosphere. This zircon thus represents the earliest evidence for continental crust and oceans on the Earth.

  10. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  11. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  12. EarthFinder: A Precise Radial Velocity Survey Probe Mission of our Nearest Stellar Neighbors for Earth-Mass Habitable Zone Analogs Using High-Resolution UV-Vis-NIR Echelle Spectroscopy on a Space Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; EarthFinder Team

    2018-01-01

    We are investigating the science case for a 1.0-1.4 meter space telescope to survey the closest, brightest FGKM main sequence stars to search for Habitable Zone (HZ) Earth analogs using the precise radial velocity (PRV) technique at a precision of 1-10 cm/s. Our baseline instrument concept uses two diffraction-limited spectrographs operating in the 0.4-1.0 microns and 1.0-2.4 microns spectral regions each with a spectral resolution of R=150,000~200,000, with the possibility of a third UV arm. Because the instrument utilizes a diffraction-limited input beam, the spectrograph would be extremely compact, less than 50 cm on a side, and illumination can be stabilized with the coupling of starlight into single mode fibers. With two octaves of wavelength coverage and a cadence unimpeded by any diurnal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects, EarthFinder will offer a unique platform for recovering stellar activity signals from starspots, plages, granulation, etc. to detect exoplanets at velocity semi-amplitudes currently not obtainable from the ground. Variable telluric absorption and emission lines may potentially preclude achieving PRV measurements at or below 10 cm/s in the visible and <50 cm/s in the near-infrared from the ground. Placed in an Earth-trailing (e.g. Spitzer, Kepler) or Lagrange orbit, the space-based cadence of observations of a star can be year-round at the ecliptic poles, with two ~100-day "seasons" every 6 months in the ecliptic plane. This will provide a distinct advantage compared to an annual ~3-6 month observing season from the ground for mitigating stellar activity and detecting the orbital periods of HZ Earth-mass analogs (e.g. ~6-months to ~2 years). Finally, we are compiling a list of ancillary science cases for the observatory, ranging from asteroseismology to the direct measurement of the expansion of the Universe.

  13. Iron and oxygen isotope fractionation during iron UV photo-oxidation: Implications for early Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to

  14. AURORA on MEGSAT 1: a photon counting observatory for the Earth UV night-sky background and Aurora emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, A.; Trampus, P.; Stalio, R.; Mahne, N.; Battiston, R.; Menichelli, M.; Mazzinghi, P.

    2001-08-01

    A low-mass, low-cost photon-counting scientific payload has been developed and launched on a commercial microsatellite in order to study the near-UV night-sky background emission with a telescope nicknamed ``Notte'' and the Aurora emission with ``Alba''. AURORA, this is the name of the experiment, will determine, with the ``Notte'' channel, the overall night-side photon background in the 300-400nm spectral range, together with a particular 2+N2 line (λc=337nm). The ``Alba'' channel, on the other hand, will study the Aurora emissions in four different spectral bands (FWHM=8.4-9.6nm) centered on: 367nm (continuum evaluation), 391nm (1-N+2), 535nm (continuum evaluation), 560nm (OI). The instrument has been launched on the 26 September, 2000 from the Baikonur cosmodrome on a modified SS18 Dnepr-1 ``Satan'' rocket. The satellite orbit is nearly circular (hapogee=648km, /e=0.0022), and the inclination of the orbital plane is 64.56°. An overview of the techniques adopted is given in this paper.

  15. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  16. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  17. Survival of spores of the UV-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain MW01 after exposure to low-earth orbit and simulated martian conditions: data from the space experiment ADAPT on EXPOSE-E.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Marko; Moeller, Ralf; Rabbow, Elke; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Günther; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra

    2012-05-01

    In the space experiment "Molecular adaptation strategies of microorganisms to different space and planetary UV climate conditions" (ADAPT), bacterial endospores of the highly UV-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain MW01 were exposed to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and simulated martian surface conditions for 559 days on board the European Space Agency's exposure facility EXPOSE-E, mounted outside the International Space Station. The survival of B. subtilis MW01 spores from both assays (LEO and simulated martian conditions) was determined by a colony-formation assay after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few spore survivors were recovered from B. subtilis MW01 spores exposed in monolayers. However, if shielded from solar irradiation, about 8% of MW01 spores survived in LEO conditions, and 100% survived in simulated martian conditions, compared to the laboratory controls. The results demonstrate the effect of shielding against the high inactivation potential of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation, which limits the chances of survival of even the highly UV-resistant strain of B. subtilis MW01 in the harsh environments of outer space and the martian surface.

  18. EXPERIMENT - APOLLO 16 (UV)

    1972-06-06

    S72-40821 (21 April 1972) --- An artificially reproduced color enhancement of a ten-minute far-ultraviolet exposure of Earth, taken with a filter which blocks the glow caused by atomic hydrogen but which transmits the glow caused by atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. Note that airglow emission bands are visible on the night side of Earth, one roughly centered between the two polar auroral zones and one at an angle to this extending northward toward the sunlit side of Earth. The UV camera was operated by astronaut John W. Young on the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission. It was designed and built at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. EDITOR'S NOTE: The photographic number of the original black & white UV camera photograph, from which this artificially reproduced version was made, is AS16-123-19657.

  19. A depleted ozone layer absorbs less UV-B, cooling the ozone layer, increasing the amount of UV-B observed to reach Earth, heating air by dissociating tropospheric and ground-level ozone, and heating oceans very efficiently by penetrating tens of meters into the mixed layer. UV-B is 48 times more energetic ("hotter") than IR absorbed by greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    This new insight into the physics of radiation shows why changes in stratospheric ozone are observed to cause changes in global temperature. By 1970, manufactured CFC gases and ozone depletion began increasing. By 1993, increases in CFCs stopped as mandated by the Montreal Protocol. By 1995, increases in ozone depletion stopped. By 1998, increases in temperature stopped until 2014. Ozone is also depleted by halogen gases emitted from major basaltic lava flows, the largest of which, since 1783, occurred at Bardarbunga in Iceland in 2014, causing 2015 and 2016 to be the hottest years on record. Throughout Earth history, the largest basaltic lava flows were contemporaneous with periods of greatest warming and greatest levels of mass extinctions. Planck's empirical law shows that temperature of matter results from oscillation of all the bonds holding matter together. The higher the temperature, the higher the frequencies and amplitudes of oscillation. Thus, radiation from a nearby hotter body will make the absorbing body hotter than radiation from a cooler body. According to the Planck-Einstein relation, thermal energy (E) in matter and in radiation equals frequency of oscillation (ν) times the Planck constant (h), E=hν—the energy of a frictionless atomic oscillator. Since frequency is observed to be a very broad continuum extending from radio signals through visible light to gamma rays, thermal energy (E=hν) must also be a very broad continuum. Thermal flux cannot be represented properly by a single number of watts per square meter, as commonly assumed throughout the physical sciences, because all frequencies coexist and the number of watts increases with frequency. Thus, UV-B solar radiation is 48 times more energetic than IR terrestrial radiation absorbed by greenhouse gases and can make the absorbing body 48 times hotter. UV-B causes sunburn; no amount of IR can cause sunburn. Furthermore, in a basic experiment, I show that air containing more than 23 times

  20. The TROPOMI surface UV algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, Anders V.; Kujanpää, Jukka; Kalakoski, Niilo; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Mielonen, Tero; Sneep, Maarten; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Tamminen, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and the shortwave infrared that provides near-global daily coverage. Among other things, TROPOMI measurements will be used for calculating the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, the TROPOMI surface UV product will contribute to the monitoring of UV radiation by providing daily information on the prevailing UV conditions over the globe. The TROPOMI UV algorithm builds on the heritage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Satellite Application Facility for Atmospheric Composition and UV Radiation (AC SAF) algorithms. This paper provides a description of the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI observations. The TROPOMI surface UV product includes the following UV quantities: the UV irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm; the erythemally weighted UV; and the vitamin-D weighted UV. Each of these are available as (i) daily dose or daily accumulated irradiance, (ii) overpass dose rate or irradiance, and (iii) local noon dose rate or irradiance. In addition, all quantities are available corresponding to actual cloud conditions and as clear-sky values, which otherwise correspond to the same conditions but assume a cloud-free atmosphere. This yields 36 UV parameters altogether. The TROPOMI UV algorithm has been tested using input based on OMI and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.

  1. Invitation to a forum: architecting operational `next generation' earth monitoring satellites based on best modeling, existing sensor capabilities, with constellation efficiencies to secure trusted datasets for the next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Bell, Raymond M.; Grant, David A.; Lentz, Christopher A.

    2012-09-01

    Architecting the operational Next Generation of earth monitoring satellites based on matured climate modeling, reuse of existing sensor & satellite capabilities, attention to affordability and evolutionary improvements integrated with constellation efficiencies - becomes our collective goal for an open architectural design forum. Understanding the earth's climate and collecting requisite signatures over the next 30 years is a shared mandate by many of the world's governments. But there remains a daunting challenge to bridge scientific missions to 'operational' systems that truly support the demands of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users' requirements for trusted data. In this paper we will suggest an architectural structure that takes advantage of current earth modeling examples including cross-model verification and a first order set of critical climate parameters and metrics; that in turn, are matched up with existing space borne collection capabilities and sensors. The tools used and the frameworks offered are designed to allow collaborative overlays by other stakeholders nominating different critical parameters and their own treaded connections to existing international collection experience. These aggregate design suggestions will be held up to group review and prioritized as potential constellation solutions including incremental and spiral developments - including cost benefits and organizational opportunities. This Part IV effort is focused on being an inclusive 'Next Gen Constellation' design discussion and is the natural extension to earlier papers.

  2. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Rare Earth Activated Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LEDs for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinkyu

    Solid state white-emitting lighting devices based on LEDs outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and luminous efficiency. Near UV-LEDs in combination with blue-, green-, and red-emitting phosphors show superior luminescence properties over the commercialized blue-emitting LED with yellow-emitting phosphors. However, phosphor development for near UV LEDs is a challenging problem and a vibrant area of research. In addition, using the proper synthesis technique is an important consideration in the development of phosphors. In this research, efficient blue-, green-yellow, red-emitting, and color tunable phosphors for near UV LEDs based white light are identified and prepared by various synthetic methods such as solid state reaction, sol-gel/Pechini, co-precipitation, hydrothermal, combustion and spray-pyrolysis. Blue-emittingLiCaPO4:Eu2+, Green/yellow-emitting (Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+, color tunable solid solutions of KSrPO4-(Ba,Ca)2SiO4:Eu 2+, and red-emitting (Ba,Sr,Ca)3MgSi2O 8:Eu2+,Mn2+ show excellent excitation profile in the near UV region, high quantum efficiency, and good thermal stability for use in solid state lighting applications. In addition, different synthesis methods are analyzed and compared, with the goal of obtaining ideal phosphors, which should have not only have high luminous output but also optimal particle size (˜150--400 nm) and spherical morphology. For Sr2SiO 4:Eu2+, the sol-gel method appears to be the best method. For Ba2SiO4:Eu2+, the co-precipitation method is be the best. Lastly, the fabrication of core/SiO2 shell particles alleviate surface defects and improve luminescence output and moisture stability of nano and micron sized phosphors. For nano-sized Y2O 3:Eu3+, Y2SiO5:Ce3+,Tb 3+, and (Ba,Sr)2SiO4, the luminescence emission intensity of the core/shell particles were significantly higher than that of bare cores. Additionally, the moisture stability is also improved by SiO 2 shells, the luminescence output of

  3. Implications of a 3.472-3.333 Gyr-old subaerial microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa for the UV environmental conditions on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Westall, Frances; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Southam, Gordon; Grassineau, Nathalie; Colas, Maggy; Cockell, Charles; Lammer, Helmut

    2006-10-29

    Modelling suggests that the UV radiation environment of the early Earth, with DNA weighted irradiances of about three orders of magnitude greater than those at present, was hostile to life forms at the surface, unless they lived in specific protected habitats. However, we present empirical evidence that challenges this commonly held view. We describe a well-developed microbial mat that formed on the surface of volcanic littoral sediments in an evaporitic environment in a 3.5-3.3Ga-old formation from the Barberton greenstone belt. Using a multiscale, multidisciplinary approach designed to strongly test the biogenicity of potential microbial structures, we show that the mat was constructed under flowing water by 0.25 microm filaments that produced copious quantities of extracellular polymeric substances, representing probably anoxygenic photosynthesizers. Associated with the mat is a small colony of rods-vibroids that probably represent sulphur-reducing bacteria. An embedded suite of evaporite minerals and desiccation cracks in the surface of the mat demonstrates that it was periodically exposed to the air in an evaporitic environment. We conclude that DNA-damaging UV radiation fluxes at the surface of the Earth at this period must either have been low (absorbed by CO2, H2O, a thin organic haze from photo-dissociated CH4, or SO2 from volcanic outgassing; scattered by volcanic, and periodically, meteorite dust, as well as by the upper layers of the microbial mat) and/or that the micro-organisms exhibited efficient gene repair/survival strategies.

  4. Implications of a 3.472–3.333 Gyr-old subaerial microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa for the UV environmental conditions on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Westall, Frances; de Ronde, Cornel E.J; Southam, Gordon; Grassineau, Nathalie; Colas, Maggy; Cockell, Charles; Lammer, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Modelling suggests that the UV radiation environment of the early Earth, with DNA weighted irradiances of about three orders of magnitude greater than those at present, was hostile to life forms at the surface, unless they lived in specific protected habitats. However, we present empirical evidence that challenges this commonly held view. We describe a well-developed microbial mat that formed on the surface of volcanic littoral sediments in an evaporitic environment in a 3.5–3.3 Ga-old formation from the Barberton greenstone belt. Using a multiscale, multidisciplinary approach designed to strongly test the biogenicity of potential microbial structures, we show that the mat was constructed under flowing water by 0.25 μm filaments that produced copious quantities of extracellular polymeric substances, representing probably anoxygenic photosynthesizers. Associated with the mat is a small colony of rods–vibroids that probably represent sulphur-reducing bacteria. An embedded suite of evaporite minerals and desiccation cracks in the surface of the mat demonstrates that it was periodically exposed to the air in an evaporitic environment. We conclude that DNA-damaging UV radiation fluxes at the surface of the Earth at this period must either have been low (absorbed by CO2, H2O, a thin organic haze from photo-dissociated CH4, or SO2 from volcanic outgassing; scattered by volcanic, and periodically, meteorite dust, as well as by the upper layers of the microbial mat) and/or that the micro-organisms exhibited efficient gene repair/survival strategies. PMID:17008224

  5. High-Pressure γ-CaMgSi2O6: Does Penta-Coordinated Silicon Exist in the Earth's Mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Kiefer, Boris; Bina, Craig R.; Zhang, Dongzhou; Dera, Przemeslaw K.

    2017-11-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction experiments with natural Fe- and Al- bearing diopside single crystals and density functional theory (DFT) calculations on diopside end-member composition indicate the existence of a new high-pressure γ-diopside polymorph with rare penta-coordinated silicon. On compression α-diopside transforms to the γ-phase at ˜50 GPa, which in turn, on decompression is observed to convert to the known β-phase below 47 GPa. The new γ-diopside polymorph constitutes another recent example of penta-coordinated silicon (VSi) in overcompressed metastable crystalline silicates, suggesting that VSi may exist in the transition zone and the uppermost lower mantle in appreciable quantities, not only in silicate glass and melts but also in crystalline phases contained in the coldest parts of subducted stagnant slabs. VSi may have significant influences on buoyancy, wave velocity anomalies, deformation mechanisms, chemical reactivity of silicate rocks, and seismicity within the slab.

  6. Rocky Worlds Limited to ∼1.8 Earth Radii by Atmospheric Escape during a Star’s Extreme UV Saturation

    SciT

    Lehmer, Owen R.; Catling, David C., E-mail: info@lehmer.us

    Recent observations and analysis of low-mass (<10 M {sub ⊕}) exoplanets have found that rocky planets only have radii up to 1.5–2 R {sub ⊕}. Two general hypotheses exist for the cause of the dichotomy between rocky and gas-enveloped planets (or possible water worlds): either low-mass planets do not necessarily form thick atmospheres of a few wt.%, or the thick atmospheres on these planets easily escape, driven by X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emissions from young parent stars. Here, we show that a cutoff between rocky and gas-enveloped planets due to hydrodynamic escape is most likely to occur at amore » mean radius of 1.76 ± 0.38 (2 σ ) R {sub ⊕} around Sun-like stars. We examine the limit in rocky planet radii predicted by hydrodynamic escape across a wide range of possible model inputs, using 10,000 parameter combinations drawn randomly from plausible parameter ranges. We find a cutoff between rocky and gas-enveloped planets that agrees with the observed cutoff. The large cross-section available for XUV absorption in the extremely distended primitive atmospheres of low-mass planets results in complete loss of atmospheres during the ∼100 Myr phase of stellar XUV saturation. In contrast, more-massive planets have less-distended atmospheres and less escape, and so retain thick atmospheres through XUV saturation—and then indefinitely as the XUV and escape fluxes drop over time. The agreement between our model and exoplanet data leads us to conclude that hydrodynamic escape plausibly explains the observed upper limit on rocky planet size and few planets (a “valley”, or “radius gap”) in the 1.5–2 R {sub ⊕} range.« less

  7. The Martian and extraterrestrial UV radiation environment--1. Biological and closed-loop ecosystem considerations.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Andrady, A L

    1999-01-01

    The Martian surface is exposed to both UVC radiation (<280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared to the surface of the Earth. Terrestrial organisms have not evolved to cope with such high levels of UVC and UVB and thus any attempts to introduce organisms to Mars, particularly in closed-loop life support systems that use ambient sunlight, must address this problem. Here we examine the UV radiation environment of Mars with respect to biological systems. Action spectra and UV surface fluxes are used to estimate the UV stress that both DNA and chloroplasts would experience. From this vantage point it is possible to consider appropriate measures to address the problem of the Martian UV environment for future long term human exploration and settlement strategies. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. Existing artificial ecosystems such as Biosphere 2 can provide some insights into design strategies pertinent to high UV environments. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. The data also have implications for the establishment of closed-loop ecosystems using natural sunlight on the lunar surface and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  8. An ESR study of the UV degradation of FEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, G. A.; Hill, D. J. T.; Odonnell, J. H.; Pomery, P. J.; Rasoul, F.

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft in low earth orbit are subjected to significant levels of high energy radiation, including ultraviolet (UV) and visible ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths. The effects of UV radiation are enhanced over those at the surface of the earth, where the only incident wavelengths are greater than 290 nm. In low earth orbit the incident UV wavelengths extend below 290 nm into the VUV region, where the Lyman alpha-emissions of atomic hydrogen occur at 121 nm. In addition to electromagnetic radiation, in low earth orbit polymer materials may also be subjected to atomic oxygen particle radiation, which will result in direct oxidation of the polymer.

  9. EXPERIMENT - APOLLO 16 (UV)

    1972-06-06

    S72-40820 (21 April 1972) --- A color enhancement of a photograph taken on ultra-violet light showing the spectrum of the upper atmosphere of Earth and geocorona. The bright horizontal line is far ultra-violet emission (1216 angstrom) of hydrogen extending 10 degrees (40,000 miles) either side of Earth. The knobby vertical line shows several ultra-violet emissions from Earth's sunlit atmosphere, each "lump" being produced by one type gas (oxygen, nitrogen, helium, etc.). The spectral dispersion is about 10 angstrom per millimeter on this enlargement. The UV camera/spectrograph was operated on the lunar surface by astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission. It was designed and built at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. While astronauts Young and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" to explore the Descartes highlands region of the moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit.

  10. EXPERIMENT - APOLLO XVI (UV)

    1972-06-06

    S72-40818 (21 April 1972) --- A color enhancement of an ultra-violet photograph of the geocorona, a halo of low density hydrogen around Earth. Sunlight is shining from the left, and the geocorona is brighter on that side. The UV camera was operated by astronaut John W. Young on the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission. It was designed and built at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. While astronauts Young, commander, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" to explore the Descartes highlands region of the moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit.

  11. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  12. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  13. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  14. Defined UV protection by apparel textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Laperre, J; Avermaete, A; Altmeyer, P; Gambichler, T

    2001-08-01

    This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.

  15. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2017-03-01

    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO 2 , fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO 2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH 4 , O 2 , and O 3 . At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO 2 levels. However, if SO 2 and/or H 2 S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H 2 O is a robust UV shield for λ < 198 nm. This means that regardless of the levels of other atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H 2 O and is available across a broad range of [Formula: see text], meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H 2 O and CO 2 levels. Key Words: Radiative

  16. UV RADIATION EFFECTS ON MICROBES AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultraviolet (UV) region of solar radiation is defined as wavelengths in the range of 200 to 400 nm. In contrast to visible radiation (400 - 800 nm), which has a well-defined role as the energy source for most of the Earth's primary production, the effects of UV radiation on b...

  17. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  18. UV holographic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  19. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok; Garud, Vikas

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  20. Hygroscopicity of Early Earth and Titan Laboratory Aerosol Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Beaver, M. R.; Freedman, M. A.; Toon, O. B.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have explored the ability of organic hazes, known to exist in the atmosphere of Titan and postulated to have existed in the Archean Earth atmosphere, to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). These laboratory aerosol analogs are generated via UV-photolysis of early Earth and Titan analog gas mixtures and are designed to mimic the present day atmospheric conditions on Titan and the early Earth atmosphere before the rise of oxygen. Water uptake is observed to occur on the early Earth and Titan aerosol analogs at relative humidities of 80% - 90% via optical growth measurements using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy. We find the optical growth of these aerosols is similar to known slightly-soluble organic acids, such as phthalic and pyromellitic acids. On average, the optical growth of the early Earth analog is slightly larger than the Titan analog. In order to translate our measurements obtained in a subsaturated regime into the CCN ability of these particles, we rely on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, developed by Petters & Kreidenweis (2007). We retrieve κ = 0.17±0.03 and 0.06±0.01 for the early Earth and Titan analogs, respectively. This early Earth analog hygroscopicity value indicates that the aerosol could activate at reasonable water vapor supersaturations. We use previous aerosol mass spectrometry results to correlate the chemical structure of the two types of analog with their hygroscopicity. The hygroscopicity of the early Earth aerosol analog, coupled with the apparent lack of other good CCN during the Archean, helps explain the role of the organic haze in the indirect effect of clouds on the early Earth and indicates that it may have had a significant impact on the hydrological cycle.

  1. Índice UV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  2. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2017-03-01

    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO2, fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH4, O2, and O3. At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO2 levels. However, if SO2 and/or H2S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H2O is a robust UV shield for λ < 198 nm. This means that regardless of the levels of other atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H2O and is available across a broad range of NCO2, meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H2O and CO2 levels.

  3. The Earth Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere…

  4. Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

  5. The impact of solar UV radiation on the early biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    2007-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone, photochemically produced from atmospheric oxygen, is a protective filter of the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing most of the biologically harmful UV radiation of our sun in the UV-C (190-280 nm) and short wavelength-region of the UV-B (280-315 nm). Numerous lines of isotopic and geologic evidence suggest that the Archean atmosphere was essentially anoxic. As a result the column abundance of ozone would have been insufficient to affect the surface UV radiation environment. Thus, as well as UV-B radiation, UV-C radiation would have penetrated to the Earth's surface with its associated biological consequences. The history of this ultraviolet stress for the early Earth has been determined from theoretical data and data obtained in Earth orbit on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores under a simulated ozone layer of different thicknesses. Although the UV-C and UV-B regions contribute only 2 % of the entire solar extraterrestrial irradiance, photobiological experiments in space have demonstrated a high mutagenicity and lethality of this UV range to living organisms. The reason for these severe effects of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation - compared to conditions on present-day Earth - lies in the absorption characteristics of the DNA, which is the decisive target for inactivation and mutation induction at this UV range. Being a strong mutagen, UV-radiation is considered as a powerful promoter of biological evolution on the one hand, one the other hand, it may have deleterious consequences to individual cells and organisms, e.g. by causing inactivation, mutations or cancer induction. In response to potential harmful effects of environmental UV radiation, life on Earth has developed several strategies of survival, either avoiding exposure to UV radiation or restoring UV damage. Mechanisms of avoidance of exposure to UV radiation include (i) moving away from the UV radiation into shadowed areas, which requires the development of UV radiation

  6. UV habitable zones around M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade there was a change in paradigm, which led to consider that terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars can also be suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Since many dMe stars emit large amount of UV radiation during flares, in this work we analyze the UV constrains for living systems on Earth-like planets around dM stars. We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ; Buccino, A.P., Lemarchand, G.A., Mauas, P.J.D., 2006. Icarus 183, 491-503) to the three planetary systems around dM stars (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020) observed by IUE and to two M-flare stars (AD Leo and EV Lac). In particular, HIP 74995 hosts a terrestrial planet in the LW-HZ, which is the exoplanet that most resembles our own Earth. We show, in general, that during the quiescent state there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ to trigger the biogenic processes and that this energy could be provided by flares of moderate intensity, while strong flares do not necessarily rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  7. An 8 Meter Monolithic UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The planned Ares V launch vehicle with its 10 meter fairing and at least 55,600 kg capacity to Earth Sun L2 enables entirely new classes of space telescopes. A consortium from NASA, Space Telescope Science Institute, and aerospace industry are studying an 8-meter monolithic primary mirror UV/optical/NIR space telescope to enable new astrophysical research that is not feasible with existing or near-term missions, either space or ground. This paper briefly reviews the science case for such a mission and presents the results of an on-going technical feasibility study, including: optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing; mass budget and cost.

  8. UV meteor observation from a space platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, P.

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports on the evaluation of the meteor light curve in the 300-400 nm UV band produced by meteoroids and space debris interacting with the Earth atmosphere; the aim is to assess the visibility of the phenomenon by a near-Earth space platform and to estimate the capability for measuring the solid-body influx on the Earth from outer space. The simulations have been conceived on the basis of general processes only, without introducing a priori observational inputs: the calibration with real data can be made in orbit by validation with "characterized" meteor streams. Computations are made for different values of the entry velocity (12 to 72 km/s) and angle of impact of the meteoroid when entering the atmosphere, with initial-mass values ranging from 10-12 kg to the kg size encompassing the transition from micrometeorites ( m < 10-9-10-8kg) to the "ablation" regime typical of larger masses. The data are presented using units in UV Magnitudo to facilitate direct comparison with the common literature in the field. The results concern observations of the atmosphere up to M UV = 18 by a height of 400 km above the Earth surface (average for the International Space Station--ISS), with reference to the mission "Extreme Universe Space Observatory--EUSO" designed as an external payload for the module "Columbus" of the European Space Agency. Meteors represent for EUSO an observable as a slow UV phenomenon with seconds to minutes characteristic time duration, to be compared to the fast phenomenon typical of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) induced by the energetic cosmic radiation, ranging from microseconds to milliseconds. Continuous wide-angle observation by EUSO with its high inclination orbit and sensitivity reaching M UV = 18 will allow the in-depth exploration of the meteor "sporadic" component and to isolate the contribution of minor "streams".

  9. TOMS UV Algorithm: Problems and Enhancements. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Herman, Jay; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, Colin; Arola, Antti; Kaurola, Jussi; Kroskinen, Lasse; Kalliskota, S.; Taalas, Petteri; Geogdzhaev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite instruments provide global maps of surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance by combining backscattered radiance measurements with radiative transfer models. The models are limited by uncertainties in input parameters of the atmosphere and the surface. We evaluate the effects of possible enhancements of the current Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) surface UV irradiance algorithm focusing on effects of diurnal variation of cloudiness and improved treatment of snow/ice. The emphasis is on comparison between the results of the current (version 1) TOMS UV algorithm and each of the changes proposed. We evaluate different approaches for improved treatment of pixel average cloud attenuation, with and without snow/ice on the ground. In addition to treating clouds based only on the measurements at the local time of the TOMS observations, the results from other satellites and weather assimilation models can be used to estimate attenuation of the incident UV irradiance throughout the day. A new method is proposed to obtain a more realistic treatment of snow covered terrain. The method is based on a statistical relation between UV reflectivity and snow depth. The new method reduced the bias between the TOMS UV estimations and ground-based UV measurements for snow periods. The improved (version 2) algorithm will be applied to re-process the existing TOMS UV data record (since 1978) and to the future satellite sensors (e.g., Quik/TOMS, GOME, OMI on EOS/Aura and Triana/EPIC).

  10. Is the adaptation to UV stress correlated with a higher resistance to other environmental stressors? First results of the space experiment ADAPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Wassmann, Marko; Rabbow, Elke; Moeller, Ralf; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean

    resistance against the simultaneous action of further `extreme' environmental factors that exist in space or on other planets like vacuum / low pressure or cosmic radiation. In preparation of ADAPT a continuos culture of Bacillus subtilis 168 cells was grown for 700 generations under periodical polychromatic mars-like UV irradiation. Populations that evolved under this UV stress were about 4.7fold more resistant than the ancestral and non-UV evolved populations. In addition to the acquired increased UV resistance, further changes in microbial stress response to hydrogen peroxide, increased salinity and desiccation were observed in UV-evolved cells. For the space experiment spores of the strain MW01, isolated from this UV-resistant population, were exposed in earth orbit to space and simulated martian conditions. The biological endpoints under investigation include among others survival, mutation induction, loss of sporulation capability. The results of this experiment will contribute to our understanding of the adaptability of life to extreme environments on earth and on other planets in general.

  11. The Janus face of iron on anoxic worlds: iron oxides are both protective and destructive to life on the early Earth and present-day Mars.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jennifer; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-05-01

    The surface of the early Earth was probably subjected to a higher flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation than today. UV radiation is known to severely damage DNA and other key molecules of life. Using a liquid culture and a rock analogue system, we investigated the interplay of protective and deleterious effects of iron oxides under UV radiation on the viability of the model organism, Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, there exists a fine balance between iron oxide's protective effects against this radiation and its deleterious effects caused by Photo-Fenton reactions. The maximum damage was caused by a concentration of hematite of ∼1 mg/mL. Concentrations above this confer increasing protection by physical blockage of the UV radiation, concentrations below this cause less effective UV radiation blockage, but also a correspondingly less effective Photo-Fenton reaction, providing an overall advantage. These results show that on anoxic worlds, surface habitability under a high UV flux leaves life precariously poised between the beneficial and deleterious effects of iron oxides. These results have relevance to the Archean Earth, but also the habitability of the Martian surface, where high levels of UV radiation in combination with iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide can be found. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Solar UV variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) provide solar UV flux in the 160 to 400 nm wavelength range, backed up by independent measurement in the 115 to 305 nm range from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME). The full disc UV flux from spatially resolved measurements of solar activity was modeled, which provides a better understanding of why the UV variations have their observed temporal and wavelength dependencies. Long term, intermediate term, and short term variations are briefly examined.

  13. The UV Sensor Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Correction and Generation of UV Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente-Retortillo, Á.; Martinez, G.; Renno, N. O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station UV sensor (UVS) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission has completed more than 1750 sols of measurements, providing an unprecedented coverage ranging from diurnal to interannual times scales [1,2]. The UVS is comprised of six photodiodes to measure the UV flux in the ranges 200-380, 320-380, 280-320, 200-280, 230-290 and 300-350 nm [3]. UV fluxes in units of W/m2 can be found in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). However, dust deposition on the UVS and a non-physical discontinuity in the calibration functions when the solar zenith angle is above 30º cause errors in these fluxes that increase with time. We have developed a technique to correct UV fluxes from the effects of dust degradation and inconsistencies in the angular response of the UVS. The photodiode output currents (available in the PDS as lower-level TELRDR products), ancillary data records (available in the PDS as ADR products) and dust opacity values derived from Mastcam observations are used for performing the corrections. The corrections have been applied to the UVA band (320-380 nm) for the first 1000 sols of the mission, providing excellent results [4]. We plan to correct the UV fluxes on each of the six UVS bands and to make these results available in the PDS. Data products generated by this study will allow comparisons of the UV radiation environment at Gale crater with that at the locations of the future missions ExoMars 2020 and Mars 2020, as well as the assessment of the potential survivability of biological contaminants brought to Mars from Earth. References: [1] Smith, M. D., et al. (2016), Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes, Icarus, 280, 234-248. [2] Vicente-Retortillo, Á., et al. (2017), Determination of dust aerosol particle size at Gale Crater using REMS UVS and Mastcam measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3502-3508. [3] Gómez-Elvira, J., et al. (2012), REMS: The environmental sensor

  14. Comets in UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  15. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  16. UV exposure in cars.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  17. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Rontó, G.; Kerékgyártó, T.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is additive starting at a value of zero according to the definition of CIE (Technical Report TC-6-18). The biological dose can be defined by a measured end-effect. In our dosimeters (phage T7 and uracil dosimeter) exposed to natural (terrestrial) UV radiation the proportion of pyrimidin photoproducts among the total photoproducts is smaller than 0.1 and the linear correlation between the biological and physical dose is higher than 0.9. According to the experimental data this linear relationship is often not valid. We observed that UV radiation did not only induce dimerisation but shorter wavelengths caused monomerisation of pyrimidin dimers. Performing the irradiation in oxygen free environment and using a Deuterium lamp as UV source, we could increase monomerisation against dimerisation thus the DNA-based dosimetrySs additivity rule is not fulfilled in these conditions. In this study we will demonstrate those non-linear experiments which constitute the basis of our biological experiments on the International Space Station.

  18. Comparative investigation of X-ray contrast medium degradation by UV/chlorine and UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi; Pang, Suyan

    2018-02-01

    The degradation of iopamidol and diatrizoate sodium (DTZ) by UV/chlorine was carried out according to efficiency, mechanism, and oxidation products, and compared to that by UV/H 2 O 2 . The pseudo-first order rate (k') of iopamidol and DTZ was accelerated by UV/chlorine compared to that by UV and chlorine alone. k' of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine increased with increasing chlorine dosage. Both of iopamidol and DTZ could not be effectively removed by UV/H 2 O 2 compared to that by UV/chlorine. Secondary radicals (Cl 2 - and ClO) rather than primary radicals (HO and Cl) were demonstrated to be mainly responsible for the enhanced removal of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine. The oxidation products of iopamidol and DTZ resulting from UV/chlorine and UV/H 2 O 2 process were identified, and differences existed in the two systems. IO 3 - (the desired sink of I - ) was the major inorganic product in the UV/chlorine process whereas I - was the predominant inorganic product in the UV/H 2 O 2 process. The formation of chlorine-containing products during the degradation of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine was also observed. H-abstraction, additions, de-iodination were shared during the degradation of iopamidol by UV/chlorine and UV/H 2 O 2 . Neutral pH condition was preferred for the removal of iopamidol and DTZ by UV/chlorine. UV/chlorine could also be applied in real waters for the removal of iopamidol and DTZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  20. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, L.; Gröbner, J.; Hülsen, G.; Bachmann, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Dubard, J.; Khazova, M.; Kift, R.; Hoogendijk, K.; Serrano, A.; Smedley, A. R. D.; Vilaplana, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost effective instruments and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP-ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines, and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with array spectroradiometers and support to the end-user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end-user array spectroradiometers, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the intercomparison revealed that array spectroradiometers, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema weighted UV index - in particular at low solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available array spectroradiometer within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range or solar zenith angle. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 to 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  1. New bactericidal UV light sources: excilamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, Edward A.; Lavrent'eva, Larisa V.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Masterova, Yana V.; Kuznetzova, Eugenia N.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2004-05-01

    A reliable bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli cells irradiation by excilamps has been established. Both on primary and secondary irradiation there exists the reciprocally proportional dependence between irradiation doze (or exposure time) and survived cells number. The microorganisms survived after primary irradiation are shown to have not changed sensitivity to excilamps irradiation. The best results have been obtained during XeBr-excilamp irradiation. Owing to their technical parameters, the excilamps are promising systems for UV-sterilization. Comparison of capacitive discharge excilamp characteristics with other conventional UV light sources in presented. A comparative study on UV doze effect of a barrier discharge KrCl-excilamp (λ = 222 nm) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli inactivation was carried out. KrCl-excilamp emission power is 65 W, and emitting area is 0.1 m2. It has been demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus cell sensitivity to UV radiation at this wavelength is higher than that of Escherichia coli.

  2. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  3. Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Cullen, John J.

    1995-07-01

    It is now widely documented that reduced ozone will result in increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially UV-B (280-320nm), incident at the surface of the earth [Watson, 1988; Anderson et al., 1991; Schoeberl and Hartmann, 1991; Frederick and Alberts, 1991; WMO, 1991; Madronich, 1993; Kerr and McElroy, 1993], and there is considerable and increasing evidence that these higher levels of UV-B radiation may be detrimental to various forms of marine life in the upper layers of the ocean. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, we also know that this biologically- damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation can penetrate to ecologically- significant depths in marine and freshwater systems [Jerlov, 1950; Lenoble, 1956; Smith and Baker, 1979; Smith and Baker, 1980; Smith and Baker, 1981; Kirk et al., 1994]. This knowledge, plus the dramatic decline in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent each spring, now known to be caused by anthropogenically released chemicals [Solomon, 1990; Booth et al., 1994], has resulted in increased UV-environmental research and a number of summary reports. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has provided recent updates with respect to the effects of ozone depletion on aquatic ecosystems (Hader, Worrest, Kumar in UNEP 1989, 1991, Hader, Worrest, Kumar and Smith UNEP 1994) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has provided [SCOPE, 1992] a summary of the effects of increased UV radiation on biological systems. SCOPE has also reported [SCOPE, 1993] on the effects of increased UV on the biosphere. In addition, several books have recently been published reviewing various aspects of environmental UV photobiology [Young et al., 1993], UV effects on humans, animals and plants [Tevini, 1993], the biological effects of UV radiation in Antarctica [Weiler and Penhale, 1994], and UV research in freshwater ecosystems [Williamson and Zagarese, 1994]. Several other reviews are relevant [NAS, 1984; Caldwell

  4. Selective Emitter Pumped Rare Earth Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Patton, Martin O. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A selective emitter pumped rare earth laser provides an additional type of laser for use in many laser applications. Rare earth doped lasers exist which are pumped with flashtubes or laser diodes. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform thermal energy input to a spectral band matching the absorption band of a rare earth in the laser in order to produce lasing.

  5. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary rare earth metals process.... PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  6. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary rare earth metals process.... PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  7. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary rare earth metals process.... PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  8. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary rare earth metals process.... PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  9. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth... standards for existing sources. The mass of wastewater pollutants in primary rare earth metals process.... PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1...

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  11. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  12. UV protection for sunglasses: revisiting the standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masili, Mauro; Schiabel, Homero; Ventura, Liliane

    2014-02-01

    In a continuing work of establishing safe limits for UV protection on sunglasses, we have estimated the incident UV radiation for the 280 nm - 400 nm range for 5500 locations in Brazil. Current literature establishes safe limits regarding ultraviolet radiation exposure in the spectral region 180nm-400nm for weighted and unweighted UV radiant exposure. British Standard BSEN1836(2005) and American Standard ANZI Z80.3(2009) require the UV protection in the spectral range 280nm-380nm, and The Brazilian Standard for sunglasses protection, NBR15111(20013), currently requires protection for the 280nm - 400nm range as established by literature. However, none of them take into account the total (unweighted) UVA radiant exposure.Calculations of these limits have been made for 5500 Brazilian locations which included the geographic position of the city; altitude, inclination angle of the Earth; typical atmospheric data (ozone column; water vapor and others) as well as scattering from concrete, grass, sand, water, etc.. Furthermore, regarding UV safety for the ocular media, the resistance to irradiance test required on this standard of irradiating the lenses for 25 continuous hours with a 450W sunlight simulator leads to a correspondence of 26 hours and 10 minutes of continuous exposure to the Sun. Moreover, since the sun irradiance in Brazil is quite large, integrations made for the 280-400 nm range shows an average of 45% of greater ultraviolet radiant exposure than for the 280-380 nm range. Suggestions on the parameters of these tests are made in order to establish safe limits according to the UV irradiance in Brazil.

  13. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Trition's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV (ultraviolet) Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  14. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAMs exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SaM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAMs on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAMs has been determined, further constraints on their composition cable made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  15. Distribution and nature of UV absorbers on Triton's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that a UV Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.

  16. Standardization of Broadband UV Measurements for 365 nm LED Sources

    PubMed Central

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband UV measurements are evaluated when UV-A irradiance meters measure optical radiation from 365 nm UV sources. The CIE standardized rectangular-shape UV-A function can be realized only with large spectral mismatch errors. The spectral power-distribution of the 365 nm excitation source is not standardized. Accordingly, the readings made with different types of UV meters, even if they measure the same UV source, can be very different. Available UV detectors and UV meters were measured and evaluated for spectral responsivity. The spectral product of the source-distribution and the meter’s spectral-responsivity were calculated for different combinations to estimate broad-band signal-measurement errors. Standardization of both the UV source-distribution and the meter spectral-responsivity is recommended here to perform uniform broad-band measurements with low uncertainty. It is shown what spectral responsivity function(s) is needed for new and existing UV irradiance meters to perform low-uncertainty broadband 365 nm measurements. PMID:26900516

  17. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  18. Life on Earth: From Chemicals in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses experimental evidence for the existence of organic material in the solar system prior to the earth's formation. Indicates that the earth could have received much of its organic compounds from meteors falling on its primitive surface. (CC)

  19. [UV-radiation--sources, wavelength, environment].

    PubMed

    Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    The UV-radiation in our environment is part of the electromagnetic radiation, which emanates from the sun. It is designated as optical radiation and reaches from 290-4,000 nm on the earth's surface. According to international definitions UV irradiation is divided into short-wave UVC (200-280 nm), medium-wave UVB (280-320 nm), and long-wave UVA (320-400 nm). Solar radiation which reaches the surface of the globe at a defined geographical site and a defined time point is called global radiation. It is modified quantitatively and qualitatively while penetrating the atmosphere. Besides atmospheric conditions, like ozone layer and air pollution, geographic latitude, elevation, time of the season, time of the day, cloudiness and the influence of indirect radiation resulting from stray effects in the atmosphere and reflection from the underground play a role in modifying global radiation, which finally represents the biologically effective radiation. The radiation's distribution on the body surface varies according to sun angle and body posture. The cumulative UV exposure is mainly influenced by outdoor profession and recreational activities. The use of sun beds and phototherapeutic measures additionally may contribute to the cumulative UV dose.

  20. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  1. UV-B Radiation Contributes to Amphibian Population Declines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaustein, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is the most significant biologically damaging radiation at the terrestrial surface. At the organismal level, UV-B radiation can slow growth rates, cause immune dysfunction and result in sublethal damage. UV-B radiation can lead to mutations and cell death. Over evolutionary time, UV radiation has been an important stressor on living organisms. Natural events, including impacts from comets and asteroids, volcanic activity, supernova explosions and solar flares, can cause large-scale ozone depletion with accompanying increases in UV radiation. However, these natural events are transient. Moreover, the amount of ozone damage due to natural events depends upon a number of variables, including the magnitude of the event. This is different from modern-day human-induced production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that deplete stratospheric ozone continuously, resulting in long-term increases in UV-B radiation at the surface of the earth. We will briefly review the effects of UV-B exposure in one group of aquatic organisms_amphibians. UV-B has been implicated as a possible factor contributing to global declines and range reductions in amphibian populations.

  2. UV actinometer film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.; Gupta, A.; Pitts, J.

    1980-01-01

    Cumulative UV radiation can be measured by low-cost polymer film that is unaffacted by visible light. Useful for virtually any surface, film can help paint and plastics manufacturers determine how well their products stand up against UV radiation. Actinometer film uses photochemically sensitive compound that changes its chemical composition in response to solar radiation. Extent of chemical conversion depends on length exposure and can be measured by examining film sample with spectrophotometer. Film can be exposed from several seconds up to month.

  3. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth.

    PubMed

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Wolf, Eric T; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ∼ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO 2 . Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets. Key Words: Haze-Archean Earth-Exoplanets-Spectra-Biosignatures-Planetary habitability

  4. New technologies for UV detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single

  5. Development of a low cost UV index datalogger and comparison between UV index sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the part of radiation emitted by the Sun, with range between 280 nm and 400 nm, and that reaches the Earth's surface. The UV rays are essential to the human because it stimulates the production of vitamin D but this radiation may be related to several health problems, including skin cancer and ocular diseases like pterygium, photokeratitis, cataract and more. To inform people about UV radiation, it is adopted the Ultraviolet Index (UVI). This UVI consists in a measure of solar UV radiation level, which contributes to cause sunburn on skin, also known as Erythema, and is indicated as an integer number between 1 and 14, associated to categories from low to extreme respectively. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost UVI datalogger capable of measuring three different UVI sensors simultaneously, record their data with timestamp and serve the measures online through a dedicated server, so general public can access their data and see the current UV radiation conditions. We also compared three different UVI sensors (SGlux UV cosine, Skye SKU440 and SiLabs SI1145) between them and with meteorological models during a period of months to verify their compliance. With five months data, we could verify the sensors working characteristics and decide which among them are the most suitable for research purposes.

  6. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  7. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  9. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  10. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are o...

  11. Air pollution effects field research facility: 3. UV-B exposure and monitoring system

    SciT

    McEvers, J.A.; Hileman, M.S.; Edwards, N.T.

    1993-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Outdoor UltraViolet-B (UV-B) Exposure and Monitoring Facility was developed in 1980 to provide well-controlled and -monitored exposure of specific terrestrial plant. species to elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The introduction of various anthropogenic agents into the earth`s stratosphere has resulted in a decrease in the volume of ozone (O{sub 3}) present here. The decrease in O{sub 3} has resulted in an increase in the level of UV radiation reaching thee earth`s surface. Of particular interest is the level of UV-B, because it has the most detrimental effect on living tissue. A thorough understanding ofmore » the effects of elevated levels of UV-B on living tissue is critical to the formulation of economic policy regarding production of such agents and alternative strategies. The UV region of interest is referred to as UV-B and corresponds to radiation with a wavelength of 290 to 320 nm. Design, operation, and performance of the automated generation, exposure, and monitoring system are described. The system has proved to be reliable and easy to maintain and operate, and it provides significant flexibility in exposure programs. The system software is described, and detailed listings are provided. The ability to expose plants to controlled set point percentages of UV-B above the ambient level was developed.« less

  12. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    UV doses were found to be ˜ 12.5 % higher than the NILU NN estimates but, despite the presence of a visually apparent seasonal pattern, the R2 values were found to be robustly high and equal to 0.92-0.93 for 1588 all-sky coincidences. These results significantly improve when limiting the dataset to cloud-free days with differences of 0.57 % for the erythemal doses, 1.22 % for the vitamin D doses, and 1.18 % for the DNA-damage doses, with standard deviations of the order of 11-13 %. The improvement of the comparative statistics under cloud-free cases further testifies to the importance of the appropriate consideration of the contribution of clouds in the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. For the urban area of Thessaloniki, with highly variable aerosol, the weakness of the implicit aerosol information introduced to the TEMIS UV dose algorithm was revealed by comparison of the datasets to aerosol optical depths at 340 nm as reported by a collocated CIMEL sun photometer, operating in Thessaloniki at LAP/AUTh as part of the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network.

  14. Biosignatures of early earths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  15. Biosignatures of early earths.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Carl B

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of NASA's Origins Program is to find habitable planets around other stars and determine which might harbor life. Determining whether or not an extrasolar planet harbors life requires an understanding of what spectral features (i.e., biosignatures) might result from life's presence. Consideration of potential biosignatures has tended to focus on spectral features of gases in Earth's modern atmosphere, particularly ozone, the photolytic product of biogenically produced molecular oxygen. But life existed on Earth for about 1(1/2) billion years before the buildup of atmospheric oxygen. Inferred characteristics of Earth's earliest biosphere and studies of modern microbial ecosystems that share some of those characteristics suggest that organosulfur compounds, particularly methanethiol (CH(3)SH, the sulfur analog of methanol), may have been biogenic products on early Earth. Similar production could take place on extrasolar Earth-like planets whose biota share functional chemical characteristics with Earth life. Since methanethiol and related organosulfur compounds (as well as carbon dioxide) absorb at wavelengths near or overlapping the 9.6-microm band of ozone, there is potential ambiguity in interpreting a feature around this wavelength in an extrasolar planet spectrum.

  16. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  19. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  20. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  1. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  2. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  3. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  5. Earth Science

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  6. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  7. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  8. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  9. Earth Observations

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  10. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  11. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    2007-09-14

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex. The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude. This image is from NASA Terra satellite. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA10613

  12. Chemical and UV Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create mutations is an important step towards understanding bacterial physiology and virulence. While targeted approaches are invaluable, the ability to produce genome-wide random mutations can lead to crucial discoveries. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful approach, but many interesting mutations can be missed by these insertions that interrupt coding and noncoding sequences due to the integration of an entire transposon. Chemical mutagenesis and UV-based random mutagenesis are alternate approaches to isolate mutations of interest with the potential of only single nucleotide changes. Once a standard method, difficulty in identifying mutation sites had decreased the popularity of this technique. However, thanks to the recent emergence of economical whole-genome sequencing, this approach to making mutations can once again become a viable option. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview protocol for random mutagenesis using UV light or DNA-damaging chemicals.

  13. Quality assurance of the UV irradiances of the UV-B Monitoring and Research Program: the Mauna Loa test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Davis, John; Janson, George; Olson, Becky; Chen, Maosi; Durham, Bill; Simpson, Scott; Straube, Jonathan; Sun, Zhibin; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) is an ongoing effort aiming to establish a valuable, longstanding database of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation measurements over the US. Furthermore, the program aims to achieve a better understanding of UV variations through time, and develop a UV climatology for the Northern American section. By providing high quality radiometric measurements of UV solar radiation, UVMRP is also focusing on advancing science for agricultural, forest, and range systems in order to mitigate climate impacts. Within these foci, the goal of the present study is to investigate, analyze, and validate the accuracy of the measurements of the UV multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (UV-MFRSR) and Yankee (YES) UVB-1 sensor at the high altitude, pristine site at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The response-weighted irradiances at 7 UV channels of the UV-MFRSR along with the erythemal dose rates from the UVB-1 radiometer are discussed, and evaluated for the period 2006-2015. Uncertainties during the calibration procedures are also analyzed, while collocated groundbased measurements from a Brewer spectrophotometer along with model simulations are used as a baseline for the validation of the data. Besides this quantitative research, the limitations and merits of the existing UVMRP methods are considered and further improvements are introduced.

  14. GOME-2 Tropospheric Ozone Profile Retrievals from Joint UV/Visible Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Nowlan, C. R.; Huang, G.; Gonzalez Abad, G.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown from sensitivity studies that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis ozone band to UV measurements in the Hartley/Huggins ozone bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA EVI (Earth Venture Instrument) TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels ( 290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interferences from surface reflectance and aerosols and the requirement of accurate radiometric calibration across different spectral channels. We present GOME-2 retrievals from joint UV/visible measurements using the SAO ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible based on combining EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) derived from ASTER and other surface reflectance spectra with MODIS BRDF climatology into the ozone profile algorithm. The impacts of various types of aerosols and surface BRDF on the retrievals will be investigated. In addition, we will also perform empirical radiometric calibration of the GOME-2 data based on radiative transfer simulations. We will evaluate the retrieval improvement of joint UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval based on fitting quality and validation against ozonesonde observations.

  15. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  16. Protocol for Determining Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode (UV-LED) Fluence for Microbial Inactivation Studies.

    PubMed

    Kheyrandish, Ataollah; Mohseni, Madjid; Taghipour, Fariborz

    2018-06-15

    Determining fluence is essential to derive the inactivation kinetics of microorganisms and to design ultraviolet (UV) reactors for water disinfection. UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) are emerging UV sources with various advantages compared to conventional UV lamps. Unlike conventional mercury lamps, no standard method is available to determine the average fluence of the UV-LEDs, and conventional methods used to determine the fluence for UV mercury lamps are not applicable to UV-LEDs due to the relatively low power output, polychromatic wavelength, and specific radiation profile of UV-LEDs. In this study, a method was developed to determine the average fluence inside a water suspension in a UV-LED experimental setup. In this method, the average fluence was estimated by measuring the irradiance at a few points for a collimated and uniform radiation on a Petri dish surface. New correction parameters were defined and proposed, and several of the existing parameters for determining the fluence of the UV mercury lamp apparatus were revised to measure and quantify the collimation and uniformity of the radiation. To study the effect of polychromatic output and radiation profile of the UV-LEDs, two UV-LEDs with peak wavelengths of 262 and 275 nm and different radiation profiles were selected as the representatives of typical UV-LEDs applied to microbial inactivation. The proper setup configuration for microorganism inactivation studies was also determined based on the defined correction factors.

  17. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  1. UV radiation and the skin.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-06-07

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a "complete carcinogen" because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  2. Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Solanki, S. K.; Wenzler, T.; Podlipnik, B.

    2009-09-01

    Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm over the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) data. The evolution of the solar photospheric magnetic flux, which is a central input to the model, is described by the magnetograms and continuum images recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory between 1974 and 2003 and by the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on SOHO since 1996. The reconstruction extends the available observational record by 1.5 solar cycles. The reconstructed Ly-α irradiance agrees well with the composite time series by Woods et al. (2000). The amplitude of the irradiance variations grows with decreasing wavelength and in the wavelength regions of special interest for studies of the Earth's climate (Ly-α and oxygen absorption continuum and bands between 130 and 350 nm) is 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than in the visible or if integrated over all wavelengths (total solar irradiance).

  3. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    PubMed Central

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Wolf, Eric T.; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8–2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ∼ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7–2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets. Key Words: Haze—Archean Earth

  4. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Wolf, Eric T.; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G.

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ˜ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets.

  5. Development of high power UV irradiance meter calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, many industries have more requirements for UV light applications, such as machinery manufacturing, aircraft manufacturing using high power UV light for detection, IT industry using high power UV light for curing component assembly, building materials, ink, paint and other industries using high power UV light for material aging test etc. In these industries, there are many measuring instruments for high power UV irradiance which are need to traceability. But these instruments are mostly imported instruments, these imported UV radiation meter are large range, wide wavelength range and high accuracy. They have exceeded our existing calibration capability. Expand the measuring range and improve the measurement accuracy of UV irradiance calibration device is a pressing matter of the moment. The newly developed high power UV irradiance calibration device is mainly composed of high power UV light, UV filter, condenser, UV light guide, optical alignment system, standard cavity absolute radiometer. The calibration device is using optical alignment system to form uniform light radiation field. The standard is standard cavity absolute radiometer, which can through the electrical substitution method, by means of adjusting and measuring the applied DC electric power at the receiver on a heating wire, which is equivalent to the thermo-electromotive force generated by the light radiation power, to achieve absolute optical radiation measurement. This method is the commonly used effective method for accurate measurement of light irradiation. The measuring range of calibration device is (0.2 200) mW/cm2, and the uncertainty of measurement results can reached 2.5% (k=2).

  6. Earth Science

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  7. Complementary UV-Absorption of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Scytonemin is Responsible for the UV-Insensitivity of Photosynthesis in Nostoc flagelliforme

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Lorenzo; Klisch, Manfred; Pancaldi, Simonetta; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin are UV-screening compounds that have presumably appeared early in the history of life and are widespread in cyanobacteria. Natural colonies of the UV-insensitive Nostoc flagelliforme were found to be especially rich in MAAs (32.1 mg g DW−1), concentrated in the glycan sheath together with scytonemin. MAAs are present in the form of oligosaccharide-linked molecules. Photosystem II activity, measured using PAM fluorescence and oxygen evolution, was used as a most sensitive physiological parameter to analyse the effectiveness of UV-protection. Laboratory experiments were performed under controlled conditions with a simulated solar radiation specifically deprived of UV-wavebands with cut-off filters (295, 305, 320, 345 and 395 nm). The UV-insensitivity of N. flagelliforme was found to cover the whole UV-A (315–400 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm) range and is almost certainly due to the complementary UV-absorption of MAAs and scytonemin. The experimental approach used is proposed to be suitable for the comparison of the UV-protection ability in organisms that differ in their complement of UV-sunscreen compounds. Furthermore, this study performed with a genuinely terrestrial organism points to the relevance of marine photoprotective compounds for life on Earth, especially for the colonization of terrestrial environments. PMID:20161974

  8. Earth's earliest atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth's subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

  9. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  10. Earth Observation

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  12. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  13. Earth observation

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Earth Science

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Earth Science

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  16. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  17. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  18. Do "placebo responders" exist?

    PubMed

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Kelley, John M; Deykin, Aaron; Wayne, Peter M; Lasagna, Louis C; Epstein, Ingrid O; Kirsch, Irving; Wechsler, Michael E

    2008-07-01

    The placebo effect has been the subject of much controversy. For a scientific investigation of placebo effects to advance it is important to establish whether a placebo response in any particular illness is reliable - i.e., if there is a response to a single placebo administration there will also be a placebo response to the repeated administration of a similar placebo in similar conditions. A positive answer would allow more sophisticated clinical trial designs and more precise basic research experiments on the placebo effect. This article reviews experiments that used multiple administrations of placebo to answer the question "do reliable placebo responders exist?" This paper also examines the evidence for the existence of a consistent placebo responder, i.e. a person who responds to placebo in one situation will respond in another condition or using a different type of placebo ritual. Much of the existing evidence for these two questions was performed before 1967. This early evidence is contradictory, methodologically weak and is sufficiently old to be considered medical history. Since 1969, at least eight experiments exposed asthma patients to multiple administrations of placebo given with deceptive suggestions that the "treatment" was an active medication. While the results of this research are not unequivocal, and may not be equivalent to non-deceptive conditions, this line of inquiry suggests that if a reliable and consistent placebo response exists it could be detected within this population. Finally, this paper proposes one model to rigorously investigate the stability of placebo responses.

  19. Methods for preparation of nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates for lighting applications

    SciT

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manoharan, Mohan; Martins Loureiro, Sergio Paulo

    Disclosed here are methods for the preparation of optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates. The optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates may be used as one or more of quantum-splitting phosphor, visible-light emitting phosphor, vacuum-UV absorbing phosphor, and UV-emitting phosphor. Also disclosed herein are discharge lamps comprising the optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates provided by these methods.

  20. Earth Observation

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  1. Earth Observation

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  2. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  3. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  4. Earth Observation

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  5. Earth Observation

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  6. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  7. Earth Science

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  8. Earth Observation

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  9. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  10. Earth Sky

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. Rare earths

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  12. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  13. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Observation

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  15. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  16. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  18. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  20. Earth Observations

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  1. Earth Moon

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  2. Earth's horizon

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  3. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex.

    The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Earth Observations

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  5. Solar UV irradiation conditions on the surface of Mars.

    PubMed

    Rontó, Györgyi; Bérces, Attila; Lammer, Helmut; Cockell, Charles S; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; Patel, Manish R; Selsis, Franck

    2003-01-01

    The UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is a driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. In this work we modeled the transmission of present and early solar UV radiation from 200 to 400 nm through the present-day and early (3.5 Gyr ago) Martian atmosphere for a variety of possible cases, including dust loading, observed and modeled O3 concentrations. The UV stress on microorganisms and/or molecules essential for life was estimated by using DNA damaging effects (specifically bacteriophage T7 killing and uracil dimerization) for various irradiation conditions on the present and ancient Martian surface. Our study suggests that the UV irradiance on the early Martian surface 3.5 Gyr ago may have been comparable with that of present-day Earth, and though the current Martian UV environment is still quite severe from a biological viewpoint, we show that substantial protection can still be afforded under dust and ice.

  6. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  8. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  12. The Problem of Existence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    envisionment) produced by GIZMO . ? In the envisionment, I s indicates the set of quantity—conditioned individuals that exists during a situa- tion...envisionment step by step . In START, the initial state, GIZMO deduces that heat flow occurs, since there is assumed to be a temperature difference between the...stov e GIZMO implements the basic operations of qualitative process theory, including an envisioner for makin g predictions and a program for

  13. CUVE - Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; D'Aversa, E.; Glaze, L.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.

    2017-09-01

    Our Venus mission concept Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) is one of ten proposals selected for funding by the NASA PSDS3 Program - Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies. CUVE concept is to insert a CubeSat spacecraft into a Venusian orbit and perform remote sensing of the UV spectral region using a high spectral resolution point spectrometer to resolve UV molecular bands, observe nightglow, and characterize the unidentified main UV absorber. The UV spectrometer is complemented by an imaging UV camera with multiple bands in the UV absorber main band range for contextual imaging. CUVE Science Objectives are: the nature of the "Unknown" UV-absorber; the abundances and distributions of SO2 and SO at and above Venus's cloud tops and their correlation with the UV absorber; the atmospheric dynamics at the cloud tops, structure of upper clouds and wind measurements from cloud-tracking; the nightglow emissions: NO, CO, O2. This mission will therefore be an excellent platform to study Venus' cloud top atmospheric properties where the UV absorption drives the planet's energy balance. CUVE would complement past, current and future Venus missions with conventional spacecraft, and address critical science questions cost effectively.

  14. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  15. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  16. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  19. Earth Observations

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  20. Earth Science

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  1. Earth Observation

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  2. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  3. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. Earth Observation

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  5. Antiradiation UV Vaccine: UV Radiation, Biological effects, lesions and medical management - immune-therapy and immune-protection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key Words: Ultraviolet radiation,Standard Erythema Dose(SED), Minimal Erythema Dose(MED), Sun Burns, Solar Dermatitis, Sun Burned Disease, DNA Damage,Cell Damage, Antiradiation UV Vaccine, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burned Diseases, Immune-Prophylaxis of Sun Burns, Immune-Therapy of Sun-Burned Disease and Sun Burns,Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis(TEN). Introduction: High doses of UV generated by solar source and artificial sources create an exposure of mammals and other species which can lead to ultraviolet(UV)radiation- associated disease (including erythema, epilation, keratitis, etc.). UV radiation belongs to the non-ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum and ranges between 100 nm and 400 nm with 100 nm having been chosen arbitrarily as the boundary between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation, however EMR is a spectrum and UV can produce molecular ionization. UV radiation is conventionally categorized into 3 areas: UV-A (>315-400 nm),UV-B (>280-315 nm)and UV-C (>100-280 nm) [IARC,Working Group Reports,2005] An important consequence of stratospheric ozone depletion is the increased transmission of solar ultraviolet (UV)radiation to the Earth's lower atmosphere and surface. Stratospheric ozone levels have been falling, in certain areas, for the past several decades, so current surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their modern day maximum. [S.Madronich et al.1998] Overexposure of ultraviolet radiation a major cause of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) { collectively referred to as “non-melanoma" skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma as well, with skin cancers being the most common cancer in North America. [Armstrong et al. 1993, Gallagher et al. 2005] Methods and Experimental Design: Our experiments and testing of a novel UV “Antiradiation Vaccine” have employed a wide variety of laboratory animals which include : Chinchilla

  6. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B < 1E10 G) or alternatively very high (B>1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  7. Simulating the UV Environment For the Synthesis of Prebiotic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, S.; Sasselov, D.

    2014-03-01

    UV radiation plays a key role in the era of biogenesis. The young Sun was more UV-active than the modern Sun (Ribas et al. 2010), and the Earth lacked an ozone layer, implying a larger UV flux both on Earth, as well as on asteroids/comets. Ultraviolet radiation can help drive prebiotic molecule synthesis (e.g., Chyba et al. 1992; Powner et al. 2009) or destroy biologically important molecules (e.g., Johns et al. 1967). These effects are wavelength dependent: they are sensitive to ionzation, bond, and ro-vibrational transition energies of biologically relevant molecules and their precursors. When simulating the environment at biogenesis it is therefore important to ensure realistic levels of UV input, in both magnitude and spectral shape. Many laboratory simulations of biomolecule synthesis under prebiotic conditions to date have been done with atomic lamps (e.g., Powner et al. 2007). These lamps are safe, stable, and affordable UV sources, well-suited for initial studies. However, their emission spectra are a poor match to prebiotic conditions: low-pressure lamps are characterized by line emission, while higher-pressure lamps do not well-reproduce the spectrum of the young Sun. In this paper, we present spectra that are more realistic approximations to prebiotic conditions. Using published opacity lists and atmospheric models, we compute the attenuation of the flux from a young Sunanalog due to water, and from the present-day Sun due to a planetary atmosphere. We compare these spectra to those emitted by lamps used in studies today, and explore the potential biological implications of the differences. We conclude by discussing possibilities for better simulating the prebiotic UV environment in lab setups.

  8. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Persyn, S.; Eterno, J.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Siegmund, O. H.; Marquet, B.; Gerard, J.; Grodent, D. C.

    2008-12-01

    Juno, a NASA New Frontiers mission, plans for launch in August 2011, a 5-year cruise (including a flyby of Earth in October 2013 for a gravity boost), and 14 months around Jupiter after arriving in August 2016. The spinning (2 RPM), solar-powered Juno will study Jupiter from a highly elliptical orbit, in which the spacecraft (for about 6 hours once every 11 days) dives down over the north pole, skims the outermost atmosphere, and rises back up over the south pole. This orbit allows Juno avoid most of the intense particle radiation surrounding the planet and provides an excellent platform for investigating Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. Part of the exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere will involve remote sensing of the far-ultraviolet H and H2 auroral emissions, plus gases such as methane and acetylene which add their absorption signature to the H2 emissions. This hydrocarbon absorption can be used to estimate the energy of the precipitating electrons; since more energetic electrons penetrate deeper into the atmosphere and the UV emissions they produce will show more absorption. Juno will carry an Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) to make spectral images of Jupiter's aurora. UVS is a UV imaging spectrograph sensitive to both extreme and far ultraviolet emissions in the 70-205~nm range that will characterize the morphology and spectral nature of Jupiter's auroral emissions. Juno UVS consists of two separate sections: a dedicated telescope/spectrograph assembly and a vault electronics box. The telescope/spectrograph assembly contains a telescope which feeds a 0.15-m Rowland circle spectrograph. The telescope has an input aperture 40×40~mm2 and uses an off-axis parabolic primary mirror. A flat scan mirror situated at the front end of the telescope (used to target specific auroral features at up to ±30° perpendicular to the Juno spin plane) directs incoming light to the primary. The light is then focused onto the spectrograph entrance slit, which has a 'dog

  9. UV-B exposure impairs resistance to infection by Trichinella spiralis

    SciT

    Goettsch, W.; Garssen, J.; Deijns, A.

    1994-03-01

    To assess the possibility that increases in UV-B exposure on the earth's surface could lead to impaired resistance to several infectious diseases, we studied the effect of UV-B exposure on resistance against Trichinella spiralis. Wistar rats, orally infected with T. spiralis larvae, were exposed to suberythemal doses of UV-B radiation daily for 5 days at different time periods before or after infection. A significant increase in the number of Trichinella larvae was found in the carcasses of rats irradiated with UV-B between 6 and 10 days after infection. These data indicate that exposure to UV-B radiation suppresses the resistance tomore » a parasitic infection. We suggested that UV-B radiation especially suppresses cellular immune responses against these worms because specific IgM, IgG, and IgE titers were not significantly altered by UV-B exposure. These data indicate that UV-B irradiation plays a role in the course of infection with T. spiralis, which suggests that increases of UV-B exposure might also lead to problems with other infectious diseases and might affect vaccination because of the interaction of UV-B irradiation with memory T-cells. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  10. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.

    PubMed

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  11. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  12. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  13. Earth Observations

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  14. Earth Observation

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  15. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  16. Earth Observation

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  17. Earth Observation

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  18. Earth Explorer

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  19. Earth Science

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  20. Earth Science

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  1. Hazards To The Eye From UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuclich, Joseph A.

    1980-10-01

    Ocular effects of ultraviolet radiation, 200-400 nm, are reviewed. Depending upon the exposure parameter involved, UV radiation may be harmful to the cornea, lens and/or retina. Ranges of exposure parameters (wavelength, exposure duration, etc.) for which each of the tissues is susceptible are specified and the nature of the tissue is described. Present understanding of the thermal and photochemical damage mechanism operative for various conditions of exposure are discussed Ocular damage thresholds for wide ranges of exposure parameters are summarized and compared to existing safety standards.

  2. Herbal Earth

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Earth Observation

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  4. Earth Observation

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  5. UV-A/Blue-Light responses in algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senger, Horst; Hermsmeier, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there is a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL (red light) region as well as in the UV-A/BL (blue light) region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogenetically the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered.

  6. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  7. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  8. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  9. Earth observation

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018725 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring most of the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are in lower right portion of the image on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  11. Earth Observation

    2013-07-29

    ISS036-E-025908 (29 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Africa, took this night picture of Sicily (center frame) and much of Italy (frame left to frame center) on July 29, 2013. The Stretto de Messina, which separates Sicily from Italy, is near frame center. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a scenic horizon with a number of stars in the late July sky. Barely visible in the darkness, part of the long arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 runs diagonally through the right one-third of the image.

  12. Earth Observation

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  13. Earth Observation

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  14. Earth Science

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  15. Supra-Earth affairs.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mazlan

    2011-02-13

    The United Nations briefly considered the issue of extra-terrestrial intelligence at the 32nd session of the General Assembly in 1977. As a result, the Office of Outer Space Affairs was tasked to prepare a document on issues related to 'messages to extra-terrestrial civilizations', but this area has not been followed through in more recent times. This discussion paper describes the United Nations' activities in the field of near-Earth objects in some detail, and suggests that this might be used as a model of how Member States could proceed with dealing with this issue in case the existence of extra-terrestrial life/intelligence is established.

  16. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  17. Study of UV cloud modification factors in Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Orte, Facundo; Salvador, Jacobo; Quiroga, Jonathan; D'Elia, Raúl; Antón, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Quel, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic perturbation of the ozone layer has induced change in the amount of UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, mainly through the Antarctic ozone hole, making the ozone and ultraviolet (UV) radiation two important issues in the study of Earth atmosphere in the scientific community. Also the clouds have been identified as the main modulator of UV amount in short time scales and produce the main source of uncertainty in the projection of surface UV level as consequence of projected ozone recovery. While clouds can decrease direct radiation, they can produce an increase in the diffuse component, and as consequence the surface UV radiation may be higher than an equivalent clear sky scenario for several minutes. In particular this situation can be important when low ozone column and partially cloud cover skies happen simultaneously. These situations happen frequently in southern Patagonia, where the CEILAP Lidar Division has established the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia, an atmospheric remote sensing site near the city of Río Gallegos (51°55'S, 69°14'W). In this paper, the impact of clouds over the UV radiation is investigated by the use of ground based measurements from the passive remote sensing instruments operating at this site, mainly of broad and moderate narrow band filter radiometers. We analyzed the UV Index obtained from a multiband filter radiometer GUV-541 (UVI) [Biospherical Inc.] installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, Río Gallegos, since 2005. Cloud modification factors (CMF, ratio between the measured UV radiation in a cloudy sky and the simulated radiation under cloud-free conditions) are evaluated for the study site. The database used in this work covers the period 2005-2012 for spring and summer seasons, when the ozone hole can affect these subpolar regions. CMF higher than 1 are found during spring and summer time, when lower total ozone columns, higher solar elevations and high cloud

  18. Comparative sensitivity to UV-B radiation of two Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies and other Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Myasnik, M; Manasherob, R; Ben-Dov, E; Zaritsky, A; Margalith, Y; Barak, Z

    2001-08-01

    Susceptibility of Bacillus thuringiensis spores and toxins to the UV-B range (280--330 nm) of the solar spectrum reaching Earth's surface may be responsible for its inactivation and low persistence in nature. Spores of the mosquito larvicidal B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were significantly more resistant to UV-B than spores of the lepidopteran-active subsp. kurstaki. Spores of subsp. israelensis were as resistant to UV-B as spores of B. subtilis and more resistant than spores of the closely related B. cereus and another mosquito larvicidal species B. sphaericus. Sensitivity of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores to UV-B radiation depended upon their culture age; 24-h cultures, approaching maximal larvicidal activity, were still sensitive. Maximal resistance to UV-B was achieved only at 48 h.

  19. CERES FM-5 on the NPP Spacecraft: Continuing the Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, G. Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model-5 (FM-5) instrument will fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft, which has a launch-readiness date in June, 2010. This mission will continue the critical Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record (CDR) begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments in the mid 1980 s and continued by the CERES instruments currently flying on the EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Ground calibrations have been completed for FM-5 and the instrument has been delivered for integration to the spacecraft Rigorous pre-launch ground calibration is performed on each CERES unit to achieve an accuracy goal of 1% for SW flux and 0.5% for outgoing LW flux. Any ground to flight or in-flight changes in radiometer response is monitored using a protocol employing both onboard and vicarious calibration sources and experiments. Recent studies of FM-1 through FM-4 data have shown that the SW response of space based broadband radiometers can change dramatically due to optical contamination. With these changes having most impact on optical response to blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output, such changes are hard to monitor accurately using existing on-board sources. This paper outlines the lessons learned on the existing CERES sensors from 30+ years of flight experience and presents a radiometric protocol to be implemented on the FM-5 instrument to ensure that its performance exceeds the stated calibration and stability goals.

  20. Detecting Kerogen as a Biosignature Using Colocated UV Time-Gated Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shkolyar, Svetlana; Eshelman, Evan J; Farmer, Jack D; Hamilton, David; Daly, Michael G; Youngbull, Cody

    2018-04-01

    The Mars 2020 mission will analyze samples in situ and identify any that could have preserved biosignatures in ancient habitable environments for later return to Earth. Highest priority targeted samples include aqueously formed sedimentary lithologies. On Earth, such lithologies can contain fossil biosignatures as aromatic carbon (kerogen). In this study, we analyzed nonextracted kerogen in a diverse suite of natural, complex samples using colocated UV excitation (266 nm) time-gated (UV-TG) Raman and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. We interrogated kerogen and its host matrix in samples to (1) explore the capabilities of UV-TG Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies for detecting kerogen in high-priority targets in the search for possible biosignatures on Mars; (2) assess the effectiveness of time gating and UV laser wavelength in reducing fluorescence in Raman spectra; and (3) identify sample-specific issues that could challenge rover-based identifications of kerogen using UV-TG Raman spectroscopy. We found that ungated UV Raman spectroscopy is suited to identify diagnostic kerogen Raman bands without interfering fluorescence and that UV fluorescence spectroscopy is suited to identify kerogen. These results highlight the value of combining colocated Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, similar to those obtainable by SHERLOC on Mars 2020, to strengthen the confidence of kerogen detection as a potential biosignature in complex natural samples. Key Words: Raman spectroscopy-Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy-Mars Sample Return-Mars 2020 mission-Kerogen-Biosignatures. Astrobiology 18, 431-453.

  1. Sulfidic Anion Concentrations on Early Earth for Surficial Origins-of-Life Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Todd, Zoe R; Sutherland, John D; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2018-04-08

    A key challenge in origin-of-life studies is understanding the environmental conditions on early Earth under which abiogenesis occurred. While some constraints do exist (e.g., zircon evidence for surface liquid water), relatively few constraints exist on the abundances of trace chemical species, which are relevant to assessing the plausibility and guiding the development of postulated prebiotic chemical pathways which depend on these species. In this work, we combine literature photochemistry models with simple equilibrium chemistry calculations to place constraints on the plausible range of concentrations of sulfidic anions (HS - , HSO 3 - , SO 3 2- ) available in surficial aquatic reservoirs on early Earth due to outgassing of SO 2 and H 2 S and their dissolution into small shallow surface water reservoirs like lakes. We find that this mechanism could have supplied prebiotically relevant levels of SO 2 -derived anions, but not H 2 S-derived anions. Radiative transfer modeling suggests UV light would have remained abundant on the planet surface for all but the largest volcanic explosions. We apply our results to the case study of the proposed prebiotic reaction network of Patel et al. ( 2015 ) and discuss the implications for improving its prebiotic plausibility. In general, epochs of moderately high volcanism could have been especially conducive to cyanosulfidic prebiotic chemistry. Our work can be similarly applied to assess and improve the prebiotic plausibility of other postulated surficial prebiotic chemistries that are sensitive to sulfidic anions, and our methods adapted to study other atmospherically derived trace species. Key Words: Early Earth-Origin of life-Prebiotic chemistry-Volcanism-UV radiation-Planetary environments. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  2. 2014 Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Conference Report

    SciT

    Williams, Dean N.

    2015-01-27

    The climate and weather data science community met December 9–11, 2014, in Livermore, California, for the fourth annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference, hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UVCDATremain global collaborations committed to developing a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to simulated and observed data from the climate and weather communities.more » The tools and infrastructure created under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change. In addition, the F2F conference fosters a stronger climate and weather data science community and facilitates a stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2014 F2F conference detailed the progress of ESGF, UV-CDAT, and other community efforts over the year and sets new priorities and requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects, such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Six. Specifically discussed at the conference were project capabilities and enhancements needs for data distribution, analysis, visualization, hardware and network infrastructure, standards, and resources.« less

  3. Earth Observations

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  5. Earth Observation

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  6. UV-A/blue-light responses in algae

    SciT

    Senger, H.; Hermsmeier, D.

    1994-12-31

    All life on earth depends on light. A variety of photoreceptors capture the light for a wide range of reactions. Photosynthetic organisms absorb the light necessary for energy transformation and charge separation facilitating photosynthesis. In addition to the bulk pigments there are a great diversity of photoreceptors present in minute concentrations that control development, metabolism and orientation of plants and microorganisms. Based on its spectral absorbance, the well-studied phytochrome system acts in the RL region as well as in the UV-A/BL region where the above mentioned reactions are mediated by a variety of photoreceptors whose natures are largely unknown. Phyllogeneticallymore » the UV-A/BL photoreceptors seem to be more ancient pigments that eventually were replaced by the phytochrome system. However, there are many reports that suggest a coaction between the UV-A/BL receptors and the phytochrome system. In several cases the UV-A/BL activation is the prerequisite for the phytochrome reaction. Historically it was the German botanist Julius Sachs who first discovered in 1864 that phototropism in plants was due to BL reactions. It took over 70 years until Bunning (1937) and Galston and Baker (1949) rediscovered the BL response. Since then, an ever-increasing attention has been paid to this effect. Two international conferences in 1979 and 1983 have been entirely dedicated to the BL phenomenon. In this contribution, the general aspect of UV-A/BL responses and especially the responsiveness of algae will be covered. There are numerous review articles covering the various aspects of UV-A/BL action and the photoreceptors involved.« less

  7. Solar UV Variations During the Decline of Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew, T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of temporal and spectral variations in solar ultraviolet irradiance over a solar cycle is essential for understanding the forcing of Earth's atmosphere and climate. Satellite measurements of solar UV variability for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23 show consistent solar cycle irradiance changes at key wavelengths (e.g. 205 nm, 250 nm) within instrumental uncertainties. All historical data sets also show the same relative spectral dependence for both short-term (rotational) and long-term (solar cycle) variations. Empirical solar irradiance models also produce long-term solar UV variations that agree well with observational data. Recent UV irradiance data from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) and Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instruments covering the declining phase of Cycle 23 present a different picture oflong-term solar variations from previous results. Time series of SIM and SOLSTICE spectral irradiance data between 2003 and 2007 show solar variations that greatly exceed both previous measurements and predicted irradiance changes over this period, and the spectral dependence of the SIM and SOLSTICE variations during these years do not show features expected from solar physics theory. The use of SORCE irradiance variations in atmospheric models yields substantially different middle atmosphere ozone responses in both magnitude and vertical structure. However, short-term solar variability derived from SIM and SOLSTICE UV irradiance data is consistent with concurrent solar UV measurements from other instruments, as well as previous results, suggesting no change in solar physics. Our analysis of short-term solar variability is much less sensitive to residual instrument response changes than the observations of long-term variations. The SORCE long-term UV results can be explained by under-correction of instrument response changes during the first few years of measurements

  8. UV Signatures of Ices: Moons in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hansen, C. J.; Retherford, K. D.; Vilas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Using Earth-orbiting telescopes such as the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope, significant advances have been made in the area of ultraviolet observations of solar system objects. More in-depth studies have been made using interplanetary probes such as Galileo, Cassini and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). While the UV spectral range has traditionally been used to study atmospheric and auroral processes, there is much to be learned by examining solid surfaces in the UV, including surface composition, weathering processes and effects, and the generation of thin atmospheres. Here we focus on moons in the solar system, including Earth's moon and the Saturnian satellites. The diagnostic UV signature of H2O is used to study ice in the lunar polar regions as well as hydration at lower latitudes, in observations from LRO LAMP. The water ice signature is nearly ubiquitous in the Saturn system; Cassini UVIS datasets are used to study grain sizes, exogenic processes/effects and non-ice species.

  9. Earth Observations

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  10. Earth Observation

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  11. Earth Observations

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  12. Tuneable powerful UV laser system with UV noise eater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobtsev, Sergey; Radnatarov, Daba; Khripunov, Sergey; Zarudnev, Yurii

    2018-02-01

    The present work for the first time presents the study of a laser system delivering into the fibre up to 250 mW of CW radiation tuneable across the 275-310-nm range with the output line width less than 5 GHz and stability of UV output power within 1%. This system can automatically set the output radiation wavelength within the range of 275-310 nm to the precision of 2 pm. UV output power stabilisation is provided by a newly proposed by the authors noise eating technology. This paper discusses details of the developed technology and the results of its application.

  13. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  14. The Effects of Space Weathering at UV Wavelengths: S-Class Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence that space weathering manifests itself at near-UV wavelengths as a bluing of the spectrum, in contrast with the spectral reddening that has been seen at visible-near-IR wavelengths. Furthermore, the effects of space weathering at UV wavelengths tend to appear with less weathering than do the longer wavelength effects, suggesting that the UV wavelength range is a more sensitive indicator of weathering, and thus age. We report results from analysis of existing near-UV (approx.220-350 nm) measurements of S-type asteroids from the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope and comparisons with laboratory measurements of meteorites to support this hypothesis. Composite spectra of S asteroids are produced by combining UV spacecraft data with ground-based longer wavelength data. At visible-near-IR wavelengths, S-type asteroids are generally spectrally redder (and darker) than ordinary chondrite meteorites, whereas the opposite is generally true at near-UV wavelengths. Similarly, laboratory measurements of lunar samples show that lunar soils (presumably more weathered) are spectrally redder at longer wavelengths, and spectrally bluer at near-UV wavelengths, than less weathered crushed lunar rocks. The UV spectral bluing may be a result of the addition of nanophase iron to the regolith through the weathering process. The UV bluing is most prominent in the 300-400 nm range, where the strong UV absorption edge is degraded with weathering.

  15. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  16. Earth Observation

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  17. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  18. Juno-UVS approach observations of Jupiter's auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Versteeg, M. H.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Davis, M. W.; Gérard, J.-C.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.; Nichols, J. D.; Wilson, R. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Adriani, A.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B. H.; Valek, P.; McComas, D. J.; Orton, G. S.; Bagenal, F.

    2017-08-01

    Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (UVS) observations of Jupiter's aurora obtained during approach are presented. Prior to the bow shock crossing on 24 June 2016, the Juno approach provided a rare opportunity to correlate local solar wind conditions with Jovian auroral emissions. Some of Jupiter's auroral emissions are expected to be controlled or modified by local solar wind conditions. Here we compare synoptic Juno-UVS observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions, acquired during 3-29 June 2016, with in situ solar wind observations, and related Jupiter observations from Earth. Four large auroral brightening events are evident in the synoptic data, in which the total emitted auroral power increases by a factor of 3-4 for a few hours. Only one of these brightening events correlates well with large transient increases in solar wind ram pressure. The brightening events which are not associated with the solar wind generally have a risetime of 2 h and a decay time of 5 h.

  19. Spectral transmittance of UV-blocking soft contact lenses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Saeed; Mohammadi Nia, Mohadeseh; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Nazari, Mohammad Reza; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Three major parts of sunlight consist of visible, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can result in a spectrum of skin and ocular diseases. UV-blocking contact lenses help provide protection against harmful UV radiation. We studied the ultraviolet and visible light rays transmission in some soft UV-blocking contact lenses. Four available tinted soft lenses (Acuvue Moist, Zeiss CONTACT Day 30 Air spheric, Pretty Eyes and Sauflon 56 UV) have been evaluated for UV and visible transmission. One-way ANOVA testing was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the UV regions and visible spectra means for the contact lenses (α=0.05). Pretty Eyes, Zeiss CONTACT, Acuvue Moist and Sauflon 56 UV showed UV-B transmittance value of 0.65%, 10.69%, 1.22%, and 5.78%, respectively. Pretty Eyes and Acuvue Moist had UV-A transmittance values of 32% and 34%, Sauflon 56 UV and Zeiss CONTACT had transmittance values of 48% and 43%, respectively. All of the studied lenses transmitted at least 94.6% on the visible spectrum. The results of the one-way ANOVA statistical analysis show that a statistically significant difference exists within the group of contact lenses tested for the visible (p<0.001), UV-B (p<0.001) and UV-A (p<0.001) portions of the spectrum (α=0.05). Acuvue Moist has the best UV-blocking property and also visible transmission between other tested contact lenses in this study. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The UVR8 UV-B Photoreceptor: Perception, Signaling and Response

    PubMed Central

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Arongaus, Adriana B.; Binkert, Melanie; Heijde, Marc; Yin, Ruohe; Ulm, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of sunlight that is accompanied by significant biological effects. Plants are able to perceive UV-B using the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 which is linked to a specific molecular signaling pathway and leads to UV-B acclimation. Herein we review the biological process in plants from initial UV-B perception and signal transduction through to the known UV-B responses that promote survival in sunlight. The UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor exists as a homodimer that instantly monomerises upon UV-B absorption via specific intrinsic tryptophans which act as UV-B chromophores. The UVR8 monomer interacts with COP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, initiating a molecular signaling pathway that leads to gene expression changes. This signaling output leads to UVR8-dependent responses including UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and the accumulation of UV-B-absorbing flavonols. Negative feedback regulation of the pathway is provided by the WD40-repeat proteins RUP1 and RUP2, which facilitate UVR8 redimerization, disrupting the UVR8-COP1 interaction. Despite rapid advancements in the field of recent years, further components of UVR8 UV-B signaling are constantly emerging, and the precise interplay of these and the established players UVR8, COP1, RUP1, RUP2 and HY5 needs to be defined. UVR8 UV-B signaling represents our further understanding of how plants are able to sense their light environment and adjust their growth accordingly. PMID:23864838

  1. New Observations of UV Emissions from Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa; Sparks, William

    2009-01-01

    The recent top prioritization of the Europa Jupiter System Mission for the next outer solar system flagship mission is refocusing attention on Europa and the other Galilean satellites and their contextual environments in the Jupiter system. Surface sputtering by magnetospheric plasma generates a tenuous atmosphere for Europa, dominated by 02 gas. This tenuous gas is in turn excited by plasma electrons, producing ultraviolet and visible emissions. Two sets of imaging observations have been published to date, UV images from the Hubble Space Telescope, and visible eclipse images from Cassini. Three additional sets of HST UV observations were acquired in February 2007, April 2007 and June 2009. The signal to noise ratio in these data are not high, however, given the paucity of data and its increasing importance in terms of planning for EJSM, we have attempted to extract as much new information as possible from these data. This talk will summarize our analysis to date, and discuss them in terms of existing models, which attempt to explain the image morphology either in terms of the underlying source production and loss processes, or in terms of the plasma interaction with the exosphere.

  2. Atmospheric Constraints on the Surface UV Environment of Mars at 3.9 Ga Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings suggest that Mars may have been a clement environment for the emergence of life and may even have compared favorably to Earth in this regard. These findings have revived interest in the hypothesis that prebiotically important molecules or even nascent life may have formed on Mars and been transferred to Earth. UV light plays a key role in prebiotic chemistry. Characterizing the early martian surface UV environment is key to understanding how Mars compares to Earth as a venue for prebiotic chemistry. Here, we present two-stream, multilayer calculations of the UV surface radiance on Mars at 3.9 Ga to constrain the surface UV environment as a function of atmospheric state. We explore a wide range of atmospheric pressures, temperatures, and compositions that correspond to the diversity of martian atmospheric states consistent with available constraints. We include the effects of clouds and dust. We calculate dose rates to quantify the effect of different atmospheric states on UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry. We find that, for normative clear-sky CO2-H2O atmospheres, the UV environment on young Mars is comparable to young Earth. This similarity is robust to moderate cloud cover; thick clouds (τcloud ≥ 100) are required to significantly affect the martian UV environment, because cloud absorption is degenerate with atmospheric CO2. On the other hand, absorption from SO2, H2S, and dust is nondegenerate with CO2, meaning that, if these constituents build up to significant levels, surface UV fluence can be suppressed. These absorbers have spectrally variable absorption, meaning that their presence affects prebiotic pathways in different ways. In particular, high SO2 environments may admit UV fluence that favors pathways conducive to abiogenesis over pathways unfavorable to it. However, better measurements of the spectral quantum yields of these pathways are required to evaluate this hypothesis definitively.

  3. Advances in deep-UV processing using cluster tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, Gary C.; Tepolt, Gary; Mohondro, Robert D.

    1993-09-01

    Deep-UV laser lithography has shown the capability of supporting the manufacture of multiple generations of integrated circuits (ICs) due to its wide process latitude and depth of focus (DOF) for 0.2 micrometers to 0.5 micrometers feature sizes. This capability has been attained through improvements in deep-UV wide field lens technology, excimer lasers, steppers and chemically amplified, positive deep-UV resists. Chemically amplified deep-UV resists are required for 248 nm lithography due to the poor absorption and sensitivity of conventional novolac resists. The acid catalyzation processes of the new resists requires control of the thermal history and environmental conditions of the lithographic process. Work is currently underway at several resist vendors to reduce the need for these controls, but practical manufacturing solutions exist today. One of these solutions is the integration of steppers and resist tracks into a `cluster tool' or `Lithocell' to insure a consistent thermal profile for the resist process and reduce the time the resist is exposed to atmospheric contamination. The work here reports processing and system integration results with a Machine Technology, Inc (MTI) post-exposure bake (PEB) track interfaced with an advanced GCA XLS 7800 deep-UV stepper [31 mm diameter, variable NA (0.35 - 0.53) and variable sigma (0.3 - 0.74)].

  4. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  5. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  6. UV Astronomy: Stars from Birth to Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Barstow, Martin A.

    The Joint Discussion on UV Astronmy: Stars from Birth to Death was held during the IAU General Assembly of 2006, in August 2006. It was aimed to provide a forum where the accomplishments of UV astrophysics could be highlighted and a new roadmap for the future discussed. This meeting focussed in particular on stellar astrophysics. The understanding of stellar physics is at the very base of our understanding of the Universe. The chemical evolution of the Universe is controlled by stars. Supernovae are prime distance indicators that have allowed to measure the evolution of the curvature of the Universe and to detect the existence of dark energy. The development of life sustaining system depends strongly on the evolution of stars like our Sun. Some of the most extreme forms of matter in the Universe, the densest and more strongly magnetized, are the magnetars, debris of stellar evolution. The excellent contributions presented in this Joint Discussion dealt with the many aspects of stellar astrophysics from the analysis of dissipative processes in the atmosphere of cool stars and their impact on the evolution of the planetary systems to the study of the atmospheres and winds of the hot massive stars or the determination of the abundances in white dwarfs. The physics of disks, its role in the evolution of binary systems, and the formation of supernovae were among the main topics treated in the meeting. We should also not forget the role of starbursts and, in general, high mass stars in the chemical evolution of galaxies. The metallicity gradient in the Galaxy is traced in the UV spectrum of planetary nebulae. The evolution of young planetary disks and the role of the central stars in the photoevaporation of the giant gaseous planets that have been detected recently. The book contains a summary of the numerous and high quality contributions to this Joint Discussion classified in five chapters: * Chapter 1: Star Formation and Young Stellar Objects * Chapter 2: Life in Main

  7. Earth Observation

    2013-06-23

    ISS036-E-010628 (24 June 2013) --- Strait of Tiran, Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The approximately six-kilometer wide Strait of Tiran (also known as the Straits of Tiran) between the Egyptian mainland and Tiran Island separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea, and provides two channels (290 meters and 73 meters deep, respectively) navigable by large ships bound for ports in Jordan and Israel. A smaller passage also exists between the east side of Tiran Island and Saudi Arabia, but this a single channel that is 16 meters deep. Due to its strategic position, control of the Strait has been an important factor in historical conflicts of the region, such as the Suez Crisis in 1956 and the Six-Day War in 1967. This photograph illustrates the morphology of the Strait. The relatively clear, deep-water passages of the western Strait of Tiran are visible at right, while the more sinuous shallow-water passage on the Saudi Arabia side can be seen at bottom center. Light blue to turquoise areas around Tiran Island indicate shallow water, while the island itself is arid and largely free of vegetation. Coral reefs are also found in the Straits of Tiran and are a popular diving destination. The silvery sheen on the water surface within the Strait and the south of Tiran Island is sunglint – light reflecting off the water surface back towards the observer on the space station. Disturbance to the water surface, as well as presence of substances such as oils and surfactants, can change the reflective properties of the water surface and highlight both surface waves and subsurface currents. For example, a large wave set is highlighted by sunglint at upper left.

  8. Using the Earth to Heat and Cool Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen G.

    The heat collecting capacity of the earth and or the earth's ground waters and surface waters exist as potential energy sources for home heating and cooling. Techniques and devices associated with use of the earth's thermal energy capabilities are presented and evaluated in this four-chapter report. Included in these chapters are: (1) descriptions…

  9. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  10. Near Earth asteroid rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Design Course is the capstone design class for the M.S. in astronautics at the Naval Postgraduate School. The Fall 92 class designed a spacecraft for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Mission (NEAR). The NEAR mission uses a robotic spacecraft to conduct up-close reconnaissance of a near-earth asteroid. Such a mission will provide information on Solar System formation and possible space resources. The spacecraft is intended to complete a NEAR mission as a relatively low-budget program while striving to gather as much information about the target asteroid as possible. A complete mission analysis and detailed spacecraft design were completed. Mission analysis includes orbit comparison and selection, payload and telemetry requirements, spacecraft configuration, and launch vehicle selection. Spacecraft design includes all major subsystems: structure, electrical power, attitude control, propulsion, payload integration, and thermal control. The resulting spacecraft demonstrates the possibility to meet the NEAR mission requirements using existing technology, 'off-the-shelf' components, and a relatively low-cost launch vehicle.

  11. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  12. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  13. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA sponsored the Earth Day event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Earth Observations

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006830 (2 June 2011) --- Okavango Swamp in Botswana is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. This short focal-length photograph shows the entire Okavango ?delta,? a swampland known in Southern Africa as the ?Jewel of the Kalahari Desert?. This enormous pristine wetland of forest, wildlife, and freshwater almost miraculously appears in a desert where surface water is typically non-existent. The water comes from the Okavango River which rises in the high-rainfall zone of southern Angola, hundreds of kilometers to the northwest. The dark green forested floodplain is approximately 10 kilometers wide where it enters the view (left). The Okavango then enters a rift basin which allows the river to spread out, forming the wetland. The width of the rift determines the dimensions of the delta?150 kilometers from apex to the linear downstream margin (right). The apex fault is more difficult to discern, but two fault lines actually define the downstream margin; the fault traces are indicated by linear stream channels and vegetation patterns oriented at nearly right angles to the southeast-trending distributary channels at center. The distributary channels carry sediment from the Okavango River that is deposited within the rift basin. Over time, a fan-shaped morphology of the deposits has developed, leading to characterization of the wetland as the Okavango ?delta?. The drying trend from higher rainfall in the north (left) to less rainfall in central Botswana (right) is shown by the change from the greens of denser savanna vegetation to browns of an open ?thornscrub? savanna. More subtle distinctions appear: the distributary arms of the delta include tall, permanent riverine and seasonal forest (dark green), with grasses and other savanna vegetation (light green) on floodplains?which appear well watered in this image. Linear dunes, emplaced by constant winds from the east during drier climates, appear as

  15. Changes in UV absorption of sunscreens after UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N.; Stenhagen, G.; Larkö, O.; Rosén, A.; Wennberg, A.-M.; Wennerström, O.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation we have studied the change in the absorption spectrum of some photoactive organic species in sunscreens after UVA and UVB irradiation in a dose normally encountered during a full day in the sun. The absorbance of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate was reduced significantly, while 3-(4-methylbenzyliden)camphor seemed to be rather stable. The benzophenones studied seemed to be relatively stable. In the case of 4-tert.butyl-4´-methoxy-dibenzoylmethane there was a rapid decrease in the UVA absorption leading to unsatisfactory protection in the UVA region. 4-Isopropyl-dibenzoylmethane also lost most of its UV protective capacity after irradiation with UVA. UVB seemed to have a minor effect on all the samples. The present study including gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis indicates that some of the photoactive organic species commonly used today in sunscreens are unstable following UV irradiation.

  16. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  17. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  18. UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

  19. Possible extraterrestrial strategy for earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, J. W.

    1986-03-01

    A hypothesis concerning the nature of extraterrestrial messages to the earth is proposed. The hypothesis is based on the following assumptions about (1) that they exist in abundance in the Galaxy; (2) that they are benevolent toward earth-based life forms, and (3) that the lack of any human detection of extraterrestrials is due to an embargo designed to prevent any premature disclosure of their existence. It is argued that any embargo not involving alien force must be a leaky one designed to allow a gradual disclosure of the alien message and its gradual acceptance on the part of the general public over a very long time-scale. The communication may take the form of what is now considered magic, and may therefore be misinterpreted as 'magic' by or a hoax by contemporary governments and scientists.

  20. Atomic Oxygen Durability Evaluation of a UV Curable Ceramer Protective Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Karniotis, Christina A.; Dworak, David; Soucek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The exposure of most silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO) results in the oxidative loss of methyl groups with a gradual conversion to oxides of silicon. Typically there is surface shrinkage of oxidized silicone protective coatings which leads to cracking of the partially oxidized brittle surface. Such cracks widen and branch crack with continued atomic oxygen exposure ultimately allowing atomic oxygen to reach any hydrocarbon polymers under the silicone coating. A need exists for a paintable silicone coating that is free from such surface cracking and can be effectively used for protection of polymers and composites in LEO. A new type of silicone based protective coating holding such potential was evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in an RF atomic oxygen plasma exposure facility. The coating consisted of a UV curable inorganic/organic hybrid coating, known as a ceramer, which was fabricated using a methyl substituted polysiloxane binder and nanophase silicon-oxo-clusters derived from sol-gel precursors. The polysiloxane was functionalized with a cycloaliphatic epoxide in order to be cured at ambient temperature via a cationic UV induced curing mechanism. Alkoxy silane groups were also grafted onto the polysiloxane chain, through hydrosilation, in order to form a network with the incorporated silicon-oxo-clusters. The prepared polymer was characterized by H-1 and Si-29 NMR, FT-IR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The paper will present the results of atomic oxygen protection ability of thin ceramer coatings on Kapton H as evaluated over a range of atomic oxygen fluence levels.

  1. Analysis of the UV-B Regime and Potential Effects on Alfalfa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, Jeffery C.

    1998-01-01

    Life at the surface of the Earth, over the last 400 m.y., evolved under conditions of decreased short-wave radiation (i.e., ultraviolet) relative to solar output due to absorption and scattering by constituents (e.g., ozone, water vapor, aerosols) in the upper atmosphere. However, a significant amount of ultraviolet radiation in the range from 280-320 nm, known as ultraviolet-B radiation, reaches the Earth's surface and has sufficient energy to be damaging to biologic tissue. Natural fluctuations in atmospheric constituents (seasonal variation, volcanic eruptions, etc.), changes in the orbital attitude of the Earth (precession, axial tilt, orbital eccentricity), and long-term solar variability contribute to changes in the total amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, and thus, the biosphere. More recently, the atmospheric release of commercial propellants and refrigerants, known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has contributed to a significant depletion in naturally occurring ozone in the stratosphere. Thus, decreased stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increased UV-B flux at the Earth's surface which may have profound effects on terrestrial and marine organisms. In this study, we are investigating the effects of differing solar UV-B fluxes on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), an important agricultural crop. A long-term goal of this research is to develop spectral signatures to detect plant response to increased UV-B radiation from remote sensor platforms.

  2. UV DISINFECTION GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides technical information on selection, design and operation of UV systems; provides regulatory agencies with guidance and the necessary tools to assess UV systems at the design, start-up, and routine operation phase; provides manufacturers with the testing and performance standards for UV components and systems for treating drinking water. Provide guidance to water systems, regulators and manufacturers on UV disinfection of drinking water.

  3. Physical conditions on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites). PMID:17008213

  4. Physical conditions on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Lunine, Jonathan I

    2006-10-29

    The formation of the Earth as a planet was a large stochastic process in which the rapid assembly of asteroidal-to-Mars-sized bodies was followed by a more extended period of growth through collisions of these objects, facilitated by the gravitational perturbations associated with Jupiter. The Earth's inventory of water and organic molecules may have come from diverse sources, not more than 10% roughly from comets, the rest from asteroidal precursors to chondritic bodies and possibly objects near Earth's orbit for which no representative class of meteorites exists today in laboratory collections. The final assembly of the Earth included a catastrophic impact with a Mars-sized body, ejecting mantle and crustal material to form the Moon, and also devolatilizing part of the Earth. A magma ocean and steam atmosphere (possibly with silica vapour) existed briefly in this period, but terrestrial surface waters were below the critical point within 100 million years after Earth's formation, and liquid water existed continuously on the surface within a few hundred million years. Organic material delivered by comets and asteroids would have survived, in part, this violent early period, but frequent impacts of remaining debris probably prevented the continuous habitability of the Earth for one to several hundred million years. Planetary analogues to or records of this early time when life began include Io (heat flow), Titan (organic chemistry) and Venus (remnant early granites).

  5. Solar Irradiance from 165 to 400 nm in 2008 and UV Variations in Three Spectral Bands During Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Bolsée, D.; Damé, L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Irbah, A.; Bekki, S.; Cessateur, G.; Foujols, T.; Thiéblemont, R.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and its temporal variations are of primary interest to better understand solar mechanisms, and the links between solar variability and Earth's atmosphere and climate. The SOLar SPECtrum (SOLSPEC) instrument of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been built to carry out SSI measurements from 165 to 3088 nm. We focus here on the ultraviolet (UV) part of the measured solar spectrum (wavelengths less than 400 nm) because the UV part is potentially important for understanding the solar forcing of Earth's atmosphere and climate. We present here SOLAR/SOLSPEC UV data obtained since 2008, and their variations in three spectral bands during Solar Cycle 24. They are compared with previously reported UV measurements and model reconstructions, and differences are discussed.

  6. Growth of a mat-forming photograph in the presence of UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Beverly K.; Ruff, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival and growth of microorganisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation is important for understanding the potential for life to exist in environments exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation. The growth of a mat-forming phototrophic prokaryote, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, was examined in the presence of continuous high UV irradiation under otherwise optimal growth conditions. Evidence was sought for an intrinsic ability to grow in the presence of UV radiation in a carefully chosen organism known to be unusually resistant to UV radiation, of ancient lineage among the phototrophs, to resemble ancient microfossils from the Precambrian, and to be a mat-former. It was assumed that even a high intrinsic UV resistance would be inadequate for survival and growth in the presence of very high UV fluxes, and iron (Fe3+) was selected as a common, abundant UV-absorbing substance that might protest microorganisms growing in or under iron-bearing sediments. The effectiveness of Fe(3+) was tested as a UV protective agent at low concentrations in thin layers. It was concluded that intrinsic UV resistance in some organisms may account for growth, not just survival, of these organisms when exposed to high UV fluxes under otherwise optimal growth conditions in an anoxic environment. It was also concluded that Fe(3+) bearing sediments of 1 mm or less in thickness may provide an adequate shield against high UV fluxes permitting the growth of microorganisms just below their surface. As long as growth conditions were met, then the evolution and development of microorganisms would not be hampered by high UV fluxes impinging upon the surface of iron-bearing sediments.

  7. UV Tanning Equipment | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Sun lamps and tanning equipment emit ultraviolet (UV) rays. People who are exposed to UV rays over a long period of time are more likely to develop skin cancer. People with light skin are in more danger because their skin is more sensitive to UV rays.

  8. Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Alfio V; Schouten, Peter; Downs, Nathan J; Turner, Joanna

    2010-05-03

    The possible ramifications of climate change include the influence it has upon the amount of cloud cover in the atmosphere. Clouds cause significant variation in the solar UV radiation reaching the earth's surface and in turn the amount incident on ecosystems. The consequences of changes in solar UV radiation delivered to ecosystems due to climate change may be significant and should be investigated. Plants are an integral part of the world wide ecological balance, and research has shown they are affected by variations in solar UV radiation. Therefore research into the influence of solar UV radiation on plants is of particular significance. However, this requires a means of obtaining detailed information on the solar UV radiation received by plants. This research describes a newly developed dosimetric technique employed to gather information on solar UV radiation incident to the leaves of plants in combination with the measurement of spectral irradiances in order to provide an accurate method of collecting detailed information on the solar UV radiation affecting the canopy and lower leaf layers of individual plants. Variations in the measurements take into account the inclination and orientation of each leaf investigated, as well as the influence of shading by other leaves in the plant canopy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. UV habitability and dM stars: an approach for evaluation of biological survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Cortón, Eduardo; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2010-02-01

    Dwarf M stars comprise about 75 percent of all stars in the galaxy. For several years planets orbiting M stars have been discarded as suitable places for development of life. This paradigm now has changed and terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars are reconsidered as possible hosts for life as we know it. Nevertheless, large amount of UV radiation is emitted during flares by this stars, and it is uncertain how these events could affect biological systems. In particular UV-C λ < 290nm) exhibits the most damaging effects for living organisms. To analyze the hypothesis that UV could set a limit for the development of extraterrestrial life, we studied the effect of UV-C treatment on halophile archaea cultures. Halophile archaea are extremophile organisms, they are exposed to intense solar UV radiation in their natural environment so they are generally regarded as relatively UV tolerant. Halophiles inhabits in hipersaline environments as salt lakes but also have been found in ancient salt deposits as halites and evaporites on Earth. Since evaporites have been detected in Martian meteorites, these organisms are proposed as plausible inhabitants of Mars-like planets. Our preliminary results show that even after UV damage, the surviving cells were able to resume growth with nearly normal kinetics.

  11. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    SciT

    Williams, Dean N.

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed andmore » simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.« less

  12. Uv Spectral Dating of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara

    1997-07-01

    With the advent of very large telescopes like Keck, it has become possible to observe high-z galaxies in the restframe UV and derive ages from line features in their spectra. In the first such study, Dunlop et al. {1996, Nature 381, 481} came to an astonishing conclusion: the restframe UV spectrum of the z=1.55 radio galaxy, 53W091, suggests a population of stars at least 3.5 Gyr old. If their age estimate is correct, the authors say they can rule out an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology with Ho>50. This ERO program seeks to make the method of UV spectral dating more robust by using STIS spectra to refine and verify the model stellar atmospheres, which form the basis of the technique. Specifically, STIS will be used to obtain a high-quality medium-resolution {E230M} spectrum of a star near the main sequence turnoff {such stars contribute the bulk of the mid-UV flux}. Since non-LTE effects have been detected in these stars, we will use the non-LTE modelling program, TLUSTY, developed by Ivan Hubeny {STIS research associate} to analyze the spectrum. We will derive the basic surface properties of the star, Teff, log g, and the abundance ratios, [Fe/H], [Mg/H]. The effective temperature is a critical parameter, since an error in Teff of only 100 degrees translates to a 1 Gyr error in the derived age of a galaxy. We will compare our results with those from optical studies by Edvardsson et al. {1993 A&A 274, 101}.

  13. UV-cured polymer optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.

  14. Cathodoluminescent UV-radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereschagina, N. Y.; Danilkin, M. I.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Ozol, D. I.; Sheshin, E. P.; Spassky, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury-free UV-radiation sources are described. An electron beam similar to cathode-ray tubes (CRT) excites a luminescent material in a vacuum bulb. A high density of excitation requires the cathode and the luminescent material to be resistant for that and provide the extended lifetime of the UV-radiation source. Carbon fibre and nano-carbon based field-emission cathodes produce long lasting stable emission with a high current density (up to 0.3-0.5 A/cm2 ). Li2B4O7:Cu and Li2B4O7:Ag luminescent ceramics survive under high radiation doses and provide UV luminescence bands peaked at 360-370 nm and 270 nm, respectively. The luminescence band at 360-370 nm has a good overlap with the fundamental absorption edge of TiO2, which is known as a photo-catalyst in air and water cleaning systems. The luminescence band at 270 nm overlaps with DNA absorption and provides a direct disinfection effect. We suggest the structure of complex luminescence centres and energy transfer mechanisms. The electron structure of lithium tetraborate and the contribution of impurities are also discussed in paper.

  15. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  16. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  17. How Extreme is TRAPPIST-1? A look into the planetary system’s extreme-UV radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-01-01

    The ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 hosts three earth-sized planets at orbital distances where water has the potential to exist in liquid form on the planets’ surface. Close-in exoplanets, such as these, become vulnerable to water loss as stellar XUV radiation heats and expands their upper atmospheres. Currently, little is known about the high-energy radiation environment around TRAPPIST-1. Recent efforts to quantify the XUV radiation rely on empirical relationships based on X-ray or Lyman alpha line observations and yield very different results. The scaling relations used between the X-ray and EUV emission result in high-energy irradiation of the planets 10-1000x greater than present day Earth, stripping atmospheres and oceans in 1 Gyr, while EUV estimated from Lyman alpha flux is much lower. Here we present upper-atmosphere PHOENIX models representing the minimum and maximum potential EUV stellar flux from TRAPPIST-1. We use GALEX FUV and NUV photometry for similar aged M stars to determine the UV flux extrema in an effort to better constrain the high-energy radiation environment around TRAPPIST-1.

  18. SWIFT Observations of a Far UV Luminosity Component in SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, J. K.; Boyd, P. T.; Dolan, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    SS433 is a binary system showing relativistic Doppler shifts in its two sets of emission lines. The origin of its UV continuum is not well established. We observed SS433 to determine the emission mechanism responsible for its far UV spectrum. The source was observed at several different phases of both its 13 d orbital period and 162.5 d precession period using the UVOT and XRT detector systems on Swift. The far UV spectrum down to 1880 Angstrom lies significantly above the spectral flux distribution predicted by extrapolating the reddened blackbody continuum that fits the spectrum above 3500 Angstroms. The intensity of the far UV flux varies over a period of days and the variability is correlated with the variability of the soft X-ray flux from the source. An emission mechanism in addition to those previously detected in the optical and X-ray regions must exist in the far UV spectrum of SS433.

  19. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  20. PPCP degradation by chlorine-UV processes in ammoniacal water: new reaction insights, kinetic modeling and DBP formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruochun; Meng, Tan; Huang, Ching-Hua; Ben, Weiwei; Yao, Hong; Liu, Ruini; Sun, Peizhe

    2018-06-15

    The combination of chlorine and UV (i.e. chlorine-UV process) has been attracting more attentions in recent years due to its ready incorporation into existing water treatment facilities to remove PPCPs. However, limited information is available on the impact of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). This study investigated two model PPCPs, N,N-diethyl-3-toluamide (DEET) and caffeine (CAF), in the two stages of chlorine-UV process (i.e. chlorination and UV/chlor(am)ine) to elucidate the impact of TAN. During chlorination, the degradation of DEET and CAF was positively correlated with the overall consumption of total chlorine by TAN. Reactive nitrogen intermediates, including HNO/NO- and ONOOH/ONOO-, along with OH were identified as major contributors to the removal of DEET and CAF. During UV irradiation, DEET and CAF were degraded under UV/chlorine or UV/NH2Cl conditions. OH and Cl were the major reactive species to degrade DEET and CAF under UV/NH2Cl conditions, whereas OCl played a major role for degrading CAF under UV/chlorine conditions. Numerical models were developed to predict the removal of DEET and CAF under chlorination-UV process. Chlorinated disinfection byproducts were detected. Overall, this study presented kinetic features and mechanistic insights on the degradation of PPCPs under chlorine-UV process in ammoniacal water.

  1. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  2. Existence Values for Groundwater (1989)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study reports the findings of a preliminary investigation into the existence (nonuse) values people hold for groundwater resources and how these values can be measured for use in benefit/cost analysis.

  3. Microbial UV fluence-response assessment using a novel UV-LED collimated beam system.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Colleen; Sain, Amanda; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel

    2011-02-01

    A research study has been performed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) fluence-response of several target non-pathogenic microorganisms to UV light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) by performing collimated beam tests. UV-LEDs do not contain toxic mercury, offer design flexibility due to their small size, and have a longer operational life than mercury lamps. Comsol Multiphysics was utilized to create an optimal UV-LED collimated beam design based on number and spacing of UV-LEDs and distance of the sample from the light source while minimizing the overall cost. The optimized UV-LED collimated beam apparatus and a low-pressure mercury lamp collimated beam apparatus were used to determine the UV fluence-response of three surrogate microorganisms (Escherichia coli, MS-2, T7) to 255 nm UV-LEDs, 275 nm UV-LEDs, and 254 nm low-pressure mercury lamps. Irradiation by low-pressure mercury lamps produced greater E. coli and MS-2 inactivation than 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs and similar T7 inactivation to irradiation by 275 nm UV-LEDs. The 275 nm UV-LEDs produced more efficient T7 and E. coli inactivation than 255 nm UV-LEDs while both 255 nm and 275 nm UV-LEDs produced comparable microbial inactivation for MS-2. Differences may have been caused by a departure from the time-dose reciprocity law due to microbial repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Earth on the Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the layers of the earth, the relationship between changes on the surface of the earth and its insides, and plate tectonics. Teaching activities are included, with some containing reproducible worksheets and handouts to accompany them. (TW)

  5. Earth - Pacific Ocean

    1996-01-29

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft early Dec. 12, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.6 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00123

  6. The Earth & Moon

    1998-06-04

    During its flight, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00342

  7. Oblique Shot of Earth

    2008-09-05

    This highly oblique image shot over northwestern part of the African continent captures the curvature of the Earth and shows its atmosphere as seen by NASA EarthKAM. You can see clouds and even the occasional thunderhead.

  8. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  9. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while NASA's Director, Earth Science Division, Mike Freilich, speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Earth - India and Australia

    1996-02-08

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00122

  11. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a quick selfie with students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  13. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  14. The Dynamic Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how the earth is a dynamic system that maintains itself in a steady state. Areas considered include large/small-scale earth motions, geologic time, rock and hydrologic cycles, and other aspects dealing with the changing face of the earth. (JN)

  15. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  16. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  17. Performance Results from In-Flight Commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS), results from the successful in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011, and some predictions of future Jupiter observations. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a rotationally stabilized spacecraft. The planned 2 rpm rotation rate for the primary mission results in integration times per spatial resolution element per spin of only 17 ms. Thus, data was retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up integration times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, map out scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately ±30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. We will describe our process for solving for the pointing of the scan mirror relative to the Juno spacecraft and present our initial half sky survey of UV bright stars complete with constellation overlays. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions and relate them to in situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will facilitate these measurements, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the surface positions of magnetic field lines Juno is flying through giving a direct connection between the particle measurements on the spacecraft to the observed reaction of Jupiter’s atmosphere to those particles. Finally, we will describe planned observations to be made during Earth flyby in October 2013 that will complete the in-flight characterization.

  18. Probing Jupiter's Radiation Environment with Juno-UVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Versteeg, M. H.; Davis, M. W.; Santos-Costa, D.; Becker, H. N.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S.

    2017-12-01

    While primarily designed to observe photon emission from the Jovian aurora, Juno's Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) has also measured background count rates associated with penetrating high-energy radiation. These background counts are distinguishable from photon events, as they are generally spread evenly across the entire array of the Juno-UVS detector, and as the spacecraft spins, they set a baseline count rate higher than the sky background rate. During eight perijove passes, this background radiation signature has varied significantly on both short (spin-modulated) timescales, as well as longer timescales ( minutes to hours). We present comparisons of the Juno-UVS data across each of the eight perijove passes, with a focus on the count rate that can be clearly attributed to radiation effects rather than photon events. Once calibrated to determine the relationship between count rate and penetrating high-energy radiation (e.g., using existing GEANT models), these in situ measurements by Juno-UVS will provide additional constraints to radiation belt models close to the planet.

  19. The role of emotions in UV protection intentions and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Heike I M

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the role of emotions, relative to cognitions, in predicting sun protection intentions and practices. In Study 1, 106 females were assessed for baseline sun protection, ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure-related cognitions (perceived susceptibility to skin damage, self-efficacy for regular sunscreen use, perceived costs of sun protection use, perceived rewards of tanning), anticipated negative mood following future risky UV behavior, and future sun protection intentions. Self-reported sun protection behavior was then assessed in the same participants five weeks later. The results of Study 1 demonstrated that the extent to which participants' expected to experience negative feelings if they engaged in future risky UV behavior predicted their intentions to sun protect and their subsequent sun protection behaviors independent of their UV radiation exposure-related cognitions. In Study 2, in addition to the assessments collected in Study 1, participants were exposed to an appearance-based intervention that included visual images of their existing skin damage and were then assessed for their emotional reactions to the intervention. The results replicated those of Study 1 and, in addition, showed that negative emotional reactions to the intervention predicted future sun protection intentions and self-reported behaviors at follow-up, independent of the various cognitive factors that are central to prominent models of health behavior. These studies provide preliminary support for the development of expanded health behavior models that incorporate anticipated and experienced emotions.

  20. Acute UV irradiation increases heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels in human skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Dayae; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important structural components in the skin and exist as various proteoglycan forms, except hyaluronic acid. Heparan sulfate (HS), one of the glycosaminoglycans, is composed of repeated disaccharide units, which are glucuronic acids linked to an N-acetyl-glucosamine or its sulfated forms. To investigate acute ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes of HS and HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), changes in levels of HS and several HSPGs in male human buttock skin were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 2 minimal erythema doses (MED) of UV irradiation (each n = 4-7). HS staining revealed that 2 MED of UV irradiation increased its expression, and staining for perlecan, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, CD44v3, and CD44 showed that UV irradiation increased their protein levels. However, analysis by real-time qPCR showed that UV irradiation did not change mRNA levels of CD44 and agrin, and decreased perlecan and syndecan-4 mRNA levels, while increased syndecan-1 mRNA level. As HS-synthesizing or -degrading enzymes, exostosin-1 and heparanase mRNA levels were increased, but exostosin-2 was decreased by UV irradiation. UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression was confirmed for proper experimental conditions. Acute UV irradiation increases HS and HSPG levels in human skin, but their increase may not be mediated through their transcriptional regulation.

  1. Towards standardization of UV eye protection: what can be learned from photodermatology?

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Béhar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Ortega Garcia, Paula; Peña-García, Pablo; Remé, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James

    2014-01-01

    While knowledge about standardization of skin protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has progressed over the past few decades, there is no uniform and generally accepted standardized measurement for UV eye protection. The literature provides solid evidence that UV can induce considerable damage to structures of the eye. As well as damaging the eyelids and periorbital skin, chronic UV exposure may also affect the conjunctiva and lens. Clinically, this damage can manifest as skin cancer and premature skin ageing as well as the development of pterygia and premature cortical cataracts. Modern eye protection, used daily, offers the opportunity to prevent these adverse sequelae of lifelong UV exposure. A standardized, reliable and comprehensive label for consumers and professionals is currently lacking. In this review we (i) summarize the existing literature about UV radiation-induced damage to the eye and surrounding skin; (ii) review the recent technological advances in UV protection by means of lenses; (iii) review the definition of the Eye-Sun Protection Factor (E-SPF®), which describes the intrinsic UV protection properties of lenses and lens coating materials based on their capacity to absorb or reflect UV radiation; and (iv) propose a strategy for establishing the biological relevance of the E-SPF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Personalized cumulative UV tracking on mobiles & wearables.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Sahoo, S; Agrawal, H; Mondal, A; Bhowmik, T; Tiwari, V N

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a balanced Ultra Violet (UV) exposure level is vital for a healthy living as the excess of UV dose can lead to critical diseases such as skin cancer while the absence can cause vitamin D deficiency which has recently been linked to onset of cardiac abnormalities. Here, we propose a personalized cumulative UV dose (CUVD) estimation system for smartwatch and smartphone devices having the following novelty factors; (a) sensor orientation invariant measurement of UV exposure using a bootstrap resampling technique, (b) estimation of UV exposure using only light intensity (lux) sensor (c) optimal UV exposure dose estimation. Our proposed method will eliminate the need for a dedicated UV sensor thus widen the user base of the proposed solution, render it unobtrusive by eliminating the critical requirement of orienting the device in a direction facing the sun. The system is implemented on android mobile platform and validated on 1200 minutes of lux and UV index (UVI) data collected across several days covering morning to evening time frames. The result shows very impressive final UVI estimation accuracy. We believe our proposed solution will enable the future wearable and smartphone users to obtain a seamless personalized UV exposure dose across a day paving a way for simple yet very useful recommendations such as right skin protective measure for reducing risk factors of long term UV exposure related diseases like skin cancer and, cardiac abnormality.

  3. Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Oldson, John; Levin, Eugene; Carroll, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    . Earth, lunar, and asteroidal material sources are evaluated; asteroid retrieval is addressed, along with techniques for processing and forming the ring to the proper thickness and density. The ring could consist of particles, or fabricated satellite structures. Environmental concerns and effects on existing satellites in various Earth orbits are addressed. There are uncertainties in our understanding of climate and its control. But it appears that the Earth ring could control the Earth's temperature and its latitudinal variation, make dangerous asteroids useful, reduce the intensity of the Van Allen radiation belts, provide nighttime illumination without power, and create an artificial ionosphere for radio communication.

  4. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  5. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on ESA’s JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Randy; Retherford, K.; Steffl, A.; Eterno, J.; Davis, M.; Versteeg, M.; Greathouse, T.; Araujo, M.; Walther, B.; Persson, K.; Persyn, S.; Dirks, G.; McGrath, M.; Feldman, P.; Bagenal, F.; Spencer, J.; Schindhelm, E.; Fletcher, L.

    2013-10-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) was selected in May 2012 as the first L-class mission of ESA’s Cosmic Vision Program. JUICE will launch in 2022 on a 7.6-year journey to the Jovian system, including a Venus and multiple Earth gravity assists, before entering Jupiter orbit in January 2030. JUICE will study the entire Jovian system for 3.5 years, concentrating on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, with the last 10 months spent in Ganymede orbit. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on JUICE was jointly selected by NASA and ESA as part of its ~130 kg payload of 11 scientific instruments. UVS is the fifth in a series of successful ultraviolet imaging spectrographs (Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons Pluto-Alice, LRO-LAMP) and is largely based on the most recent of these, Juno-UVS. It observes photons in the 55-210 nm wavelength range, at moderate spectral and spatial resolution along a 7.5-degree slit. A main entrance “airglow port” (AP) is used for most observations (e.g., airglow, aurora, surface mapping, and stellar occultations), while a separate “solar port” (SP) allows for solar occultations. Another aperture door, with a small hole through the centre, is used as a “high-spatial-resolution port” (HP) for detailed observations of bright targets. Time-tagging (pixel list mode) and programmable spectral imaging (histogram mode) allow for observational flexibility and optimal data management. As on Juno-UVS, the effects of penetrating electron radiation on electronic parts and data quality are substantially mitigated through contiguous shielding, filtering of pulse height amplitudes, management of high voltage settings, and careful use of radiation-hard, flight-tested parts. The science goals of UVS are to: 1) explore the atmospheres, plasma interactions, and surfaces of the Galilean satellites; 2) determine the dynamics, chemistry, and vertical structure of Jupiter’s upper atmosphere from equator to pole; and 3) investigate the Jupiter-Io connection by

  6. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Madronich, S; McKenzie, R L; Björn, L O; Caldwell, M M

    1998-10-01

    Stratospheric ozone levels are near their lowest point since measurements began, so current ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels are thought to be close to their maximum. Total stratospheric content of ozone-depleting substances is expected to reach a maximum before the year 2000. All other things being equal, the current ozone losses and related UV-B increases should be close to their maximum. Increases in surface erythemal (sunburning) UV radiation relative to the values in the 1970s are estimated to be: about 7% at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in winter/spring; about 4% at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in summer/fall; about 6% at Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes on a year-round basis; about 130% in the Antarctic in spring; and about 22% in the Arctic in spring. Reductions in atmospheric ozone are expected to result in higher amounts of UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface. The expected correlation between increases in surface UV-B radiation and decreases in overhead ozone has been further demonstrated and quantified by ground-based instruments under a wide range of conditions. Improved measurements of UV-B radiation are now providing better geographical and temporal coverage. Surface UV-B radiation levels are highly variable because of cloud cover, and also because of local effects including pollutants and surface reflections. These factors usually decrease atmospheric transmission and therefore the surface irradiances at UV-B as well as other wavelengths. Occasional cloud-induced increases have also been reported. With a few exceptions, the direct detection of UV-B trends at low- and mid-latitudes remains problematic due to this high natural variability, the relatively small ozone changes, and the practical difficulties of maintaining long-term stability in networks of UV-measuring instruments. Few reliable UV-B radiation measurements are available from pre-ozone-depletion days. Satellite-based observations of atmospheric ozone and clouds are

  7. The Earth is a Planet Too!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Brian

    2014-01-01

    When the solar system formed, the sun was 30 dimmer than today and Venus had an ocean. As the sun brightened, a runaway greenhouse effect caused the Venus ocean to boil away. At times when Earth was younger, the sun less bright, and atmospheric CO2 less, Earth froze over (snowball Earth). Earth is in the sweet spot today. Venus is closer to sun than Earth is, but cloud-covered Venus absorbs only 25 of incident sunlight, while Earth absorbs 70. Venus is warmer because it has a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect of several hundred degrees. Earth is Goldilocks choice among the planets, the one that is just right for life to exist. Not too hot. Not too cold. How does the Earth manage to stay in this habitable range? Is there a Gaia phenomenon keeping the climate in bounds? A nice idea, but it doesnt work. Today, greenhouse gas levels are unprecedented compared to the last 450,000 years.

  8. [How did the earth's oxygen atmosphere originate?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, G

    2004-09-01

    The planet earth did not carry an oxygen atmosphere from the beginning. Though oxygen could arise from radiation mediated water splitting, these processes were not efficient enough to create a global gas atmosphere. Oxygen in the latter is a product of the photosynthetic activity of early green organisms. Only after biological mass-formation of oxygen the UV-protective ozone layer could develop, then enabeling life to move from water onto land. This took billions of years. The basics of the processes of biological oxygen liberation and utilization are described in the following as well as the importance of their steady state equilibrium. Also a hint is given to oxygen as a toxic compound though being a chemical prerequisite for aerobic life on earth.

  9. Earth Science Information Center

    ,

    1991-01-01

    An ESIC? An Earth Science Information Center. Don't spell it. Say it. ESIC. It rhymes with seasick. You can find information in an information center, of course, and you'll find earth science information in an ESIC. That means information about the land that is the Earth, the land that is below the Earth, and in some instances, the space surrounding the Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a network of Earth Science Information Centers that sell earth science products and data. There are more than 75 ESIC's. Some are operated by the USGS, but most are in other State or Federal agencies. Each ESIC responds to requests for information received by telephone, letter, or personal visit. Your personal visit.

  10. Efficiency of ocular UV protection by clear lenses.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Katharina; Hornauer, Matthias; Buechinger, Ramona; Schoen, Roland; Barraza-Bernal, Maria; Habtegiorgis, Selam; Glasenapp, Carsten; Wahl, Siegfried; Mappes, Timo

    2018-04-01

    Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sun glasses wear to an all-day protection scenario.

  11. Efficiency of ocular UV protection by clear lenses

    PubMed Central

    Rifai, Katharina; Hornauer, Matthias; Buechinger, Ramona; Schoen, Roland; Barraza-Bernal, Maria; Habtegiorgis, Selam; Glasenapp, Carsten; Wahl, Siegfried; Mappes, Timo

    2018-01-01

    Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sun glasses wear to an all-day protection scenario. PMID:29675331

  12. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    PubMed

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  13. UV tanning advertisements in high school newspapers.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Francis, Shayla; Lundahl, Kristy; Bowland, Terri; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2006-04-01

    To examine the increasing use of UV tanning parlors by adolescents, despite the World Health Organization recommendation that no one under the age of 18 years use UV tanning devices. We examined tanning advertisements in a sample of public high school newspapers published between 2001 and 2005 in 3 Colorado counties encompassing the Denver metropolitan area. Tanning advertisements appeared in newspapers from 11 (48%) of 23 schools. Newspaper issues (N = 131) contained 40 advertisements placed by 18 tanning parlors. Advertisements commonly offered discounts (19 of 40) including unlimited tanning offers (15 of 40). Thirteen advertisements featured non-UV tanning treatments, and 2 advertisements mentioned parental consent or accompaniment for UV tanning. UV radiation, a classified carcinogen, is commonly and specifically marketed to adolescents through high school newspaper advertising. Public health skin cancer prevention policies should include the prohibition of UV tanning advertising to minors.

  14. Further comparison of MODTRAN 5 to measured data in the UV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leon; Richardson, Mark; Ayling, Richard; Barlow, Nick

    2014-10-01

    The ability to accurately model background radiation from the sun is important in understanding the operation of missile systems with ultraviolet (UV) guard channels. In theory a missile system's UV channel detects a target's silhouette, caused by its `negative contrast' with respect to background UV radiation. The variation in background levels of UV will therefore have an effect on the operability of a missile system that utilises a UV channel. In this paper an update on the measurement and comparison of background UV-A radiation to data produced by Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission 5 (MODTRAN®5) is given. In the past surface flux and radiance data calculated using MODTRAN®5 has been compared to data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre (WOUDC) archive, and measurements taken by the author at the Defence Academy of the UK. With the aid of spectral measurement equipment, new measurements have been made and compared with the radiance profiles produced by MODTRAN®5, including measurements made throughout both winter and summer months. Also discussed are the effects of scattering and absorption by different cloud types on the amount of radiation observed at the Earth's surface.

  15. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard; Kuntz, Marcel; Truong, Thuy B; Niyogi, Krishna K; Ulm, Roman; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2016-12-20

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast.

  16. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciT

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here in this paper, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonasmore » reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast.« less

  17. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DOE PAGES

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard; ...

    2016-12-05

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here in this paper, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonasmore » reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast.« less

  18. UV-B photoreceptor-mediated protection of the photosynthetic machinery in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Allorent, Guillaume; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Chappuis, Richard; Kuntz, Marcel; Truong, Thuy B.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). A major component of NPQ is qE (energy-dependent nonphotochemical quenching), which allows dissipation of light energy as heat. Photodamage peaks in the UV-B part of the spectrum, but whether and how UV-B induces qE are unknown. Plants are responsive to UV-B via the UVR8 photoreceptor. Here, we report in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that UVR8 induces accumulation of specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) superfamily that contribute to qE, in particular LHC Stress-Related 1 (LHCSR1) and Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). The capacity for qE is strongly induced by UV-B, although the patterns of qE-related proteins accumulating in response to UV-B or to high light are clearly different. The competence for qE induced by acclimation to UV-B markedly contributes to photoprotection upon subsequent exposure to high light. Our study reveals an anterograde link between photoreceptor-mediated signaling in the nucleocytosolic compartment and the photoprotective regulation of photosynthetic activity in the chloroplast. PMID:27930292

  19. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  20. The Jovian UV aurorae as seen by Juno-UVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfond, Bertrand; Gladstone, Randy; Grodent, Denis; Hue, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Versteeg, Maarten; Greathouse, Thomas; Davis, Michael; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Connerney, John; Bagenal, Fran

    2017-04-01

    The Juno spacecraft was inserted in orbit around Jupiter on July 4th 2016. Its highly elongated polar orbit brings it <5000 km above the cloud tops every 53,5 days, allowing spectacular and unprecedented views of its polar aurorae. The Juno-UVS instrument is an imaging spectrograph observing perpendicularly to the Juno spin axis. It is equipped with a moving scan mirror at the entrance of the instrument that allows the field of view to be directed up to +/-30° away from the spin plane. The 70-205 nm bandpass comprises key UV auroral emissions such as the H2 bands and the H Lyman alpha line, as well as hydrocarbon absorption bands. We present polar maps of the aurorae at Jupiter for the first three first few periapses. These maps offer the first high resolution observations of the night-side aurorae. We will discuss the observed auroral morphology, including the satellite footprints, the outer emissions, the main emission and the polar emissions. We will also show maps of the color ratio, comparing the relative intensity of wavelengths subject to different degrees of absorption by CH4. Such measurements directly relate to the energy of the precipitating particles, since the more energetic the particles, the deeper they penetrate and the stronger the resulting methane absorption. For example, we will show evidence of longitudinal shifts between the brightness peaks and color ratio peaks in several auroral features. Such shifts may be interpreted as the result of the differential particle drift in plasma injection signatures.

  1. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    SciT

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratorymore » three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.« less

  2. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  3. Dual UV/thermally curable plastisols

    SciT

    Morgan, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    Photoactive, thermally curable plastisol compositions are made by mixing a thermoplastic (preferably poly(vinyl chloride)), a (meth)acrylate, a thermal initiator, a photoinitiator, and a conventional plasticizer. A short exposure of these compositions to UV results in a tack-free skin cure. Heating after UV irradiation gives simultaneous crosslinking and fusion. These dual UV/thermally curable plastisols are useful as adhesives, sealants, encapsulants, and in many other applications.

  4. UV disinfection in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, O

    2000-01-01

    UV disinfection has become a practical and safely validatable disinfection procedure by specifying the requirements for testing and monitoring in DVGW standard W 294. A standardized biodosimetric testing procedure and monitoring with standardized UV sensors is introduced and successfully applied. On-line monitoring of irradiance can be counterchecked with handheld reference sensors and makes it possible that UV systems can be used for drinking water disinfection with the same level of confidence and safety as is conventional chemical disinfection.

  5. UV filters for lighting of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-01-01

    The wavelength dependent interaction of biological systems with radiation is commonly described by appropriate action spectra. Particularly effective plant responses are obtained for ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Excess shortwave UV-B radiation will induce genetic defects and plant damage. Besides the ecological discussion of the deleterious effects of the excess UV radiation there is increasing interest in horticultural applications of this spectral region. Several metabolic pathways leading to valuable secondary plant products like colors, odors, taste, or resulting in mechanical strength and vitality are triggered by UV radiation. Thus, in ecologically as well as in economically oriented experiments the exact generation and knowledge of the spectral irradiance, particularly near the UV absorption edge, is essential. The ideal filter 'material' to control the UV absorption edge would be ozone itself. However, due to problems in controlling the toxic and chemically aggressive, instable gas, only rather 'small ozone filters' have been realized so far. In artificial plant lighting conventional solid filter materials such as glass sheets and plastic foils (celluloseacetate or cellulosetriacetate) which can be easily handled have been used to absorb the UV-C and the excess shortwave UV-B radiation of the lamp emissions. Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The aging of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replace glass filters. In

  6. Earth's inner core nucleation paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Van Orman, James A.; Hauck, Steven A.; Willard, Matthew A.

    2018-04-01

    The conventional view of Earth's inner core is that it began to crystallize at Earth's center when the temperature dropped below the melting point of the iron alloy and has grown steadily since that time as the core continued to cool. However, this model neglects the energy barrier to the formation of the first stable crystal nucleus, which is commonly represented in terms of the critical supercooling required to overcome the barrier. Using constraints from experiments, simulations, and theory, we show that spontaneous crystallization in a homogeneous liquid iron alloy at Earth's core pressures requires a critical supercooling of order 1000 K, which is too large to be a plausible mechanism for the origin of Earth's inner core. We consider mechanisms that can lower the nucleation barrier substantially. Each has caveats, yet the inner core exists: this is the nucleation paradox. Heterogeneous nucleation on a solid metallic substrate tends to have a low energy barrier and offers the most straightforward solution to the paradox, but solid metal would probably have to be delivered from the mantle and such events are unlikely to have been common. A delay in nucleation, whether due to a substantial nucleation energy barrier, or late introduction of a low energy substrate, would lead to an initial phase of rapid inner core growth from a supercooled state. Such rapid growth may lead to distinctive crystallization texturing that might be observable seismically. It would also generate a spike in chemical and thermal buoyancy that could affect the geomagnetic field significantly. Solid metal introduced to Earth's center before it reached saturation could also provide a nucleation substrate, if large enough to escape complete dissolution. Inner core growth, in this case, could begin earlier and start more slowly than standard thermal models predict.

  7. The UV Survey Mission Concept, CETUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara; and the CETUS Team

    2018-01-01

    In March 2017, NASA selected CETUS for study of a Probe-class mission concept. W. Danchi is the CETUS PI, and S. Heap is the Science PI. CETUS is primarily a UV survey telescope to complement survey telescopes of the 2020’s including E-ROSITA, Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam and Prime-Focus Spectrograph, WFIRST, and the Square Kilometer Array. CETUS comprises a 1.5-m wide-field telescope and three science instruments: a wide-field (1045” on a side) far-UV and near-UV camera; a similarly wide-field near-UV multi-object spectrograph utilizing a next-generation micro-shutter array; and a single-object spectrograph with options of spectral region (far-UV or near-UV) and spectral resolving power (2,000 or 40,000). The survey instruments will operate simultaneously thereby producing wide-field images in the near-UV and far-UV and a spectrogram containing near-UV spectra of up to 100 sources free of spectral overlap and astronomical background. ln concert with other survey telescopes, CETUS will focus on understanding galaxy evolution at cosmic noon (z~1-2).

  8. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  9. Biological effects of high ultraviolet radiation on early earth--a theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    1998-08-21

    The surface of early Earth was exposed to both UVC radiation (< 280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared with the surface of present day Earth. The degree to which this radiation environment acted as a selection pressure on organisms and biological systems has rarely been theoretically examined with respect to the biologically effective irradiances that ancient organisms would receive. Here action spectra for DNA inactivation and isolated chloroplast inhibition are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances on archean Earth. Comparisons are made with present day Earth. The theoretical estimations on the UV radiation screening required to protect DNA on archean Earth compare well with field and laboratory observations on protection strategies found in present day microbial communities. They suggest that many physical and biological methods may have been effective and would have allowed for the radiation of life even under the high UV radiation regimes of archean Earth. Such strategies would also have provided effective reduction of photoinhibition by UV radiation. The data also suggest that the UV regime on the surface of Mars is not a life limiting factor per se, although other environmental factors such as desiccation and low temperatures may contribute towards the apparent lack of a surface biota.

  10. Iron-based radiochromic systems for UV dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hannah J.; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Ibbott, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    Phototherapy treatment using ultraviolet (UV) A and B light sources has long existed as a treatment option for various skin conditions. Quality control for phototherapy treatment recommended by the British Association of Dermatologists and British Photodermatology Group generally focused on instrumentation-based dosimetry measurements. The purpose of this study was to present an alternative, easily prepared dosimeter system for the measurement of UV dose and as a simple quality assurance technique for phototherapy treatments. Five different UVA-sensitive radiochromic dosimeter formulations were investigated and responded with a measurable and visible optical change both in solution and in gel form. Iron(III) reduction reaction formulations were found to be more sensitive to UVA compared to iron(II) oxidation formulations. One iron(III) reduction formulation was found to be especially promising due to its sensitivity to UVA dose, ease of production, and linear response up to a saturation point.

  11. Ocean Raman Scattering in Satellite Backscatter UV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Bhartia, Pawan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ocean Raman scattering significantly contributes to the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines measured by satellite backscatter ultraviolet (buy) instruments in the cloudless atmosphere over clear ocean waters. A model accounting for this effect in buy measurements is developed and compared with observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GONE). The model extends existing models for ocean Raman scattering to the UV spectral range. Ocean Raman scattering radiance is propagated through the atmosphere using a concept of the Lambert equivalent reflectively and an accurate radiative transfer model for Rayleigh scattering. The model and observations can be used to evaluate laboratory measurements of pure water absorption in the UV. The good agreement between model and observations suggests that buy instruments may be useful for estimating chlorophyll content.

  12. Optical and UV spectra of RS CVn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1990-01-01

    The observed phenomenology in RS CVn and related binary systems is considered in terms of its modeling according to solar activity by examining UV and optical spectroscopy. Current data are examined to validate the existence of cool starspots, plage, prominences, and flares, as well as to determine the consistency of spatial correlations given by these data. RS CVn stars show spots at or near the poles, contrasting the low latitudes of solar spots; plage appears to be associated with cool spots on BY Draconis-like systems; plage and prominences, although identified as distinct phenomena, are theorized to be the same event in some cases. More spectroscopic and photometric observations are proposed to identify the detailed structure and locations of spots. UV and visible data are also required to distinguish plage regions from flare variations as well as determine the relation of extended structures to starspot and plage phenomena in RS CVn systems.

  13. Effects of climate change and UV-B on materials.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L; Hamid, Halim S; Torikai, Ayako

    2003-01-01

    mitigation relies on the effectiveness of the existing light stabilizers (such as hindered amine light stabilizers, HALS) used in plastics exposed to harsh solar UV conditions coupled with climate change factors. In developing advanced light-stabilizer technologies, more light-resistant grades of common plastics, or surface protection technologies for wood, the harsh weathering environment created by the simultaneous action of increased UV-B levels due to ozone depletion as well as the relevant climate change factors need to be taken into consideration. Recent literature includes several studies on synergism of HALS-based stabilizers, stabilizer effectiveness in the new m-polyolefins and elucidation of the mechanism of stabilization afforded by titania pigment in vinyl plastics.

  14. UV-extending ghost inflation

    SciT

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch

    2014-05-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predictsmore » rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 0.02÷0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f{sub NL} in the range from -50 to -5.« less

  15. Determine Daytime Earth's Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Thieman, M. M.; Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Liang, L.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; SUN, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) platform provides a unique perspective for remote sensing of the Earth. With the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) and the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard, it provides full-disk measurements of the broadband shortwave and total radiances reaching the L1 position. Because the satellite orbits around the L1 spot, it continuously observes a nearly full Earth, providing the potential to determine the daytime radiation budget of the globe at the top of the atmosphere. The NISTAR is a single-pixel instrument that measures the broadband radiance from the entire globe, while EPIC is a spectral imager with channels in the UV and visible ranges. The Level 1 NISTAR shortwave radiances are filtered radiances. To determine the daytime TOA shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, the NISTAR measured shortwave radiances must be unfiltered first. We will describe the algorithm used to un-filter the shortwave radiances. These unfiltered NISTAR radiances are then converted to the full disk shortwave and daytime longwave fluxes, by accounting for the anisotropic characteristics of the Earth-reflected and emitted radiances. These anisotropy factors are determined by using the scene identifications determined from multiple low Earth orbit and geostationary satellites matched into the EPIC field of view. Time series of daytime radiation budget determined from NISTAR will be presented, and methodology of estimating the fluxes from the small unlit crescent of the Earth that comprises part of the field of view will also be described. The daytime shortwave and longwave fluxes from NISTAR will be compared with CERES dataset.

  16. UV-B Measurements in Mexico City: Comparison with Modeled UVB and Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Frederick, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) represents a chemically important region of the sun's spectrum. At the earth's surface, UV-B can initiate a number of important photochemical reactions (e.g., ozone photolysis) that lead to the formation of OH radicals. Where levels of nitrogen oxides are high and reactive hydrocarbons are found, as in Mexico City and other megacities, UV-B can initiate photochemical smog formation. We used a broadband instrument to obtain UV-B measurements in Mexico City during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003/Mexico City Megacity 2003 field study. We then used a simple radiation model for the Mexico City latitude, altitude, and time of year to construct UV-B contours for comparison with our results. Early morning discrepancies involve reductions in UV-B that are consistent with the presence of significant levels of BC in the Mexico City environment. During most afternoons, UV-B reductions were dominated by clouds. The results are discussed in terms of the potential impacts of BC on UV-B and downwind photochemical processes. The authors wish to thank the researchers at Centro Nacional de Investigación en Calidad Ambiental (CENICA), Mexico City. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Science Program (Marley and Gaffney), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Frederick). We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Mario and Luisa Molina for their help in organizing and directing the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2003 field study, during which these data were collected.

  17. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  18. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  19. Study of the anticorrelations between ozone and UV-B radiation using linear and exponential fits in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, R.; Padilha, L.; Guarnieri, F.; Echer, E.; Makita, K.; Pinheiro, D.; Schuch, A.; Boeira, L.; Schuch, N.

    Ultraviolet radiation type B (UV-B 280-315nm) is well known by its damage to life on Earth, including the possibility of causing skin cancer in humans. However, the atmo- spheric ozone has absorption bands in this spectral radiation, reducing its incidence on Earth's surface. Therefore, the ozone amount is one of the parameters, besides clouds, aerosols, solar zenith angles, altitude, albedo, that determine the UV-B radia- tion intensity reaching the Earth's surface. The total ozone column, in Dobson Units, determined by TOMS spectrometer on board of a NASA satellite, and UV-B radiation measurements obtained by a UV-B radiometer model MS-210W (Eko Instruments) were correlated. The measurements were obtained at the Observatório Espacial do Sul - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (OES/CRSPE/INPE-MCT) coordinates: Lat. 29.44oS, Long. 53.82oW. The correlations were made using UV-B measurements in fixed solar zenith angles and only days with clear sky were selected in a period from July 1999 to December 2001. Moreover, the mathematic behavior of correlation in dif- ferent angles was observed, and correlation coefficients were determined by linear and first order exponential fits. In both fits, high correlation coefficients values were ob- tained, and the difference between linear and exponential fit can be considered small.

  20. Evaluation of tourists' UV exposure in Paris.

    PubMed

    Mahé, E; Corrêa, M P; Godin-Beekmann, S; Haeffelin, M; Jégou, F; Saiag, P; Beauchet, A

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is one of the most important risk factor for skin cancers. If UV hazard has been evaluated in tropical countries or in some population - children, outdoor activities - little information is available about UV hazard in high latitude towns like Paris, considered as the most 'charismatic city' in the world. To evaluate UV exposure in Paris in spring, in sun and shade, in real life conditions. We evaluated erythemal UV exposure, during four sunny days in May-June in eight Paris touristic sites during peak hours (2 days), and during two walks in touristic downtown of Paris. Measures were performed in sun and shade. UV radiation exposure was evaluated with UV index performed with a 'Solarmeter ultraviolet index (UVI)' and UV dose with 'standard erythema dose' (SED) and 'minimal erythema dose' (MED) calculations. Despite 'average' UVI in sunny conditions, a 4-h sun exposure reaches 13-20 SED and 3-10 MED according to phototype. Clouds were inefficient to protect against UV. Shade of places reduces moderately UVI (50-60%) in forecourts. Exposure during 1-h walk reach at least one MED in real life conditions for skin phototypes I-IV. UV risk for tourist is quite high in spring in Paris. UVI remains high despite high cloud fraction. Shade reduces UVI, but UV protection factor is only 2-3 in large places such as Place Notre Dame and Place Charles de Gaulle. So sun protection campaigns should be proposed, and sun protective strategies could be integrated in urban planning. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Fiber optic systems in the UV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Michael; Meyer, H.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich; Hillrichs, G.; Ruetting, Martin; Veidemanis, M.; Spangenberg, Bernd; Clarkin, James P.; Nelson, Gary W.

    2000-05-01

    Mainly due to the unexpected progress in manufacturing of solarization-reduced all-silica fibers, new fiber-optic applications in the UV-region are feasible. However, the other components like the UV-sources and the detector- systems have to be improved, too. Especially, the miniaturization is very important fitting to the small-sized fiber-optic assemblies leading to compact and mobile UV- analytical systems. Based on independent improvements in the preform and fiber processing, UV-improved fibers with different properties have been developed. The best UV-fiber for the prosed applications is selectable by its short and long-term spectral behavior, especially in the region from 190 to 350 nm. The spectrum of the UV-source and the power density in the fiber have an influence on the nonlinear transmission and the damaging level; however, hydrogen can reduce the UV-defect concentration. After determining the diffusion processes in the fiber, the UV-lifetime in commercially available all-silica fibers can be predicted. Newest results with light from deuterium-lamps, excimer- lasers and 5th harmonics of Nd:YAG laser will be shown. Many activities are in the field of UV-sources. In addition to new UV-lasers like the Nd:YAG laser at 213 nm, a new low- power deuterium-lamp with smaller dimensions has been introduced last year. Properties of this lamp will be discussed, taking into account some of the application requirements. Finally, some new applications with UV-fiber optics will be shown; especially the TLC-method can be improved significantly, combining a 2-row fiber-array with a diode-array spectrometer optimized for fiber-optics.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Jahangir-Blourchian, Mahdi

    2005-10-01

    UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to UVR during their use of UV-transilluminators. The levels of irradiance of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were determined for 29 UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 6, 25, 62, and 125 cm from the center of the UV-transilluminator's filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The operators (faculty, research staff, and graduate students) worked within 62 cm of the transilluminators, with most subjects commonly working at < or =25 cm from the UV-transilluminator's filter surface. Daily exposure time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Actinic hazard (effective irradiance level of UVR) was also determined for three representative UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm from these sets' filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The allowable exposure time for these instruments was less than 20 sec within 15 cm, less than 35 sec within 25 cm, and less than 2 min within 50 cm from the UV-transilluminators' filter surface. The results of this study suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding, and/or personal protective equipment.

  3. EarthExplorer

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  4. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Huntress, Wesley T.

    1990-01-01

    The rationale behind Mission to Planet Earth is presented, and the program plan is described in detail. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to collect muultidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented large amount of information about the earth and how it functions as a system. Attention is given to the space observatories, the data and information systems, and the interdisciplinary research.

  5. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  6. UV Spectroscopy of Lucy Mission Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    The Trojan asteroids are a significant population of primitive bodies trapped in Jupiter's stable L4 and L5 Lagrange regions. Their physical properties and existence in these particular orbits constrain the chemical and dynamical processes in our early Solar System. NASA's recently selected Lucy mission will perform the first reconnaissance of these asteroids and will answer many fundamental questions about the population. The compositions of the Trojans are not well understood. Spectroscopy and spectrophotometry in visible and near-infrared wavelengths show red slopes (spectra with reflectivity increasing towards the long wavelength end of the spectrum) and no diagnostic spectral absorption features. However, past spectral and photometric observations suggest there are unobserved features in ultraviolet wavelengths. We propose to obtain ultraviolet spectroscopy with WFC3 of four Trojan asteroids that are targets of the Lucy mission. Lucy will not have the capability to obtain ultraviolet spectra. The proposed observations can only be made using Hubble. We will determine if there are UV spectral features, as suggested by visible wavelength observations, and connect these features to candidate compositional components. These observations will enable connections between the compositions of Trojans and dynamical models of the early Solar System.

  7. Visible and Ultraviolet Detectors for High Earth Orbit and Lunar Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of detectors for the visible and UV for future large observatories in earth orbit and the moon is briefly reviewed. For the visible, CCDs have the highest quantum efficiency, but are subject to contamination of the data by cosmic ray hits. For the moon, the level of hits can be brought down to that at the earth's surface by shielding below about 20 meters of rock. For high earth orbits above the geomagnetic shield, CCDs might be able to be used by combining many short exposures and vetoing the cosmic ray hits, otherwise photoemissive detectors will be necessary. For the UV, photoemissive detectors will be necessary to reject the visible; to use CCDs would require the development of UV-efficient filters which reject the visible by many orders of magnitude. Development of higher count rate capability would be desirable for photoemissive detectors.

  8. Earth on the Horizon

    2004-03-13

    This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of its mission. Earth is the tiny white dot in the center. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05560

  9. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Astronaut John Mace Grunsfeld takes a quick selfie with astronauts at the International Space Station at the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  11. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  12. UV RADIATION MEASUREMENTS/ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an ecosystem stressor and poses a human health risk, the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has undertaken a research program to measure the intensity of UV-B radiation at various locations throughout the U.S. In Septem...

  13. Climate Prediction Center - Outlooks: UV Alert Forecast

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go About Us Our Mission Who We Are Contact Us CPC Information CPC Web Team USA.gov is the U.S. Government's official Web portal to all Federal, state and local government Web resources and services. HOME > Stratosphere Home > Stratosphere UV Index > UV Alert

  14. UV Reconstruction Algorithm And Diurnal Cycle Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curylo, Aleksander; Litynska, Zenobia; Krzyscin, Janusz; Bogdanska, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    UV reconstruction is a method of estimation of surface UV with the use of available actinometrical and aerological measurements. UV reconstruction is necessary for the study of long-term UV change. A typical series of UV measurements is not longer than 15 years, which is too short for trend estimation. The essential problem in the reconstruction algorithm is the good parameterization of clouds. In our previous algorithm we used an empirical relation between Cloud Modification Factor (CMF) in global radiation and CMF in UV. The CMF is defined as the ratio between measured and modelled irradiances. Clear sky irradiance was calculated with a solar radiative transfer model. In the proposed algorithm, the time variability of global radiation during the diurnal cycle is used as an additional source of information. For elaborating an improved reconstruction algorithm relevant data from Legionowo [52.4 N, 21.0 E, 96 m a.s.l], Poland were collected with the following instruments: NILU-UV multi channel radiometer, Kipp&Zonen pyranometer, radiosonde profiles of ozone, humidity and temperature. The proposed algorithm has been used for reconstruction of UV at four Polish sites: Mikolajki, Kolobrzeg, Warszawa-Bielany and Zakopane since the early 1960s. Krzyscin's reconstruction of total ozone has been used in the calculations.

  15. UV lines in spectra of planetary nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanova, Yu.; Kholtygin, A.

    2008-12-01

    The modern observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) are used to create a new catalogue of element abundances for galactic and extragalac- tic PNe. Some of these abundances, especially C ones, need to be refined. Using in the PNe's models the UV line intensities, planned to be obtained with a help of WSO-UV observatory let us to determine the precision element abundances.

  16. UV lasers for drilling and marking applications.

    PubMed

    Hannon, T

    1999-10-01

    Lasers emitting ultraviolet (UV) light have unique capabilities for precision micromachining and marking plastic medical devices. This review of the benefits offered by laser technology includes a look at recently developed UV diode-pumped solid-state lasers and their key features.

  17. UV dichroic coatings on metallic reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, C.; Babu, N. J.; chandran, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    The work presented here explains the design and deposition process of dichroic coating on metallic reflectors developed for UV curing systems. Special designs are adopted to achieve the spectral band and optimized to suit to the requirements. A mirror, which reflects the UV radiation (220 - 400 nm) and absorbs visible and infrared radiation (400 - 2000nm), is described in detail.

  18. Atmospheric Constraints on the Surface UV Environment of Mars at 3.9 Ga Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings suggest that Mars may have been a clement environment for the emergence of life and may even have compared favorably to Earth in this regard. These findings have revived interest in the hypothesis that prebiotically important molecules or even nascent life may have formed on Mars and been transferred to Earth. UV light plays a key role in prebiotic chemistry. Characterizing the early martian surface UV environment is key to understanding how Mars compares to Earth as a venue for prebiotic chemistry. Here, we present two-stream, multilayer calculations of the UV surface radiance on Mars at 3.9 Ga to constrain the surface UV environment as a function of atmospheric state. We explore a wide range of atmospheric pressures, temperatures, and compositions that correspond to the diversity of martian atmospheric states consistent with available constraints. We include the effects of clouds and dust. We calculate dose rates to quantify the effect of different atmospheric states on UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry. We find that, for normative clear-sky CO 2 -H 2 O atmospheres, the UV environment on young Mars is comparable to young Earth. This similarity is robust to moderate cloud cover; thick clouds (τ cloud  ≥ 100) are required to significantly affect the martian UV environment, because cloud absorption is degenerate with atmospheric CO 2 . On the other hand, absorption from SO 2 , H 2 S, and dust is nondegenerate with CO 2 , meaning that, if these constituents build up to significant levels, surface UV fluence can be suppressed. These absorbers have spectrally variable absorption, meaning that their presence affects prebiotic pathways in different ways. In particular, high SO 2 environments may admit UV fluence that favors pathways conducive to abiogenesis over pathways unfavorable to it. However, better measurements of the spectral quantum yields of these pathways are required to evaluate this hypothesis definitively. Key Words: Radiative

  19. Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon™ tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance.

  20. A solid oxide photoelectrochemical cell with UV light-driven oxygen storage in mixed conducting electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Gregor; Rotter, Bernhard; Brunauer, Georg Christoph; Esmaeili, Esmaeil; Opitz, Alexander Karl; Kubicek, Markus; Summhammer, Johann; Ponweiser, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A single crystalline SrTiO3 working electrode in a zirconia-based solid oxide electrochemical cell is illuminated by UV light at temperatures of 360–460 °C. In addition to photovoltaic effects, this leads to the build-up of a battery-type voltage up to more than 300 mV. After switching off UV light, this voltage only slowly decays. It is caused by UV-induced oxygen incorporation into the mixed conducting working electrode and thus by changes of the oxygen stoichiometry δ in SrTiO3–δ under UV illumination. These changes of the oxygen content could be followed in time-dependent voltage measurements and also manifest themselves in time-dependent resistance changes during and after UV illumination. Discharge currents measured after UV illumination reveal that a large fraction of the existing oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 become filled under UV light. Additional measurements on cells with TiO2 thin film electrodes show the broader applicability of this novel approach for transforming light into chemical energy and thus the feasibility of solid oxide photoelectrochemical cells (SOPECs) in general and of a “light-charged oxygen battery” in particular. PMID:28261480

  1. Extending the data rate of non-line-of-sight UV communication with polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hongwei; Jia, Honghui; Zhang, Hailiang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Juncai

    2012-10-01

    With low radiation background of solar-blind UV and strong scattering of UV photons by atmospheric particles, UV communication can be made use of to set up a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space optical communication link. Polarization modulation, besides the traditional intensity modulation, is presented to enhance the data rate of the UV communication system. The configuration and the working process of the dually modulated UV communication system with intensity modulation and polarization, the theoretical evaluation of polarization modulation, and a numerical of the scattering matrix are presented, with the conclusion that polarization modulation is achievable. By adding the polarizing devices and changing the coding procedures, the existing singly-modulated UV communication systems with intensity modulation are easily modified to be dually-modulated ones with polarization modulation and intensity modulation. Ideally speaking, the data rate of the dually-modulated UV communication system is the product of the data rate of the singly modulated system and the number of polarization modulation.

  2. Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2004-07-01

    The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in

  3. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  4. Assessing the Chemistry of Tidally Locked Earth-like Planets around M-type Stars Using a 3D Coupled Chemistry-Climate Model (CESM/WACCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzano, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Given recent discoveries there is a very real potential for tidally-locked Earth-like planets to exist orbiting M stars. To determine whether these planets may be habitable it is necessary to understand the nature of their atmospheres. In our investigation we simulate the evolution of present-day Earth while placed in tidally-locked orbit (meaning the same side of the planet always faces the star) around an M dwarf star. We are particularly interested in the evolution of the planet's ozone layer and whether it will shield the planet, and therefore life, from harmful radiation.To accomplish the above objectives we use a state-of-the-art 3-D terrestrial model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), which fully couples chemistry and climate, and therefore allows self-consistent simulations of atmospheric constituents and their effects on a planet's climate, surface radiation and thus habitability. Preliminary results show that this model is stable and that a tidally-locked Earth is protected from harmful UV radiation produced by G stars. The next step shall be to adapt this model for an M star by including its UV and visible spectrum.This investigation will both provide an insight into the potential for habitable exoplanets and further define the nature of the habitable zones for M class stars. We will also be able to narrow the definition of the habitable zones around distant stars, which will help us identify these planets in the future. Furthermore, this project will allow for a more thorough analysis of data from past and future exoplanet observing missions by defining the atmospheric composition of Earth-like planets around a variety of types of stars.

  5. Reconstruction of solar spectral surface UV irradiances using radiative transfer simulations.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Anders; Heikkilä, Anu; Kaurola, Jussi; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    UV radiation exerts several effects concerning life on Earth, and spectral information on the prevailing UV radiation conditions is needed in order to study each of these effects. In this paper, we present a method for reconstruction of solar spectral UV irradiances at the Earth's surface. The method, which is a further development of an earlier published method for reconstruction of erythemally weighted UV, relies on radiative transfer simulations, and takes as input (1) the effective cloud optical depth as inferred from pyranometer measurements of global radiation (300-3000 nm); (2) the total ozone column; (3) the surface albedo as estimated from measurements of snow depth; (4) the total water vapor column; and (5) the altitude of the location. Reconstructed daily cumulative spectral irradiances at Jokioinen and Sodankylä in Finland are, in general, in good agreement with measurements. The mean percentage difference, for instance, is mostly within +/-8%, and the root mean square of the percentage difference is around 10% or below for wavelengths over 310 nm and daily minimum solar zenith angles (SZA) less than 70 degrees . In this study, we used pseudospherical radiative transfer simulations, which were shown to improve the performance of our method under large SZA (low Sun).

  6. UV-induced DNA damage is an intermediate step in UV-induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, collagenase, c-fos, and metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, B; Rahmsdorf, H J; Steffen, A; Litfin, M; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    UV irradiation of human and murine cells enhances the transcription of several genes. Here we report on the primary target of relevant UV absorption, on pathways leading to gene activation, and on the elements receiving the UV-induced signal in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat, in the gene coding for collagenase, and in the cellular oncogene fos. In order to induce the expression of genes. UV radiation needs to be absorbed by DNA and to cause DNA damage of the kind that cannot be repaired by cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A. UV-induced activation of the three genes is mediated by the major enhancer elements (located between nucleotide positions -105 and -79 of HIV-1, between positions -72 and -65 of the collagenase gene, and between positions -320 and -299 of fos). These elements share no apparent sequence motif and bind different trans-acting proteins; a member of the NF kappa B family binds to the HIV-1 enhancer, the heterodimer of Jun and Fos (AP-1) binds to the collagenase enhancer, and the serum response factors p67 and p62 bind to fos. DNA-binding activities of the factors recognizing the HIV-1 and collagenase enhancers are augmented in extracts from UV-treated cells. The increase in activity is due to posttranslational modification. While AP-1 resides in the nucleus and must be modulated there, NF kappa B is activated in the cytoplasm, indicating the existence of a cytoplasmic signal transduction pathway triggered by UV-induced DNA damage. In addition to activation, new synthesis of AP-1 is induced by UV radiation. Images PMID:2557547

  7. Planetary atmosphere evolution: do other habitable planets exist and can we detect them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this conference is to consider whether it is possible within the next few decades to detect Earth-like planets around other stars using telescopes or interferometers on the ground or in space. Implicit in the term "Earth-like" is the idea that such planets might be habitable by Earth-like organisms, or that they might actually be inhabited. Here, I shall address two questions from the standpoint of planetary atmosphere evolution. First, what are the chances that habitable planets exist around other stars? And, second, if inhabited planets exist, what would be the best way to detect them?.

  8. Planetary atmosphere evolution: do other habitable planets exist and can we detect them?

    PubMed

    Kasting, J F

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this conference is to consider whether it is possible within the next few decades to detect Earth-like planets around other stars using telescopes or interferometers on the ground or in space. Implicit in the term "Earth-like" is the idea that such planets might be habitable by Earth-like organisms, or that they might actually be inhabited. Here, I shall address two questions from the standpoint of planetary atmosphere evolution. First, what are the chances that habitable planets exist around other stars? And, second, if inhabited planets exist, what would be the best way to detect them?

  9. Optical fibre sensors for the monitoring of a microwave plasma UV lamp and ozone generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Ortoneda, M.; Cullen, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E.; Phipps, D. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2008-09-01

    The food industry is keen to have new techniques that improve the safety and shelf life of food products without the use of preservatives. The use of UV light and ozone (O3) gas are becoming increasingly popular as methods to decontaminate food and thus extending its shelf life. A microwave radiation device that is a novel source of both germicidal UV and O3 suitable for the food industry has been developed, which offers speed, cost and energy benefits over existing sources. With this system comes the need to monitor a number of conditions, primarily UV intensity and ozone gas concentrations. An optical fibre sensor system is being developed to analyse these properties, in order to control and optimise the outputs of the microwave plasma UV lamp.

  10. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    PubMed Central

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  11. Equality and selection for existence.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, I

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that the policy of excluding from further life some human gametes and pre-embryos as "unfit" for existence is not at odds with a defensible idea of human equality. Such an idea must be compatible with the obvious fact that the "functional" value of humans differs, that their "use" to themselves and others differs. A defensible idea of human equality is instead grounded in the fact that as this functional difference is genetically determined, it is nothing which makes humans deserve or be worthy of being better or worse off. Rather, nobody is worth a better life than anyone else. This idea of equality is, however, not applicable to gametes and pre-embryos, since they are not human beings, but something out of which human beings develop. PMID:10226918

  12. New UV-source catalogs, UV spectral database, UV variables and science tools from the GALEX surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; de la Vega, Alexander; Shiao, Bernard; Bohlin, Ralph

    2018-03-01

    We present a new, expanded and improved catalog of Ultraviolet (UV) sources from the GALEX All-Sky Imaging survey: GUVcat_AIS (Bianchi et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 230:24, 2017). The catalog includes 83 million unique sources (duplicate measurements and rim artifacts are removed) measured in far-UV and near-UV. With respect to previous versions (Bianchi et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 411:2770 2011a, Adv. Space Res. 53:900-991, 2014), GUVcat_AIS covers a slightly larger area, 24,790 square degrees, and includes critical corrections and improvements, as well as new tags, in particular to identify sources in the footprint of extended objects, where pipeline source detection may fail and custom-photometry may be necessary. The UV unique-source catalog facilitates studies of density of sources, and matching of the UV samples with databases at other wavelengths. We also present first results from two ongoing projects, addressing respectively UV variability searches on time scales from seconds to years by mining the GALEX photon archive, and the construction of a database of ˜120,000 GALEX UV spectra (range ˜1300-3000 Å), including quality and calibration assessment and classification of the grism, hence serendipitous, spectral sources.

  13. UV Observations of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetry in the auroral patterns can be an important diagnostic for understanding the dynamics of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system (e.g., Newel and Meng, 1998; Fillingrim et al., 2005). Molecular nitrogen emission in the UV Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands can be used to determine energy flux and electron mean energy (Sotirelis, et al, 2013) and thereby Hall and Pederson integrated conductances (Gjerloev, et al., 2014). UV imagery provided by the 4 SSUSI instruments on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16-F19 spacecraft provide two dimensional maps of this emission at different local times. Often there are near simultaneous observations of both poles by some combination of the satellites. (see figure 1) The SSUSI auroral data products are well suited to this study, as they have the following features.: - dayglow has been subtracted on dayside aurora - electron energy flux and mean energy are pre-calculated - individual arcs have been identified through image processing. In order to intercompare data from multiple satellites, we must first ensure that the instrument calibrations are consistent. In this work we show that the instruments are consistently calibrated, and that results generated from the SSUSI data products can be trusted. Several examples of storm time asymmetries captured by the SSUSI instruments will be discussed. Fillingim, M. O., G. K. Parks, H. U. Frey, T. J. Immel, and S. B. Mende (2005), Hemispheric asymmetry of the afternoon electron aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03113, doi:10.1029/2004GL021635. Gjerloev, J., Schaefer, R., Paxton, L, and Zhang, Y. (2014), A comprehensive empirical model of the ionospheric conductivity derived from SSUSI/GUVI, SuperMAG and SuperDARN data, SM51G-4339, Fall 2014 AGU meeting, San Francisco. Newell, P. T., and C.-I. Meng (1988), Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices, J. Geophys. Res., 93(A4), 2643-2648, doi:10.1029/JA093iA04p02643

  14. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  15. Crescent Earth and Moon

    1996-08-29

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles 11.66 million kilometers from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00013

  16. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  17. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-17

    During the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Shari Blissett-Clark of the Florida Bat Conservancy displays one of the mammals. The event took place during the annual Earth Day celebration at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, guests have an opportunity to learn more about energy awareness, the environment and sustainability.

  18. Spaceship Earth Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel; And Others

    Three separate papers from the Project are included in this document. One of these, by the Center staff, is entitled "Potentials of the Spaceship Earth Metaphor". It discusses static, dynamic, and analogic representations of spaceship earth and their educational value. A second paper, "Some Resources for Introducing Environmental…

  19. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  20. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    An attendee of NASA's Earth Day event observes the glow from a bracelet that is part of an exhibit at the event. The Earth Day event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. Cool Earth Solar

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan,

    2018-05-30

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  2. Hands On Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  3. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  4. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  5. The Earth Needs You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Celebrated annually on April 22, schools and communities organize numerous activities during Earth Day to promote awareness. To help teachers plan their own initiatives and to learn more about what is happening around the world, they can join the Earth Day Network at: http://network.earthday.net/. Once they have joined, they can create a webpage…

  6. Modeling the natural UV irradiation and comparative UV measurements at Moussala BEO (BG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Angelov, Ch; Lovchinov, K.; Nitchev, Hr; Petrov, M.; Arsov, T.

    2018-03-01

    Studies of and modeling the impact of natural UV irradiation on the human population are of significant importance for human activity and economics. The sharp increase of environmental problems – extraordinary temperature changes, solar irradiation abnormalities, icy rains – raises the question of developing novel means of assessing and predicting potential UV effects. In this paper, we discuss new UV irradiation modeling based on recent real-time measurements at Moussala Basic Environmental Observatory (BEO) on Moussala Peak (2925 m ASL) in Rila Mountain, Bulgaria, and highlight the development and initial validation of portable embedded devices for UV-A, UV-B monitoring using open-source software architecture, narrow bandpass UV sensors, and the popular Arduino controllers. Despite the high temporal resolution of the VIS and UV irradiation measurements, the results obtained reveal the need of new assumptions in order to minimize the discrepancy with available databases.

  7. Compact solar UV burst triggered in a magnetic field with a fan-spine topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Young, P. R.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Solar ultraviolet (UV) bursts are small-scale features that exhibit intermittent brightenings that are thought to be due to magnetic reconnection. They are observed abundantly in the chromosphere and transition region, in particular in active regions. Aims: We investigate in detail a UV burst related to a magnetic feature that is advected by the moat flow from a sunspot towards a pore. The moving feature is parasitic in that its magnetic polarity is opposite to that of the spot and the pore. This comparably simple photospheric magnetic field distribution allows for an unambiguous interpretation of the magnetic geometry leading to the onset of the observed UV burst. Methods: We used UV spectroscopic and slit-jaw observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to identify and study chromospheric and transition region spectral signatures of said UV burst. To investigate the magnetic topology surrounding the UV burst, we used a two-hour-long time sequence of simultaneous line-of-sight magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and performed data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations by means of a magnetofrictional relaxation technique. We can connect UV burst signatures to the overlying extreme UV (EUV) coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Results: The UV burst shows a variety of extremely broad line profiles indicating plasma flows in excess of ±200 km s-1 at times. The whole structure is divided into two spatially distinct zones of predominantly up- and downflows. The magnetic field extrapolations show a persistent fan-spine magnetic topology at the UV burst. The associated 3D magnetic null point exists at a height of about 500 km above the photosphere and evolves co-spatially with the observed UV burst. The EUV emission at the footpoints of coronal loops is correlated with the evolution of the underlying UV burst. Conclusions: The magnetic field around the null point is sheared by

  8. Long-term variability of UV irradiance over Northern Eurasia according to satellite measurements, ERA-INTERIM dataset and INM-RSHU chemical climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Pastukhova, Anna; Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Khlestova, Julia; Poliukhov, Alexei; Smyshlyaev, Sergei; Galin, Vener

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of long-term erythemal UV irradiance (ERY) changes over the territory of Northern Eurasia according to the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis dataset, INM-RSHU chemical climate model (CCM), and TOMS and OMI satellite data with the correction on absorbing aerosol based on the new Macv2 climatology updated from Kinne et al. (2013) over the 1979-2015 period. We show the existence of the pronounced positive ERY trend due to ozone in spring and summer over Europe and over the central areas of Siberia (up 3% over the decade). The changes in cloud cover provide even more significant ERY increase (up to 6-8% per decade). However, over Arctic region there is a pronounced negative ERY trend probably due to the effects of melting ice on global circulation processes. The combination of ozone and cloud effects provides the enhanced increase of the overall ERY trend: up to 6-9% in spring and summer over Eastern Europe, some regions of Siberia and the Far East. In addition, based on the method described in (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we estimated changes in UV resources over Northern Eurasia since 1979. We show that for the first skin type there is a significant geographical shift of UV categories: the increase in the UV optimum area in winter, where the vitamin D generation is possible without risk of getting sunburn, and its reducing in other months due to decrease in ozone and clouds. We also analyze the long-term UV changes simulated according to different scenarios using the INM-RSHU CCM. There is a general agreement between CCM and observational datasets, however, ERY trends due to cloudiness do not correspond sometimes in space and are smaller. We show that the positive ERY trend due to ozone is determined by the anthropogenic emissions of halogens. The variations in natural factors (solar activity and ocean surface temperature, stratospheric aerosol) only provide the increase in ERY dispersion. References: Kinne, S., O'Donnel D., Stier P., et al., J. Adv. Model

  9. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  10. The SMM UV observations of Active Region 5395

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was used extensively to study the spatial morphology and time variability of solar active regions in the far UV (at approx. wavelength of 1370 A) since July 1985. The normal spatial resolution of UVSP observations in this 2nd-order mode is 10 sec., and the highest temporal resolution is 64 milliseconds. To make a full-field, 4 min. by 4 min. image this wavelength using 5 sec. raster steps takes about 3 minutes. UVSP can also make observations of the Sun at approx. wavelength of 2790 with 3 sec. spatial resolution when operated in its 1st-order mode; a full-field image at this wavelength (a so-called SNEW image) takes about 8 minutes. UVSP made thousands of observations (mostly in 2nd-order) of AR 5395 during its transit across the visible solar hemisphere (from 7 to 19 March, inclusive). During this period, UVSP's duty cycle for observing AR 5395 was roughly 40 percent, with the remaining 60 percent of the time being fairly evenly divided between aeronomy studies of the Earth's atmosphere and dead time due to Earth occultation of the Sun. UVSP observed many of the flares tagged to AR 5395, including 26 GOES M-level flares and 3 X-level flares, one of which produced so much UV emission that the safety software of UVSP turned off the detector to avoid damage due to saturation. Images and light curves of some of the more spectacular of the AR 5395 events are presented.

  11. UV-IR mixing in nonassociative Snyder ϕ4 theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Mignemi, Salvatore; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2018-03-01

    Using a quantization of the nonassociative and noncommutative Snyder ϕ4 scalar field theory in a Hermitian realization, we present in this article analytical formulas for the momentum-conserving part of the one-loop two-point function of this theory in D -, 4-, and 3-dimensional Euclidean spaces, which are exact with respect to the noncommutative deformation parameter β . We prove that these integrals are regularized by the Snyder deformation. These results indicate that the Snyder deformation does partially regularize the UV divergences of the undeformed theory, as it was proposed decades ago. Furthermore, it is observed that different nonassociative ϕ4 products can generate different momentum-conserving integrals. Finally, most importantly, a logarithmic infrared divergence emerges in one of these interaction terms. We then analyze sample momentum nonconserving integral qualitatively and show that it could exhibit IR divergence too. Therefore, infrared divergences should exist, in general, in the Snyder ϕ4 theory. We consider infrared divergences at the limit p →0 as UV/IR mixings induced by nonassociativity, since they are associated to the matching UV divergence in the zero-momentum limit and appear in specific types of nonassociative ϕ4 products. We also discuss the extrapolation of the Snyder deformation parameter β to negative values as well as certain general properties of one-loop quantum corrections in Snyder ϕ4 theory at the zero-momentum limit.

  12. a UV Spectral Library of Metal-Poor Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1994-01-01

    We propose to use the FOS to build a snapshot library of UV spectra of a sample of about 50 metal-poor massive stars located in the Magellanic Clouds. The majority of libraries already existing contains spectra of hot stars with chemical abundances close to solar. The high spectral resolution achieves with the FOS will be a major factor for the uniqueness of this new library. UV spectral libraries represent fundamental tools for the study of the massive star populations of young star-forming regions. Massive stars, which are impossible to identify directly in the optical-IR part of a composite spectrum, display on the other hand key signatures in the UV region. These signatures are mainly broad, metallicity dependent spectral features formed in the hot star winds. They require a high spectral resolution (of the order of 200-300 km/s) for an adequate study. A spectral library of metal-poor massive stars represents also a unique source of data for a stellar atmosphere analysis. Within less then 10 min we will obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio of at least 30. Finally, since short exposure times are possible, this proposal makes extremely good use of the capabilities of HST. We designed an observing strategy which yields a maximum scientific return at a minimum cost of spacecraft time.

  13. Is Mars a habitable environment for extremophilic microorganisms from Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Reitz, Guenther; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Bauermeister, Anja

    In the last decades several sucessful space missions to our neighboring planet Mars have deepened our knowledge about its environmental conditions substantially. Orbiters with intruments for remote sensing and landers with sophisticated intruments for in situ investigations resulted in a better understanding of Mars’ radiation climate, atmospheric composition, geology, and mineralogy. Extensive regions of the surface of Mars are covered with sulfate- and ferric oxide-rich layered deposits. These sediments indicate the possible existence of aqueous, acidic environments on early Mars. Similar environments on Earth harbour a specialised community of microorganisms which are adapted to the local stress factors, e.g. low pH, high concentrations of heavy metal ions, oligotrophic conditions. Acidophilic iron-sulfur bacteria isolated from such habitats on Earth could be considered as model organisms for an important part of a potential extinct Martian ecosystem or an ecosystem which might even exist today in protected subsurface niches. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was chosen as a model organism to study the ability of these bacteria to survive or grow under conditions resembling those on Mars. Stress conditions tested included desiccation, radiation, low temperatures, and high salinity. It was found that resistance to desiccation strongly depends on the mode of drying. Biofilms grown on membrane filters can tolerate longer periods of desiccation than planktonic cells dried without any added protectants, and drying under anaerobic conditions is more favourable to survival than drying in the presence of oxygen. Organic compounds such as trehalose and glycine betaine had a positive influence on survival after drying and freezing. A. ferrooxidans was shown to be sensitive to high salt concentrations, ionizing radiation, and UV radiation. However, the bacteria were able to utilize the iron minerals in Mars regolith mixtures as sole energy source. The survival and growth of

  14. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  15. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration. PMID:21593797

  16. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D.; Owens, David M.; Brenner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200–222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200–222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure. PMID:28225654

  17. Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; Ponnaiya, Brian; Welch, David; Stanislauskas, Milda; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Smilenov, Lubomir; Lowy, Franklin D; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2017-04-01

    We have previously shown that 207-nm ultraviolet (UV) light has similar antimicrobial properties as typical germicidal UV light (254 nm), but without inducing mammalian skin damage. The biophysical rationale is based on the limited penetration distance of 207-nm light in biological samples (e.g. stratum corneum) compared with that of 254-nm light. Here we extended our previous studies to 222-nm light and tested the hypothesis that there exists a narrow wavelength window in the far-UVC region, from around 200-222 nm, which is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging cells in tissues. We used a krypton-chlorine (Kr-Cl) excimer lamp that produces 222-nm UV light with a bandpass filter to remove the lower- and higher-wavelength components. Relative to respective controls, we measured: 1. in vitro killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a function of UV fluence; 2. yields of the main UV-associated premutagenic DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) in a 3D human skin tissue model in vitro; 3. eight cellular and molecular skin damage endpoints in exposed hairless mice in vivo. Comparisons were made with results from a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp used as positive control. We found that 222-nm light kills MRSA efficiently but, unlike conventional germicidal UV lamps (254 nm), it produces almost no premutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions in a 3D human skin model and it is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with our previous findings, far-UVC light in the range of 200-222 nm kills bacteria efficiently regardless of their drug-resistant proficiency, but without the skin damaging effects associated with conventional germicidal UV exposure.

  18. Juno‐UVS approach observations of Jupiter's auroras

    PubMed Central

    Versteeg, M. H.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Davis, M. W.; Gérard, J.‐C.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.; Nichols, J. D.; Wilson, R. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Adriani, A.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B. H.; Valek, P.; McComas, D. J.; Orton, G. S.; Bagenal, F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (UVS) observations of Jupiter's aurora obtained during approach are presented. Prior to the bow shock crossing on 24 June 2016, the Juno approach provided a rare opportunity to correlate local solar wind conditions with Jovian auroral emissions. Some of Jupiter's auroral emissions are expected to be controlled or modified by local solar wind conditions. Here we compare synoptic Juno‐UVS observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions, acquired during 3–29 June 2016, with in situ solar wind observations, and related Jupiter observations from Earth. Four large auroral brightening events are evident in the synoptic data, in which the total emitted auroral power increases by a factor of 3–4 for a few hours. Only one of these brightening events correlates well with large transient increases in solar wind ram pressure. The brightening events which are not associated with the solar wind generally have a risetime of ~2 h and a decay time of ~5 h. PMID:28989207

  19. Juno-UVS approach observations of Jupiter's auroras.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, G R; Versteeg, M H; Greathouse, T K; Hue, V; Davis, M W; Gérard, J-C; Grodent, D C; Bonfond, B; Nichols, J D; Wilson, R J; Hospodarsky, G B; Bolton, S J; Levin, S M; Connerney, J E P; Adriani, A; Kurth, W S; Mauk, B H; Valek, P; McComas, D J; Orton, G S; Bagenal, F

    2017-08-16

    Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (UVS) observations of Jupiter's aurora obtained during approach are presented. Prior to the bow shock crossing on 24 June 2016, the Juno approach provided a rare opportunity to correlate local solar wind conditions with Jovian auroral emissions. Some of Jupiter's auroral emissions are expected to be controlled or modified by local solar wind conditions. Here we compare synoptic Juno-UVS observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions, acquired during 3-29 June 2016, with in situ solar wind observations, and related Jupiter observations from Earth. Four large auroral brightening events are evident in the synoptic data, in which the total emitted auroral power increases by a factor of 3-4 for a few hours. Only one of these brightening events correlates well with large transient increases in solar wind ram pressure. The brightening events which are not associated with the solar wind generally have a risetime of ~2 h and a decay time of ~5 h.

  20. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  1. Solar UV dose patterns in Italy.

    PubMed

    Meloni, D; Casale, G R; Siani, A M; Palmieri, S; Cappellani, F

    2000-06-01

    Since 1992 solar ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiance (290-325 nm) has been measured at two Italian stations of Rome (urban site) and Ispra (semirural site) using Brewer spectrophotometry. The data collected under all sky conditions, are compared with the output of a sophisticated radiative transfer model (System for Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation--STAR model). The STAR multiple scattering scheme is able to cope with all physical processes relevant to the UV transfer through the atmosphere. The experience so far acquired indicates that, in spite of the unavoidable uncertainties in the input parameters (ozone, aerosol, surface albedo, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover), measured and computed clear sky iradiances are in reasonable agreement. The STAR model is applied to build up the solar UV geographic patterns in Italy: the daily dose in the range 290-325 nm is computed at about 70 sites where a thorough and homogeneous climatology is available. For each month the concept of an idealized "standard day" is introduced and the surface distribution of solar UV field determined. The map of solar UV patterns for Italy, available for the first time, meets the study requirements in the field of skin and eye epidemiology, as well as in other investigations dealing with the impact of UV on the biosphere. The results are interpreted in terms of atmospheric and meteorological parameters modulating UV radiation reaching the ground.

  2. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    SciT

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount ofmore » solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. UV radiation and skin cancer in Norway.

    PubMed

    Medhaug, I; Olseth, J A; Reuder, J

    2009-09-04

    A distinct increase in skin cancer incidences is observed since the registration started in Norway in the 1950s. As UV radiation is assumed to be the main risk factor for skin cancer, hourly values of the UV irradiance were reconstructed for the period 1957-2005 for 17 of the Norwegian counties (58-70 degrees N). For reconstruction, a radiation transfer model is run with total ozone amount and cloud information as meteorological input. Reconstructed hourly erythemally weighted UV irradiances for about 5 years are compared to measurements at four stations, two stations representing the north-south extension of Norway, and two stations at about 60 degrees N representing the eastern inland - Western coastal contrasts. The agreement between reconstructed and measured UV varies between 0% for the northernmost site to 10-15% overestimation for the other locations. For clear sky, a reasonable agreement between reconstructed and measured data was found for all stations, while for overcast, an overestimation of 10-20% was found for all but the northernmost station. Both the cancer incidences and the reconstructed UV values have a distinct north-south increase. The UV increase towards south is mostly due to increasing solar elevation. The west to east increase is much smaller, and differences in UV are due to differences in both cloud optical thickness and total cloud amount. One additional outcome from this work is that long-term UV-data are reconstructed for Norway, data that can be used in further biological and medical studies related to UV effects.

  4. New Millennium Program: Servicing Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, F.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints.

  5. Ocean Fertilization from Giant Icebergs on Earth and Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uceda, E. R.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-05-01

    Assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near iceberg trails, analogous to what is observed in polar oceans on Earth.

  6. Earth as art three

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  7. Early Earth slab stagnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrusta, R.; Van Hunen, J.

    2016-12-01

    At present day, the Earth's mantle exhibits a combination of stagnant and penetrating slabs within the transition zone, indicating a intermittent convection mode between layered and whole-mantle convection. Isoviscous thermal convection calculations show that in a hotter Earth, the natural mode of convection was dominated by double-layered convection, which may imply that slabs were more prone to stagnate in the transition zone. Today, slab penetration is to a large extent controlled by trench mobility for a plausible range of lower mantle viscosity and Clapeyron slope of the mantle phase transitions. Trench mobility is, in turn, governed by slab strength and density and upper plate forcing. In this study, we systematically investigate the slab-transition zone internation in the Early Earth, using 2D self-consistent numerical subduction models. Early Earth's higher mantle temperature facilitates decoupling between the plates and the underlying asthenosphere, and may result in slab sinking almost without trench retreat. Such behaviour together with a low resistance of a weak lower mantle may allow slabs to penetrate. The ability of slab to sink into the lower mantle throughout Earth's history may have important implications for Earth's evolution: it would provide efficient mass and heat flux through the transition zone therefore provide an efficient way to cool and mix the Earth's mantle.

  8. Accretion of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2008-11-28

    The origin of the Earth and its Moon has been the focus of an enormous body of research. In this paper I review some of the current models of terrestrial planet accretion, and discuss assumptions common to most works that may require re-examination. Density-wave interactions between growing planets and the gas nebula may help to explain the current near-circular orbits of the Earth and Venus, and may result in large-scale radial migration of proto-planetary embryos. Migration would weaken the link between the present locations of the planets and the original provenance of the material that formed them. Fragmentation can potentially lead to faster accretion and could also damp final planet orbital eccentricities. The Moon-forming impact is believed to be the final major event in the Earth's accretion. Successful simulations of lunar-forming impacts involve a differentiated impactor containing between 0.1 and 0.2 Earth masses, an impact angle near 45 degrees and an impact speed within 10 per cent of the Earth's escape velocity. All successful impacts-with or without pre-impact rotation-imply that the Moon formed primarily from material originating from the impactor rather than from the proto-Earth. This must ultimately be reconciled with compositional similarities between the Earth and the Moon.

  9. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  10. Estimation of UV index in the clear-sky using OMI PROFOZ and AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.

    2016-12-01

    Due to a strong influence to the human health and ecosystem environment, continuous monitoring of the surface-level ultraviolet (UV) radiation is important nowadays. UV index (UVI) is a simple parameter to show the strength of surface UV radiation, therefore UVI has been widely utilized for the purpose of UV monitoring. In this work, we also try to develop our own retrieval algorithm for better estimation of UVI. The amount of UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation at the Earth surface depends on the extent of Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric gas molecules, the radiative absorption by ozone, radiative scattering by clouds, and both absorption and scattering by airborne aerosols. Thus advanced consideration of these factors is the essential part to establish the process of UVI estimation. In this study, we estimate UV Index (UVI) at Seoul first in a clear-sky atmosphere, and then validate this estimated UVI comparing to UVI from Brewer spectrophotometer measurements located at Yonsei University in Seoul. We use the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (VLIDORT) model version 2.6 for our UVI calculation. To consider the ozone and aerosol influence in a real situation, we input ozone and temperature profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aura vertical profile ozone (PROFOZ) data, and aerosol properties from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements at Seoul into the model. Inter-comparison of UVI is performed for the year 2011, 2012 and 2014, and resulted in a high correlation coefficient (R=0.95) under clear-sky condition. But a slight overestimation of Brewer UVI occurred under high AOD conditions in clear-sky. Because our UVI algorithm does not account for surface absorbing aerosols, it is lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances. Therefore, we also investigate the effect of absorbing aerosol on the amount of UV irradiance in the clear-sky over East Asia.

  11. A new method for estimating UV fluxes at ground level in cloud-free conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandji Nyamsi, William; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Aoun, Youva; Blanc, Philippe; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Bernhard, Germar; Koskela, Tapani; Lindfors, Anders V.; Arola, Antti; Wald, Lucien

    2017-12-01

    A new method has been developed to estimate the global and direct solar irradiance in the UV-A and UV-B at ground level in cloud-free conditions. It is based on a resampling technique applied to the results of the k-distribution method and the correlated-k approximation of Kato et al. (1999) over the UV band. Its inputs are the aerosol properties and total column ozone that are produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The estimates from this new method have been compared to instantaneous measurements of global UV irradiances made in cloud-free conditions at five stations at high latitudes in various climates. For the UV-A irradiance, the bias ranges between -0.8 W m-2 (-3 % of the mean of all data) and -0.2 W m-2 (-1 %). The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges from 1.1 W m-2 (6 %) to 1.9 W m-2 (9 %). The coefficient of determination R2 is greater than 0.98. The bias for UV-B is between -0.04 W m-2 (-4 %) and 0.08 W m-2 (+13 %) and the RMSE is 0.1 W m-2 (between 12 and 18 %). R2 ranges between 0.97 and 0.99. This work demonstrates the quality of the proposed method combined with the CAMS products. Improvements, especially in the modeling of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface in the UV region, are necessary prior to its inclusion into an operational tool.

  12. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  13. Spectral fingerprints of Earth-like planets around FGK stars.

    PubMed

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Zsom, Andras; Segura, Antígona; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-03-01

    We present model atmospheres for an Earth-like planet orbiting the entire grid of main sequence FGK stars with effective temperatures ranging from Teff=4250 K to Teff=7000 K in 250 K intervals. We have modeled the remotely detectable spectra of Earth-like planets for clear and cloudy atmospheres at the 1 AU equivalent distance from the VIS to IR (0.4 to 20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges in accordance with the James Webb Space Telescope and future design concepts to characterize exo-Earths. We have also explored the effect of the stellar UV levels as well as spectral energy distribution on a terrestrial atmosphere, concentrating on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. The increase in UV dominates changes of O3, OH, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl, whereas the increase in stellar temperature dominates changes in H2O. The overall effect as stellar effective temperatures and corresponding UV increase is a lower surface temperature of the planet due to a bigger part of the stellar flux being reflected at short wavelengths, as well as increased photolysis. Earth-like atmosphere models show more O3 and OH but less stratospheric CH4, N2O, CH3Cl, and tropospheric H2O (but more stratospheric H2O) with increasing effective temperature of main sequence stars. The corresponding detectable spectral features, on the other hand, show different detectability depending on the wavelength observed. We concentrate on directly imaged planets here as a framework to interpret future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone at varying orbital positions.

  14. Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Around FGK Stars

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Zsom, Andras; Segura, Antígona; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present model atmospheres for an Earth-like planet orbiting the entire grid of main sequence FGK stars with effective temperatures ranging from Teff=4250 K to Teff=7000 K in 250 K intervals. We have modeled the remotely detectable spectra of Earth-like planets for clear and cloudy atmospheres at the 1 AU equivalent distance from the VIS to IR (0.4 to 20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges in accordance with the James Webb Space Telescope and future design concepts to characterize exo-Earths. We have also explored the effect of the stellar UV levels as well as spectral energy distribution on a terrestrial atmosphere, concentrating on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. The increase in UV dominates changes of O3, OH, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl, whereas the increase in stellar temperature dominates changes in H2O. The overall effect as stellar effective temperatures and corresponding UV increase is a lower surface temperature of the planet due to a bigger part of the stellar flux being reflected at short wavelengths, as well as increased photolysis. Earth-like atmosphere models show more O3 and OH but less stratospheric CH4, N2O, CH3Cl, and tropospheric H2O (but more stratospheric H2O) with increasing effective temperature of main sequence stars. The corresponding detectable spectral features, on the other hand, show different detectability depending on the wavelength observed. We concentrate on directly imaged planets here as a framework to interpret future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone at varying orbital positions. Key Words: Habitability—Planetary atmospheres—Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Spectroscopic biosignatures. Astrobiology 13, 251–269. PMID:23537136

  15. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.

  16. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  17. From Extrasolar Planets to Exo-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra

    2018-06-01

    The ancient Greeks debated whether the Earth was unique, or innumerable worlds existed around other Suns. Twenty five years ago, technology and human ingenuity enabled the discovery of the first extrasolar planet candidates. The architectures of these first systems, with gas giant planets in star-skirting orbits, were unexpected and again raised an echo of that ancient question: is the Earth typical or unique? We are interested in this seemingly anthropocentric question because with all of our searching and discoveries, Earth is the only place where life has been found. It is the question of whether life exists elsewhere that energizes the search for exoplanets. The trajectory of this field has been stunning. After a steady stream of detections with the radial velocity method, a burst of discovery was made possible with the NASA Kepler mission. While thousands of smaller planets have now been found, true Earth analogs have eluded robust detection. However, we are sharpening the knives of our technology and without a doubt we now stand at the threshold of detecting hundreds of Earth analogs. Using Gaia, TESS, WFIRST, JWST and new ground-based spectrographs, we will learn the names and addresses of the worlds that orbit nearby stars and we will be ready to probe their atmospheres. We will finally resolve the ancient question of whether life is unique or common.

  18. A UV-B-specific signaling component orchestrates plant UV protection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bobby A.; Cloix, Catherine; Jiang, Guang Huai; Kaiserli, Eirini; Herzyk, Pawel; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Gareth I.

    2005-01-01

    UV-B radiation in sunlight has diverse effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. UV-B can cause damage to molecules and cells, and consequently organisms need to protect against and repair UV damage to survive in sunlight. In plants, low nondamaging levels of UV-B stimulate transcription of genes involved in UV-protective responses. However, remarkably little is known about the underlying mechanisms of UV-B perception and signal transduction. Here we report that Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is a UV-B-specific signaling component that orchestrates expression of a range of genes with vital UV-protective functions. Moreover, we show that UVR8 regulates expression of the transcription factor HY5 specifically when the plant is exposed to UV-B. We demonstrate that HY5 is a key effector of the UVR8 pathway, and that it is required for survival under UV-B radiation. UVR8 has sequence similarity to the eukaryotic guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1, but we found that it has little exchange activity. However, UVR8, like RCC1, is located principally in the nucleus and associates with chromatin via histones. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that UVR8 associates with chromatin in the HY5 promoter region, providing a mechanistic basis for its involvement in regulating transcription. We conclude that UVR8 defines a UV-B-specific signaling pathway in plants that orchestrates the protective gene expression responses to UV-B required for plant survival in sunlight. PMID:16330762

  19. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  20. Earth before life.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  1. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a selfie after a quick rap performance by some young professionals during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks with young professionals about their project on New England water resources during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Lisa Waldron and Justin Roberts-Pierel present their project on Texas health and air quality during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    Michael Gao presents his project on Southeast Asian disasters during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Earth Science Applications Showcase

    2014-08-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden asks young professionals about their projects after posing for a group photo during the annual DEVELOP Earth Science Application Showcase at NASA headquarters Tuesday, August 5, 2014. The Earth Science Applications Showcase highlights the work of over 150 participants in the 10-week DEVELOP program that started in June. The DEVELOP Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth science and society, building capacity in both its participants and partner organizations, to better prepare them to handle the challenges that face our society and future generations. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Earth Day 2017

    2017-12-08

    Happy Earth Day! Explore the diverse colors, unique shapes and striking patterns of our very favorite planet, Earth - as only NASA can see it. Credit: NASA/Goddard #nasagoddard NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Earth Eclipses the Sun

    2017-02-21

    Several times a day for a few days the Earth completely blocked the Sun for about an hour due to NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory's orbital path (Feb. 15, 2017). The edge of the Earth is not crisp, but kind of fuzzy due to Earth's atmosphere. This frame from a video shows the ending of one such eclipse over -- just seven minutes. The sun is shown in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. These eclipses re-occur about every six months. The Moon blocks SDO's view of the sun on occasion as well. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21461

  9. Accelerated Solar-UV Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Laue, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Medium-pressure mercury-vapor lamps provide high ratio of ultraviolet to total power. Chamber for evaluating solar-ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage permits accelerated testing without overheating test specimens.

  10. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  11. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  12. UV filters for lighting of plants

    SciT

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.

    1994-12-31

    Different filter glasses are available which provide absorption properties suitable for gradual changes of the spectral UV-B illumination of artificial lighting. Using a distinct set of lamps and filter glasses an acceptable simulation of the UV-B part of natural global radiation can be achieved. The ageing of these and other filter materials under the extreme UV radiation in the lamphouse of a solar simulator is presently unavoidable. This instability can be dealt with only by a precise spectral monitoring and by replacing the filters accordingly. For this reason attempts would be useful to develop real ozone filters which can replacemore » glass filters. In any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.« less

  13. Fourteen Times the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    measurements, assuming the existence of two planets. The data were obtained over a time span of 80 days and the first points shown are the data from the 8 nights in June. Note that the full span of the vertical axis is only 40 m/s! Error bars indicate the accuracy of the measurements. The lower part of the diagram displays the deviation of the measurements from the best fit. ESO PR Photo 25d/04 ESO PR Photo 25d/04 Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae [Preview - JPEG: 440 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 879 x 800 pix - 171k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25d/04 displays the HARPS radial velocity measurements phase-folded with the orbital period of the newly found exoplanet (9.5 days). The measurements have been corrected from the effect of the two longer period companions. The semi-amplitude of the curve is less than 5 m/s! Coupled with the 9.5 days orbital period, this implies a minimum mass for the newly discovered planet of 14 times the mass of the Earth. During 8 nights in June 2004, mu Arae was repeatedly observed and its radial velocity measured by HARPS to obtain information on the interior of the star. This so-called astero-seismology technique (see ESO PR 15/01) studies the small acoustic waves which make the surface of the star periodically pulsate in and out. By knowing the internal structure of the star, the astronomers aimed at understanding the origin of the unusual amount of heavy elements observed in its stellar atmosphere. This unusual chemical composition could provide unique information to the planet formation history. Says Nuno Santos, another member of the team: "To our surprise, the analysis of the new measurements revealed a radial velocity variation with a period of 9.5 days on top of the acoustic oscillation signal!" This discovery has been made possible thanks to the large number of measurements obtained during the astero-seimology campaign. From this date, the star, that was also part of the HARPS consortium survey programme, was regularly monitored with a

  14. Down to earth relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  15. The Earth Tides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Judah

    1982-01-01

    In addition to oceans, the earth is subjected to tidal stresses and undergoes tidal deformations. Discusses origin of tides, tidal stresses, and methods of determining tidal deformations (including gravity, tilt, and strain meters). (JN)

  16. Earth study from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  17. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden, conducts an experiment using circuits at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA's Administrator, Charles Bolden watches as some students conduct an experiment with a balloon at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while an exhibitor conducts an experiment at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    Students listen intently while Astronaut John Mace Grunsfeld speaks at NASA's Earth Day event. The event took place at Union Station in Washington, DC on April 22, 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  1. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    Daughton, Bill

    2018-02-13

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  2. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  3. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  4. Olivine on Earth

    2012-10-30

    The semi-precious gem peridot is a variety of olivine. NASA Curiosity rover shows the diffraction signature, or fingerprint, of the mineral olivine, shown here on Earth in the form of tumbled crystals.

  5. Earth science: Extraordinary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399

  6. Earth retaining structures manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  7. Surface evaluation of UV-degraded contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connatser, Robert; Hadaway, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Three different areas of work were accomplished under this contract: (1) contamination testing and evaluation; (2) UV irradiation testing; and (3) surface evaluation testing. Contamination testing was generally performed in the In-Situ Contamination Effects Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). UV irradiation testing was also performed primarily at MSFC, utilizing facilities there. Finally, the surface evaluation was done at facilities at UAH Center for Applied Optics.

  8. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Students from Rockledge High School in Rockledge, Fla., make “plarn” – plastic yarn -- out of used plastic bags during Kennedy Space Center’s annual Earth Day celebration. The plarn was donated to be woven into mats for homeless veterans. The two-day Earth Day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  9. Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche W.

    1999-01-01

    Workshop for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of the Earth as a system. NASA data and materials developed by teachers (all available via the Internet) will be used to engage participants in hands-on, investigative approaches to the Earth system. All materials are ready to be applied in pre-college classrooms. Remotely-sensed data will be used in combination with familiar resources, such as maps, to examine global climate change.

  10. Fuller's earth (montmorillonite) pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, A R; Pooley, F D

    1994-01-01

    A fuller's earth worker developed signs of pneumoconiosis. Pathological examination of the lung tissues showed interstitial collections of dust laden macrophages associated with mild fibrosis. Mineralogical analysis showed a high content of montmorillonite. This study shows that a pneumoconiosis can result from prolonged heavy exposure to calcium montmorillonite (fuller's earth) in the absence of quartz. The disease is relatively mild and associated with little clinical disability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7951799

  11. Skylab explores the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data from visual observations are integrated with results of analyses of approxmately 600 of the nearly 2000 photographs taken of Earth during the 84-day Skylab 4 mission to provide additional information on (1) Earth features and processes; (2) operational procedures and constraints in observing and photographing the planet; and (3) the use of man in real-time analysis of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena.

  12. Earth Day 2018 Activities

    2018-04-18

    Organizers and volunteers for Kennedy Space Center’s Earth Day celebration gather for a photo at the NASA Exchange raffle booth. From left to right are Jeanne Ryba, Environmental Sustainability program specialist; Robert Smith, Earth Day volunteer; and Natasha Darre, Cultural Resources Specialist. The two-day event featured approximately 50 exhibitors offering information on a variety of topics, including electric vehicles, sustainable lighting, renewable energy, Florida-friendly landscaping tips, Florida’s biking trails and more.

  13. Guided earth boring tool

    SciT

    Mc Donald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.; Maurer, W.C.

    A controllable tool for drilling holes in the earth is described comprising a hollow elongated rigid supporting drill pipe having a forward end for entering the earth, means supporting the drill pipe for earth boring or piercing movement, including means for moving the drill pipe longitudinally for penetrating the earth, the drill pipe moving means being constructed to permit addition and removal of supporting drill pipe during earth penetrating operation, a boring mole supported on the forward end of the hollow low drill pipe comprising a cylindrical housing supported on and open to the forward end of the drill pipe,more » a first means on the front end for applying a boring force to the soil comprising an anvil having a striking surface inside the housing and a boring surface outside the housing, a second means comprising a reciprocally movable hammer positioned in the housing to apply a percussive force to the anvil striking surface for transmitting a percussive force to the boring force applying means, and means permitting introduction of air pressure supplied through the hollow pipe into the housing for operating the hammer and for discharging spent air from the housing to the hole being bored, and the tool being operable to penetrate the earth upon longitudinal movement of the drill rod by the longitudinal rod moving means and operation of the mole by reciprocal movement of the hammer.« less

  14. UV-B measurements in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, B. S. N.; Gayathri, H. B.; Muralikrishnan, N.

    1992-01-01

    Global UV-B flux (sum of direct and diffuse radiations) data at four wavelengths 280, 290, 300 and 310 nm are recorded at several locations in India as part of Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP). The stations have been selected considering distinct geographic features and possible influence of atmospheric aerosols and particulates on the ground reaching UV-B flux. Mysore (12.6°N, 76.6°E) has been selected as a continental station largely free from any industrial pollution and large scale bio-mass burning. An examination of the ground reaching UV-B flux at Mysore shows a marked dirunal and seasonal asymmetry. This can be attributed to the seasonally varying atmospheric aerosols and particulates which influence the scattering of UV-B radiation. The available parameterization models are used to reproduce the experimental UV-B irradiance by varying the input parameters to the model. These results on the dirunal and seasonal variation of global UV-B flux from experiment and models are discussed in this paper.

  15. Biological damage of UV radiation in environments of F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Satoko

    I investigate the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with special consideration to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the assumption that exobiology is most likely based on hydrocarbons. The DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the relative damage of the stellar UV radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account in the form of parameterized attenuation functions. My work is motivated by previous studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-like stars is one of the most critical elements in determining the habitability of exoplanets and exomoons. It contributes further to the exploration of the exobiological suitability of stars that are hotter and emit much higher photospheric UV fluxes than the Sun. I found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between 2.5 and 7.1 times higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If atmospheric attenuation is included, however, less damage is obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. Also, the outer part of late F-type stars have similar UV conditions to Earth. Therefore, F-type circumstellar environments should not be excluded from candidates for habitable places on the grounds of higher stellar UV emission than the Sun. Besides the extensive theoretical component of this study, emphasis is furthermore placed on applications to observed planetary systems including CoRoT-3, WASP-14, HD 197286, HD 179949, upsilon And, and HD 86264.

  16. Detection of UV Pulse from Insulators and Application in Estimating the Conditions of Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingang; Chong, Junlong; Yang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Solar radiation in the band of 240-280 nm is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and corona discharges from high-voltage apparatus emit in air mainly in the 230-405 nm range of ultraviolet (UV), so the band of 240-280 nm is called UV Solar Blind Band. When the insulators in a string deteriorate or are contaminated, the voltage distribution along the string will change, which causes the electric fields in the vicinity of insulators change and corona discharge intensifies. An UV pulse detection method to check the conditions of insulators is presented based on detecting the UV pulse among the corona discharge, then it can be confirmed that whether there exist faulty insulators and whether the surface contamination of insulators is severe for the safe operation of power systems. An UV-I Insulator Detector has been developed, and both laboratory tests and field tests have been carried out which demonstrates the practical viability of UV-I Insulator Detector for online monitoring.

  17. Effect of UV irradiation on the apoptosis and necrosis of Jurkat cells using UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Shunko A.; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Morita, Akimichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy is a very effective method for treating most of the incurable skin diseases. A fluorescent light bulb is used as a conventional UV light source for this type of therapy. However, infrared radiation from the light source sometimes causes serious problems on patient's health. In addition, the normal part of the skin is irradiated when a large fluorescent light bulb is used. Moreover, a conventional UV irradiation system is heavy and has a short lifetime and a high electrical power consumption. Therefore, a new UV light source for solving the problems of phototherapy is required. To realize low-power-consumption, lightweight and long-lifetime systems, group III nitride-based UV-A1 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. We examined the UV LED irradiation of Jurkat cell, which is a tumor cell and more sensitive to UV light than a healthy cell. The numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells were confirmed to be the same using a UV LED and a conventional lamp system. The UV LED showed the possibility of realizing a new UV light source for phototherapy.

  18. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF INCREASED SOLAR UV-B ON GLOBAL PLANT PRODUCTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet-B radiation comprises only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum but has a disproportionately large photobiological effect. oth plants and animals are greatly affected by increases in UV-B radiation but there exists tremendous variability in the sensitivity ...

  19. Ultraviolet (UV) Oxidation Final Report CRADA No. TC-0350-92

    SciT

    Wang, F.; Oster, S.

    This CRADA was a collaborative agreement between the above parties to develop a more efficient ultraviolet (UV) oxidation process than the existing commercial processes. The proposed new process would be capable of completely mineralizing the organic constiruents in aqueous mixedwastes (wastes that contain both radioactive and organic constiruents) and converting them into ordinary radioactive wastes, which would mean cheaper and easier disposal.

  20. Study of long term effect of Solar UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sanki, Dipak

    2016-07-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) is one of the bands of Radio waves having frequencies lying between 3-30 KHz, with wavelengths 100-10 Km. It propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide which is formed by lower part of the ionosphere and upper part of Earth's surface. Ionosphere is the ionized component of upper atmosphere. In the present work, we have studied the long term effect of the high energy solar UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signals. We have analyzed the VLF signal transmitted at 24 KHz from NAA (Cutler, Maine) and received at Moore Observatory in Brownsboro, Kentucky. Also we have collected X-ray and UV data to study the long term effect of UV and X-ray radiation on the VLF signal. We have analyzed the VLF signal for 2007 to 2015. We calculate the average diurnal peak amplitude of the VLF signal for each day and compare it with the UV and X-ray solar radiation. We found that the correlation coefficient of diurnal peak VLF signal amplitude with both solar X-ray and UV radiation is 0.7 indicating a strong correlation between these two phenomena.