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Sample records for earth-moon-mars radiation environment

  1. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Philip R.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Townsend, Larry W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Case, Anthony W.; Spence, Harlan E.; Wilson, Jody K.; Joyce, Colin J.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs) presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth's protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements) is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm-2 and 5.0 g cm-2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  2. Space radiation risk limits and Earth-Moon-Mars environmental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Kozarev, K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2010-12-01

    We review NASA's short-term and career radiation limits for astronauts and methods for their application to future exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit. Career limits are intended to restrict late occurring health effects and include a 3% risk of exposure-induced death from cancer and new limits for central nervous system and heart disease risks. Short-term dose limits are used to prevent in-flight radiation sickness or death through restriction of the doses to the blood forming organs and to prevent clinically significant cataracts or skin damage through lens and skin dose limits, respectively. Large uncertainties exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation, chiefly the understanding of the radiobiology of heavy ions and dose rate and dose protraction effects, and the limitations in human epidemiology data. To protect against these uncertainties NASA estimates the 95% confidence in the cancer risk projection intervals as part of astronaut flight readiness assessments and mission design. Accurate organ dose and particle spectra models are needed to ensure astronauts stay below radiation limits and to support the goal of narrowing the uncertainties in risk projections. Methodologies for evaluation of space environments, radiation quality, and organ doses to evaluate limits are discussed, and current projections for lunar and Mars missions are described.

  3. Simulation of Earth-Moon-Mars Environments for the Assessment of Organ Doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. Y.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at solar minimum and solar maximum are simulated in order to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmosphere of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut’s body tissues using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. In LEO, exposures are reduced compared to deep space because particles are deflected by the Earth’s magnetic field and absorbed by the solid body of the Earth. Geomagnetic transmission function as a function of altitude was applied for the particle flux of charged particles, and the shift of the organ exposures to higher velocity or lower stopping powers compared to those in deep space was analyzed. In the transport through Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of atmospheric thickness was calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution was implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each altitude. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at solar minimum and solar maximum was used for the particle flux simulation at various altitudes on the Martian surface. Finally, atmospheric shielding was coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. We made predictions of radiation dose equivalents and evaluated acute symptoms at LEO, moon, and Mars at solar minimum and solar maximum.

  4. COMPARISON OF COSMIC-RAY ENVIRONMENTS ON EARTH, MOON, MARS AND IN SPACECARFT USING PHITS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Ueno, Haruka; Kataoka, Ryuho; Miyake, Shoko; Takeda, Kazuo; Niita, Koji

    2017-09-29

    Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors. The comparison also suggests that higher solar activity significantly reduces the astronaut doses particularly for the interplanetary missions. The information obtained from this study is useful in the designs of the future space missions as well as accelerator-based experiments dedicated to cosmic-ray research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: Basaltic Plagioclase from Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    Major, minor and trace element analysis of silicates has allowed for the study of planetary basalts in a comparative planetary mineralogy context. We continue this initiative by exploring the chemistry of plagioclase feldspar in basalts from the Earth, Moon, Mars and 4 Vesta. This paper presents new data on plagioclase from six terrestrial basalt suites including Keweenawan, Island Arc, Hawaiian, Columbia Plateau, Taos Plateau, and Ocean Floor; six lunar basalt suites including Apollo 11 Low K, Apollo 12 Ilmenite, Apollo 12 Olivine, Apollo 12 Pigeonite, Apollo 15 Olivine, and Apollo 15 Pigeonite; two basaltic martian meteorites, Shergotty and QUE 94201; and one unequilibrated eucrite, Pasamonte.

  6. Magnesium Isotopes in the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Pallasite Parent Body: High-Precision Analysis of Olivine by Laser-Ablation Multi-Collector ICPMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M.; McCulloch, M.; ONeill, H.; Brandon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium isotopes potentially offer new insights into a diverse range of processes including evaporation and condensation in the solar nebula, melting and metasomatism in planetary interiors, and hydrothermal alteration [1,2,3,4]. Volatility-related Mg isotopic variations of up to 10 per mil/amu relative to a terrestrial standard have been found in early nebular phases interpreted as evaporation residues [1], and relatively large variations (up to 3 per mil/amu) in the terrestrial mantle have been reported recently [4]. In order to investigate possible differences in the nebular history of material contributing to the terrestrial planets, and to search for evidence of a high-temperature origin of the Moon, we have measured the magnesium isotopic composition of primitive olivines from the Earth, Moon, Mars, and pallasite parent body using laser-ablation multicollector ICPMS.

  7. Characterization of the radiation environment of the inner heliosphere using LRO/CRaTER and EMMREM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Colin J.

    2016-08-01

    I provide a characterization of the radiation environment of the inner heliosphere from mid-2009 to present using measurements made by the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and modelling provided by the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM). In the course of this study, I analyze solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation in the form of four major solar events that occurred during this time range as well as the evolution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) modulation over a period in which relatively calm solar conditions have resulted in the highest GCR fluxes measured in the space age. Using CRaTER measurements taken during three major solar events that occurred in 2012, I demonstrate a validation of the online PREDICCS system (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements), which uses EMMREM to provide near real-time radiation modelling at the Earth, Moon and Mars, finding PREDICCS to be quite accurate in modelling the peak dose rates and total accumulated doses for major solar events. Having demonstrated the accuracy of PREDICCS/EMMREM in modelling SEP events, EMMREM is used to provide an analysis of the potential radiation hazard of the extreme solar event observed by STEREO A on 23 July 2012, an event which has drawn comparisons to the historic Carrington event due to the exceptional size and record speed of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection associated with it. Such an event might be viewed as something like a worst case scenario in terms of the threat of SEP radiation to astronauts, however the evidence shown here suggests that, with the benefit of heavy protective shielding, astronauts would not have been exposed to levels of radiation that approach NASA's permissible exposure limits. These findings add to a mounting set of evidence which suggests that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the largest radiation

  8. Atmospheric radiation modeling of galactic cosmic rays using LRO/CRaTER and the EMMREM model with comparisons to balloon and airline based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; deWet, W. C.; Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Tobiska, W. K.; Shelton-Mur, K.; Yarborough, A.; Harvey, J.; Herbst, A.; Koske-Phillips, A.; Molina, F.; Omondi, S.; Reid, C.; Reid, D.; Shultz, J.; Stephenson, B.; McDevitt, M.; Phillips, T.

    2016-09-01

    We provide an analysis of the galactic cosmic ray radiation environment of Earth's atmosphere using measurements from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) together with the Badhwar-O'Neil model and dose lookup tables generated by the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM). This study demonstrates an updated atmospheric radiation model that uses new dose tables to improve the accuracy of the modeled dose rates. Additionally, a method for computing geomagnetic cutoffs is incorporated into the model in order to account for location-dependent effects of the magnetosphere. Newly available measurements of atmospheric dose rates from instruments aboard commercial aircraft and high-altitude balloons enable us to evaluate the accuracy of the model in computing atmospheric dose rates. When compared to the available observations, the model seems to be reasonably accurate in modeling atmospheric radiation levels, overestimating airline dose rates by an average of 20%, which falls within the uncertainty limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Additionally, measurements made aboard high-altitude balloons during simultaneous launches from New Hampshire and California provide an additional comparison to the model. We also find that the newly incorporated geomagnetic cutoff method enables the model to represent radiation variability as a function of location with sufficient accuracy.

  9. Earthlike planets: Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, earth, moon, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.; Malin, M. C.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The surfaces of the earth and the other terrestrial planets of the inner solar system are reviewed in light of the results of recent planetary explorations. Past and current views of the origin of the earth, moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars are discussed, and the surface features characteristic of the moon, Mercury, Mars and Venus are outlined. Mechanisms for the modification of planetary surfaces by external factors and from within the planet are examined, including surface cycles, meteoritic impact, gravity, wind, plate tectonics, volcanism and crustal deformation. The origin and evolution of the moon are discussed on the basis of the Apollo results, and current knowledge of Mercury and Mars is examined in detail. Finally, the middle periods in the history of the terrestrial planets are compared, and future prospects for the exploration of the inner planets as well as other rocky bodies in the solar system are discussed.

  10. The Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits, higher earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we concentrate mainly on charged particle radiations. Descriptions of the radiation belts and particles of solar and cosmic origin are reviewed. An overview of the traditional models is presented accompanied by their application areas and limitations. This is followed by discussion of some recent model developments.

  11. Genesis Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Modeling of Galactic Cosmic Rays Using LRO/CRaTER and the EMMREM Model with Comparisons to Balloon and Airline Based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The current state of the Sun and solar wind, with uncommonly low densities and weak magnetic fields, has resulted in galactic cosmic ray fluxes that are elevated to levels higher than have ever before been observed in the space age. Given the continuing trend of declining solar activity, it is clear that accurate modeling of GCR radiation is becoming increasingly important in the field of space weather. Such modelling is essential not only in the planning of future manned space missions, but is also important for assessing the radiation risks to airline passengers, particularly given NASA's plans to develop supersonic aircraft that will fly at much higher altitudes than commercial aircraft and thus be more vulnerable to radiation from GCRs. We provide an analysis of the galactic cosmic ray radiation environment of Earth's atmosphere using measurements from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) together with the Badhwar-O'Neil model and dose lookup tables generated by the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module (EMMREM). Newly available measurements of atmospheric dose rates from instruments aboard commercial and research aircraft enable evaluation of the accuracy of the model in computing atmospheric dose rates. Additionally, a newly available dataset of balloon-based measurements, including simultaneous balloon launches from California and New Hampshire, provide an additional means of comparison to the model. When compared to the available observations of atmospheric radiation levels, the computed dose rates seem to be sufficiently accurate, falling within recommended radiation uncertainty limits.

  13. Radiation Environment of Phobos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Clark, John H.; Sturner, Steven J.; Stubbs, Timothy; Wang, Yongli; Glenar, David A.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-10-01

    The innermost Martian moon Phobos is a potential way station for the human exploration of Mars and the solar system beyond the orbit of Mars. It has a similar radiation environment to that at 1 AU for hot plasma and more energetic particles from solar, heliospheric and galactic sources. In the past two decades there have been many spacecraft measurements at 1 AU, and occasionally in the Mars orbital region around the Sun, that can be used to define a reference model for the time-averaged and time-variable radiation environments at Mars and Phobos. Yearly to hourly variance comes from the eleven-year solar activity cycle and its impact on solar energetic, heliospheric, and solar-modulated galactic cosmic ray particles. We report progress on compilation of the reference model from U.S. and international spacecraft data sources of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), and from tissue-equivalent dosage rate measurements by the CRaTER instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Observer spacecraft now in lunar orbit. Similar dosage rate data are also available from the Mars surface via the NASA Planetary Data System archive from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The sub-Mars surface hemisphere of Phobos is slightly blocked from energetic particle irradiation by the body of Mars but there is a greater global variance of interplanetary radiation exposure as we have calculated from the known topography of this irregularly shaped moon. Phobos receives a relatively small flux of secondary radiation from galactic cosmic ray interactions with the Mars surface and atmosphere, and at plasma energies from pickup ions escaping out of the Mars atmosphere. The greater secondary radiation source is from cosmic ray interactions with the moon surface, which we have simulated with the GEANT radiation transport code for various cases of the surface regolith

  14. Chandra Radiation Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and on-board particle detectors do not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. This presentation will describe the plasma environment data analysis and modeling basis of the CRMFLX engineering environment model developed to predict the proton flux in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere phenomenological regions of geospace. The recently released CRMFLX Version 2 implementation includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum use of limited data obtained during high Kp periods or in areas of the magnetosphere with poor satellite flux measurement coverage.

  15. Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

  16. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  17. Radiation Environment Effects on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray.

    2017-01-01

    Space poses a variety of radiation hazards. These hazards pose different risks for different missions depending on the mission environment, duration and requirements. This presentation presents a brief look at several radiation related hazards, including destructive and nondestructive Single-Event Effect, Total Ionizing Dose, Displacement Damage and Spacecraft Charging. The temporal and spatial characteristics for the environments of concern for each are considered.

  18. Modeling the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of interest in space radiation environment modeling. This has been fueled by the growing need to replace long time standard AP-9 and AE-8 trapped particle models, the interplanetary exploration initiative, the modern satellite instrumentation that has led to unprecedented measurement accuracy, and the pervasive use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) microelectronics that require more accurate predictive capabilities. The objective of this viewgraph presentation was to provide basic understanding of the components of the space radiation environment and their variations, review traditional radiation effects application models, and present recent developments.

  19. The space radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D E

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u{sup -1} to over a GeV u{sup -1}. These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d{sup -1} depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbitmore » with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d{sup -1}. In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d{sup -1}. Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h{sup -1}. For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y{sup -1} at solar maximum and 580 mSv y{sup -1} at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv.« less

  20. The IRAS radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    Orbital flux integration for three selected mission altitudes and geographic instantaneous flux-mapping for nominal flight-path altitude were used to determine the external charged particle radiation predicted for the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. A current field model was used for magnetic field definitions for three nominal circular trajectories and for the geographic mapping positions. Innovative analysis features introduced include (1) positional fluxes as a function of time and energy for the most severe pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly; (2) total positional doses as a function of time and shield thickness; (3) comparison mapping fluxes for ratios of positional intensities to orbit integrated averages; and (4) statistical exposure-time history of a trajectory as a function of energy indicating, in percent of total mission duration, the time intervals over which the instantaneous fluxes would exceed the orbit integrated averages. Results are presented in tables and graphs.

  1. The Voyage of Exploration and Discovery: Earth-Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph is a printout of a presentation which originally contained multimedia components. The presentation summarizes the accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, with numerous images and video clips of Saturn, its rings, and its moons. The presentation also summarizes a feasibility analysis of the Neptune-Triton Explorer (NExTEP).

  2. Radiation Assurance for the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Poivey, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for spacecraft electronic systems. A hardness assurance methodology must be followed to assure that the space radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of space-based systems during the mission lifetime. The methodology includes a definition of the radiation environment, assessment of the radiation sensitivity of parts, worst-case analysis of the impact of radiation effects, and part acceptance decisions which are likely to include mitigation measures.

  3. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make anmore » attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.« less

  4. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Environmental Modeling is crucial to proper predictive modeling and electronic response to the radiation environment. When compared to on-orbit data, CREME96 has been shown to be inaccurate in predicting the radiation environment. The NEDD bases much of its radiation environment data on CREME96 output. Close coordination and partnership with DoD radiation-hardened efforts will result in leveraged - not duplicated or independently developed - technology capabilities of: a) Radiation-hardened, reconfigurable FPGA-based electronics; and b) High Performance Processors (NOT duplication or independent development).

  5. Radiation Effects: Overview for Space Environment Specialists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) methodologies need to evolve to capitalize on the increased flexibility introduced by new models of space radiation environments. This presentation examines the characteristics of various radiation threats, the sources of error that RHA methodologies seek to control and the contributions of environment models to those errors. The influence of trends in microelectronic device technology is also considered.

  6. Overview of the Martian radiation environment experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K.; Pinsky, L.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.; Badhwar, G.

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation presents a hazard to astronauts, particularly those journeying outside the protective influence of the geomagnetosphere. Crews on future missions to Mars will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of deep space during the transit between Earth and Mars. Once on Mars, they will encounter radiation that is only slightly reduced, compared to free space, by the thin Martian atmosphere. NASA is obliged to minimize, where possible, the radiation exposures received by astronauts. Thus, as a precursor to eventual human exploration, it is necessary to measure the Martian radiation environment in detail. The MARIE experiment, aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is returning the first data that bear directly on this problem. Here we provide an overview of the experiment, including introductory material on space radiation and radiation dosimetry, a description of the detector, model predictions of the radiation environment at Mars, and preliminary dose-rate data obtained at Mars. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Overview of the Martian radiation environment experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.F.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    Space radiation presents a hazard to astronauts, particularly those journeying outside the protective influence of the geomagnetosphere. Crews on future missions to Mars will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of deep space during the transit between Earth and Mars. Once on Mars, they will encounter radiation that is only slightly reduced, compared to free space, by the thin Martian atmosphere. NASA is obliged to minimize, where possible, the radiation exposures received by astronauts. Thus, as a precursor to eventual human exploration, it is necessary to measure the Martian radiation environment in detail. The MARIE experiment, aboard the 2001more » Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is returning the first data that bear directly on this problem. Here we provide an overview of the experiment, including introductory material on space radiation and radiation dosimetry, a description of the detector, model predictions of the radiation environment at Mars, and preliminary dose-rate data obtained at Mars.« less

  8. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  9. Space, Atmospheric, and Terrestrial Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Dyer, C. S.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    The progress on developing models of the radiation environment since the 1960s is reviewed with emphasis on models that can be applied to predicting the performance of microelectronics used in spacecraft and instruments. Space, atmospheric, and ground environments are included. It is shown that models must be adapted continually to account for increased understanding of the dynamics of the radiation environment and the changes in microelectronics technology. The IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference is a vital forum to report model progress to the radiation effects research community.

  10. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches.

  11. Manned Mars mission radiation environment and radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Potential radiation hazards to crew members on manned Mars missions are discussed. It deals briefly with radiation sources and environments likely to be encountered during various phases of such missions, providing quantitative estimates of these environments. Also provided are quantitative data and discussions on the implications of such radiation on the human body. Various sorts of protective measures are suggested. Recent re-evaluation of allowable dose limits by the National Council of Radiation Protection is discussed, and potential implications from such activity are assessed.

  12. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  13. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  14. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate resultsmore » than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.« less

  15. [UV-radiation--sources, wavelength, environment].

    PubMed

    Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    The UV-radiation in our environment is part of the electromagnetic radiation, which emanates from the sun. It is designated as optical radiation and reaches from 290-4,000 nm on the earth's surface. According to international definitions UV irradiation is divided into short-wave UVC (200-280 nm), medium-wave UVB (280-320 nm), and long-wave UVA (320-400 nm). Solar radiation which reaches the surface of the globe at a defined geographical site and a defined time point is called global radiation. It is modified quantitatively and qualitatively while penetrating the atmosphere. Besides atmospheric conditions, like ozone layer and air pollution, geographic latitude, elevation, time of the season, time of the day, cloudiness and the influence of indirect radiation resulting from stray effects in the atmosphere and reflection from the underground play a role in modifying global radiation, which finally represents the biologically effective radiation. The radiation's distribution on the body surface varies according to sun angle and body posture. The cumulative UV exposure is mainly influenced by outdoor profession and recreational activities. The use of sun beds and phototherapeutic measures additionally may contribute to the cumulative UV dose.

  16. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  17. Radiation and Plasma Environments for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Harine, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Space system design for lunar orbit and extended operations on the lunar surface requires analysis of potential system vulnerabilities to plasma and radiation environments to minimize anomalies and assure that environmental failures do not occur during the mission. Individual environments include the trapped particles in Earth s radiation belts, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, plasma environments encountered in transit to the moon and on the lunar surface (solar wind, terrestrial magnetosheath and magnetotail, and lunar photoelectrons), and solar ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet photons. These are the plasma and radiation environments which contribute to a variety of effects on space systems including total ionizing dose and dose rate effects in electronics, degradation of materials in the space environment, and charging of spacecraft and lunar dust. This paper provides a survey of the relevant charged particle and photon environments of importance to lunar mission design ranging from the lowest (approx.few 10 s eV) photoelectron energies to the highest (approx.GeV) cosmic ray energies.

  18. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  19. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  20. Europa Surface Radiation Environment for Lander Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The Jovian magnetospheric particle environment at Europa's surface is critical to assessment of landed astrobiological experiments in three respects: (1) the landing site must be chosen for the best prospects for detectable organic or inorganic signs of Life, e.g. regions of freshly emergent flows from the subsurface; (2) lander systems must reach the surface through the Jovian magnetospheric environment and operate long enough on the surface to return useful data; (3) lander instrumentation must be capable of detecting signs of life in the context of the local environmental radiation and associated chemistry. The Galileo, Voyager, and Pioneer missions have provided a wealth of data on energetic particle intensities throughout the Jovian magnetosphere including from many flybys of Europa. cumulative radiation dosages for spacecraft enroute to Europa can be well characterized, but knowledge of the surface radiation environment is very limited. Energetic electrons should primarily impact the trailing hemisphere with decreasing intensity towards the center of the leading hemisphere and are the most significant radiation component down to meter depths in the surface regolith due to secondary interactions. Observed surface distribution for sulfates is suggestive of electron irradiation but may have alternative interpretations. Having much-larger magnetic gyroradii than electrons, energetic protons and heavier ions irradiate more of the global surface. The particular orientations of electron, proton, and ion gyromotion would project into corresponding directional (e.g., east-west) anisotropies of particle flu into the surface. Particular topographic features at the landing site may therefore offer shielding from part of the incident radiation.

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  2. Updating the Jovian Proton Radiation Environment - 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Martinez-Sierra, Luz Maria; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Since publication in 1983 by N. Divine and H. Garrett, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's plasma and radiation models have been the design standard for NASA's missions to Jupiter. These models consist of representations of the cold plasma and electrons, the warm and auroral electrons and protons, and the radiation environment (electron, proton, and heavy ions). To date, however, the high-energy proton model has been limited to an L-shell of 12. With the requirement to compute the effects of the high energy protons and other heavy ions on the proposed Europa mission, the extension of the high energy proton model from approximately 12 L-shell to approximately 50 L-shell has become necessary. In particular, a model of the proton environment over that range is required to estimate radiation effects on the solar arrays for the mission. This study describes both the steps taken to extend the original Divine proton model out to an approximately 50 L-shell and the resulting model developed to accomplish that goal. In addition to hydrogen, the oxygen, sulfur, and helium heavy ion environments have also been added between approximately 6 L-shell and approximately 50 L-shell. Finally, selected examples of the model's predictions are presented to illustrate the uses of the tool.

  3. Radiation resistence of microorganisms from radiation sterilization processing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabovljev, Svetlana A.; Žunić, Zora S.

    The radiation resistance of microorganisms was examined on the samples of dust collected from the radiation sterilization processing environments including assembly, storage, and sterilization plant areas. The isolation of radiation resistant strains was performed by irradiation with screening doses ranging from 10 to 35 kGy and test pieces containing 10 6 to 10 8 CFU in dried serum-broth, representing 100 to 5000 colonies of primary cultures of microorganisms from 7 different sites. In an examination of 16900 colonies of aerobic microorganisms from 3 hygienically controlled production sites and 4 uncontrolled ones, 30 strains of bacteria were isolated. Of those 15 were classified as genus Bacillus, 9 as Micrococcus and 6 as Sarcina. All of the 15 strains of Gram positive sporeforming aerobic rods exhibited an exponential decrease in the surviving fraction as a function of dose, indicating that the inactivation of spores of aerobic rods is a consequence of a single energy deposition into the target. All strains were found to be moderately resistant to radiation with D-6 values (dose required to reduce survival to 6 log cycles) between 18 and 26 kGy. All of the isolated Gram positive cocci showed inactivation curves having a shoulder, indicating that different processes are involved in the inactivation of these cells, e.g. accumulation of sublethal lesions, or final repair capacity of potential lethal lesions. Moderate radiation resistance was observed in 13 strains with D-6 values between 16 to 30 kGy. Two slow-growing, red pigmented strains tentatively classified as genus Micrococcus isolated from uncontrolled sites (human dwellings) were exceptionally resistant with D-6 more than 45 kGy. For hygienically controlled sites, Gram positive spereforming rods composed two thirds of the resistant microflora, while Gram positive cocci comprised one third. For hygienically uncontrolled sites this ratio was reversed. An assumption is made that one isolated strain has grown

  4. Radiative habitable zones in martian polar environments.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Zorzano, María-Paz; Selsis, Franck; Patel, Manish R; Cockell, Charles S

    2005-06-01

    The biologically damaging solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (quantified by the DNA-weighted dose) reaches the martian surface in extremely high levels. Searching for potentially habitable UV-protected environments on Mars, we considered the polar ice caps that consist of a seasonally varying CO2 ice cover and a permanent H2O ice layer. It was found that, though the CO2 ice is insufficient by itself to screen the UV radiation, at approximately 1 m depth within the perennial H2O ice the DNA-weighted dose is reduced to terrestrial levels. This depth depends strongly on the optical properties of the H2O ice layers (for instance snow-like layers). The Earth-like DNA-weighted dose and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) requirements were used to define the upper and lower limits of the northern and southern polar Radiative Habitable Zone (RHZ) for which a temporal and spatial mapping was performed. Based on these studies we conclude that photosynthetic life might be possible within the ice layers of the polar regions. The thickness varies along each martian polar spring and summer between approximately 1.5 and 2.4 m for H2O ice-like layers, and a few centimeters for snow-like covers. These martian Earth-like radiative habitable environments may be primary targets for future martian astrobiological missions. Special attention should be paid to planetary protection, since the polar RHZ may also be subject to terrestrial contamination by probes. c2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Materials Degradation in the Jovian Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miloshevsky, Gennady; Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The radiation environment of Jupiter represents a significant hazard for Europa Lander deorbit stage components, and presents a significant potential mission risk. The radiolytic degradation of ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidizer in solid propellants may affect its properties and performance. The Monte Carlo code MONSOL was used for modeling of laboratory experiments on the electron irradiation of propellant samples. An approach for flattening dose profiles along the depth of irradiated samples is proposed. Depth-dose distributions produced by Jovian electrons in multi-layer slabs of materials are calculated. It is found that the absorbed dose in a particular slab is significantly affected by backscattered electrons and photons from neighboring slabs. The dose and radiolytic decomposition of AP crystals are investigated and radiation-induced chemical yields and weight percent of radical products are reported.

  6. Astrophysical radiation environments of habitable worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David Samuel

    Numerous astrophysical sources of radiation affect the environment of planets orbiting within the liquid-water habitable zone of main-sequence stars. This dissertation reaches a number of conclusions about the ionizing radiation environment of the habitable zone with respect to X-rays and gamma-rays from stellar flares and background Galactic cosmic rays. Gamma-rays and X-rays incident on terrestrial-like exoplanet atmospheres can be efficiently reprocessed into diffuse UV emission that, depending on the presence of atmospheric UV absorbers, can reach the surface. Extreme solar X-ray flares over the last 4.6 Gyr could have delivered large enough radiation doses to the Martian surface to sterilize any unprotected organisms, depending on the largest energy releases possible. These flares also pose a significant hazard to manned space missions, since a large flare can occur with little or no warning during an extravehicular activity. A flare as large as the largest observed could deliver radiation doses exceeding safety limits to an astronaut protected by only a spacesuit. With respect to particle radiation, the nature of Galactic cosmic-ray modulation by astrospheres means that habitable-zone cosmic-ray fluxes change by much larger magnitudes when passing through low- densities regions of the interstellar medium. In contrast to the popular idea that passages through dense molecular clouds are required to significantly enhance Galactic cosmic-ray fluxes and affect planets' electrical circuits, background mutation rates, and climates, we find that densities of only 0.1-10 cm -3 , the densities of most interstellar clouds, are sufficient to bring fluxes close to the full, interstellar level. Finally, passages through dense molecular clouds are necessary to shrink astrospheres to within the habitable zone, but such events produce even higher interstellar hydrogen and dust accretion rates than have been estimated because of the combination of enhanced charge

  7. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  8. High Radiation Environment Nuclear Fragment Separator Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Stephen; Gupta, Ramesh

    2016-01-31

    Superconducting coils wound with HTS conductor can be used in magnets located in a high radiation environment. NbTi and Nb 3Sn superconductors must operate at 4.5 K or below where removal of heat is less efficient. The HTS conductor can carry significant current at higher temperatures where the Carnot efficiency is significantly more favorable and where the coolant heat capacity is much larger. Using the HTS conductor the magnet can be operated at 40 K. This project examines the use of HTS conductor for the Michigan State University Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) fragment separator dipole magnet which bendsmore » the beam by 30° and is located in a high radiation region that will not be easily accessible. Two of these magnets are needed to select the chosen isotope. There are a number of technical challenges to be addressed in the design of this magnet. The separator dipole is 2 m long and subtends a large angle. The magnet should keep a constant transverse field profile along its beam reference path. Winding coils with a curved inner segment is difficult as the conductor will tend to unwind during the process. In the Phase I project two approaches to winding the conductor were examined. The first was to wind the coils with curved sections on the inner and outer segments with the inner segment wound with negative curvature. The alternate approach was to use a straight segment on the inner segment to avoid negative curvature. In Phase I coils with a limited number of turns were successfully wound and tested at 77 K for both coil configurations. The Phase II program concentrated on the design, coil winding procedures, structural analysis, prototyping and testing of an HTS curved dipole coil at 40 K with a heat load representative of the radiation environment. One of the key criteria of the design of this magnet is to avoid the use of organic materials that would degrade rapidly in radiation. The Lorentz forces expected from the coils interacting with the

  9. Technology Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Howell, Joe T.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS, Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches. System level applications for the RHESE technology products are discussed.

  10. The charged particle radiation environment for AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will be subjected to several sources of charged particle radiation during its 15-year orbital lifetime: geomagnetically-trapped electrons and protons, galactic cosmic ray particles, and solar flare events. These radiation levels are presented for the AXAF orbit for use in the design of the observatory's science instruments.

  11. RADECS Short Course Session I: The Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael; Bourdarie, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    The presented slides and accompanying paper focus on radiation in the space environment. Since space exploration has begun it has become evident that the space environment is a highly aggressive medium. Beyond the natural protection provided by the Earth's atmosphere, various types of radiation can be encountered. Their characteristics (energy and nature), origins and distributions in space are extremely variable. This environment degrades electronic systems and on-board equipment in particular and creates radiobiological hazards during manned space flights. Based on several years of space exploration, a detailed analysis of the problems on satellites shows that the part due to the space environment is not negligible. It appears that the malfunctions are due to problems linked to the space environment, electronic problems, design problems, quality problems, other issues, and unexplained reasons. The space environment is largely responsible for about 20% of the anomalies occurring on satellites and a better knowledge of that environment could only increase the average lifetime of space vehicles. This naturally leads to a detailed study of the space environment and of the effects that it induces on space vehicles and astronauts. Sources of radiation in the space environment are discussed here and include the solar activity cycle, galactic cosmic rays, solar particle events, and Earth radiation belts. Future challenges for space radiation environment models are briefly addressed.

  12. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  13. Performance of optical fibers in space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.; Abramczyk, J.; Manyam, U.; Farroni, J.; Guertin, D.

    2017-11-01

    The use of optical fibers in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites is a source of concern due to the radiation environment in which these satellites operate and the reliability of devices based on these fibers. Although radiation induced damage in optical fibers cannot be avoided, it can certainly be minimized by intelligent engineering. Qualifying fibers for use in space is both time consuming and expensive, and manufacturers of satellites and their payloads have started to ask for radiation performance data from optical fiber vendors. Over time, Nufern has developed fiber designs, compositions and processes to make radiation hard fibers. Radiation performance data of a variety of fibers that find application in space radiation environment are presented.

  14. Silicon carbide semiconductor technology for high temperature and radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on silicon carbide semiconductor technology and its potential for enabling electronic devices to function in high temperature and high radiation environments are presented. Topics covered include silicon carbide; sublimation growth of 6H-SiC boules; SiC chemical vapor deposition reaction system; 6H silicon carbide p-n junction diode; silicon carbide MOSFET; and silicon carbide JFET radiation response.

  15. ERTS/Nimbus radiation environment information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the ERTS/Nimbus satellite investigation of electron flux levels are presented. Flux calculations were made with the use of two electron environment models, both of which are static and describe the environment during the solar maximum conditions of October 1967. It is concluded that the construction of these models makes it possible to infer a change of the average quiet time electron flux levels as a function of the solar cycle.

  16. Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft's vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approximately 325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Intense Thermal Infrared Reflector (ITIR), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of ITIR is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry (no parabolic shapes). ITIR consists of a specularly reflective shielding surface and a diffuse radiating surface joined to form a horizontally oriented V-shape (shielding surface on top). The point of intersection of these surfaces is defined by two angles, those which define the tilt of each surface with respect to the local horizontal. The optimum set of these angles is determined on a case-by-case basis. The idea assumes minimal conductive heat transfer between shielding and radiating surfaces, and a practical design would likely stack sets of these surfaces on top of one another to reduce radiator thickness.

  17. Evaluations of Risks from the Lunar and Mars Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hayat, Matthew J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Protecting astronauts from the space radiation environments requires accurate projections of radiation in future space missions. Characterization of the ionizing radiation environment is challenging because the interplanetary plasma and radiation fields are modulated by solar disturbances and the radiation doses received by astronauts in interplanetary space are likewise influenced. The galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) flux for the next solar cycle was estimated as a function of interplanetary deceleration potential, which has been derived from GCR flux and Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last 4 decades. For the chaotic nature of solar particle event (SPE) occurrence, the mean frequency of SPE at any given proton fluence threshold during a defined mission duration was obtained from a Poisson process model using proton fluence measurements of SPEs during the past 5 solar cycles (19-23). Analytic energy spectra of 34 historically large SPEs were constructed over broad energy ranges extending to GeV. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN [1] and BRYNTRN [2], and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG[3]), the propagation and interaction properties of the energetic nucleons through various media were predicted. Risk assessment from GCR and SPE was evaluated at the specific organs inside a typical spacecraft using CAM [4] model. The representative risk level at each event size and their standard deviation were obtained from the analysis of 34 SPEs. Risks from different event sizes and their frequency of occurrences in a specified mission period were evaluated for the concern of acute health effects especially during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). The results will be useful for the development of an integrated strategy of optimizing radiation protection on the lunar and Mars missions. Keywords: Space Radiation Environments; Galactic Cosmic Radiation; Solar Particle Event; Radiation Risk; Risk

  18. Implementation of ionizing radiation environment requirements for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeder, Paul A.; Watts, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Proper functioning of Space Station hardware requires that the effects of high-energy ionizing particles from the natural environment and (possibly) from man-made sources be considered during design. At the Space Station orbit of 28.5-deg inclination and 330-440 km altitude, geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons contribute almost all of the dose, while galactic cosmic rays and anomalous cosmic rays may produce Single Event Upsets (SEUs), latchups, and burnouts of microelectronic devices. Implementing ionizing radiation environment requirements for Space Station has been a two part process, including the development of a description of the environment for imposing requirements on the design and the development of a control process for assessing how well the design addresses the effects of the ionizing radiation environment. We will review both the design requirements and the control process for addressing ionizing radiation effects on Space Station.

  19. NPS-SCAT CONOPS and Radiation Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    flexibility, as well as allows players in the space market who would otherwise not be able to enter due to budgetary limitations. Important to NPS is...commercial market . Although the time frame for completing NPS-SCAT has not been as short as possible due to the nature of the learning environment on its...Program ( STP ) seeks flight opportunities for approved experiments. The current NPS- SCAT launch date offers ample time to finish and test the

  20. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    2004-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for characterizing the radiation dose and internal charging environments in the solar wind. The SSRE model defines the 0.01 keV to 1 MeV charged particle environment for use in testing the radiation dose vulnerability of candidate solar sail materials and for use in evaluating the internal charging effects in the interplanetary environment. Solar wind and energetic particle instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft provide the particle data used to derive the environments for the high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar sail missions. Ulysses is the only spacecraft to sample high latitude solar wind environments far from the ecliptic plane and is therefore uniquely capable of providing the information necessary for defining radiation environments for the Solar Polar Imager spacecraft. Cold plasma moments are used to derive differential flux spectra based on Kappa distribution functions. Energetic particle flux measurements are used to constrain the high energy, non-thermal tails of the distribution functions providing a comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra from less than 0.01 keV to a few MeV.

  1. Predictive aging results in radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.

    1993-06-01

    We have previously derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict polymer degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in predictive capabilities at the low dose rates and long time periods appropriate, for instance, to ambient nuclear power plant environments. The methodology was successfully applied to several polymeric cable materials and then verified for two of the materials by comparisons of the model predictions with 12 year, low-dose-rate aging data on these materials from a nuclear environment. In this paper, we provide a more detailed discussion of the methodology and apply it to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicone rubber and two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7-9 year) low-dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under bnuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following "generic" materials: hypalon, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such "generic" behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated.

  2. Prediction of LDEF ionizing radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, John W.; Parnell, T. A.; Derrickson, James H.; Armstrong, T. W.; Benton, E. V.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft flew in a 28.5 deg inclination circular orbit with an altitude in the range from 172 to 258.5 nautical miles. For this orbital altitude and inclination two components contribute most of the penetrating charge particle radiation encountered - the galactic cosmic rays and the geomagnetically trapped Van Allen protons. Where shielding is less than 1.0 g/sq cm geomagnetically trapped electrons make a significant contribution. The 'Vette' models together with the associated magnetic filed models were used to obtain the trapped electron and proton fluences. The mission proton doses were obtained from the fluence using the Burrell proton dose program. For the electron and bremsstrahlung dose we used the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electron dose program. The predicted doses were in general agreement with those measured with on-board thermoluminescent detector (TLD) dosimeters. The NRL package of programs, Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics (CREME), was used to calculate the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped protons for comparison with LDEF measurements.

  3. Implanted medical devices in the radiation environment of commercial spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Reyes, David P; McClure, Steven S; Chancellor, Jeffery C; Blue, Rebecca S; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2014-11-01

    Some commercial spaceflight participants (SFPs) may have medical conditions that require implanted medical devices (IMDs), such as cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps, or similar electronic devices. The effect of space radiation on the function of IMDs is unknown. This review will identify known effects of terrestrial and aviation electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radiation on IMDs in order to provide insight into the potential effects of radiation exposures in the space environment. A systematic literature review was conducted on available literature on human studies involving the effects of EMI as well as diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on IMDs. The literature review identified potential transient effects from EMI and diagnostic radiation levels as low as 10 mGy on IMDs. High-energy, therapeutic, ionizing radiation can cause more permanent device malfunctions at doses as low as 40 mGy. Radiation doses from suborbital flight altitudes and durations are anticipated to be less than those experienced during an average round-trip, cross-country airline flight and are unlikely to result in significant detriment, though longer, orbital flights may expose SFPs to doses potentially harmful to IMD function. Individuals with IMDs should experience few, if any, radiation-related device malfunctions during suborbital flight, but could have problems with radiation exposures associated with longer, orbital flights.

  4. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials. PMID:25906997

  5. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Yu, K Y; Liu, Y; Shao, S; Wang, H; Kirk, M A; Wang, J; Zhang, X

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  6. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; ...

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore » density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  7. Utilization of SRNL-developed radiation-resistant polymer in high radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Skibo, A.

    The radiation-resistant polymer developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory is adaptable for multiple applications to enhance polymer endurance and effectiveness in radiation environments. SRNL offers to collaborate with TEPCO in evaluation, testing, and utilization of SRNL’s radiation-resistant polymer in the D&D of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Refinement of the scope and associated costs will be conducted in consultation with TECPO.

  8. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  9. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  10. ISS Radiation Shielding and Acoustic Simulation Using an Immersive Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Joshua E.; Sandridge, Chris A.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station Environment Simulator (ISSES) is a virtual reality application that uses high-performance computing, graphics, and audio rendering to simulate the radiation and acoustic environments of the International Space Station (ISS). This CAVE application allows the user to maneuver to different locations inside or outside of the ISS and interactively compute and display the radiation dose at a point. The directional dose data is displayed as a color-mapped sphere that indicates the relative levels of radiation from all directions about the center of the sphere. The noise environment is rendered in real time over headphones or speakers and includes non-spatial background noise, such as air-handling equipment, and spatial sounds associated with specific equipment racks, such as compressors or fans. Changes can be made to equipment rack locations that produce changes in both the radiation shielding and system noise. The ISSES application allows for interactive investigation and collaborative trade studies between radiation shielding and noise for crew safety and comfort.

  11. Simulation of radiation environment for the LHeC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayaz, Abdullah; Piliçer, Ercan; Joya, Musa

    2017-02-01

    The detector response and simulation of radiation environment for the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) baseline detector is estimated to predict its performance over the lifetime of the project. In this work, the geometry of the LHeC detector, as reported in LHeC Conceptual Design Report (CDR), built in FLUKA Monte Carlo tool in order to simulate the detector response and radiation environment. For this purpose, events of electrons and protons with high enough energy were sent isotropically from interaction point of the detector. As a result, the detector response and radiation background for the LHeC detector, with different USRBIN code (ENERGY, HADGT20M, ALL-CHAR, ALL-PAR) in FLUKA, are presented.

  12. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  13. Radiation measurement in the environment of FLASH using passive dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Rybka, D.; Makowski, D.; Lipka, T.; Simrock, S.

    2007-08-01

    Sophisticated electronic devices comprising sensitive microelectronic components have been installed in the close proximity of the 720 MeV superconducting electron linear accelerator (linac) driving the FLASH (Free Electron Laser in Hamburg), presently in operation at DESY in Hamburg. Microelectronic chips are inherently vulnerable to ionizing radiation, usually generated during routine operation of high-energy particle accelerator facilities like the FLASH. Hence, in order to assess the radiation effect on microelectronic chips and to develop suitable mitigation strategy, it becomes imperative to characterize the radiation field in the FLASH environment. We have evaluated the neutron and gamma energy (spectra) and dose distributions at critical locations in the FLASH tunnel using superheated emulsion (bubble) detectors, GaAs light emitting diodes (LED), LiF-thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic (Gafchromic EBT) films. This paper highlights the application of passive dosimeters for an accurate analysis of the radiation field produced by high-energy electron linear accelerators.

  14. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  15. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog

  16. Comparison of Martian Radiation Environment with International Space Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-13

    This graphic shows the radiation dose equivalent as measured by Odyssey's Martian radiation environment experiment at Mars and by instruments aboard the International Space Station, for the 11-month period from April 2002 through February 2003. The accumulated total in Mars orbit is about two and a half times larger than that aboard the Space Station. Averaged over this time period, about 10 percent of the dose equivalent at Mars is due to solar particles, although a 30 percent contribution from solar particles was seen in July 2002, when the sun was particularly active. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04258

  17. The Dynamics of the Atmospheric Radiation Environment at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Epaminondas G.

    2004-01-01

    Single Event Effects vulnerability of on-board computers that regulate the: navigational, flight control, communication, and life support systems has become an issue in advanced modern aircraft, especially those that may be equipped with new technology devices in terabit memory banks (low voltage, nanometer feature size, gigabit integration). To address this concern, radiation spectrometers need to fly continually on a multitude of carriers over long periods of time so as to accumulate sufficient information that will broaden our understanding of the very dynamic and complex nature of the atmospheric radiation environment regarding: composition, spectral distribution, intensity, temporal variation, and spatial variation.

  18. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in themore » conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.« less

  19. Radiation environment at LEO orbits: MC simulation and experimental data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, Alba; Borla, Oscar; Damasso, Mario; Falzetta, Giuseppe

    The evaluations of the different components of the radiation environment in spacecraft, both in LEO orbits and in deep space is of great importance because the biological effect on humans and the risk for instrumentation strongly depends on the kind of radiation (high or low LET). That is important especially in view of long term manned or unmanned space missions, (mission to Mars, solar system exploration). The study of space radiation field is extremely complex and not completely solved till today. Given the complexity of the radiation field, an accurate dose evaluation should be considered an indispensable part of any space mission. Two simulation codes (MCNPX and GEANT4) have been used to assess the secondary radiation inside FO-TON M3 satellite and ISS. The energy spectra of primary radiation at LEO orbits have been modelled by using various tools (SPENVIS, OMERE, CREME96) considering separately Van Allen protons, the GCR protons and the GCR alpha particles. This data are used as input for the two MC codes and transported inside the spacecraft. The results of two calculation meth-ods have been compared. Moreover some experimental results previously obtained on FOTON M3 satellite by using TLD, Bubble dosimeter and LIULIN detector are considered to check the performances of the two codes. Finally the same experimental device are at present collecting data on the ISS (ASI experiment BIOKIS -nDOSE) and at the end of the mission the results will be compared with the calculation.

  20. Combined injury syndrome in space-related radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dons, R. F.; Fohlmeister, U.

    The risk of combined injury (CI) to space travelers is a function of exposure to anomalously large surges of a broad spectrum of particulate and photon radiations, conventional trauma (T), and effects of weightlessness including decreased intravascular fluid volume, and myocardial deconditioning. CI may occur even at relatively low doses of radiation which can synergistically enhance morbidity and mortality from T. Without effective countermeasures, prolonged residence in space is expected to predispose most individuals to bone fractures as a result of calcium loss in the microgravity environment. Immune dysfunction may occur from residence in space independent of radiation exposure. Thus, wound healing would be compromised if infection were to occur. Survival of the space traveler with CI would be significantly compromised if there were delays in wound closure or in the application of simple supportive medical or surgical therapies. Particulate radiation has the potential for causing greater gastrointestinal injury than photon radiation, but bone healing should not be compromised at the expected doses of either type of radiation in space.

  1. Ionizing Radiation Measurement Solution in a Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia Angosto, Enrique Angel; Moreno Riquelme, Pedro Antonio; Serna Berna, Alfredo; Ramos-Amores, David

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the main risks affecting healthcare workers and patients worldwide. Special attention has to be paid to medical staff in the vicinity of radiological equipment or patients undergoing radioisotope procedures. To measure radiation values, traditional area meters are strategically placed in hospitals and personal dosimeters are worn by workers. However, important drawbacks inherent to these systems in terms of cost, detection precision, real time data processing, flexibility, and so on, have been detected and carefully detailed. To overcome these inconveniences, a low cost, open-source, portable radiation measurement system is proposed. The goal is to deploy devices integrating a commercial Geiger-Muller (GM) detector to capture radiation doses in real time and to wirelessly dispatch them to a remote database where the radiation values are stored. Medical staff will be able to check the accumulated doses first hand, as well as other statistics related to radiation by means of a smartphone application. Finally, the device is certified by an accredited calibration center, to later validate the entire system in a hospital environment. PMID:29419769

  2. A space radiation shielding model of the Martian radiation environment experiment (MARIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, W.; Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft was launched towards Mars on April 7, 2001. Onboard the spacecraft is the Martian radiation environment experiment (MARIE), which is designed to measure the background radiation environment due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar protons in the 20-500 MeV/n energy range. We present an approach for developing a space radiation-shielding model of the spacecraft that includes the MARIE instrument in the current mapping phase orientation. A discussion is presented describing the development and methodology used to construct the shielding model. For a given GCR model environment, using the current MARIE shielding model and the high-energy particle transport codes, dose rate values are compared with MARIE measurements during the early mapping phase in Mars orbit. The results show good agreement between the model calculations and the MARIE measurements as presented for the March 2002 dataset. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Astrobiological Effects of Stellar Radiation in Circumstellar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; Guinan, Edward F.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2006-10-01

    The centerpiece of all life on Earth is carbon-based biochemistry. Previous scientific research has suggested that biochemistry based on carbon may also play a decisive role in extraterrestrial life forms, i.e., alien life outside of Earth, if existent. In the following, we explore if carbon-based macromolecules (such as DNA) in the environments of stars other than the Sun are able to survive the effects of energetic stellar radiation, such as UV-C in the wavelength band between 200 and 290 nm. We focus on main-sequence stars akin to the Sun, but of hotter (F-type stars) and cooler (K- and M-type stars) surface temperature. Emphasis is placed on investigating the radiative environment in stellar habitable zones (HZs). Stellar habitable zones have an important relevance in astrobiology because they constitute circumstellar regions in which a planet of suitable size can have surface temperatures for water to exist in liquid form.

  4. A calculation of the radiation environment on the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wet, Wouter C.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the radiation environment on the Martian surface, as produced by galactic cosmic radiation incident on the atmosphere, is modeled using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development in Space (HETC-HEDS). This work is performed in participation of the 2016 Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in Boulder, CO, and is part of a larger collaborative effort to study the radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Calculated fluxes for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, alpha particles, and heavier ions up to Fe are compared with measurements taken by Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory over a period of 2 months. The degree of agreement between measured and calculated surface flux values over the limited energy range of the measurements is found to vary significantly depending on the particle species or group. However, in many cases the fluxes predicted by HETC-HEDS fall well within the experimental uncertainty. The calculated results for alpha particles and the heavy ion groups Z = 3-5, Z = 6-8, Z = 9-13 and Z > 24 are in the best agreement, each with an average relative difference from measured data of less than 40%. Predictions for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, Helium-3, and the heavy ion group Z = 14-24 have differences from the measurements, in some cases, greater than 50%. Future updates to the secondary light particle production methods in the nuclear model within HETC-HEDS are expected to improve light ion flux predictions.

  5. The radiation environment of OSO missions from 1974 to 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    Trapped particle radiation levels on several OSO missions were calculated for nominal trajectories using improved computational methods and new electron environment models. Temporal variations of the electron fluxes were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model and extrapolated to a later epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integration results, which are presented in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed.

  6. [Organization of monitoring of electromagnetic radiation in the urban environment].

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, S I; Dvoeglazova, S V; Koz'min, V A; Kochkin, D E; Begishev, M R

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe new current approaches to monitoring the environment, including the sources of electromagnetic radiation and noise. Electronic maps of the area under study are shown to be made, by constructing the isolines or distributing the actual levels of controlled factors. These current approaches to electromagnetic and acoustic monitoring make it possible to automate a process of measurements, to analyze the established situation, and to simplify the risk controlling methodology.

  7. The geomagnetically trapped radiation environment: A radiological point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holly, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    The regions of naturally occurring, geomagnetically trapped radiation are briefly reviewed in terms of physical parameters such as; particle types, fluxes, spectrums, and spatial distributions. The major emphasis is placed upon a description of this environment in terms of the radiobiologically relevant parameters of absorbed dose and dose-rate and a discussion of the radiological implications in terms of the possible impact on space vehicle design and mission planning.

  8. A virtual environment for medical radiation collaborative learning.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Pete; Trapp, Jamie V; Kastanis, Lazaros; Pack, Darren; Parker, Jacqui C

    2015-06-01

    A software-based environment was developed to provide practical training in medical radiation principles and safety. The Virtual Radiation Laboratory application allowed students to conduct virtual experiments using simulated diagnostic and radiotherapy X-ray generators. The experiments were designed to teach students about the inverse square law, half value layer and radiation protection measures and utilised genuine clinical and experimental data. Evaluation of the application was conducted in order to ascertain the impact of the software on students' understanding, satisfaction and collaborative learning skills and also to determine potential further improvements to the software and guidelines for its continued use. Feedback was gathered via an anonymous online survey consisting of a mixture of Likert-style questions and short answer open questions. Student feedback was highly positive with 80 % of students reporting increased understanding of radiation protection principles. Furthermore 72 % enjoyed using the software and 87 % of students felt that the project facilitated collaboration within small groups. The main themes arising in the qualitative feedback comments related to efficiency and effectiveness of teaching, safety of environment, collaboration and realism. Staff and students both report gains in efficiency and effectiveness associated with the virtual experiments. In addition students particularly value the visualisation of "invisible" physical principles and increased opportunity for experimentation and collaborative problem-based learning. Similar ventures will benefit from adopting an approach that allows for individual experimentation while visualizing challenging concepts.

  9. Background radiation dose of dumpsites in Ota and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Ola, O. O.; Achuka, J. A.; Babarimisa, I. O.; Ayara, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    In-situ measurement of background radiation dose from selected dumpsites in Ota and its environs was done using Radialert Nuclear Radiation Monitor (Digilert 200). Ten measurements were taken from each dumpsite. The measured background radiation range between 0.015 mRhr-1 for AOD and 0.028 mRhr-1 for SUS dumpsites. The calculated annual equivalent doses vary between 1.31 mSvyr-1 for AOD and 2.28 mSv/yr for SUS dumpsites. The air absorbed dose calculated ranged from 150 nGyhr-1 to 280 nGy/hr for AOD and SUS dumpsites respectively with an average value of 217 nGyhr-1 for all the locations. All the estimated parameters were higher than permissible limit set for background radiation for the general public. Conclusively, the associated challenge and radiation burden posed by the wastes on the studied locations and scavengers is high. Therefore, there is need by the regulatory authorities to look into the way and how waste can be properly managed so as to alleviate the effects on the populace leaving and working in the dumpsites vicinity.

  10. Radiation environment at aviation altitudes and in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, L; Ploc, O; Puchalska, M; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Kyselová, D; Shurshakov, V

    2015-06-01

    On the Earth, protection from cosmic radiation is provided by the magnetosphere and the atmosphere, but the radiation exposure increases with increasing altitude. Aircrew and especially space crew members are therefore exposed to an increased level of ionising radiation. Dosimetry onboard aircraft and spacecraft is however complicated by the presence of neutrons and high linear energy transfer particles. Film and thermoluminescent dosimeters, routinely used for ground-based personnel, do not reliably cover the range of particle types and energies found in cosmic radiation. Further, the radiation field onboard aircraft and spacecraft is not constant; its intensity and composition change mainly with altitude, geomagnetic position and solar activity (marginally also with the aircraft/spacecraft type, number of people aboard, amount of fuel etc.). The European Union Council directive 96/29/Euroatom of 1996 specifies that aircrews that could receive dose of >1 mSv y(-1) must be evaluated. The dose evaluation is routinely performed by computer programs, e.g. CARI-6, EPCARD, SIEVERT, PCAire, JISCARD and AVIDOS. Such calculations should however be carefully verified and validated. Measurements of the radiation field in aircraft are thus of a great importance. A promising option is the long-term deployment of active detectors, e.g. silicon spectrometer Liulin, TEPC Hawk and pixel detector Timepix. Outside the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere, the environment is much harsher than at aviation altitudes. In addition to the exposure to high energetic ionising cosmic radiation, there are microgravity, lack of atmosphere, psychological and psychosocial components etc. The milieu is therefore very unfriendly for any living organism. In case of solar flares, exposures of spacecraft crews may even be lethal. In this paper, long-term measurements of the radiation environment onboard Czech aircraft performed with the Liulin since 2001, as well as measurements and

  11. Numerical simulation of the radiation environment on Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.

    2015-12-01

    The radiation environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that on earth. Existing observation and studies reveal that the radiation environment on the Martian surface is highly variable regarding to both short- and long-term time scales. For example, its dose rate presents diurnal and seasonal variations associated with atmospheric pressure changes. Moreover, dose rate is also strongly influenced by the modulation from GCR flux. Numerical simulation and theoretical explanations are required to understand the mechanisms behind these features, and to predict the time variation of radiation environment on the Martian surface if aircraft is supposed to land on it in near future. The high energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which are ubiquitous throughout the solar system are highly penetrating and extremely difficult to shield against beyond the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere. The goal of this article is to evaluate the long term radiation risk on the Martian surface. Therefore, we need to develop a realistic time-dependent GCR model, which will be integrated with Geant4 transport code subsequently to reproduce the observed variation of surface dose rate associated with the changing heliospheric conditions. In general, the propagation of cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium can be described by a Fokker-Planck equation (or Parker equation). In last decade,we witnessed a fast development of GCR transport models within the heliosphere based on accurate gas-dynamic and MHD backgrounds from global models of the heliosphere. The global MHD simulation produces a more realistic pattern of the 3-D heliospheric structure, as well as the interface between the solar system and the surrounding interstellar space. As a consequence, integrating plasma background obtained from global-dependent 3-D MHD simulation and stochastic Parker transport simulation, we expect to produce an accurate global physical-based GCR modulation model. Combined

  12. Performance limit of daytime radiative cooling in warm humid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suichi, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tsuruta, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    Daytime radiative cooling potentially offers efficient passive cooling, but the performance is naturally limited by the environment, such as the ambient temperature and humidity. Here, we investigate the performance limit of daytime radiative cooling under warm and humid conditions in Okayama, Japan. A cooling device, consisting of alternating layers of SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate) on an Al mirror, is fabricated and characterized to demonstrate a high reflectance for sunlight and a selective thermal radiation in the mid-infrared region. In the temperature measurement under the sunlight irradiation, the device shows 3.4 °C cooler than a bare Al mirror, but 2.8 °C warmer than the ambient of 35 °C. The corresponding numerical analyses reveal that the atmospheric window in λ = 16 ˜ 25 μm is closed due to a high humidity, thereby limiting the net emission power of the device. Our study on the humidity influence on the cooling performance provides a general guide line of how one can achieve practical passive cooling in a warm humid environment.

  13. A new Mars radiation environment model with visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Singleterry, R. C.; Wilson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    A new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (OCR) has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for Mars conditions are transported through the Martian atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account. The Martian atmosphere has been modeled by using the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model--version 2001 (Mars-GRAM 2001). The altitude to compute the atmospheric thickness profile has been determined by using a model for the topography based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The Mars surface composition has been modeled based on averages over the measurements obtained from orbiting spacecraft and at various landing sites, taking into account the possible volatile inventory (e.g., CO2 ice, H2O ice) along with its time variation throughout the Martian year. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code. The Mars Radiation Environment Model has been made available worldwide through the Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools (SIREST) website, a project of NASA Langley Research Center. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  15. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; hide

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  16. Worst-case space radiation environments for geocentric missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Worst-case possible annual radiation fluences of energetic charged particles in the terrestrial space environment, and the resultant depth-dose distributions in aluminum, were calculated in order to establish absolute upper limits to the radiation exposure of spacecraft in geocentric orbits. The results are a concise set of data intended to aid in the determination of the feasibility of a particular mission. The data may further serve as guidelines in the evaluation of standard spacecraft components. Calculations were performed for each significant particle species populating or visiting the magnetosphere, on the basis of volume occupied by or accessible to the respective species. Thus, magnetospheric space was divided into five distinct regions using the magnetic shell parameter L, which gives the approximate geocentric distance (in earth radii) of a field line's equatorial intersect.

  17. Composite seals for liquid hydrogen and nuclear radiation environments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Auken, R. L.; Chase, V. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of plastic composite seals for service in a liquid-hydrogen and nuclear-radiation environment. The radiation-resistant aromatic heterocyclic class of polymers, including polyimide, polybenzimidazole, and polyquinoxaline, were evaluated for this application. The seal developed is based on a design involving a resin-starved laminate consisting of alternating layers of woven glass fabric and polymer film. This design imparts a mechanical spring characteristic to the seal, resulting in essentially complete elastic recovery when unloaded, and eliminates cold flow. Encapsulating techniques employing the polyquinoxaline polymer were developed which rendered the seal impervious to liquid hydrogen. The seals were tested before and after gamma irradiation up to 10 to the 10th ergs/g. Load/deflection and leakage tests were performed over a temperature range from -423 through +500 F.

  18. GEM detectors development for radiation environment: neutron tests and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Maryna; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Malinowski, Karol; Czarski, Tomasz; Ziółkowski, Adam; Bieńkowska, Barbara; Prokopowicz, Rafał; Łaszyńska, Ewa; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Wojeński, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Rafał D.; Linczuk, Paweł; Potrykus, Paweł; Bajdel, Barcel

    2016-09-01

    One of the requests from the ongoing ITER-Like Wall Project is to have diagnostics for Soft X-Ray (SXR) monitoring in tokamak. Such diagnostics should be focused on tungsten emission measurements, as an increased attention is currently paid to tungsten due to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. In addition, such diagnostics should be able to withstand harsh radiation environment at tokamak during its operation. The presented work is related to the development of such diagnostics based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. More specifically, an influence of neutron radiation on performance of the GEM detectors is studied both experimentally and through computer simulations. The neutron induced radioactivity (after neutron source exposure) was found to be not pronounced comparing to an impact of other secondary neutron reaction products (during the exposure).

  19. Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Suggs, R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with shielding and body tissues is not yet available and has a potentially large impact on mission costs. "The general opinion is that the initial flights should be short-stay missions performed as fast as possible (so-called 'Sprint' missions) to minimize crew exposure to the zero-g and space radiation environment, to ease requirements on system reliability, and to enhance the probability of mission success." The short-stay missions tend to have long transit times and may not be the best option due to the relatively long exposure to zero-g and ionizing radiation. On the other hand the short-transit missions tend to have long stays on the surface requiring an adequate knowledge of the surface radiation environment to estimate risks and to design shield configurations. Our knowledge of the surface environment is theoretically based and suffers from an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions of GCR with the Martian atmosphere, Martian surface, and intervening shield materials. An important component of Mars surface robotic exploration is the opportunity to test our understanding of the Mars surface environment. The Mars surface environment is generated by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) with the Mars atmosphere and Mars surface materials. In these interactions, multiple charged ions are reduced in size and secondary particles are generated, including neutrons. Upon impact with the Martian surface, the character of the interactions changes as a result of the differing nuclear constituents of the surface materials. Among the surface environment are many neutrons diffusing from

  20. Optical fibres in the radiation environment of CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermain, E.

    2017-11-01

    kGy). Nevertheless, the conventional optical fibres must be carefully qualified as a spread in RIA of factor 10 is observed among optical fibres of different types and dopants. In higher radiation areas, special radiation resistant optical fibres are installed. For total dose above 1 kGy, the RIA of these special optical fibres is at least 10 times lower than the conventional optical fibres RIA at same irradiation conditions. 2400 km of these special radiation resistant optical fibres were recently procured at CERN. As part of this procurement process, a quality assurance plan including the irradiation testing of all 65 produced batches was set up. This presentation will review the selection process of the appropriate optical fibre types to be installed in the radiation environment of CERN. The methodology for choosing the irradiation parameters for the laboratory tests will be discussed together with an overview of the RIA of different optical fibre types under several irradiation conditions.

  1. Radiation Hardened Electronics Destined For Severe Nuclear Reactor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Holbert, Keith E.; Clark, Lawrence T.

    Post nuclear accident conditions represent a harsh environment for electronics. The full station blackout experience at Fukushima shows the necessity for emergency sensing capabilities in a radiation-enhanced environment. This NEET (Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies) research project developed radiation hardened by design (RHBD) electronics using commercially available technology that employs commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices and present generation circuit fabrication techniques to improve the total ionizing dose (TID) hardness of electronics. Such technology not only has applicability to severe accident conditions but also to facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle in which radiation tolerance is required. For example, with TID tolerance tomore » megarads of dose, electronics could be deployed for long-term monitoring, inspection and decontamination missions. The present work has taken a two-pronged approach, specifically, development of both board and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) level RHBD techniques. The former path has focused on TID testing of representative microcontroller ICs with embedded flash (eFlash) memory, as well as standalone flash devices that utilize the same fabrication technologies. The standalone flash devices are less complicated, allowing better understanding of the TID response of the crucial circuits. Our TID experiments utilize biased components that are in-situ tested, and in full operation during irradiation. A potential pitfall in the qualification of memory circuits is the lack of rigorous testing of the possible memory states. For this reason, we employ test patterns that include all ones, all zeros, a checkerboard of zeros and ones, an inverse checkerboard, and random data. With experimental evidence of improved radiation response for unbiased versus biased conditions, a demonstration-level board using the COTS devices was constructed. Through a combination of redundancy and power gating, the

  2. Solar Cycle Variation and Application to the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Shinn, Judy L.; Tai, Hsiang; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Atwell, William

    1999-01-01

    The interplanetary plasma and fields are affected by the degree of disturbance that is related to the number and types of sunspots in the solar surface. Sunspot observations were improved with the introduction of the telescope in the seventeenth century, allowing observations which cover many centuries. A single quantity (sunspot number) was defined by Wolf in 1848 that is now known to be well correlated with many space observable quantities and is used herein to represent variations caused in the space radiation environment. The resultant environmental models are intended for future aircraft and space-travel-related exposure estimates.

  3. Polymer materials and component evaluation in acidic-radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celina, M.; Gillen, K. T.; Malone, G. M.; Clough, R. L.; Nelson, W. H.

    2001-07-01

    Polymeric materials used for cable/wire insulation, electrical connectors, O-rings, seals, and in critical components such as motors, level switches and resistive thermo-devices were evaluated under accelerated degradation conditions in combined radiation-oxidative elevated-temperature acidic-vapor (nitric/oxalic) environments relevant to conditions in isotope processing facilities. Experiments included the assessment of individual materials such as PEEK, polyimides, polyolefin based cable insulation, EPDM rubbers, various epoxy systems, commercial caulking materials as well as some functional testing of components. We discuss how to conduct laboratory experiments to simulate such complex hostile environments, describe some degradation effects encountered, and evaluate the impact on appropriate material and component selection.

  4. A Radiation Dosimeter Concept for the Lunar Surface Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Watts, John; Kuznetsov, Eugeny N.; Parnell, Thomas A.; Pendleton, Geoff N.

    2007-01-01

    A novel silicon detector configuration for radiation dose measurements in an environment where solar energetic particles are of most concern is described. The dosimeter would also measure the dose from galactic cosmic rays. In the lunar environment a large range in particle flux and ionization density must be measured and converted to dose equivalent. This could be accomplished with a thick (e.g. 2mm) silicon detector segmented into cubic volume elements "voxels" followed by a second, thin monolithic silicon detector. The electronics needed to implement this detector concept include analog signal processors (ASIC) and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for data accumulation and conversion to linear energy transfer (LET) spectra and to dose-equivalent (Sievert). Currently available commercial ASIC's and FPGA's are suitable for implementing the analog and digital systems.

  5. The ST environment: Expected charged particle radiation levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the ST satellite at the three different mission altitudes, was determined in two ways: (1) by orbital flux-integration and (2) by geographical instantaneous flux-mapping. The latest standard models of the environment were used in this effort. Magnetic field definitions for three nominal circular trajectories and for the geographic mapping positions were obtained from a current field model. Spatial and temporal variations or conditions affecting the static environment models were considered and accounted for, wherever possible. Limited shielding and dose evaluations were performed for a simple geometry. Results, given in tabular and graphical form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are included.

  6. Stereotactic multibeam radiation therapy system in a PACS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresne, Francoise; Le Gall, G.; Barillot, Christian; Gibaud, Bernard; Manens, Jean-Pierre; Toumoulin, Christine; Lemoine, Didier; Chenal, C.; Scarabin, Jean-Marie

    1991-05-01

    A Multibeam radiation therapy treatment is a non-invasive technique devoted to treat a lesion within the cerebral medium by focusing photon-beams on the same target from a high number of entrance points. We present here a computer assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: (1) an analysis module to define the target volume by using 2D and 3D displays, (2) a planing module to issue a treatment strategy including the dosimetric simulations and (3) a treatment module setting up the parameters to order the robotized treatment system (i.e. chair- framework, radiation unit machine). Another important feature of this system is its connection to the PACS system SIRENE settled in the University hospital of Rennes which makes possible the archiving and the communication of the multimodal images (CT, MRI, Angiography) used by this application. The corporate use of stereotactic methods and the multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes the target definition and the cognition of the structures environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (i.e. the stereotactic frame) guarantees an optimal distribution of the dose computed by an original 3D volumetric algorithm. The robotic approach of the treatment stage has consisted to design a computer driven chair-framework cluster to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter.

  7. Space Suit Radiator Performance in Lunar and Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James; Mason, Georgia; Copeland, Robert; Libberton, Kerry; Stephan, Ryan; Trevino, Luis; Paul, Heather

    2005-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut's metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 1.58 kg (3.48 lbm), an additional 3.6 kg (8 lbm) of water are loaded into the unit, most of which is sublimated and lost to thus become the single largest expendable during an eight hour EVA. We can significantly reduce the amount of expendable water consumed in the sublimator by using a radiator to reject heat from the Astronaut during an EVA. Last year we reported on the design and initial operational assessment tests of our novel radiator designated the Radiator And Freeze Tolerant heat eXchanger (RAFT-X). Herein, we report on tests conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Chamber E Thermal Vacuum Test Facility. Up to 260 W (900 Btu/h) of heat were rejected in Lunar and Mars environments with temperatures as cold as -170 C (- 275 F). Further, the RAFT-X endured several freeze / thaw cycles and in fact, the heat exchanger was completely frozen three times without any apparent damage to the unit.

  8. Geant4 hadronic physics for space radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Ivantchenko, Anton V; Ivanchenko, Vladimir N; Molina, Jose-Manuel Quesada; Incerti, Sebastien L

    2012-01-01

    To test and to develop Geant4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) Monte Carlo hadronic models with focus on applications in a space radiation environment. The Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using the Geant4 toolkit. Binary (BIC), its extension for incident light ions (BIC-ion) and Bertini (BERT) cascades were used as main Monte Carlo generators. For comparisons purposes, some other models were tested too. The hadronic testing suite has been used as a primary tool for model development and validation against experimental data. The Geant4 pre-compound (PRECO) and de-excitation (DEE) models were revised and improved. Proton, neutron, pion, and ion nuclear interactions were simulated with the recent version of Geant4 9.4 and were compared with experimental data from thin and thick target experiments. The Geant4 toolkit offers a large set of models allowing effective simulation of interactions of particles with matter. We have tested different Monte Carlo generators with our hadronic testing suite and accordingly we can propose an optimal configuration of Geant4 models for the simulation of the space radiation environment.

  9. Space Suit Radiator Performance in Lunar and Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Nabity, James; Mason, Georgia; Copeland, Robert; Libberton, Kerry; Stephan, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut's metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 3.48 lbs, an additional eight pounds of water are loaded into the unit of which about six to eight are sublimated and lost; this is the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the Astronaut during an EVA, we can significantly reduce the amount of expendable water consumed by the sublimator. Last year we reported on the design and initial operational assessment tests of our novel radiator designated the Radiator And Freeze Tolerant heat eXchanger (RAFT-X). Herein, we report on tests conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Chamber E Thermal Vacuum Test Facility. Up to 800 Btu/h of heat were rejected in lunar and Mars environments with temperatures as cold as 150 F. Tilting the radiator did not cause an observable loss in performance. The RAFT-X endured freeze/thaw cycles and in fact, the heat exchanger was completely frozen three times without any apparent damage to the unit. We were also able to operate the heat exchanger in a partially frozen configuration to throttle the heat rejection rate from 530 Btu/h at low water flow rate down to 300 Btu/h. Finally, the deliberate loss of a single loop heat pipe only degraded the heat rejection performance by about 2 to 5%.

  10. Space Suit Radiator Performance in Lunar and Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabity, James; Mason, Georgia; Copeland, Robert; Libberton, Kerry; Trevino, Luis; Stephan, Ryan; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    During an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA), both the heat generated by the astronaut's metabolism and that produced by the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) must be rejected to space. The heat sources include the heat of adsorption of metabolic CO2, the heat of condensation of water, the heat removed from the body by the liquid cooling garment and the load from the electrical components. Although the sublimator hardware to reject this load weighs only 3.48 lbs, an additional eight pounds of water are loaded into the unit of which about six to eight are sublimated and lost; this is the single largest expendable during an eight-hour EVA. Using a radiator to reject heat from the Astronaut during an EVA, we can significantly reduce the amount of expendable water consumed by the sublimator. Last year we reported on the design and initial operational assessment tests of our novel radiator designated the Radiator And Freeze Tolerant heat eXchanger (RAFT-X). Herein, we report on tests conducted in the NASA Johnson Space Center Chamber E Thermal Vacuum Test Facility. Up to 800 Btu/h of heat were rejected in lunar and Mars environments with temperatures as cold as -150 F. Tilting the radiator did not cause an observable loss in performance. The RAFT-X endured freeze / thaw cycles and in fact, the heat exchanger was completely frozen three times without any apparent damage to the unit. We were also able to operate the heat exchanger in a partially frozen configuration to throttle the heat rejection rate from 530 Btu/h at low water flow rate down to 300 Btu/h. Finally, the deliberate loss of a single loop heat pipe only degraded the heat rejection performance by about 2 to 5%.

  11. The Enceladus Ionizing Radiation Environment: Implications for Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Davila, A. F.; McKay, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus' subsurface ocean is a possible abode for life, but it is inaccessible with current technology. However, icy particles and vapor are being expelled into space through surface fractures known as Tiger Stripes, forming a large plume centered in the South Polar Terrains. Direct chemical analyses by Cassini have revealed salts and organic compounds in a significant fraction of plume particles, which suggests that the subsurface ocean is the main source of materials in the plume (i.e. frozen ocean spray). While smaller icy particles in the plume reach escape velocity and feed Saturn's E-ring, larger particles fall back on the moon's surface, where they accumulate as icy mantling deposits at practically all latitudes. The organic content of these fall-out materials could be of great astrobiological relevance. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) that strike both Enceladus' surface and the lofted icy particles produce ionizing radiation in the form of high-energy electrons, protons, gamma rays, neutrons and muons. An additional source of ionizing radiation is the population of energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere. The effects of ionizing radiation in matter always involve the destruction of chemical bonds and the creation of free radicals. Both affect organic matter, and can damage or destroy biomarkers over time. Using ionizing radiation transport codes, we recreated the radiation environment on the surface of Enceladus, and evaluated its possible effects on organic matter (including biomarkers) in the icy mantling deposits. Here, we present full Monte-Carlo simulations of the nuclear reactions induced by the GCRs hitting Enceladus's surface using a code based on the GEANT-4 toolkit for the transport of particles. To model the GCR primary spectra for Z= 1-26 (protons to iron nuclei) we assumed the CREAME96 model under solar minimum, modified to take into account Enceladus' location. We considered bulk compositions of: i) pure water ice, ii) water ice

  12. Atmospheric, Ionospheric, and Energetic Radiation Environments of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Kollmann, P.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Johnson, R. E.; Sturner, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary magnetospheric and high-energy cosmic ray interactions with Saturn's rings were first explored in-situ during the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. The following Voyager flybys produced a wealth of new information on ring structure and mass, and on spatial structure of the radiation belts beyond the main rings. Next came the Cassini Orbiter flyover of the rings during Saturn Orbital Insertion in 2004 with the first in-situ measurements of the ring atmosphere and plasma ionosphere. Cassini has since fully explored the radiation belt and magnetospheric plasma region beyond the main rings, discovering how Enceladus acts as a source of water group neutrals and water ions for the ion plasma. But do the main rings also substantially contribute by UV photolysis to water group plasma (H+, O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+, O2+) and neutrals inwards from Enceladus? More massive rings, than earlier inferred from Pioneer 11 and Voyager observations, would further contribute by bulk ring ice radiolysis from interactions of galactic cosmic ray particles. Products of these interactions include neutron-decay proton and electron injection into the radiation belts beyond the main rings. How does radiolysis from moon and ring sweeping of the radiation belt particles compare with direct gas and plasma sources from the main rings and Enceladus? Can the magnetospheric ion and electron populations reasonably be accounted for by the sum of the ring-neutron-decay and outer magnetospheric inputs? Pioneer 11 made the deepest radial penetration into the C-ring, next followed by Cassini SOI. What might Cassini's higher-inclination proximal orbits reveal about the atmospheric, ionospheric, and energetic radiation environments in the D-ring and the proximal gap region? Recent modeling predicts a lower-intensity innermost radiation belt extending from the gap to the inner D-ring. Other remaining questions include the lifetimes of narrow and diffuse dust rings with respect to plasma and energetic particle

  13. Inheritance of induction radiation sensitivity of space flight environments and γ-radiation on rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Wang, J.; Wei, L.; Li, Z.; Sun, Y.

    There are many factors affecting living things during space flight, such as microgravity, cosmic radiation, etc. A large number of plant mutants have been obtained after space flight on satellite in China in the last decade and some commercial crop varieties were released. However, little consideration has so far been given to the genetic mechanisms underlying sensitivity of plant seeds to space flight environments. To reveal the genetic mechanisms associated with induction radiation sensitivity (IRS), a set of 226 recombination inbred lines (RILs) derived from Lemont (japonica)/ Teqing (indica) F13, were analyzed using 164 well-distributed DNA markers and assayed for the traits related to IRS including rate of survival seedling (RSS), seedling height (SH), seed setting rate (SSR) and total physiological damage (TPD) in replicated trials after space flight on Chinese Shenzhou IV Spacecraft andγ -radiation treatment (35000 rad) on the ground in 2002. Seedling growth of Lemont was accelerated after space flight with the SH of 116.2% of ground control while growth suppression was happened for Teqing with the SH of 85.7% of ground control. γ -radiation treatment resulted in significant decrease in all tested traits for the two parents, indicating space flight and γ -radiation treatment had different biological effects on the two parents. Significant differences were detected among the RILs for their responses to space flight environments and γ -radiation, reflected as the difference in the four tested traits. Space flight resulted in stimulation on growth for 57.1% lines whileγ -radiation had suppression on growth for most lines. Seventeen putative main-effect QTLs was identified for the four traits related to IRS under space flight and γ -radiation, which totally explained significant portions of the total trait variation (4.4% for RSS, 27.2% for SH, 4% for SSR and 15.8% for TPD for space flight; 10.4% for RSS, 15.1% for SH, 8.2% for SSR and 6.1% for TPD for

  14. Radiation Environments for Future Human Exploration Throughout the Solar System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.; Linker, J.; Riley, P.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Spence, H. E.; Desai, M. I.; Mikic, Z.; Joyce, C. J.; Kozarev, K. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    mission durations. If the heliospheric magnetic field continues to weaken over time, as is likely, then allowable mission durations will decrease correspondingly. Thus, we examine the rapidly changing radiation environment and its implications for human exploration destinations throughout the inner solar system.

  15. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  16. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Radiation Environment Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W. C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Smith, Shawn; Swift, Wesley R.; ODell, Stephen L.; Cameron, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is an environmental risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and the on-board Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) does not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. In addition to the concerns arising from the radiation belts, substorm injections of plasma from the magnetotail may increase the protons flux by orders of magnitude in this energy range. The Earth's magnetosphere is a dynamic entity, with the size and location of the magnetopause driven by the highly variable solar wind parameters (number density, velocity, and magnetic field components). Operational times for the telescope must be made weeks in advance, decisions which are complicated by the variability of the environment. CRMFLX is an engineering model developed to address these problems and provides proton flux and fluence statistics for the terrestrial outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and solar wind for use in scheduling ACIS operations. CRMFLX implements a number of standard models to predict the bow shock, magnetopause, and plasma sheet boundaries based on the sampling of historical solar wind data sets. Measurements from the GEOTAIL and POLAR spacecraft are used to create the proton flux database. This paper describes the recently released CRMFLX v2 implementation that includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions in electric and magnetic fields. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum

  17. Coherent and radiative couplings through two-dimensional structured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent and radiative interactions induced among two or more quantum units by coupling them to two-dimensional (2D) lattices acting as structured environments. This model can be representative of atoms trapped near photonic crystal slabs, trapped ions in Coulomb crystals, or to surface acoustic waves on piezoelectric materials, cold atoms on state-dependent optical lattices, or even circuit QED architectures, to name a few. We compare coherent and radiative contributions for the isotropic and directional regimes of emission into the lattice, for infinite and finite lattices, highlighting their differences and existing pitfalls, e.g., related to long-time or large-lattice limits. We relate the phenomenon of directionality of emission with linear-shaped isofrequency manifolds in the dispersion relation, showing a simple way to disrupt it. For finite lattices, we study further details such as the scaling of resonant number of lattice modes for the isotropic and directional regimes, and relate this behavior with known van Hove singularities in the infinite lattice limit. Furthermore, we export the understanding of emission dynamics with the decay of entanglement for two quantum, atomic or bosonic, units coupled to the 2D lattice. We analyze in some detail completely subradiant configurations of more than two atoms, which can occur in the finite lattice scenario, in contrast with the infinite lattice case. Finally, we demonstrate that induced coherent interactions for dark states are zero for the finite lattice.

  18. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; ...

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size ofmore » ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M₂₃C₆ precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.« less

  19. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.; Yang, Y.; Hartwig, K. T.; Maloy, S. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Allen, T. R.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M23C6 precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  20. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Zheng, S; Wei, C C; Wu, Y; Shao, L; Yang, Y; Hartwig, K T; Maloy, S A; Zinkle, S J; Allen, T R; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304 L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500 °C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M(23)C(6) precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  1. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C.; Zheng, S.; Wei, C. C.; Wu, Y.; Shao, L.; Yang, Y.; Hartwig, K. T.; Maloy, S. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Allen, T. R.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500°C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M23C6 precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments. PMID:25588326

  2. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.

    PubMed

    Zanne, Amy E; Tank, David C; Cornwell, William K; Eastman, Jonathan M; Smith, Stephen A; FitzJohn, Richard G; McGlinn, Daniel J; O'Meara, Brian C; Moles, Angela T; Reich, Peter B; Royer, Dana L; Soltis, Douglas E; Stevens, Peter F; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Aarssen, Lonnie; Bertin, Robert I; Calaminus, Andre; Govaerts, Rafaël; Hemmings, Frank; Leishman, Michelle R; Oleksyn, Jacek; Soltis, Pamela S; Swenson, Nathan G; Warman, Laura; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2014-02-06

    Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species' traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.

  3. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    RHESE covers a broad range of technology areas and products. - Radiation Hardened Electronics - High Performance Processing - Reconfigurable Computing - Radiation Environmental Effects Modeling - Low Temperature Radiation Hardened Electronics. RHESE has aligned with currently defined customer needs. RHESE is leveraging/advancing SOA space electronics, not duplicating. - Awareness of radiation-related activities through out government and industry allow advancement rather than duplication of capabilities.

  4. The Natural Radiation Environment, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Jacob

    The somatic and genetic effects of naturally occurring radiation are described in this illustrated booklet. Internal sources of radiation from food, water, and air and external sources including radioisotopes in rock, brick, water, and air and cosmic radiation are tabulated. Detection methods are described, and their use in biological and physical…

  5. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Xapsos, M.A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S.S.; Ladbury, R.L.; Pellish, J.A.; Campola, M.J.; LaBel, K.A.

    2017-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the radiation design margin concept with one of failure probability during a mission. PMID:28804156

  6. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; LaBel, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the radiation design margin concept with one of failure probability during a mission.

  7. Radiation Hardness of dSiPM Sensors in a Proton Therapy Radiation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diblen, Faruk; Buitenhuis, Tom; Solf, Torsten; Rodrigues, Pedro; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Brandenburg, Sytze; Dendooven, Peter

    2017-07-01

    In vivo verification of dose delivery in proton therapy by means of positron emission tomography (PET) or prompt gamma imaging is mostly based on fast scintillation detectors. The digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) allows excellent scintillation detector timing properties and is thus being considered for such verification methods. We present here the results of the first investigation of radiation damage to dSiPM sensors in a proton therapy radiation environment. Radiation hardness experiments were performed at the AGOR cyclotron facility at the KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen. A 150-MeV proton beam was fully stopped in a water target. In the first experiment, bare dSiPM sensors were placed at 25 cm from the Bragg peak, perpendicular to the beam direction, a geometry typical for an in situ implementation of a PET or prompt gamma imaging device. In the second experiment, dSiPM-based PET detectors containing lutetium yttrium orthosilicate scintillator crystal arrays were placed at 2 and 4 m from the Bragg peak, perpendicular to the beam direction; resembling an in-room PET implementation. Furthermore, the experimental setup was simulated with a Geant4-based Monte Carlo code in order to determine the angular and energy distributions of the neutrons and to determine the 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluences delivered to the dSiPM sensors. A noticeable increase in dark count rate (DCR) after an irradiation with about 108 1-MeV equivalent neutrons/cm2 agrees with observations by others for analog SiPMs, indicating that the radiation damage occurs in the single photon avalanche diodes and not in the electronics integrated on the sensor chip. It was found that in the in situ location, the DCR becomes too large for successful operation after the equivalent of a few weeks of use in a proton therapy treatment room (about 5 × 1013 protons). For PET detectors in an in-room setup, detector performance was unchanged even after an

  8. Radiation environment study of near space in China area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dongdong; Chen, Xingfeng; Li, Zhengqiang; Mei, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Aerospace activity becomes research hotspot for worldwide aviation big countries. Solar radiation study is the prerequisite for aerospace activity to carry out, but lack of observation in near space layer becomes the barrier. Based on reanalysis data, input key parameters are determined and simulation experiments are tried separately to simulate downward solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation transfer process of near space in China area. Results show that atmospheric influence on the solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation transfer process has regional characteristic. As key factors such as ozone are affected by atmospheric action both on its density, horizontal and vertical distribution, meteorological data of stratosphere needs to been considered and near space in China area is divided by its activity feature. Simulated results show that solar and ultraviolet radiation is time, latitude and ozone density-variant and has complicated variation characteristics.

  9. Radiation in controlled environments: influence of lamp type and filter material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Bugbee, B.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation in controlled environments was characterized using fluorescent and various high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps, including metal halide, low-pressure sodium, and high-pressure sodium as the radiation source. The effects of water, glass, or Plexiglas filters on radiation were determined. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF, 400 to 700 nm), spectra (400 to 1000 nm), shortwave radiation (285-2800 nm), and total radiation (300 to 100,000 nm) were measured, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) and longwave radiation (2800 to 100,000 nm) were calculated. Measurement of PPF alone was not an adequate characterization of the radiation environment. Total radiant flux varied among lamp types at equal PPF. HID lamps provided a lower percentage of longwave radiation than fluorescent lamps, but, when HID lamps provided PPF levels greater than that possible with fluorescent lamps, the amount of longwave radiation was high. Water was the most effective longwave radiation filter. Glass and Plexiglas similarly filtered longwave more than shortwave radiation, but transmission of nonphotosynthetic shortwave radiation was less with Plexiglas than glass. The filter materials tested would not be expected to influence photomorphogenesis because radiation in the action spectrum of phytochrome was not altered, but this may not be the only pigment involved.

  10. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  11. Uncertainties in radiation effect predictions for the natural radiation environments of space.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P J; Stassinopoulos, E G

    1994-10-01

    Future manned missions beyond low earth orbit require accurate predictions of the risk to astronauts and to critical systems from exposure to ionizing radiation. For low-level exposures, the hazards are dominated by rare single-event phenomena where individual cosmic-ray particles or spallation reactions result in potentially catastrophic changes in critical components. Examples might be a biological lesion leading to cancer in an astronaut or a memory upset leading to an undesired rocket firing. The risks of such events appears to depend on the amount of energy deposited within critical sensitive volumes of biological cells and microelectronic components. The critical environmental information needed to estimate the risks posed by the natural space environments, including solar flares, is the number of times more than a threshold amount of energy for an event will be deposited in the critical microvolumes. These predictions are complicated by uncertainties in the natural environments, particularly the composition of flares, and by the effects of shielding. Microdosimetric data for large numbers of orbits are needed to improve the environmental models and to test the transport codes used to predict event rates.

  12. Uncertainties in radiation effect predictions for the natural radiation environments of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, P. J.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond low earth orbit require accurate predictions of the risk to astronauts and to critical systems from exposure to ionizing radiation. For low-level exposures, the hazards are dominated by rare single-event phenomena where individual cosmic-ray particles or spallation reactions result in potentially catastrophic changes in critical components. Examples might be a biological lesion leading to cancer in an astronaut or a memory upset leading to an undesired rocket firing. The risks of such events appears to depend on the amount of energy deposited within critical sensitive volumes of biological cells and microelectronic components. The critical environmental information needed to estimate the risks posed by the natural space environments, including solar flares, is the number of times more than a threshold amount of energy for an event will be deposited in the critical microvolumes. These predictions are complicated by uncertainties in the natural environments, particularly the composition of flares, and by the effects of shielding. Microdosimetric data for large numbers of orbits are needed to improve the environmental models and to test the transport codes used to predict event rates.

  13. The ionizing radiation environment of LDEF prerecovery predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W., Jr.; Derrickson, James H.; Parnell, T. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was exposed to several sources of ionizing radiation while in orbit. The principal ones were trapped belt protons and electrons, galactic cosmic rays, and albedo particles (protons and neutrons) from the atmosphere. Large solar flares in 1989 may have caused a small contribution. Prior to the recovery of the spacecraft, a number of calculations and estimates were made to predict the radiation exposure of the spacecraft and experiments. These were made to assess whether measurable radiation effects might exist, and to plan the analysis of the large number of radiation measurements available on the LDEF. Calculations and estimates of total dose, particle fluences, linear energy transfer spectra, and induced radioactivity were made. The principal sources of radiation is described, and the preflight predictions are summarized.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of solar radiation on glass. [space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Harada, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The degradation of glass used on space structures due to electromagnetic and particulate radiation in a space environment was evaluated. The space environment was defined and a simulated space exposure apparatus was constructed. Four optical materials were exposed to simulated solar and particulate radiation in a space environment. Sapphire and fused silica experienced little change in transmittance, while optical crown glass and ultra low expansion glass darkened appreciably. Specimen selection and preparation, exposure conditions, and the effect of simulated exposure are discussed. A selective bibliography of the effect of radiation on glass is included.

  15. Probing Jupiter's Radiation Environment with Juno-UVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Versteeg, M. H.; Davis, M. W.; Santos-Costa, D.; Becker, H. N.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S.

    2017-12-01

    While primarily designed to observe photon emission from the Jovian aurora, Juno's Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS) has also measured background count rates associated with penetrating high-energy radiation. These background counts are distinguishable from photon events, as they are generally spread evenly across the entire array of the Juno-UVS detector, and as the spacecraft spins, they set a baseline count rate higher than the sky background rate. During eight perijove passes, this background radiation signature has varied significantly on both short (spin-modulated) timescales, as well as longer timescales ( minutes to hours). We present comparisons of the Juno-UVS data across each of the eight perijove passes, with a focus on the count rate that can be clearly attributed to radiation effects rather than photon events. Once calibrated to determine the relationship between count rate and penetrating high-energy radiation (e.g., using existing GEANT models), these in situ measurements by Juno-UVS will provide additional constraints to radiation belt models close to the planet.

  16. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  18. Spacecraft Environments Interactive: Space Radiation and Its Effects on Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. W., Jr.; Hardage, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    The natural space environment is characterized by complex and subtle phenomena hostile to spacecraft. Effects of these phenomena impact spacecraft design, development, and operation. Space systems become increasingly susceptible to the space environment as use of composite materials and smaller, faster electronics increases. This trend makes an understanding of space radiation and its effects on electronic systems essential to accomplish overall mission objectives, especially in the current climate of smaller/better/cheaper faster. This primer outlines the radiation environments encountered in space, discusses regions and types of radiation, applies the information to effects that these environments have on electronic systems, addresses design guidelines and system reliability, and stresses the importance of early involvement of radiation specialists in mission planning, system design, and design review (part-by-part verification).

  19. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  20. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0053, December 9, 2008. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R&IEN) network identified Internet Protocol addresses with medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  1. Exploration Technology Developments Program's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Darty, Ronald C.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Objective: 1) A computational tool to accurately predict electronics performance in the presence of space radiation in support of spacecraft design: a) Total dose; b) Single Event Effects; and c) Mean Time Between Failure. (Developed as successor to CR ME96.) Secondary Objectives: 2) To provide a detailed description of the natural radiation environment in support of radiation health and instrument design: a) In deep space; b) Inside the magnetosphere; and c) Behind shielding.

  2. Radiation environment and shielding for early manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.; Mccann, Michael E.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of shielding a crew during early manned Mars missions is discussed. Requirements for shielding are presented in the context of current astronaut exposure limits, natural ionizing radiation sources, and shielding inherent in a particular Mars vehicle configuration. An estimated range for shielding weight is presented based on the worst solar flare dose, mission duration, and inherent vehicle shielding.

  3. Using a Commercial Ethernet PHY Device in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Jeremy; Arani, Michael; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This work involved placing a commercial Ethernet PHY on its own power boundary, with limited current supply, and providing detection methods to determine when the device is not operating and when it needs either a reset or power-cycle. The device must be radiation-tested and free of destructive latchup errors. The commercial Ethernet PHY's own power boundary must be supplied by a current-limited power regulator that must have an enable (for power cycling), and its maximum power output must not exceed the PHY's input requirements, thus preventing damage to the device. A regulator with configurable output limits and short-circuit protection (such as the RHFL4913, rad hard positive voltage regulator family) is ideal. This will prevent a catastrophic failure due to radiation (such as a short between the commercial device's power and ground) from taking down the board's main power. Logic provided on the board will detect errors in the PHY. An FPGA (field-programmable gate array) with embedded Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) will work well. The error detection includes monitoring the PHY's interrupt line, and the status of the Ethernet's switched power. When the PHY is determined to be non-functional, the logic device resets the PHY, which will often clear radiation induced errors. If this doesn't work, the logic device power-cycles the FPGA by toggling the regulator's enable input. This should clear almost all radiation induced errors provided the device is not latched up.

  4. The ultraviolet radiation environment of pollen and its effect on pollen germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The damage to pollen caused by natural ultraviolet radiation was investigated. Experimental and literature research into the UV radiation environment is reported. Viability and germination of wind and insect pollinated species were determined. Physiological, developmental, and protective factors influencing UV sensitivity of binucleate, advanced binucleate, and trinucleate pollen grains are compared.

  5. Effects of the specular Orbiter forward radiators on a typical Spacelab payload thermal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. D.; Humphries, W. R.; Littles, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Orbiter radiators, having a specular reflection, must be considered when determining the design environment for payloads which can view the forward deployed radiators. Unlike most surfaces on the Orbiter, which reflect energy diffusely, the radiators are covered with a highly specular silverized Teflon material, with high emissivity, and have a concave contour, producing a local concentration of reflected energy towards the region of angle incidence. The combined effects of radiator specularity and geometry were analyzed using the Thermal Radiation Analysis System (TRASYS II), a specialized ray trace program, and a generalized Monte-Carlo-based thermal radiation program. Data given for a 0 deg payload inclination angle at orbital noon at 3.454 m indicate that the maximum total flux and average flux can increase 173% and 63%, respectively, when compared to diffuse radiators.

  6. Iodine-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) in a radiation oncology environment

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, Roger M.

    2006-10-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) tositumomab (Bexxar; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC) is one of two recently approved radiolabeled antibodies directed against the CD20 surface antigen found on normal B cells and in more than 95% of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The compound itself is formulated as an IgG2a immunoglobulin radiolabeled with the mixed beta/gamma emitter I-131. Multicenter clinical trials have repeatedly shown impressive clinical responses (20-40% complete response rates and 60-80% overall response rates) in the patient groups for whom this treatment is indicated. Treatment-related toxicity is generally extremely mild and typically involves only reversible hematopoietic suppression and (in some cases) amore » risk of treatment-induced hypothyroidism. Owing to Radiation safety concerns necessitated by the clinical use of this targeted radiopharmaceutical, it is important for radiation oncology departments wishing to participate in the care of these patients to establish methodologies and standard operating procedures for safe and efficient departmental use. This summary reviews the pertinent background information related to the current clinical experience with I-131 tositumomab and highlights some of the major opportunities for the participation of radiation oncology in the patient evaluation and treatment process. I-131 tositumomab provides an excellent example of the way in which the increasingly important new field of 'targeted therapy' intersects with the practice of clinical radiotherapy. The author contends that it will be worth the time and effort involved in establishing a firm basis for the development of a comprehensive program for systemic targeted radiopharmaceutical therapies (STaRT) within Radiation medicine domain.« less

  7. Radiation effects control: Eyes, skin. [space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, D.; Smathers, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Adverse effects on the lens of the eye and the skin due to exposure to proton radiation during manned space flight were evaluated. Actual proton irradiation which might be encountered in space was simulated. Irradiation regimes included single acute exposures, daily fractionated exposures, and weekly fractionated exposures. Animals were exposed and then maintained and examined periodically until data sufficient to meet the objective were obtained. No significant skin effects were noted and no serious sight impairment was exhibited.

  8. Lithium-drifted silicon for harsh radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J.; Buttar, C.; Brozel, M.; Keffous, A.; Cheriet, A.; Bourenane, K.; Bourenane, A.; Kezzoula, F.; Menari, H.

    2008-06-01

    A model describing the passivation by Li atoms of acceptors arising from radiation damage in Si detectors has been developed. Our studies indicate that it is possible to produce a protocol that will allow the in-situ recovery of lithium-drifted Si particle detectors under irradiation by high-energy particles. Our model for particle damage recovery is supported by preliminary results on the recovery of old, degraded detectors.

  9. Potential of a New Lunar Surface Radiator Concept for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Dustin A.; Vogel, Matthew R.; Trevino, Luis A.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft s vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approx.325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Upright Lunar Terrain Radiator Assembly (ULTRA), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of the ULTRA is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry. Analysis of the ULTRA for a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support system (PLSS) is shown to provide moderate heat rejection, on average, at all solar incident angles assuming an average radiator temperature of 294 K, whereas prior concepts exhibited insignificant heat rejection or heat absorption at higher incident angles. The performance of the ULTRA for a lunar lander is also discussed and compared to the performance of a vertically oriented, flat panel radiator at various lunar latitudes.

  10. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2007-01-01

    In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining

  11. Radiation Environments on Mars and Their Implications for Terrestrial Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, I.; Kasting, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The understanding of the surface and subsurface radiation environments of a terrestrial planet such as Mars is crucial to its potential past and/or present habitability. Despite this, the subject of high energy radiation is rarely contemplated within the field of Astrobiology as an essential factor determining the realistic parameter space for the development and preservation of life. Furthermore, not much is known of the radiation environment on the surface of Mars due to the fact that no real data exist on this contribution. There are no direct measurements available as no surface landers/probes have ever carried nuclear radiation detection equipment to characterize the interactions arising from cosmic ray bombardment, solar particle events and the atmosphere striking the planetary surface. The first mission set to accomplish this task, the Mars Science Laboratory, is not scheduled to launch until 2011. Presented here are some of such simulations performed with the HZETRN NASA code offering radiation depth profiles as well as a characterization of the diverse radiation environments. A discussion of the implications that these projected doses would have on terrestrial planetary habitability on Mars is presented as well as its implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets elsewhere. This work does not provide an estimate of the UV radiation fields on the Martian surface instead it focuses on the high energy radiation fields as composed by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs)

  12. Bullying among radiation therapists: effects on job performance and work environment.

    PubMed

    Trad, Megan; Johnson, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    To identify the effects of workplace bullying in the radiation therapy department on job performance and explore the environment and morale of individuals who work with a bully. A quantitative research study was designed to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying in the radiation therapy workplace. A total of 308 radiation therapists participated in the study for a return rate of 46%. Of those, 194 indicated that workplace bullying was present either in their current workplace or in a previous radiation therapy environment and that it negatively affected job performance and satisfaction. Findings of this study indicate a need for evaluation of the radiation therapy workplace, education on how to identify and prevent bullying behavior, and better communication among members of the radiation therapy environment. Participants indicated that working in a hostile environment led to forgetfulness, ineffective communication, and perceived discrepancies in promotion and treatment by management. Any bullying behavior contributes to an overall toxic work environment, which is unhealthy and unsafe for patients and therapists. Those who manage therapists should promote a culture of safety and embrace their staff's independence.

  13. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  14. Radiation and Internal Charging Environments for Thin Dielectrics in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Altstatt, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft designs using solar sails for propulsion or thin membranes to shade instruments from the sun to achieve cryogenic operating temperatures are being considered for a number of missions in the next decades. A common feature of these designs are thin dielectric materials that will be exposed to the solar wind, solar energetic particle events, and the distant magnetotail plasma environments encountered by spacecraft in orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. This paper will discuss the relevant radiation and internal charging environments developed to support spacecraft design for both total dose radiation effects as well as dose rate dependent phenomenon, such as internal charging in the solar wind and distant magnetotail environments. We will describe the development of radiation and internal charging environment models based on nearly a complete solar cycle of Ulysses solar wind plasma measurements over a complete range of heliocentric latitudes and the early years of the Geotail mission where distant magnetotail plasma environments were sampled beyond X(sub GSE) = -100 Re to nearly L2 (X(sub GSE) -236 Re). Example applications of the environment models are shown to demonstrate the radiation and internal charging environments of thin materials exposed to the interplanetary space plasma environments.

  15. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; LaBel, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the design margin concept with one of failure probability.

  16. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  17. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data.

  18. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  19. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  20. Space Radiation Transport Codes: A Comparative Study for Galactic Cosmic Rays Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Gabriel, Tony; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Slaba, Tony

    For long duration and/or deep space human missions, protection from severe space radiation exposure is a challenging design constraint and may be a potential limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues, microelectronic devices, and materials. In deep space missions, where the Earth's magnetic field does not provide protection from space radiation, the GCR environment is significantly enhanced due to the absence of geomagnetic cut-off and is a major component of radiation exposure. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information as well as radiation transport codes used, and so systematic verification of codes is necessary. In this study, comparisons are made between the deterministic code HZETRN2006 and the Monte Carlo codes HETC-HEDS and FLUKA for an aluminum shield followed by a water target exposed to the 1977 solar minimum GCR spectrum. Interaction and transport of high charge ions present in GCR radiation environment provide a more stringent constraint in the comparison of the codes. Dose, dose equivalent and flux spectra are compared; details of the comparisons will be discussed, and conclusions will be drawn for future directions.

  1. Performance Characterization of Digital Optical Data Transfer Systems for Use in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Ladbury, Ray L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects in photonic and microelectronic components can impact the performance of high-speed digital optical data link in a variety of ways. This segment of the short course focuses on radiation effects in digital optical data links operating in the MHz to GHz regime. (Some of the information is applicable to frequencies above and below this regime) The three basic component level effects that should be considered are Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Displacement Damage Dose (DDD) and Single Event Effects (SEE). In some cases the system performance degradation can be quantified from component level tests, while in others a more holistic characterization approach must be taken. In Section 2.0 of this segment of the Short Course we will give a brief overview of the space radiation environment follow by a summary of the basic space radiation effects important for microelectronics and photonics listed above. The last part of this section will give an example of a typical mission radiation environment requirements. Section 3.0 gives an overview of intra-satellite digital optical data link systems. It contains a discussion of the digital optical data link and it's components. Also, we discuss some of the important system performance metrics that are impacted by radiation effects degradation of optical and optoelectronic component performance. Section 4.0 discusses radiation effects in optical and optoelectronic components. While each component effect will be discussed, the focus of this section is on degradation of passive optical components and SEE in photodiodes (other mechanisms are covered in segment II of this short course entitled "Photonic Devices with Complex and Multiple Failure Modes"). Section 5.0 will focus on optical data link system response to the space radiation environment. System level SEE ground testing will be discussed. Then we give a discussion of system level assessment of data link performance when operating in the space radiation environment.

  2. Radiation tolerant passive and active optical fiber products for use in space environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mark; Hankey, Judith; Gray, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the radiation performance results of several new product types designed for high radiation environments. The products tested include radiation hardened highly birefringent (HiBi) passive products for polarised applications and radiation tolerant active erbium doped fiber products for amplifiers. Radiation hardened, short beatlength HiBi fiber products have been developed for high accuracy polarisation maintaining (PM) gyros and sensors at both 1310nm and 1550nm operation in the space environment. The fibers have been tested up to 5kGy (500krad) - levels which could be expected in extreme, extra-terrestrial space environments. Results show a consistently low Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) of <7dB/km at 5kGy, giving a RIA value of 1.37×10-2 dB/km/krad at 1550nm for this product range. Radiation tolerant EDF AstroGain™ fibers are intended for use in multichannel amplifiers in optical intersatellite communications. The structure of the fibers have been designed to deliver an accelerated recovery of radiation damage through photo-annealing using only the residual energy already available in an amplifier using a 980nm pumping regime. These products have been tested up to 200Gy (20krad) - levels which can be expected in Earth orbit environments over a 20-30 mission lifetime. Results show up to 100% recovery under continuous use for dose rates of 0.11rad/hr. It has also been demonstrated through analysis of the optical spectral output that this effect reverses the gain tilt, or spectral narrowing, induced by radiation damage through the C and L band. These combined fiber characteristics allow performance stability of the amplifier over the lifetime of the space mission.

  3. The Los Alamos dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM) for space weather specification and forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H W; Chen, Yue

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess, quantify, and predict the hazards from the natural space environment and the anthropogenic environment produced by high altitude nuclear explosions (HANE). DREAM was initially developed as a basic research activity to understand and predict the dynamics of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. It uses Kalman filter techniques to assimilate data from space environment instruments with a physics-based model of the radiation belts. DREAM can assimilate data from a variety of types of instruments and data with various levels of resolution and fidelity bymore » assigning appropriate uncertainties to the observations. Data from any spacecraft orbit can be assimilated but DREAM was designed to function with as few as two spacecraft inputs: one from geosynchronous orbit and one from GPS orbit. With those inputs, DREAM can be used to predict the environment at any satellite in any orbit whether space environment data are available in those orbits or not. Even with very limited data input and relatively simple physics models, DREAM specifies the space environment in the radiation belts to a high level of accuracy. DREAM has been extensively tested and evaluated as we transition from research to operations. We report here on one set of test results in which we predict the environment in a highly-elliptical polar orbit. We also discuss long-duration reanalysis for spacecraft design, using DREAM for real-time operations, and prospects for 1-week forecasts of the radiation belt environment.« less

  4. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2017-09-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Australia's proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: how integrated is it with radiation protection of humans?

    PubMed

    Hirth, G A; Grzechnik, M; Tinker, R; Larsson, C M

    2018-01-01

    Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context. These approaches and the supporting assessment tools provide a mechanism for industry to assess and demonstrate compliance with the environmental protection objectives of relevant legislation, and to meet stakeholder expectations that radiological protection of the environment is taken into consideration in accordance with international best practice. Experiences from the past 5-10 years, and examples of where the approach to radiation protection of the environment has been well integrated or presented some challenges will be discussed. Future challenges in addressing protection of the environment in existing exposure situations will also be discussed.

  6. A Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. The term safely means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences (for example, excess lifetime fatal cancer risk) can be defined. The Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the understanding of health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus the fourth element develops computer codes to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining methods to mitigate the risks are keys to a successful radiation protection strategy.

  7. Space Environment Effects: Low-Altitude Trapped Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, S. L.; Pfitzer, K. A.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate models of the Earth's trapped energetic proton environment are required for both piloted and robotic space missions. For piloted missions, the concern is mainly total dose to the astronauts, particularly in long-duration missions and during extravehicular activity (EVA). As astronomical and remote-sensing detectors become more sensitive, the proton flux can induce unwanted backgrounds in these instruments. Due to this unwanted background, the following description details the development of a new model for the low-trapped proton environment. The model is based on nearly 20 years of data from the TIRO/NOAA weather satellites. The model, which has been designated NOAAPRO (for NOAA protons), predicts the integral omnidirectional proton flux in three energy ranges: >16, >36, and >80 MeV. It contains a true solar cycle variation and accounts for the secular variation in the Earth's magnetic field. It also extends to lower values of the magnetic L parameter than does AP8. Thus, the model addresses the major shortcomings of AP8.

  8. Radiation environment on the Mir orbital station during solar minimum.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Cash, B; Petrov, V M; Akatov YuA; Tchernykh, I V; Shurshakov, V A; Arkhangelsky, V A

    1998-01-01

    The Mir station has been in a 51.65 degrees inclination orbit since March 1986. In March 1995, the first US astronaut flew on the Mir-18 mission and returned on the Space Shuttle in July 1995. Since then three additional US astronauts have stayed on orbit for up to 6 months. Since the return of the first US astronaut, both the Spektr and Priroda modules have docked with Mir station, altering the mass shielding distribution. Radiation measurements, including the direct comparison of US and Russian absorbed dose rates in the Base Block of the Mir station, were made during the Mir-18 and -19 missions. There is a significant variation of dose rates across the core module; the six locations sampled showed a variation of a factor of nearly two. A tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measured a total absorbed dose rate of 300 microGy/day, roughly equally divided between the rate due to trapped protons from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). This dose rate is about a factor of two lower than the rate measured by the thinly shielded (0.5 g cm-2 of Al) operational ion chamber (R-16), and about 3/2 of the rate of the more heavily shielded (3.5 g cm-2 of Al) ion chamber. This is due to the differences in the mass shielding properties at the location of these detectors. A comparison of integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra measured by TEPC and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) deployed side by side are in remarkable agreement in the LET region of 15-1000 keV/micrometer, where the PNTDs are fully efficient. The average quality factor, using the ICRP-26 definition, was 2.6, which is higher than normally used. There is excellent agreement between the measured GCR dose rate and model calculations, but this is not true for trapped protons. The measured Mir-18 crew skin dose equivalent rate was 1133 microSv/day. Using the skin dose rate and anatomical models, we have estimated the blood-forming organ (BFO) dose rate and the

  9. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara; Burnley, Pamela

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation:more » D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.« less

  10. Geant4 Predictions of Energy Spectra in Typical Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of energy spectra inside spacecraft is important for protecting astronauts as well as sensitive electronics from the harmful effects of space radiation. Such knowledge allows one to confidently map the radiation environment inside the vehicle. The purpose of this talk is to present preliminary calculations for energy spectra inside a spherical shell shielding and behind a slab in typical space radiation environment using the 3D Monte-Carlo transport code Geant4. We have simulated proton and iron isotropic sources and beams impinging on Aluminum and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) targets at energies of 0.2, 0.6, 1, and 10 GeV/u. If time permits, other radiation sources and beams (_, C, O) and targets (C, Si, Ge, water) will be presented. The results are compared to ground-based measurements where available.

  11. A fast simulation method for radiation maps using interpolation in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Kun; Liu, Yong-Kuo; Peng, Min-Jun; Xie, Chun-Li; Yang, Li-Qun

    2018-05-10

    In nuclear decommissioning, virtual simulation technology is a useful tool to achieve an effective work process by using virtual environments to represent the physical and logical scheme of a real decommissioning project. This technology is cost-saving and time-saving, with the capacity to develop various decommissioning scenarios and reduce the risk of retrofitting. The method utilises a radiation map in a virtual simulation as the basis for the assessment of exposure to a virtual human. In this paper, we propose a fast simulation method using a known radiation source. The method has a unique advantage over point kernel and Monte Carlo methods because it generates the radiation map using interpolation in a virtual environment. The simulation of the radiation map including the calculation and the visualisation were realised using UNITY and MATLAB. The feasibility of the proposed method was tested on a hypothetical case and the results obtained are discussed in this paper.

  12. Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2012-05-01

    The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

  13. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space and Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Cressler, John D.; Darty, Ronald C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Patrick, Marshall C.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project develops advanced technologies needed for high performance electronic devices that will be capable of operating within the demanding radiation and thermal extremes of the space, lunar, and Martian environment. The technologies developed under this project enhance and enable avionics within multiple mission elements of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. including the Constellation program's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. the Lunar Lander project, Lunar Outpost elements, and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) elements. This paper provides an overview of the RHESE project and its multiple task tasks, their technical approaches, and their targeted benefits as applied to NASA missions.

  14. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; hide

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  15. Radiation absorbed by a vertical cylinder in complex outdoor environments under clear sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krys, S. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1990-06-01

    Research was conducted into the estimation of radiation absorbed by a vertical cylinder in complex outdoor environments under clear sky conditions. Two methods of estimation were employed: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT) and model developed by Brown and Gillespie (1986), and the weather station model. The CRT produced an integrated temperature reading from which the radiant environment could be estimated successfully given simultaneous measurements of air temperature and wind speed. The CRT estimates compared to the measured radiation gave a correlation coefficient of 0.9499, SE=19.8 W/m2, α=99.9%. The physically-based equations (weather station model)require the inputs of data from a near by weather station and site characteristics to estimate radiation absorbed by a vertical cylinder. The correlation coefficient for the weather station model is 0.9529, SE=16.8 W/m2, α=99.9%. This model estimates short wave and long wave radiation separately; hence, this allowed further comparison to measured values. The short wave radiation was very successfully estimated: R=0.9865, SE=10.0 W/m2, α=99.9%. The long wave radiation estimates were also successful: R=0.8654, SE=15.7 W/m2, and α=99.9%. Though the correlation coefficient and standard error may suggest inaccuracy to the micrometeorologist, these estimation techniques would be extremely useful as predictors of human thermal comfort which is not a precise measure buut defined by a range. The reported methods require little specialized knowledge of micrometeorology and are vehicles for the designers of outdoor spaces to measure accurately the inherent radiant environment of outdoor spaces and provide a measurement technique to simulate or model the effect of various landscape elements on planned environments.

  16. Analysis of the solar radiation data for Beer Sheva, Israel, and its environs

    SciTech Connect

    Kudish, A.I.; Ianetz, A.

    The solar radiation climate of Beer Sheva, Israel, is reported upon in detail. The database utilized in this analysis consisted of global radiation on a horizontal surface, normal incidence beam radiation, and global radiation on a south-facing surface tilted at 40{degree}. Monthly-average hourly and daily values are reported for each of these three types of measured radiations, together with the calculated monthly-average daily values for the components of the global radiation, viz. the horizontal beam and diffuse radiations. The monthly-average hourly and daily clearness index values have also been calculated and analyzed. Monthly-average daily frequency distributions of the clearness indexmore » values are reported for each month. The solar radiation climate of Beer Sheva has also been compared to those reported for a number of countries in this region. The annual-average daily global radiation incident on a horizontal surface is 18.91 MG/m{sup 2} and that for normal incidence beam radiation is 21.17 MG/m{sup 2}. The annual-average daily fraction of the horizontal global radiation that is beam is 0.72. The annual-average daily value for the clearness index is 0.587 and the average frequency of clear days annually is 58.6%. The authors conclude, based upon the above analysis, that Beer Sheva and its environs are characterized by relatively high, average-daily irradiation rates, both global and beam, and a relatively high frequency of clear days.« less

  17. Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2011-02-01

    Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 °C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

  18. Experimental Characterization of a Composite Morphing Radiator Prototype in a Relevant Thermal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Chong, Jorge B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    For future long duration space missions, crewed vehicles will require advanced thermal control systems to maintain a desired internal environment temperature in spite of a large range of internal and external heat loads. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios (i.e. the ratio between the radiator's maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) of approximately 3:1. Upcoming missions will require radiators capable of 12:1 turndown ratios. A radiator with the ability to alter shape could significantly increase turndown capacity. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer promising qualities for this endeavor, namely their temperature-dependent phase change and capacity for work. In 2015, the first ever morphing radiator prototype was constructed in which SMA actuators passively altered the radiator shape in response to a thermal load. This work describes a follow-on endeavor to demonstrate a similar concept using highly thermally conductive composite materials. Numerous versions of this new concept were tested in a thermal vacuum environment and successfully demonstrated morphing behavior and variable heat rejection, achieving a turndown ratio of 4.84:1. A summary of these thermal experiments and their results are provided herein.

  19. Challenges in photon-starved space astronomy in a harsh radiation environment using CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David J.; Bush, Nathan; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Clarke, Andrew; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The Charge Coupled Device (CCD) has a long heritage for imaging and spectroscopy in many space astronomy missions. However, the harsh radiation environment experienced in orbit creates defects in the silicon that capture the signal being transferred through the CCD. This radiation damage has a detrimental impact on the detector performance and requires carefully planned mitigation strategies. The ESA Gaia mission uses 106 CCDs, now orbiting around the second Lagrange point as part of the largest focal-plane ever launched. Following readout, signal electrons will be affected by the traps generated in the devices from the radiation environment and this degradation will be corrected for using a charge distortion model. ESA's Euclid mission will contain a focal plane of 36 CCDs in the VIS instrument. Moving further forwards, the World Space Observatory (WSO) UV spectrographs and the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph intend to look at very faint sources in which mitigating the impact of traps on the transfer of single electron signals will be of great interest. Following the development of novel experimental and analysis techniques, one is now able to study the impact of radiation on the detector to new levels of detail. Through a combination of TCAD simulations, defect studies and device testing, we are now probing the interaction of single electrons with individual radiation-induced traps to analyse the impact of radiation in photon-starved applications.

  20. The Martian surface radiation environment - a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Ehresmann, Bent; Lohf, Henning; Köhler, Jan; Zeitlin, Cary; Appel, Jan; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Slaba, Tony; Martin, Cesar; Berger, Thomas; Boehm, Eckart; Boettcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Hassler, Donald M.; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Reitz, Günther; Wilson, John W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS) were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle spectra with respect to

  1. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Because advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  2. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Since advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  3. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR UV RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface of aquatic environments. Recent studies have demonstrated that these UV increases cause changes in photochemical reactions that affect the...

  4. Interactions of Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate with Light Induced Chemical Reactions in Aquatic Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet radiation that reach the surface of North American aquatic environments. Concurrent changes in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in changes in stratification and precipitation that ar...

  5. Development of Improved Radiation Drive Environment for High Foot Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Goyon, C. S.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of high foot implosions show that performance is limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Reported here are significant improvements in the radiation environment, which result in an enhancement in implosion performance. Using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density improves the symmetry control of a high foot implosion. Moreover, for the first time, these hohlraums produce reduced levels of hot electrons, generated by laser-plasma interactions, which are at levels comparable to near-vacuum hohlraums, and well within specifications. Further, there is a noteworthy increase in laser energy coupling to the hohlraum, and discrepancies with simulated radiation production are markedly reduced. At fixed laser energy, high foot implosions driven with this improved hohlraum have achieved a 1.4 ×increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50% as compared to a reference experiment with the same laser energy.

  6. Measurement and analysis of the conversion gain degradation of the CIS detectors in harsh radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zujun; Xue, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Bian, Jingying; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Ma, Wuying; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao; Liu, Yan

    2018-07-01

    The conversion gain of the CMOS image sensor (CIS) is one of the most important key parameters to the CIS detector. The conversion gain degradation induced by radiation damage will seriously affect the performances of the CIS detector. The experiments of the CISs irradiated by protons, neutrons, and gamma rays are presented. The CISs have 4 Megapixels and pinned photodiode (PPD) pixel architecture with a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The conversion gains versus the proton fluence (including the proton ionizing dose), neutron fluence and gamma total ionizing dose are presented, respectively. The mechanisms of the conversion gain degradation induced by radiation damage are analyzed in details. The investigations will help to improve the PPD CIS detector design, reliability and applicability for applications in the harsh radiation environments such as space and nuclear environments.

  7. Development of Improved Radiation Drive Environment for High Foot Implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Ma, T; Ralph, J E; Albert, F; Benedetti, L R; Celliers, P M; Döppner, T; Goyon, C S; Izumi, N; Jarrott, L C; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Kritcher, A L; Kyrala, G A; Nagel, S R; Pak, A E; Patel, P; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Schneider, M B; Turnbull, D P; Yeamans, C B; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A

    2016-11-25

    Analyses of high foot implosions show that performance is limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Reported here are significant improvements in the radiation environment, which result in an enhancement in implosion performance. Using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density improves the symmetry control of a high foot implosion. Moreover, for the first time, these hohlraums produce reduced levels of hot electrons, generated by laser-plasma interactions, which are at levels comparable to near-vacuum hohlraums, and well within specifications. Further, there is a noteworthy increase in laser energy coupling to the hohlraum, and discrepancies with simulated radiation production are markedly reduced. At fixed laser energy, high foot implosions driven with this improved hohlraum have achieved a 1.4×increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50% as compared to a reference experiment with the same laser energy.

  8. Impact of cirrus on the surface radiative environment at the FIRE ETLA Palisades, NY site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David A.; Kukla, George; Frei, Allan

    1990-01-01

    FIRE Extended Time Limited Area (ETLA) observations provide year round information critical to gaining a better understanding of cloud/climate interactions. The Lamont/Rutgers team has participated in the ETLS program through the collection and analysis of shortwave and longwave downwelling irradiances at Palisades, NY. These data are providing useful information on surface radiative fluxes with respect to sky condition, solar zenith angle and season. Their utility extends to the calibration and validation of cloud/radiative models and satellite cloud and radiative retrievals. The impact cirrus clouds have on the surface radiative environment is examined using Palisades ETLA information on atmospheric transmissivities and downwelling longwave fluxes for winter and summer cirrus and clear sky episodes in 1987.

  9. The Study of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Effect on Conductive Properties of ITO Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei-Quan, Feng; Chun-Qing, Zhao; Zi-Cai, Shen; Yi-Gang, Ding; Fan, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Liu; Hui-Qi, Zheng; Xue, Zhao

    In order to prevent detrimental effects of ESD caused by differential surface charging of spacecraft under space environments, an ITO transparent conductive coating is often deposited on the thermal control materials outside spacecraft. Since the ITO coating is exposed in space environment, the environment effects on electrical property of ITO coatings concern designers of spacecraft deeply. This paper introduces ground tests to simulate space radiation environmental effects on conductive property of ITO coating. Samples are made of ITO/OSR, ITO/Kapton/Al and ITO/FEP/Ag thermal control coatings. Simulated space radiation environment conditions are NUV of 500ESH, 40 keV electron of 2 × 1016 е/cm2, 40 keV proton of 2.5 × 1015 p/cm2. Conductive property is surface resistivity measured in-situ in vacuum. Test results proved that the surface resistivity for all ITO coatings have a sudden decrease in the beginning of environment test. The reasons for it may be the oxygen vacancies caused by vacuum and decayed RIC caused by radiation. Degradation in conductive properties caused by irradiation were found. ITO/FEP/Ag exhibits more degradation than other two kinds. The conductive property of ITO/kapton/Al is stable for vacuum irradiation. The analysis of SEM and XPS found more crackers and less Sn and In concentration after irradiation which may be the reason for conductive property degradation.

  10. A New Time-dependent Model for the Martian Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Manned space activities have been until present time limited to the near-Earth environment, most of them to low Earth orbit (LEO) scenarios, with only some of the Apollo missions targeted to the Moon. In current times most human exploration and development of space (HEDS) activities are related to the development of the International Space Station (ISS), and therefore take place in the LEO environment. A natural extension of HEDS activities will be going beyond LEO, and reach asteroids, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Kuiper belt and the outskirts of the Solar System. Such long journeys onboard spacecraft outside the protective umbrella of the geomagnetic field will require higher levels of protection from the radiation environment found in the deep space for both astronauts and equipment. So, it is important to have available a tool for radiation shielding which takes into account the radiation environments found all along the interplanetary space and at the different bodies encountered in the Solar System. Moreover, the radiation protection is one of the two NASA highest concerns and priorities. A tool integrating different radiation environments with shielding computation techniques especially tailored for deep space mission scenario is instrumental in view of this exigency. In view of manned missions targeted to Mars, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest problems and challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool which allows to know which are the particle flux and spectra at any time at any point of the Martian surface. With this goal in mind, a new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) has been developed. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for Mars conditions are transported within the Martian atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account

  11. Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boca, Andreea (Principal Investigator); Stella, Paul; Kerestes, Christopher; Sharps, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This is the Base Period final report DRAFT for the JPL task 'Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments', under Task Plan 77-16518 TA # 21, for NASA's Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project. This report covers the Base period of performance, 7/18/2016 through 5/2/2017.The goal of this project is to develop an ultra-high efficiency lightweight scalable solar array technology for low irradiance, low temperature and high-radiation (LILT/Rad) environments. The benefit this technology will bring to flight systems is a greater than 20 reduction in solar array surface area, and a six-fold reduction in solar array mass and volume. The EESP project objectives are summarized in the 'NRA Goal' column of Table 1. Throughout this report, low irradiance low temperature (LILT) refers to 5AU -125 C test conditions; beginning of life (BOL) refers to the cell state prior to radiation exposure; and end of life (EOL) refers to the test article condition after exposure to a radiation dose of 4e15 1MeV e(-)/cm(exp 2).

  12. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  13. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  14. [Effect of the ISS Russian segment configuration on the service module radiation environment].

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, V G

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of variations in the Service module radiation environment as a function of ISS Russian segment configuration was carried out using models of the RS modules and a spherical humanoid phantom. ISS reconfiguration impacted significantly only the phantom brought into the transfer compartment (ExT). The Radiation Safety Service prohibition for cosmonauts to stay in this compartment during solar flare events remains valid. In all other instances, error of dose estimation is higher as compared to dose value estimation with consideration for ISS RS reconfiguration.

  15. CONSTRAINING THE RADIATION AND PLASMA ENVIRONMENT OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE-ZONE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation propertiesmore » as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net.« less

  16. Constraining the Radiation and Plasma Environment of the Kepler Circumbinary Habitable-zone Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net.

  17. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  18. High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

  19. Methodology for testing infrared focal plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divita, E. L.; Mills, R. E.; Koch, T. L.; Gordon, M. J.; Wilcox, R. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes test methodology for focal plane array (FPA) testing that can be used for benign (clear) and radiation environments, and describes the use of custom dewars and integrated test equipment in an example environment. The test methodology, consistent with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards, is presented for the total accumulated gamma dose, transient dose rate, gamma flux, and neutron fluence environments. The merits and limitations of using Cobalt 60 for gamma environment simulations and of using various fast-neutron reactors and neutron sources for neutron simulations are presented. Test result examples are presented to demonstrate test data acquisition and FPA parameter performance under different measurement conditions and environmental simulations.

  20. Survey of Materials Problems Resulting from Low-Pressure and Radiation Environment in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lad, Robert A.

    1960-01-01

    On the basis of our present knowledge of the space environment, one might state that the exposure of materials to the radiation environment will present problems mainly with the impairment of the transparency of plastics and ionic solids due to ultraviolet radiation and with surface sputtering effects on emissivity and other thin film properties. The high vacuum in space will be of greater consequence in that it will render useless some members of practically all of the material classes. However, adequate solutions to most problems can be anticipated if enough information is at hand. This survey indicates that information is lacking at levels from the basic to the applied. A partial list of research areas in need of attack is included.

  1. VERT, a virtual clinical environment, enhances understanding of radiation therapy planning concepts.

    PubMed

    Leong, Aidan; Herst, Patries; Kane, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The ability to understand treatment plan dosimetry and apply this understanding clinically is fundamental to the role of the radiation therapist. This study evaluates whether or not the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) contributes to teaching treatment planning concepts to a cohort of first-year radiation therapy students. We directly compared a custom-developed VERT teaching module with a standard teaching module with respect to the understanding of treatment planning concepts using a cross-over design. Students self-reported their understanding of specific concepts before and after delivery of the VERT and standard teaching modules and evaluated aspects of VERT as a learning experience. In addition, teaching staff participated in a semi-structured interview discussing the modules from an educational perspective. Both the standard teaching module and VERT teaching module enhanced conceptual understanding and level of confidence in the student cohort after both teaching periods. The proportion of students reporting a perceived increase in knowledge/confidence was similar for the VERT teaching module for all but two scenarios. We propose that an integrated approach, providing a strong theoretical conceptual framework, followed by VERT to situate this framework in the (simulated) clinical environment combines the best of both teaching approaches. This study has established for the first time a clear role for a tailored VERT teaching module in teaching RT planning concepts because of its ability to visualise conceptual information within a simulated clinical environment. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  2. Radiation-Induced Damage and Recovery of Ultra-Nanocrystalline Diamond: Toward Applications in Harsh Environments

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Aiden A.; Filevich, Jorge; Straw, Marcus; ...

    2017-10-23

    Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is increasingly being used in the fabrication of devices and coatings due to its excellent tribological properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Here in this work, we study its response to irradiation with kiloelectronvolt electrons as a controlled model for extreme ionizing environments. Real time Raman spectroscopy reveals that the radiation-damage mechanism entails dehydrogenation of UNCD grain boundaries, and we show that the damage can be recovered by annealing at 883 K. Lastly, our results have significant practical implications for the implementation of UNCD in extreme environment applications, and indicate that the films can be used as radiationmore » sensors.« less

  3. Radiation-Induced Damage and Recovery of Ultra-Nanocrystalline Diamond: Toward Applications in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Aiden A.; Filevich, Jorge; Straw, Marcus

    Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is increasingly being used in the fabrication of devices and coatings due to its excellent tribological properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Here in this work, we study its response to irradiation with kiloelectronvolt electrons as a controlled model for extreme ionizing environments. Real time Raman spectroscopy reveals that the radiation-damage mechanism entails dehydrogenation of UNCD grain boundaries, and we show that the damage can be recovered by annealing at 883 K. Lastly, our results have significant practical implications for the implementation of UNCD in extreme environment applications, and indicate that the films can be used as radiationmore » sensors.« less

  4. The Use of Heavy Ion Radiation as an Analog for Space Radiation Environment and Its Effects on Drug Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Putcha, L.

    2007-01-01

    While it is common knowledge that electromagnetic radiation such as x-rays and gamma rays affect physical-chemical characteristics (PC) of compounds in addition to their toxic and mutagenic effects on biological systems, there are no reports on the effects of cosmic radiation encountered during space missions on stability of pharmaceuticals. Alterations in PC of drug formulations can adversely affect treatment with medications in space. Preliminary evaluation of stability and shelf-life of select pharmaceuticals (12) flown on space missions revealed that 37% and 40% of the formulations failed to meet USP requirements after shuttle and ISS flights, respectively. Based on these results, the current investigation is designed to examine the effect of proton (P) and heavy ion (Fe) radiation on 20 pharmaceutical preparations flown aboard the shuttle and ISS. The objectives of this project are: 1) Examine susceptibility of pharmaceuticals to short acute bouts of high intensity ionizing radiation species encountered during space flights; 2) Estimate extent of degradation of susceptible formulations as a function of intensity of each beam (P & Fe); and 3) compare and contrast the effects of single beam irradiation to that of a combined beam (P + Fe) that simulates space craft environment on drug stability. Irradiations were conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) with beam strengths of 10 cGy, 10 or 50Gy of P and Fe beams separately. Preliminary evaluation of results revealed a reduction in the chemical content of label claim ranging 12-55 % for Augmentin, 7% for promethzine tablets and 9% for ciprofloxacin ointment. These results are in agreement, although less in magnitude than those observed during space flight and after gamma irradiation.

  5. Multijunction Solar Cell Efficiencies: Effect of Spectral Window, Optical Environment and Radiative Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-04

    Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative coupling† Carissa N. Eisler ,a Ze’ev R. Abrams,b...SC0001293. C. N. Eisler was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG...Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Tampa, FL, 2013. 20 E. M. Ellion, World Pat., 8,701,512, 1987 . 21 B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T

  6. Spatial radiation environment in a heterogeneous oak woodland using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model and multiple constraints from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Ryu, Y.; Ustin, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    B15: Remote Characterization of Vegetation Structure: Including Research to Inform the Planned NASA DESDynI and ESA BIOMASS Missions Title: Spatial radiation environment in a heterogeneous oak woodland using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model and multiple constraints from observations Hideki Kobayashi, Youngryel Ryu, Susan Ustin, and Dennis Baldocchi Abstract Accurate evaluations of radiation environments of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared wavebands in forest canopies are important to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Californian oak woodlands are sparse and highly clumped so that radiation environments are extremely heterogeneous spatially. The heterogeneity of radiation environments also varies with wavebands which depend on scattering and emission properties. So far, most of modeling studies have been performed in one dimensional radiative transfer models with (or without) clumping effect in the forest canopies. While some studies have been performed by using three dimensional radiative transfer models, several issues are still unresolved. For example, some 3D models calculate the radiation field with individual tree basis, and radiation interactions among trees are not considered. This interaction could be important in the highly scattering waveband such as near infrared. The objective of this study is to quantify the radiation field in the oak woodland. We developed a three dimensional radiative transfer model, which includes the thermal waveband. Soil/canopy energy balances and canopy physiology models, CANOAK, are incorporated in the radiative transfer model to simulate the diurnal patterns of thermal radiation fields and canopy physiology. Airborne LiDAR and canopy gap data measured by the several methods (digital photographs and plant canopy analyzer) were used to constrain the forest structures such as tree positions, crown sizes and leaf area density. Modeling results were tested by a traversing radiometer system that

  7. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Koehler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Brinza, David E.; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Arik; the MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  8. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  9. Degradation of thermal control materials under a simulated radiative space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Sridhara, N.

    2012-11-01

    A spacecraft with a passive thermal control system utilizes various thermal control materials to maintain temperatures within safe operating limits. Materials used for spacecraft applications are exposed to harsh space environments such as ultraviolet (UV) and particle (electron, proton) irradiation and atomic oxygen (AO), undergo physical damage and thermal degradation, which must be considered for spacecraft thermal design optimization and cost effectiveness. This paper describes the effect of synergistic radiation on some of the important thermal control materials to verify the assumptions of beginning-of-life (BOL) and end-of-life (EOL) properties. Studies on the degradation in the optical properties (solar absorptance and infrared emittance) of some important thermal control materials exposed to simulated radiative geostationary space environment are discussed. The current studies are purely related to the influence of radiation on the degradation of the materials; other environmental aspects (e.g., thermal cycling) are not discussed. The thermal control materials investigated herein include different kind of second-surface mirrors, white anodizing, white paints, black paints, multilayer insulation materials, varnish coated aluminized polyimide, germanium coated polyimide, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). For this purpose, a test in the constant vacuum was performed reproducing a three year radiative space environment exposure, including ultraviolet and charged particle effects on North/South panels of a geostationary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Reflectance spectra were measured in situ in the solar range (250-2500 nm) and the corresponding solar absorptance values were calculated. The test methodology and the degradations of the materials are discussed. The most important degradations among the low solar absorptance materials were found in the white paints whereas the rigid optical solar reflectors remained quite

  10. Lessons Learned Using COTS Electronics for the International Space Station Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, John H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The mantra of 'Faster, Better, Cheaper' has to a large degree been interpreted as using Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) components and/or circuit boards. One of the first space applications to actually use COTS in space along with radiation performance requirements was the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Rack program, for the International Space Station (ISS). In order to meet the performance, cost and schedule targets, military grade Versa Module Eurocard (VME) was selected as the baseline design for the main computer, the Rack Interface Controller (RIC). VME was chosen as the computer backplane because of the large variety of military grade boards available, which were designed to meet the military environmental specifications (thermal, shock, vibration, etc.). These boards also have a paper pedigree in regards to components. Since these boards exceeded most ISS environmental requirements, it was reasoned using COTS mid-grade VME boards, as opposed to designing custom boards could save significant time and money. It was recognized up front the radiation environment of ISS, while benign compared to many space flight applications, would be the main challenge to using COTS. Thus in addition to selecting vendors on how well their boards met the usual performance and environmental specifications, the board's parts lists were reviewed on how well they would perform in the ISS radiation environment. However, issues with verifying that the available radiation test data was applicable to the actual part used, vendor part design changes and the fact most parts did not have valid test data soon complicated board and part selection in regards to radiation.

  11. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.

    2012-04-01

    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  12. Forbush Decrease events in Lunar Radiation Environment observed by the LRO/CRaTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, J.; Oh, S.; Yi, Y.; Kim, E.; Lee, J.; Spence, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 16, 2009 has six experiments including of the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard. The CRaTER instrument characterizes the radiation environment to be experienced by humans during future lunar missions. The CRaTER instrument measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter specifically in silicon solid-state detectors due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaTER instrument houses a compact and highly precise microdosimeter. It measures dose rates below one micro-Rad/sec in lunar radiation environment. Forbush decrease (FD) event is the sudden decrease of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. The FD event is considered to be caused by exclusion of GCR due to intense interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) structures of interplanetary shock (IP) sheath region and/or the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (CME) following the IP shocks as a shock driver. We use the data of cosmic ray flux and dose rates observed by the CRaTER instrument. We also use the CME list of STEREO SECCHI inner, outer coronagraph and the IMF (Interplanetary CME) data of the ACE/MAG instrument. We examine the origins and the characteristics of the FD-like events in lunar radiation environment. We also compare these events with the FD events on the Earth. We find that whenever the FD events are recorded at ground Neutron Monitor stations, the FD-like events also occur on the lunar environments. The flux variation amplitude of FD-like events on the Moon is approximately two times larger than that of FD events on the Earth. We compare time profiles of GCR flux with of the dose rate of FD-like events in the lunar environment. We figure out that the distinct FD-like events correspond to dose rate events in the CRaTER on lunar environment during the event period.

  13. Ten Thousand Years of Environment Assessment Using Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasawa, K.; Ide-Ektessabi, A.; Koizumi, A.; Azechi, M.

    2003-08-01

    The environment surrounding human has changed through civilization and industrialization, and through these developments, problems including the pollution from heavy metals such as lead and mercury have arisen. In this study, we analyzed major and trace elements in modern and prehistoric teeth by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis using synchrotron radiation micro beam, in order to assess the changes of the environment through the civilization and the industrialization and their affects to the human. It is suggested that teeth accumulate elements in the mineral phase, hydroxiapatite, during their formation, and because there are no significant turnovers, teeth are concerned to be indicators of the environment of the donor. We first analyzed the elements on the surface of tooth from modern individual and tooth from human remains of Jomon period to assess the heavy metal concentration and effect of the diagenesis. The adhering ground elements on the prehistoric teeth showed high amount of Ti, Fe, Mn and other metallic elements.

  14. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  15. Can the Equivalent Sphere Model Approximate Organ Doses in Space Radiation Environments?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zi-Wei, Lin

    2007-01-01

    In space radiation calculations it is often useful to calculate the dose or dose equivalent in blood-forming organs (BFO). the skin or the eye. It has been customary to use a 5cm equivalent sphere to approximate the BFO dose. However previous studies have shown that a 5cm sphere gives conservative dose values for BFO. In this study we use a deterministic radiation transport with the Computerized Anatomical Man model to investigate whether the equivalent sphere model can approximate organ doses in space radiation environments. We find that for galactic cosmic rays environments the equivalent sphere model with an organ-specific constant radius parameter works well for the BFO dose equivalent and marginally well for the BFO dose and the dose equivalent of the eye or the skin. For solar particle events the radius parameters for the organ dose equivalent increase with the shielding thickness, and the model works marginally for BFO but is unacceptable for the eye or the skin The ranges of the radius parameters are also shown and the BFO radius parameters are found to be significantly larger than 5 cm in all eases.

  16. The Projection of Space Radiation Environments with a Solar Cycle Statistical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A solar cycle statistical model has been developed to project sunspot numbers which represent the variations in the space radiation environment. The resultant projection of sunspot numbers in near future were coupled to space-related quantities of interest in radiation protection, such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (f) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle event (SPE). Future GCR fluxes have been derived from a predictive model, in which GCR temporal dependence represented by f was derived from GCR flux and ground-based Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last four decades. Results showed that the point dose equivalent inside a typical spacecraft in interplanetary radiation fields was influenced by solar modulation up to a factor of three. One important characteristic of sporadic SPEs is their mean frequency of occurrence, which is dependent on solar activity. Projections of future mean frequency of SPE occurrence were estimated from a power law function of sunspot number. Furthermore, the cumulative probabilities of SPE during short-period missions were defined with the continuous database of proton fluences of SPE. The analytic representation of energy spectra of SPE was constructed by the Weibull distribution for different event sizes. The representative exposure level at each event size was estimated for the guideline of protection systems for astronauts during future space exploration missions.

  17. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

  18. The Martian and extraterrestrial UV radiation environment--1. Biological and closed-loop ecosystem considerations.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Andrady, A L

    1999-01-01

    The Martian surface is exposed to both UVC radiation (<280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared to the surface of the Earth. Terrestrial organisms have not evolved to cope with such high levels of UVC and UVB and thus any attempts to introduce organisms to Mars, particularly in closed-loop life support systems that use ambient sunlight, must address this problem. Here we examine the UV radiation environment of Mars with respect to biological systems. Action spectra and UV surface fluxes are used to estimate the UV stress that both DNA and chloroplasts would experience. From this vantage point it is possible to consider appropriate measures to address the problem of the Martian UV environment for future long term human exploration and settlement strategies. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. Existing artificial ecosystems such as Biosphere 2 can provide some insights into design strategies pertinent to high UV environments. Some prospects for improving the UV tolerance of organisms are also discussed. The data also have implications for the establishment of closed-loop ecosystems using natural sunlight on the lunar surface and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  19. Report: EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory Should Improve Its Computer Room Security Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0847, September 21, 2012.Our review of the security posture and in-place environmental controls of EPA’s Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory computer room disclosed an array of security and environmental control deficiencies.

  20. Potential for use of InP solar cells in the space radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells were observed to have significantly higher radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si after exposure to 10 MeV proton irradiation data and previous 1 MeV electron data together with projected efficiencies for InP, it was found that these latter cells produced more output power than either GaAs or Si after specified fluences of 10 MeV protons and 1 MeV electrons. Estimates of expected performance in a proton dominated space orbit yielded much less degradation for InP when compared to the remaining two cell types. It was concluded that, with additional development to increase efficiency, InP solar cells would perform significantly better than either GaAs or Si in the space radiation environment.

  1. Potential for use of indium phosphide solar cells in the space radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells were observed to have significantly higher radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si after exposure to 10 MeV proton irradiation data and previous 1 MeV electron data together with projected efficiencies for InP, it was found that these latter cells produced more output power than either GaAs or Si after specified fluences of 10 MeV protons and 1 MeV electrons. Estimates of expected performance in a proton dominated space orbit yielded much less degradation for InP when compared to the remaining two cell types. It was concluded that, with additional development to increase efficiency, InP solar cells would perform significantly better than either GaAs or Si in the space radiation environment.

  2. Climate change and agricultural workers' health in Ecuador: occupational exposure to UV radiation and hot environments.

    PubMed

    Harari Arjona, Raul; Piñeiros, Jessika; Ayabaca, Marcelo; Harari Freire, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern but little is known about its potential health effects in workers from non-industrialized countries. Ecuadorian workers from the coast (hot environments) and Andean region (elevated UV radiation) might be at particular risk of such effects. In the Andean region, measurements of UV index show maximum levels exceeding 11, a level considered being extreme according to the WHO. Also, an increased incidence of skin cancer was reported the last decennium, this being the second most common cancer type in men and women. In the coast, a high reported prevalence of kidney disease in agricultural workers is suggested to be related to exposure to hot temperatures. The scarce data available on occupational health in Ecuadorian agricultural workers raise the need for further investigation. Data worldwide shows an increasing prevalence of UV radiation- and heat stress-related illnesses in agricultural workers and urges the adoption of preventive measures.

  3. The Radiation Environment for the LISA/Laser Interferometry Space Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael; Poivey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the radiation environment for the evaluation of degradation due to total ionizing and non-ionizing dose and of single event effects (SEES) for the Laser Interferometry Space Antenna (LISA) instruments and spacecraft. The analysis took into account the radiation exposure for the nominal five-year mission at 20 degrees behind Earth's orbit of the sun, at 1 AU (astronomical unit) and assumes a launch date in 2014. The transfer trajectory out to final orbit has not yet been defined, therefore, this evaluation does not include the impact of passing through the Van Allen belts. Generally, transfer trajectories do not contribute significantly to degradation effects; however, single event effects and deep dielectric charging effects must be taken into consideration especially if critical maneuvers are planned during the van Allen belt passes.

  4. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  5. Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, Linton K.; Son, Youngjin; Ronney, Paul D.; Olson, Sandra (Technical Monitor); Gokoglu, Suleyman (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity experiments on flame spread over thermally thick fuels were conducted using foam fuels to obtain low density and thermal conductivity, and thus large spread rate (Sf) compared to dense fuels such as PMMA. This scheme enabled meaningful results to lie obtained even in 2.2 second drop tower experiments. It was found that, in contrast conventional understanding; steady spread can occur over thick fuels in quiescent microgravity environments, especially when a radiatively active diluent gas such as CO2 is employed. This is proposed to be due to radiative transfer from the flame to the fuel surface. Additionally, the transition from thermally thick to thermally thin behavior with decreasing bed thickness is demonstrated.

  6. Evaluation of insulation materials and composites for use in a nuclear radiation environment, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhow, W. A.; Lewis, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    This study has been carried out to evaluate flight-qualified Saturn 5 materials, components, and systems for use, with or without modification, in the radiation environment of the nuclear flight system. The results reported herein are primarily intended to aid designers in their evaluation and selection of off-the-shelf equipments which may meet the stringent requirements and specifications associated with application on a reusable nuclear powered space system, i.e., the reusable nuclear shuttle. One of the factors which must be evaluated in the design of the RNS is the effects of radiation on materials; and it is toward this aspect of the overall effort that this analysis has been directed.

  7. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  8. Performance test and image correction of CMOS image sensor in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Congzheng; Hu, Song; Gao, Chunming; Feng, Chang

    2016-09-01

    CMOS image sensors rival CCDs in domains that include strong radiation resistance as well as simple drive signals, so it is widely applied in the high-energy radiation environment, such as space optical imaging application and video monitoring of nuclear power equipment. However, the silicon material of CMOS image sensors has the ionizing dose effect in the high-energy rays, and then the indicators of image sensors, such as signal noise ratio (SNR), non-uniformity (NU) and bad point (BP) are degraded because of the radiation. The radiation environment of test experiments was generated by the 60Co γ-rays source. The camera module based on image sensor CMV2000 from CMOSIS Inc. was chosen as the research object. The ray dose used for the experiments was with a dose rate of 20krad/h. In the test experiences, the output signals of the pixels of image sensor were measured on the different total dose. The results of data analysis showed that with the accumulation of irradiation dose, SNR of image sensors decreased, NU of sensors was enhanced, and the number of BP increased. The indicators correction of image sensors was necessary, as it was the main factors to image quality. The image processing arithmetic was adopt to the data from the experiences in the work, which combined local threshold method with NU correction based on non-local means (NLM) method. The results from image processing showed that image correction can effectively inhibit the BP, improve the SNR, and reduce the NU.

  9. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    PubMed

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors.

  10. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  11. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; McWilliams, Brett; Koontz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    The design estimate for the materials for the International Space Station (ISS) specified in SSP 30512 was a conservative estimate. The environment dose was over estimated. The materials originally qualified for approximately 10-15 years are anticipated to be acceptable for periods of up to 20-30 years based on SSP-30512 or 40-60 years based on 2x SSP-30512. This viewgraph presentation shows charts and graphs that review the altitude, the solar minimum and maximum, and the radiation exposure of other satellite, among other graphics.

  12. Program director and chief resident perspectives on the educational environment of US radiation oncology programs.

    PubMed

    Berriochoa, Camille; Weller, Michael; Berry, Danielle; Reddy, Chandana A; Koyfman, Shlomo; Tendulkar, Rahul

    Our goals were toexamine the educational approachesused at radiation oncology residency programs nationwide andto evaluate program director(PD) and chief resident (CR) perceptions of their educational environment. We distributed a survey regarding curricular structure via email toall identified US radiation oncology residency PDs and CRs. Pearson χ 2 test was used toevaluate whether differences existed between answers provided by the 2 study populations. The survey was disseminated to 200 individuals in 85 US residency programs: 49/85PDs(58%)and 74/115 (64%)CRs responded. More than one-half of PDs and CRs report that attending physicians discussed management, reviewed contours, and conducted mock oral board examinations with the residents. At nearly 50% of programs, the majority of teaching conferences use a lecture-based approach, whereas only 20% reported predominant utilization of the Socratic method. However, both PDs (63%) and CRs (49%) reported that Socratic teaching is more effective than didactic lectures (16% and 20%, respectively), with the remainder responding that they are equally effective. Teaching sessions were reported to be resident-led ≥75% of the time by 50% of CRs versus 18% of PDs (P = .002). Significantly more CRs than PDs felt that faculty-led teaching conferences were more effective than resident-led conferences (62% vs 26%, respectively; P < .001). There was a difference in perception regarding the protection of educational time, with 85% of PDs versus 59% of CRs reporting this time as being "never" or "infrequently" compromised by clinical duties (P = .005). There is considerable variability between PDs and CRs in the perceived structure and effectiveness of resident education in US radiation oncology residency programs. These data suggest opportunity for improvement in radiation oncology residency training, such as encouraging more faculty-led, Socratic-based teaching conferences. Increased communication between PDs and CRs can better

  13. Human response to high-background radiation environments on Earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Manti, L.

    2008-09-01

    The main long-term objective of the space exploration program is the colonization of the planets of the Solar System. The high cosmic radiation equivalent dose rate represents an inescapable problem for the safe establishment of permanent human settlements on these planets. The unshielded equivalent dose rate on Mars ranges between 100 and 200 mSv/year, depending on the Solar cycle and altitude, and can reach values as high as 360 mSv/year on the Moon. The average annual effective dose on Earth is about 3 mSv, nearly 85% of which comes from natural background radiation, reduced to less than 1 mSv if man-made sources and the internal exposure to Rn daughters are excluded. However, some areas on Earth display anomalously high levels of background radiation, as is the case with thorium-rich monazite bearing sand deposits where values 200 400 times higher than the world average can be found. About 2% of the world’s population live above 3 km and receive a disproportionate 10% of the annual effective collective dose due to cosmic radiation, with a net contribution to effective dose by the neutron component which is 3 4 fold that at sea level. Thus far, epidemiological studies have failed to show any adverse health effects in the populations living in these terrestrial high-background radiation areas (HBRA), which provide an unique opportunity to study the health implications of an environment that, as closely as possibly achievable on Earth, resembles the chronic exposure of future space colonists to higher-than-normal levels of ionizing radiation. Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the HBRA residents have been measured in several studies because chromosomal damage represents an early biomarker of cancer risk. Similar cytogenetic studies have been recently performed in a cohort of astronauts involved in single or repeated space flights over many years. The cytogenetic findings in populations exposed to high dose-rate background radiation

  14. Can we use the equivalent sphere model to approximate organ doses in space radiation environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    For space radiation protection one often calculates the dose or dose equivalent in blood forming organs (BFO). It has been customary to use a 5cm equivalent sphere to approximate the BFO dose. However, previous studies have concluded that a 5cm sphere gives a very different dose from the exact BFO dose. One study concludes that a 9cm sphere is a reasonable approximation for the BFO dose in solar particle event (SPE) environments. In this study we investigate the reason behind these observations and extend earlier studies by studying whether BFO, eyes or the skin can be approximated by the equivalent sphere model in different space radiation environments such as solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environments. We take the thickness distribution functions of the organs from the CAM (Computerized Anatomical Man) model, then use a deterministic radiation transport to calculate organ doses in different space radiation environments. The organ doses have been evaluated with a water or aluminum shielding from 0 to 20 g/cm2. We then compare these exact doses with results from the equivalent sphere model and determine in which cases and at what radius parameters the equivalent sphere model is a reasonable approximation. Furthermore, we propose to use a modified equivalent sphere model with two radius parameters to represent the skin or eyes. For solar particle events, we find that the radius parameters for the organ dose equivalent increase significantly with the shielding thickness, and the model works marginally for BFO but is unacceptable for eyes or the skin. For galactic cosmic rays environments, the equivalent sphere model with one organ-specific radius parameter works well for the BFO dose equivalent, marginally well for the BFO dose and the dose equivalent of eyes or the skin, but is unacceptable for the dose of eyes or the skin. The BFO radius parameters are found to be significantly larger than 5 cm in all cases, consistent with the conclusion of

  15. Radiation environment on board Foton-M 3: the neutron component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzetta, Giuseppe; Zanini, Alba; Chiorra, Katia; Briccarello, Mauro; Belluco, Maurizio; Longo, Francesco; Jerse, Giovanna

    The recoverable capsule Foton-M 3 (ESA mission) was launched from Baikonur on 2007 September 14 and landed on the Russian-Kazakh border 12 days later. The spacecraft carried on board several ESA experiments. During this space mission a study has been performed on the neutron component of the radiation environment inside the capsule. Neutrons are a not avoidable component of the secondary radiation produced by interaction of primary radiation with the spacecraft shielding. Because of their high LET, neutrons could represent a main risk for both the electronic instruments and the health of the astronauts during space missions. Monte Carlo simulations performed by Geant4 code have been carried out using as input primary proton and alpha spectra, obtained by various tools (i.e. Creme 96, Omere, etc . . . ) and the neutron fluxes and doses, as a function of neutron energies, have been evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained by passive neutron detectors. In this study the effectiveness of various shielding materials useful in space mission has been also investigated.

  16. Ethics, genetics and dynamics: an emerging systematic approach to radiation protection of the environment.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2004-01-01

    There is now a general consensus of opinion that an explicit approach is necessary to demonstrate radiation protection of the environment, and that this approach needs to be developed in a systematic way. The framework that is emerging links ethical and moral issues (anthropocentric, biocentric, and ecocentric) to broad-based principles and objectives of environmental protection (sustainable development, maintaining biological diversity, and habitat protection) and then links these, in turn, to the needs of current environmental management practices, such as environmental exploitation, pollution control, and nature conservation. The relevance of this to radiation is that its effects (such as causing early mortality, morbidity, reduced reproductive success, as well as resulting in observable (scorable) cytogenetic damage) are those that may have a bearing on these same environmental management practices. The devise that would appear to be most useful to bridge the gap between our disparate data on radiation effects and the needs of environmental management, is that of adding to the concept of Reference Man in the shape of a small set of Reference Animals and Plants. This approach has now been adopted by the ICRP, adding new dynamics-the motive forces, both moral and physical-to the subject. The way is now clear for rapid progress to be made on a number of fronts.

  17. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  18. Geography, environment and organismal traits in the diversification of a major tropical herbaceous angiosperm radiation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The generation of plant diversity involves complex interactions between geography, environment and organismal traits. Many macroevolutionary processes and emergent patterns have been identified in different plant groups through the study of spatial data, but rarely in the context of a large radiation of tropical herbaceous angiosperms. A powerful system for testing interrelated biogeographical hypotheses is provided by the terrestrial bromeliads, a Neotropical group of extensive ecological diversity and importance. In this investigation, distributional data for 564 species of terrestrial bromeliads were used to estimate variation in the position and width of species-level hydrological habitat occupancy and test six core hypotheses linking geography, environment and organismal traits. Taxonomic groups and functional types differed in hydrological habitat occupancy, modulated by convergent and divergent trait evolution, and with contrasting interactions with precipitation abundance and seasonality. Plant traits in the Bromeliaceae are intimately associated with bioclimatic differentiation, which is in turn strongly associated with variation in geographical range size and species richness. These results emphasize the ecological relevance of structural-functional innovation in a major plant radiation. PMID:29479409

  19. Ultra Low Outgassing silicone performance in a simulated space ionizing radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velderrain, M.; Malave, V.; Taylor, E. W.

    2010-09-01

    The improvement of silicone-based materials used in space and aerospace environments has garnered much attention for several decades. Most recently, an Ultra Low Outgassing™ silicone incorporating innovative reinforcing and functional fillers has shown that silicone elastomers with unique and specific properties can be developed to meet applications requiring stringent outgassing requirements. This paper will report on the next crucial step in qualifying these materials for spacecraft applications requiring chemical and physical stability in the presence of ionizing radiation. As a first step in this process, selected materials were irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays to simulate the total dose received in near- Earth orbits. The paper will present pre-and post-irradiation response data of Ultra Low Outgassing silicone samples exposed under ambient air environment coupled with measurements of collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) and total mass loss (TML) per the standard conditions in ASTM E 595. The data will show an insignificant effect on the CVCMs and TMLs after exposure to various dosages of gamma radiation. This data may favorably impact new applications for these silicone materials for use as an improved sealant for space solar cell systems, space structures, satellite systems and aerospace systems.

  20. A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Weibo; Fogg, David; Mancini, Nick; Steele, John; Quinn, Gregory; Bue, Grant; Littibridge, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats operating in environments that can vary from extremely hot to extremely cold. A lightweight, reliable TCS is being developed to effectively control cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The TCS uses a nontoxic, water-based working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. The critical characteristics of the core enabling technologies were demonstrated. Functional testing with condenser tubes demonstrated the key operating characteristics required for a reliable, freeze-tolerant TCS, namely (1) self-regulating thermal conductance with short transient responses to varying thermal loads, (2) repeatable performance through freeze-thaw cycles, and (3) fast start-up from a fully frozen state. Preliminary coolant tests demonstrated that the corrosion inhibitor in the water-based coolant can reduce the corrosion rate on aluminum by an order of magnitude. Performance comparison with state-of-the-art designs shows significant mass and power saving benefits of this technology.

  1. Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Levy Zamora, Misti; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Glen, Crystal R.; Collins, Donald R.; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using a novel environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. Our findings indicate that BC under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries. PMID:27035993

  2. Improving photovoltaic performance through radiative cooling in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Safi, Taqiyyah S; Munday, Jeremy N

    2015-09-21

    The method of detailed balance, introduced by Shockley and Queisser, is often used to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of semiconductor pn-junction based photovoltaics. Typically the solar cell is assumed to be at an ambient temperature of 300 K. In this paper, we describe and analyze the use of radiative cooling techniques to lower the solar cell temperature below the ambient to surpass the detailed balance limit for a cell in contact with an ideal heat sink. We show that by combining specifically designed radiative cooling structures with solar cells, efficiencies higher than the limiting efficiency achievable at 300 K can be obtained for solar cells in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. We show that our proposed structure yields an efficiency 0.87% higher than a typical PV module at operating temperatures in a terrestrial application. We also demonstrate an efficiency advantage of 0.4-2.6% for solar cells in an extraterrestrial environment in near-earth orbit.

  3. Application of the Self Calibrating Emissivity and/or Transmissivity Independent Multiwavelength Pyrometer in an Intense Ambient Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The NASA self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer is a recent addition to the list of pyrometers used in remote temperature measurement in research and development. The older one-color, two-color, and the disappearing filament pyrometers, as well as the multicolor and early multiwavelength pyrometers, all do not operate successfully in situations in which strong ambient radiation coexists with radiation originating from the measured surface. In such situations radiation departing from the target surface arrives at the pyrometer together with radiation coming from another source either directly or through reflection. Unlike the other pyrometers, the self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer can still calibrate itself and measure the temperatures in this adverse environment.

  4. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P < 0.05, 250 W/m(2) 43 ± 10 min; P < 0.001, 0 W/m(2) 46 ± 10 min; P < 0.001), and on the 500 W/m(2) trial than the 250 W/m(2) (P < 0.05) and 0 W/m(2) (P < 0.01) trials. There were no differences in core (rectal) temperature, total sweat loss, heart rate, skin blood flow, cutaneous vascular conductance and percentage changes in plasma volume between trials (P > 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P < 0.05), and on the 500 W/m(2) trial than the 0 W/m(2) trial (P < 0.05). The core-to-skin temperature gradient was narrower on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment falls progressively as solar radiation increases.

  5. Radiative Effects of Aerosol in the Marine Environment: Tales from the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Barnard, J.; Chand, D.; Chapman, E. G.; Comstock, J. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Flynn, C. J.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hubbe, J.; Johnson, R.; Kassianov, E.; Kluzek, C.; Laskin, A.; Lee, Y.; Mei, F.; Michalsky, J. J.; Redemann, J.; Rogers, R. R.; Russell, P. B.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Schmid, B.; Shilling, J. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Springston, S. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    There is still uncertainty associated with the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol and its representation in atmospheric models. This is particularly true in marine environments near the coast where the aerosol loading is a function of both naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosol. These regions are also subject to variable synoptic and thermally driven flows (land-sea breezes) that transport aerosol between the continental and marine environments. The situation is made more complicated due to seasonal changes in aerosol emissions. Given these differences in emissions, we expect significant differences in the aerosol intensive and extensive properties between summer and winter and data is needed to evaluate models over the wide range of conditions. To address this issue, the recently completed Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) was designed to measure the key aerosol parameters in two atmospheric columns, one located over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and another approximately 200 km from the coast over the Atlantic Ocean. Measurements included aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, optical properties and vertical distribution. Several aspects make TCAP unique, including the year-long deployment of a suite of surface-based instruments by the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and two aircraft intensive operations periods supported by the ARM Airborne Facility, one conducted in July 2012 and a second in February 2013. The presentation will include a discussion of the impact of the aerosol optical properties and their uncertainty on simulations of the radiation budget within the TCAP domain in the context of both single column and regional scale models. Data from TCAP will be used to highlight a number of important factors, including diurnal variation in aerosol optical depth measured at the surface site, systematic changes in aerosol optical properties (including scattering, absorption, and

  6. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  7. Europa's surface radiation environment and considerations for in-situ sampling and biosignature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T.; Paranicas, C.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is embedded deep within the Jovian magnetosphere and is thus exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. In particular, energetic charged particles are capable of affecting the uppermost layer of surface material on Europa, in some cases down to depths of several meters (Johnson et al., 2004; Paranicas et al., 2009, 2002). Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration include sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering; processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Radiolysis of surface ices containing sulfur-bearing contaminants from Io has been invoked as a possible explanation for hydrated sulfuric acid detected on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 2002, 1999) and radiolytic production of oxidants represents a potential source of energy for life that could reside within Europa's sub-surface ocean (Chyba, 2000; Hand et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2003; Vance et al., 2016). Accurate knowledge of Europa's surface radiation environment is essential to the interpretation of space and Earth-based observations of Europa's surface and exosphere. Furthermore, future landed missions may seek to sample endogenic material emplaced on Europa's surface to investigate its chemical composition and to search for biosignatures contained within. Such material would likely be sampled from the shallow sub-surface, and thus, it becomes crucial to know to which degree this material is expected to have been radiation processed.Here we will present modeling results of energetic electron and proton bombardment of Europa's surface, including interactions between these particles and surface material. In addition, we will present predictions for biosignature destruction at different geographical locations and burial depths and discuss the implications of these results for surface sampling by future missions to Europa's surface.

  8. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  9. The effects of the geosynchronous energetic particle radiation environment on spacecraft charging phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. B.; Imhof, W. L.; Gaines, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    The energetic electron environment at the geosynchronous orbit is responsible for a variety of adverse charging effects on spacecraft components. The most serious of these is the degradation and failure of a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronic components as a result of internal charge-buildup induced by the energetic electrons. Efforts to accurately determine the expected lifetime of these components in this orbit are hampered by the lack of detailed knowledge of the electron spectrum and intensity, particularly of the more penetrating energies greater than 1.5 MeV. This problem is illustrated through the calculation of the dose received by a CMOS device from the energetic electrons and associated bremsstrahlung as a function of aluminum shielding thickness using the NASA AE-6 and the Aerospace measured electron environments. Two computational codes which were found to be in good agreement were used to perform the calculations. For a given shielding thickness the dose received with the two radiation environments differ by as much as a factor of seven with a corresponding variation in lifetime of the CMOS.

  10. Near-earth radiation environment including time variations and secondary radiation; Meetings F2.6 and F2.7, COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 30th, Hamburg, Germany, July 11-21, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, M. A. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor); Badhwar, G. D. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Both man and technological equipment must survive the near-earth space radiation environment, which can, under specific conditions, be extremely severe. This conference produced 17 papers on the dynamic space radiation environment covering: galactic, solar and trapped particles; nuclear fragmentation; nuclear interactions and transport theory; solar proton events; radiation shielding; and heavy ion fluences. Several papers present results from the recent SAMPEX mission.

  11. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium.

    PubMed

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A; Otaki, Joji M; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium☆

    PubMed Central

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras’kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P.; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Otaki, Joji M.; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E.; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters’ accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. PMID:27058410

  13. Lighting considerations in controlled environments for nonphotosynthetic plant responses to blue and ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    This essay will consider both physical and photobiological aspects of controlled environment lighting in the spectral region beginning in the blue and taken to the normal limit of the solar spectrum in the ultraviolet. The primary emphasis is directed to questions of plant response to sunlight. Measurement and computations used in radiation dosimetry in this part of the spectrum are also briefly treated. Because of interest in the ozone depletion problem, there has been some activity in plant UV-B research and there are several recent reviews available. Some aspects of growth chamber lighting as it relates to UV-B research were covered earlier. Apart from work related to the blue/UV-A receptor, less attention has been given to UV-A responses.

  14. Secure environment for real-time tele-collaboration on virtual simulation of radiation treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Ntasis, Efthymios; Maniatis, Theofanis A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2003-01-01

    A secure framework is described for real-time tele-collaboration on Virtual Simulation procedure of Radiation Treatment Planning. An integrated approach is followed clustering the security issues faced by the system into organizational issues, security issues over the LAN and security issues over the LAN-to-LAN connection. The design and the implementation of the security services are performed according to the identified security requirements, along with the need for real time communication between the collaborating health care professionals. A detailed description of the implementation is given, presenting a solution, which can directly be tailored to other tele-collaboration services in the field of health care. The pilot study of the proposed security components proves the feasibility of the secure environment, and the consistency with the high performance demands of the application.

  15. Nuclear Radiation Fields on the Mars Surface: Risk Analysis for Long-term Living Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Nealy, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Mars, our nearest planet outward from the sun, has been targeted for several decades as a prospective site for expanded human habitation. Background space radiation exposures on Mars are expected to be orders of magnitude higher than on Earth. Recent risk analysis procedures based on detailed dosimetric techniques applicable to sensitive human organs have been developed along with experimental data regarding cell mutation rates resulting from exposures to a broad range of particle types and energy spectra. In this context, simulated exposure and subsequent risk for humans in residence on Mars are examined. A conceptual habitat structure, CAD-modeled with duly considered inherent shielding properties, has been implemented. Body self-shielding is evaluated using NASA standard computerized male and female models. The background environment is taken to consist not only of exposure from incident cosmic ray ions and their secondaries, but also include the contribution from secondary neutron fields produced in the tenuous atmosphere and the underlying regolith.

  16. Lighting considerations in controlled environments for nonphotosynthetic plant responses to blue and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, M.M.; Flint, S.D.

    1994-12-31

    This essay will consider both physical and photobiological aspects of controlled environment lighting in the spectral region beginning in the blue and taken to the normal limit of the solar spectrum in the ultraviolet. The primary emphasis is directed to questions of plant response to sunlight. Measurement and computations used in radiation dosimetry in this part of the spectrum are also briefly treated. Because of interest in the ozone depletion problem, there has been some activity in plant UV-B research and there are several recent reviews available. Some aspects of growth chamber lighting as it relates to UV-B research weremore » covered earlier. Apart from work related to the blue/UV-A receptor, less attention has been given to UV-A responses.« less

  17. Markedly enhanced direct radiative forcing of black carbon particles under polluted urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zamora, Misti; Zeng, Liming; Shao, Min; Wu, Yusheng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles, produced from incomplete fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have profound impacts on air quality, human health, weather, and climate. For example, in areas identified as aerosol hotspots, which include many urban centers and megacities worldwide, solar heating by BC particles has been shown to be comparable to warming due to the greenhouse gases2. Although BC represents a key short-lived climate forcer, its direct radiative forcing remains highly uncertain. In particular, the available results of absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging are conflicting from the previous studies, leading to a large uncertainty in global radiative transfer calculation. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China and Houston, US, using a novel chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages - initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and the subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a maximum absorption enhancement factor of 2.4. The variation in BC direct radiative forcing is highly dependent of the rate and timescale of aging, with an estimated increase of 0.45 (0.21 - 0.80) W m-2 from fresh to fully aged particles. Our results reveal a high climatic impact in polluted environments due to rapid aging and a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries for BC particles, highlighting a larger than recognized co-benefit in air quality improvement and climate protection by BC mediation.

  18. Thermal Analysis of a Finite Element Model in a Radiation Dominated Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Arthur T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of thermal analysis, evaluating the University of Arizona mirror design, for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Pre-Phase A vehicle concept. Model building begins using Thermal Desktop(TM), by Cullimore and Ring Technologies, to import a NASTRAN bulk data file from the structural model of the mirror assembly. Using AutoCAD(R) capabilities, additional surfaces are added to simulate the thermal aspects of the problem which, for due reason, are not part of the structural model. Surfaces are then available to accept thermophysical and thermo-optical properties. Thermal Desktop(TM) calculates radiation conductors using Monte Carlo simulations. Then Thermal Desktop(TM) generates the SINDA input file having a one-to-one correspondence with the NASTRAN node and element definitions. A model is now available to evaluate the mirror design in the radiation dominated environment, conduct parametric trade studies of the thermal design, and provide temperatures to the finite element structural model.

  19. Thermal Analysis of a Finite Element Model in a Radiation Dominated Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Arhur T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of thermal analysis, evaluating the University of Arizona mirror design, for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Pre-Phase A vehicle concept. Model building begins using Thermal Desktop(Tm), by Cullimore and Ring Technologies, to import a NASTRAN bulk data file from the structural model of the mirror assembly. Using AutoCAD(R) capabilities, additional surfaces are added to simulate the thermal aspects of the problem which, for due reason, are not part of the structural model. Surfaces are then available to accept thermophysical and thermo-optical properties. Thermal Desktop(Tm) calculates radiation conductors using Monte Carlo simulations. Then Thermal Desktop(Tm) generates the SINDA/Fluint input file having a one-to-one correspondence with the NASTRAN node and element definitions. A model is now available to evaluate the mirror design in the radiation dominated environment conduct parametric trade studies of the thermal design, and provide temperatures to the finite element structural model.

  20. A temporal forecast of radiation environments for future space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Cucinotta, Francis A; Wilson, John W

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of future space radiation environments is an important goal for space mission operations, design, and risk assessment. We have developed a solar cycle statistical model in which sunspot number is coupled to space-related quantities, such as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) deceleration potential (phi) and the mean occurrence frequency of solar particle events (SPEs). Future GCR fluxes were derived from a predictive model, in which the temporal dependence represented by phi was derived from GCR flux and ground-based Climax neutron monitor rate measurements over the last four decades. These results showed that the point dose equivalent inside a typical spacecraft in interplanetary space was influenced by solar modulation by up to a factor of three. It also has been shown that a strong relationship exists between large SPE occurrences and phi. For future space exploration missions, cumulative probabilities of SPEs at various integral fluence levels during short-period missions were defined using a database of proton fluences of past SPEs. Analytic energy spectra of SPEs at different ranks of the integral fluences for energies greater than 30 MeV were constructed over broad energy ranges extending out to GeV for the analysis of representative exposure levels at those fluences. Results will guide the design of protection systems for astronauts during future space exploration missions.

  1. Post Common Envelope Binaries as probes of M dwarf stellar wind and habitable zone radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David

    2017-08-01

    M dwarf stars are promising targets in the search for extrasolar habitable planets, as their small size and close-in habitable zones make the detection of Earth-analog planets easier than at Solar-type stars. However, the effects of the high stellar activity of M dwarf hosts has uncertain effects on such planets, and may render them uninhabitable. Studying stellar activity at M dwarfs is hindered by a lack of measurements of high-energy radiation, flare activity and, in particular, stellar wind rates. We propose to rectify this by observing a sample of Post Common Envelope Binaries (PCEBs) with HST and XMM-Newton. PCEBs consist of an M dwarf with a white dwarf companion, which experiences the same stellar wind and radiation environment as a close-in planet. The stellar wind of the M dwarf accretes onto the otherwise pure hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf, producing metal lines detectable with ultraviolet spectroscopy. The metal lines can be used to measure accretion rates onto the white dwarf, from with we can accurately infer the stellar wind mass loss rate of the M dwarf, along with abundances of key elements. Simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton will probe X-ray flare occurrence rate and strength, in addition to coronal temperatures. Performing these measurements over twelve PCEBs will provide a sample of M dwarf stellar wind strengths, flare occurrence and X-ray/UV activity that will finally shed light on the true habitability of planets around small stars.

  2. Characterization of the Acoustic Radiation Properties of Laminated and Sandwich Composite Panels in Thermal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nitin; Ranjan Mahapatra, Trupti; Panda, Subrata Kumar; Sahu, Pruthwiraj

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the acoustic radiation characteristics of laminated and sandwich composite spherical panels subjected to harmonic point excitation under thermal environment are investigated. The finite element (FE) simulation model of the vibrating panel structure is developed in ANSYS using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL) code. Initially, the critical buckling temperatures of the considered structures are obtained and the temperature loads are assorted accordingly. Then, the modal analysis of the thermally stressed panels is performed and the thermo-elastic free vibration responses so obtained are validated with the benchmark solutions. Subsequently, an indirect boundary element (BE) method is utilized to conduct a coupled FE-BE analysis to compute the sound radiation properties of panel structure. The agreement of the present sound power responses with the existing results available in the published literature establishes the validity of the proposed scheme. Finally, the current standardised scheme is extended to solve several numerical examples to bring out the influence of various parameters on the thermo-acoustic characteristics of laminated composite panels.

  3. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar - O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golge, S.; O'Neill, P. M.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model has been used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a comprehensive database of GCR measurements from various particle detectors to determine boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  4. NASA Galactic Cosmic Radiation Environment Model: Badhwar-O'Neill (2014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Slaba, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux model is used by NASA to certify microelectronic systems and in the analysis of radiation health risks for human space flight missions. Of special interest to NASA is the kinetic energy region below 4.0 GeV/n due to the fact that exposure from GCR behind shielding (e.g., inside a space vehicle) is heavily influenced by the GCR particles from this energy domain. The BON model numerically solves the Fokker-Planck differential equation to account for particle transport in the heliosphere due to diffusion, convection, and adiabatic deceleration under the assumption of a spherically symmetric heliosphere. The model utilizes a GCR measurements database from various particle detectors to determine the boundary conditions. By using an updated GCR database and improved model fit parameters, the new BON model (BON14) is significantly improved over the previous BON models for describing the GCR radiation environment of interest to human space flight.

  5. The Space Radiation Environment as it Relates to Electronic System Performance: Or Why Not to Fly Commercial Electronic Components in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael A.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Polvey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation offers an overview of the space radiation environment, primarily in near-Earth environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The presentation describes the Halloween solar event of 2003 as an example of how solar activity can affect spacecraft electronic systems. The lunar radiation environment is also briefly summarized.

  6. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Summary of model calculations and comparison to RAD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Hassler, Donald M.; de Wet, Wouter; Ehresmann, Bent; Firan, Ana; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Guo, Jingnan; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Lee, Kerry; Ratliff, Hunter; Rios, Ryan R.; Slaba, Tony C.; Smith, Michael; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-08-01

    The radiation environment at the Martian surface is, apart from occasional solar energetic particle events, dominated by galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced in their interaction with the Martian atmosphere and albedo particles from the Martian regolith. The highly energetic primary cosmic radiation consists mainly of fully ionized nuclei creating a complex radiation field at the Martian surface. This complex field, its formation and its potential health risk posed to astronauts on future manned missions to Mars can only be fully understood using a combination of measurements and model calculations. In this work the outcome of a workshop held in June 2016 in Boulder, CO, USA is presented: experimental results from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory are compared to model results from GEANT4, HETC-HEDS, HZETRN, MCNP6, and PHITS. Charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and model results calculated for this time period are investigated.

  7. Divergent trait and environment relationships among parallel radiations in Pelargonium (Geraniaceae): a role for evolutionary legacy?

    PubMed

    Moore, Timothy E; Schlichting, Carl D; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Mocko, Kerri; Jones, Cynthia S

    2018-05-11

    Functional traits in closely related lineages are expected to vary similarly along common environmental gradients as a result of shared evolutionary and biogeographic history, or legacy effects, and as a result of biophysical tradeoffs in construction. We test these predictions in Pelargonium, a relatively recent evolutionary radiation. Bayesian phylogenetic mixed effects models assessed, at the subclade level, associations between plant height, leaf area, leaf nitrogen content and leaf mass per area (LMA), and five environmental variables capturing temperature and rainfall gradients across the Greater Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Trait-trait integration was assessed via pairwise correlations within subclades. Of 20 trait-environment associations, 17 differed among subclades. Signs of regression coefficients diverged for height, leaf area and leaf nitrogen content, but not for LMA. Subclades also differed in trait-trait relationships and these differences were modulated by rainfall seasonality. Leave-one-out cross-validation revealed that whether trait variation was better predicted by environmental predictors or trait-trait integration depended on the clade and trait in question. Legacy signals in trait-environment and trait-trait relationships were apparently lost during the earliest diversification of Pelargonium, but then retained during subsequent subclade evolution. Overall, we demonstrate that global-scale patterns are poor predictors of patterns of trait variation at finer geographic and taxonomic scales. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. The radiation environment on the Moon from galactic cosmic rays in a lunar habitat.

    PubMed

    Jia, Y; Lin, Z W

    2010-02-01

    We calculated how the radiation environment in a habitat on the surface of the Moon would have depended on the thickness of the habitat in the 1977 galactic cosmic-ray environment. The Geant4 Monte Carlo transport code was used, and a hemispherical dome made of lunar regolith was used to simulate the lunar habitat. We investigated the effective dose from primary and secondary particles including nuclei from protons up to nickel, neutrons, charged pions, photons, electrons and positrons. The total effective dose showed a strong decrease with the thickness of the habitat dome. However, the effective dose values from secondary neutrons, charged pions, photons, electrons and positrons all showed a strong increase followed by a gradual decrease with the habitat thickness. The fraction of the summed effective dose from these secondary particles in the total effective dose increased with the habitat thickness, from approximately 5% for the no-habitat case to about 47% for the habitat with an areal thickness of 100 g/cm(2).

  9. Radiation protection of people and the environment: developing a common approach.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2002-03-01

    The problem with the current ICRP system of radiation protection, particularly for regulators, is that it fails to differentiate between the application of justification and optimisation to people in the circumstances of medical care or as part of a workforce, compared with their application to members of the general public in an environmental setting; plus the fact that it also fails to address the issue of potential impacts on the rest of the environment in any meaningful way. But if these deficiencies are to be addressed, it will be essential to consider how protection of both people and the living environment can be achieved within a broad philosophical framework, using complementary approaches, based on the same underlying scientific knowledge. This paper briefly examines some of these issues, and offers some suggestions for developing a common, or even a combined, approach. It draws upon recent suggestions made by the ICRP itself with regard to radiological protection, plus current activities-on several fronts-to provide an explicit basis for environmental protection.

  10. Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in situ data and implications for environment definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Jun, Insoo; Evans, Robin

    2017-09-01

    The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In low Earth orbit (LEO), the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles. The shape of the South Atlantic anomaly (SAA) from Jason-2 data is better captured by AP9 compared to AP8, while the peak SAA flux is better reproduced by AP8. The <1.5 MeV inner belt electrons from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles, while AE8 overpredicts the measurements. In the outer radiation belt, MagEIS and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) electrons closely follow the median estimate from AE9, while AP9 5th and 95th percentiles generally envelope REPT proton measurements in the inner belt and slot regions. While AE9/AP9 offer the flexibility to specify the environment with different confidence levels, the dose and trapped proton peak flux for POES and Jason-2 trajectories from the AE9/AP9 50th percentile and above are larger than the estimates from the AE8/AP8 models.

  11. Integration of the radiation belt environment model into the space weather modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Fok, M.; Gombosi, T.; Liemohn, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have integrated the Fok radiation belt environment (RBE) model into the space weather modeling framework (SWMF). RBE is coupled to the global magnetohydrodynamics component (represented by the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US, code) and the Ionosphere Electrodynamics component of the SWMF, following initial results using the Weimer empirical model for the ionospheric potential. The radiation belt (RB) model solves the convection-diffusion equation of the plasma in the energy range of 10 keV to a few MeV. In stand-alone mode RBE uses Tsyganenko's empirical models for the magnetic field, and Weimer's empirical model for the ionospheric potential. In the SWMF the BATS-R-US model provides the time dependent magnetic field by efficiently tracing the closed magnetic field-lines and passing the geometrical and field strength information to RBE at a regular cadence. The ionosphere electrodynamics component uses a two-dimensional vertical potential solver to provide new potential maps to the RBE model at regular intervals. We discuss the coupling algorithm and show some preliminary results with the coupled code. We run our newly coupled model for periods of steady solar wind conditions and compare our results to the RB model using an empirical magnetic field and potential model. We also simulate the RB for an active time period and find that there are substantial differences in the RB model results when changing either the magnetic field or the electric field, including the creation of an outer belt enhancement via rapid inward transport on the time scale of tens of minutes.

  12. The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

  13. Lack of correlation of desiccation and radiation tolerance in microorganisms from diverse extreme environments tested under anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bohmeier, Maria; Perras, Alexandra K; Schwendner, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles S; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggo T; Monaghan, Euan P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Westall, Frances; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Four facultative anaerobic and two obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from extreme environments (deep subsurface halite mine, sulfidic anoxic spring, mineral-rich river) in the frame MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. The isolates were investigated under anoxic conditions for their survivability after desiccation up to 6 months and their tolerance to ionizing radiation up to 3000 Gy. The results indicated that tolerances to both stresses are strain-specific features. Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 showed a high desiccation tolerance but its radiation tolerance was very low. The most radiation-tolerant strains were Buttiauxella sp. MASE-IM-9 and Halanaerobium sp. MASE-BB-1. In both cases, cultivable cells were detectable after an exposure to 3 kGy of ionizing radiation, but cells only survived desiccation for 90 and 30 days, respectively. Although a correlation between desiccation and ionizing radiation resistance has been hypothesized for some aerobic microorganisms, our data showed that there was no correlation between tolerance to desiccation and ionizing radiation, suggesting that the physiological basis of both forms of tolerances is not necessarily linked. In addition, these results indicated that facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms living in extreme environments possess varied species-specific tolerances to extremes. PMID:29474542

  14. How Are Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate Affecting Light-induced Chemical Processes in Aquatic Environments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past three decades have resulted in increases in solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) that reach the surface of aquatic environments. These changes have been accompanied by unprecedented changes in temperature and precipitation patterns around the...

  15. OPEN RADIATION: a collaborative project for radioactivity measurement in the environment by the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Allain, E.; Baumont, G.; Berthelot, N.; Clairand, I.; Couvez, C.; Darley, G.; Henry, B.; Jolivet, T.; Laroche, P.; Lebau-Livé, A.; Lejeune, V.; Miss, J.; Monange, W.; Quéinnec, F.; Richet, Y.; Simon, C.; Trompier, F.; Vayron, F.

    2017-09-01

    After the Fukushima accident, initiatives emerged from the public to carry out themselves measurements of the radioactivity in the environment with various devices, among which smartphones, and to share data and experiences through collaborative tools and social networks. Such measurements have two major interests, on the one hand, to enable each individual of the public to assess his own risk regarding the radioactivity and, on the other hand, to provide "real time" data from the field at various locations, especially in the early phase of an emergency situation, which could be very useful for the emergency management. The objective of the OPENRADIATION project is to offer to the public the opportunity to be an actor for measurements of the radioactivity in the environment using connected dosimetric applications on smartphones. The challenge is to operate such a system on a sustainable basis in peaceful time and be useful in case of emergency. In "peaceful situation", this project is based on a collaborative approach with the aim to get complementary data to the existing ones, to consolidate the radiation background, to generate alerts in case of problem and to provide education & training and enhanced pedagogical approaches for a clear understanding of measures for the public. In case of emergency situation, data will be available "spontaneously" from the field in "real time" providing an opportunity for the emergency management and the communication with the public. … The practical objective is i) to develop a website centralising data from various systems/dosimeters, providing dose maps with raw and filtered data and creating dedicated areas for specific initiatives and exchanges of data and ii) to develop a data acquisition protocol and a dosimetric application using a connected dosimeter with a bluetooth connection. This project is conducted within a partnership between organisms' representative of the scientific community and associations to create links

  16. Biological damage of UV radiation in environments of F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Satoko

    I investigate the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with special consideration to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the assumption that exobiology is most likely based on hydrocarbons. The DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the relative damage of the stellar UV radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account in the form of parameterized attenuation functions. My work is motivated by previous studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-like stars is one of the most critical elements in determining the habitability of exoplanets and exomoons. It contributes further to the exploration of the exobiological suitability of stars that are hotter and emit much higher photospheric UV fluxes than the Sun. I found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between 2.5 and 7.1 times higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If atmospheric attenuation is included, however, less damage is obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. Also, the outer part of late F-type stars have similar UV conditions to Earth. Therefore, F-type circumstellar environments should not be excluded from candidates for habitable places on the grounds of higher stellar UV emission than the Sun. Besides the extensive theoretical component of this study, emphasis is furthermore placed on applications to observed planetary systems including CoRoT-3, WASP-14, HD 197286, HD 179949, upsilon And, and HD 86264.

  17. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the inter-national space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Med-ical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  18. Radiation Beamline Testbeds for the Simulation of Planetary and Spacecraft Environments for Human and Robotic Mission Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the international space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  19. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Polansky, Stepan

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at themore » altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.« less

  20. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan

    2016-07-01

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  1. INTERACTIONS OF SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar radiation provides the primary driving force for the biogeochemical cycles upon which life and climate depend. Recent studies have demonstrated that the absorption of solar radiation, especially 'm the ultraviolet spectral region, results in photochemical reactions that can...

  2. A study of the radiation environment on board the space shuttle flight STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Keegan, R. P.; Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Potapov, V.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.

    1995-01-01

    A joint NASA-Russian study of the radiation environment inside a SPACEHAB 2 locker on space shuttle flight STS-57 was conducted. The shuttle flew in a nearly circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and 462 km altitude. The locker carried a charged particle spectrometer, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and two area passive detectors consisting of combined NASA plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), and Russian nuclear emulsions, PNTD's, and TLD's. All the detector systems were shielded by the same shuttle mass distribution. This makes possible a direct comparison of the various dose measurement techniques. In addition, measurements of the neutron energy spectrum were made using the proton recoil technique. The results show good agreement between the integral LET spectrum of the combined galactic and trapped particles using the tissue equivalent proportional counter and track detectors between about 15 keV/micron and 200 keV/micron. The LET spectrum determined from nuclear emulsions was systematically lower by about 50%, possibly due to emulsion fading. The results show that the TEPC measured an absorbed dose 20% higher than TLD's, due primarily to an increased TEPC response to neutrons and a low sensitivity of TLD's to high LET particles under normal processing techniques. There is a significant flux of high energy neutrons that is currently not taken into consideration in dose equivalent calculations. The results of the analysis of the spectrometer data will be reported separately.

  3. Dependence of the Martian radiation environment on atmospheric depth: Modeling and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingnan; Slaba, Tony C.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Badavi, Francis F.; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Rafkin, Scot

    2017-02-01

    The energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is influenced by solar and heliospheric modulation and changes in the local atmospheric pressure (or column depth). The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity on the surface of Mars has been measuring this effect for over four Earth years (about two Martian years). The anticorrelation between the recorded surface Galactic Cosmic Ray-induced dose rates and pressure changes has been investigated by Rafkin et al. (2014) and the long-term solar modulation has also been empirically analyzed and modeled by Guo et al. (2015). This paper employs the newly updated HZETRN2015 code to model the Martian atmospheric shielding effect on the accumulated dose rates and the change of this effect under different solar modulation and atmospheric conditions. The modeled results are compared with the most up-to-date (from 14 August 2012 to 29 June 2016) observations of the RAD instrument on the surface of Mars. Both model and measurements agree reasonably well and show the atmospheric shielding effect under weak solar modulation conditions and the decline of this effect as solar modulation becomes stronger. This result is important for better risk estimations of future human explorations to Mars under different heliospheric and Martian atmospheric conditions.

  4. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mitigating the Effects of the Space Radiation Environment: A Novel Approach of Using Graded-Z Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Aghara, Sukesh; Sriprisan, Sirikul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel space radiation shielding approach using various material lay-ups, called "Graded-Z" shielding, which could optimize cost, weight, and safety while mitigating the radiation exposures from the trapped radiation and solar proton environments, as well as the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment, to humans and electronics. In addition, a validation and verification (V&V) was performed using two different high energy particle transport/dose codes (MCNPX & HZETRN). Inherently, we know that materials having high-hydrogen content are very good space radiation shielding materials. Graded-Z material lay-ups are very good trapped electron mitigators for medium earth orbit (MEO) and geostationary earth orbit (GEO). In addition, secondary particles, namely neutrons, are produced as the primary particles penetrate a spacecraft, which can have deleterious effects to both humans and electronics. The use of "dopants," such as beryllium, boron, and lithium, impregnated in other shielding materials provides a means of absorbing the secondary neutrons. Several examples of optimized Graded-Z shielding layups that include the use of composite materials are presented and discussed in detail. This parametric shielding study is an extension of some earlier pioneering work we (William Atwell and Kristina Rojdev) performed in 20041 and 20092.

  6. Solar cycle variations of MIR radiation environment as observed by the LIULIN dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Dachev TsP; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Semkova, J V; Petrov, V M; Benghin, V V; Ivanov YuV; Shurshakov, V A; Lemaire, J F

    1999-06-01

    Measurements on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter LIULIN have been used to study the solar cycle variations of the radiation environment. The fixed locations of the instrument in the MIR manned compartment behind 6-15 g/cm2 of shielding have given homogeneous series of particle fluxes and doses measurements to be collected during the declining phase of 22nd solar cycle between September 1989 and April 1994. During the declining phase of 22nd solar cycle the GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) flux observed at L>4 (where L is the McIlwain parameter) has enhanced from 0.6-0.7 cm-2 s-1 up to 1.4-1.6 cm-2 s-1. The long-term observations of the trapped radiation can be summarized as follows: the main maximum of the flux and dose rate is located at the southeast side of the geomagnetic field minimum of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) at L=1.3-1.4. Protons depositing few (nGy cm2)/particle in the detector predominantly populate this region. At practically the same spatial location and for similar conditions the dose rate rises up from 480 to 1470 microGy/h dose in silicon in the 1990-1994 time interval, during the declining phase of the solar cycle. On the other hand the flux rises from 35 up to 115 cm-2 s-1 for the same period of time. A power law dependence was extracted which predicts that when the total neutral density at the altitude of the station decreases from 8x10(-15) to 6x10(-16) g/cm3 the dose increase from about 200 microGy/h up to 1200 microGy/h. At the same time the flux increase from about 30 cm-2 s-1 up to 120 cm-2 s-1. The AP8 model predictions give only 5.8% increase of the flux for the same conditions.

  7. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  8. Radiation efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer impacts on sunflower crop in contrasting environments of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Wajid; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Amin, Asad; Tariq, Muhammad; Awais, Muhammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Sultana, Syeda Refat; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Rahman, Muhammad Habib Ur; Turan, Veysel; Fahad, Shah; Suad, Shah; Khan, Aziz; Ali, Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is the leading non-conventional oilseed crop in Pakistan. Nitrogen fertilizer can affect plant growth and productivity by changing canopy size which has an effect on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of the crop. The response of sunflower hybrids in terms of phenology, fraction of intercepted radiation (F i ), and RUE to nitrogenous rates (0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg ha -1 ) was studied in three field experiments conducted in three various environments: Multan (arid), Faisalabad (semi-arid), and Gujranwala (sub-humid) during spring seasons 2008 and 2009. The treatments were laid out according to a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements, keeping the sunflower hybrids in main plots and nitrogen rates in sub-plots, and replicated three times. The results showed Hysun-38 took a maximum number of days to anthesis (101) as compared to Pioneer-64A93 (100) and Hysun-33 (99). The mean values of F i were 0.850, 0.903, and 0.978, and the estimated values of RUE for total aboveground dry matter were 2.14, 2.47, and 2.65 g MJ -1 at experimental locations of Multan, Faisalabad, and Gujranwala, respectively. The values of RUE for grain yield (RUE GY ) were 0.78, 0.98, and 1.26 g MJ -1 at experimental locations of Multan, Faisalabad, and Gujranwala, respectively. The average RUE GY values over three locations were 2.61, 2.60, 2.43, and 2.36 g MJ -2 in N 4 (180 kg ha -1 ), N 5 (240 kg ha -1 ), N 3 (120 kg ha -1 ), and N 2 (60 kg ha -1 ) treatments, respectively. Increasing rates of N increased RUE GY over the standard treatment N 3 (120 kg N ha -1 ); however, the averaged values over three locations were 1.22, 1.08, 0.99, and 0.92 g MJ -2 in N 4 , N 5 , N 3 , and N 2 treatments, respectively. Therefore, optimum water and N doses are important for attaining higher RUE, which may enhance sunflower growth and yield.

  9. A Radiation Hard Multi-Channel Digitizer ASIC for Operation in the Harsh Jovian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Aslam, S.; Akturk, A.; Quilligan, G.

    2011-01-01

    ultimately impact the surface of Europa after the mission is completed. The current JEO mission concept includes a range of instruments on the payload, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiters atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. The payload includes a low mass (3.7 Kg) and low power (< 5 W) Thermal Instrument (TI) concept for measuring possible warm thermal anomalies on Europa s cold surface caused by recent (< 10,000 years) eruptive activity. Regions of anomalously high heat flow will be identified by thermal mapping using a nadir pointing, push-broom filter radiometer that provides far-IR imagery in two broad band spectral wavelength regions, 8-20 m and 20-100 m, for surface temperature measurements with better than a 2 K accuracy and a spatial resolution of 250 m/pixel obtained from a 100 Km orbit. The temperature accuracy permits a search for elevated temperatures when combined with albedo information. The spatial resolution is sufficient to resolve Europa's larger cracks and ridge axial valleys. In order to accomplish the thermal mapping, the TI uses sensitive thermopile arrays that are readout by a custom designed low-noise Multi-Channel Digitizer (MCD) ASIC that resides very close to the thermopile linear array outputs. Both the thermopile array and the MCD ASIC will need to show full functionality within the harsh Jovian radiation environment, operating at cryogenic temperatures, typically 150 K to 170 K. In the following, a radiation mitigation strategy together with a low risk Radiation-Hardened-By-Design (RHBD) methodology using commercial foundry processes is given for the design and manufacture of a MCD ASIC that will meet this challenge.

  10. Update on IBEX and the outer boundary of the space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; IBEX Science Team

    2012-11-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has been remotely observing the global interaction of our heliosphere with the local interstellar medium for over three years. Initially, IBEX generated the first all-sky maps of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) emanating in from the boundaries of our heliosphere over the energy range from ˜0.1-6 keV. Using these observations, the IBEX team discovered a smoothly varying, globally distributed ENA flux overlaid by a narrow "ribbon" of significantly enhanced ENA emissions. Since the initial publication of these results in a special issue of Science magazine (November 2009), IBEX has completed five more energy-resolved sets of sky maps and discovered small but important time variations in the interaction, separated the ribbon from globally distributed ENA fluxes, measured the energy spectral shape and inferred ion source temperatures, and carried out many other observational and theoretical studies of the outer heliosphere. In a second major area of observations - direct measurements of Interstellar Neutral (ISN) atoms - just published, IBEX observations of ISN He atoms show that the speed and direction (the motion of the heliosphere with respect to the interstellar medium) is slower and from a somewhat different direction than that thought from prior Ulysses observations. These observations also show evidence for a previously unknown and unanticipated secondary population of Helium. In addition, IBEX is providing the first direct quantitative measurements of the ISN H parameters and the first direct measurements of interstellar Ne and the interstellar Neon/Oxygen abundance ratio; this ratio is significantly different than the solar abundance ratio. Finally, IBEX was recently maneuvered into a unique, long-term stable orbit, which has a very low radiation environment and requires no orbit maintenance. Thus, IBEX will likely continue to provide revolutionary observations of the outer heliosphere and local interstellar

  11. Protection of people and environment from radiation risk through good regulatory practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jais, Azlina Mohammad; Hassan, Najwa

    2017-01-01

    The term "good regulatory practice" has seen growing frequency of usage worldwide, especially since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident. However, the term appears quite ambiguous as it may mean differently to different people. This leads us to the first important question: what does "good regulatory practice" actually mean? When used in conjunction with the Fukushima incident, do we imply that there is an absence of "good regulatory practice" in the Japanese' Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA)? This is quite troubling. It is clear that the term should be defined formally so that our understanding of "good regulatory practice" can be standardized. There is still another important question beyond agreeing on what "good regulatory practice" is: is "good regulatory practice" specific to a region, or is it global? And is it applicable only to nuclear regulators, or to all types of regulators per se? This paper aims to deliberate on the above mentioned questions. Specifically, we hope to discuss the "good regulatory practice" for atomic energy activities in order to protect the people and the environment from radiation risk of such activities. By understanding what "good regulatory practice" truly means, a newcomer country such as Malaysia can quickly learn and adopt these practices so as to assure a competent national nuclear regulatory authority who will be responsible in ensuring the safety, security and safeguards of peaceful atomic energy activities in the country including nuclear liability. In understanding this concept, a holistic approach will be taken by looking into example of advanced and newcomer countries of various nuclear regulatory authorities all around the world. Then the paper will focus on the challenges that the current nuclear regulatory authority in Malaysia which is Atomic Energy Licensing Board has, its challenges to follow the concept of "good regulatory practice" and its ways to overcome it. This study explore the initiatives could be

  12. High-performing simulations of the space radiation environment for the International Space Station and Apollo Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Matthew Lawrence

    The space radiation environment is a significant challenge to future manned and unmanned space travels. Future missions will rely more on accurate simulations of radiation transport in space through spacecraft to predict astronaut dose and energy deposition within spacecraft electronics. The International Space Station provides long-term measurements of the radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); however, only the Apollo missions provided dosimetry data beyond LEO. Thus dosimetry analysis for deep space missions is poorly supported with currently available data, and there is a need to develop dosimetry-predicting models for extended deep space missions. GEANT4, a Monte Carlo Method, provides a powerful toolkit in C++ for simulation of radiation transport in arbitrary media, thus including the spacecraft and space travels. The newest version of GEANT4 supports multithreading and MPI, resulting in faster distributive processing of simulations in high-performance computing clusters. This thesis introduces a new application based on GEANT4 that greatly reduces computational time using Kingspeak and Ember computational clusters at the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) to simulate radiation transport through full spacecraft geometry, reducing simulation time to hours instead of weeks without post simulation processing. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new set of detectors besides the historically used International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) spheres for calculating dose distribution, including a Thermoluminescent Detector (TLD), Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), and human phantom combined with a series of new primitive scorers in GEANT4 to calculate dose equivalence based on the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) standards. The developed models in this thesis predict dose depositions in the International Space Station and during the Apollo missions showing good agreement with experimental measurements

  13. Deterministic and stochastic methods of calculation of polarization characteristics of radiation in natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelkov, S. A.; Sushkevich, T. A.; Maksakova, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We are talking about russian achievements of the world level in the theory of radiation transfer, taking into account its polarization in natural media and the current scientific potential developing in Russia, which adequately provides the methodological basis for theoretically-calculated research of radiation processes and radiation fields in natural media using supercomputers and mass parallelism. A new version of the matrix transfer operator is proposed for solving problems of polarized radiation transfer in heterogeneous media by the method of influence functions, when deterministic and stochastic methods can be combined.

  14. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  15. Mapping the Space Radiation Environment in LEO Orbit by the SATRAM Timepix Payload On Board the Proba-V Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Sospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Mellab, Karim

    2016-08-01

    The compact spacecraft payload SATRAM is operating in LEO orbit since 2013 on board the Proba-V satellite from ESA and provides high-resolution wide-range radiation monitoring of the satellite environment. Equipped with the pixel detector Timepix, the technology demonstration payload determines the composition (particle types) and spectral characterization (stopping power) of the mixed radiation field with quantum imaging sensitivity, charged particle tracking, energy loss and directionality capability. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) and altitude of 820 km the space radiation field is continuously sampled over the entire planet every few days. Results are given in the form of spatial- and time- correlated maps of dose rate and particle flux. Comparison is made between quiescent and geomagnetic storm activity periods.

  16. The charged particle radiation environment on Mars measured by MSL/RAD from November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Zeitlin, Cary J.; Hassler, Donald M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has been measuring the radiation environment in Gale crater on Mars since August, 2012. These first in-situ measurements provide an important data set for assessing the radiation-associated health risks for future manned missions to Mars. Mainly, the radiation field on the Martian surface stems from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. RAD is capable of measuring differential particle fluxes for lower-energy ions and isotopes of hydrogen and helium (up to hundreds of MeV/nuc). Additionally, RAD also measures integral particle fluxes for higher energies of these ions. Besides providing insight on the current Martian radiation environment, these fluxes also present an essential input for particle transport codes that are used to model the radiation to be encountered during future manned missions to Mars. Comparing simulation results with actual ground-truth measurements helps to validate these transport codes and identify potential areas of improvements in the underlying physics of these codes. At the First Mars Radiation Modeling Workshop (June 2016 in Boulder, CO), different groups of modelers were asked to calculate the Martian surface radiation environment for the time of November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016. These model results can then be compared with in-situ measurements of MSL/RAD conducted during the same time frame. In this publication, we focus on presenting the charged particle fluxes measured by RAD between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016, providing the necessary data set for the comparison to model outputs from the modeling workshop. We also compare the fluxes to initial GCR intensities, as well as to RAD measurements from an earlier time period (August 2012 to January 2013). Furthermore, we describe how changes and updates in RAD on board processing and the on

  17. The charged particle radiation environment on Mars measured by MSL/RAD from November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016.

    PubMed

    Ehresmann, Bent; Zeitlin, Cary J; Hassler, Donald M; Matthiä, Daniel; Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Appel, Jan K; Brinza, David E; Rafkin, Scot C R; Böttcher, Stephan I; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has been measuring the radiation environment in Gale crater on Mars since August, 2012. These first in-situ measurements provide an important data set for assessing the radiation-associated health risks for future manned missions to Mars. Mainly, the radiation field on the Martian surface stems from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. RAD is capable of measuring differential particle fluxes for lower-energy ions and isotopes of hydrogen and helium (up to hundreds of MeV/nuc). Additionally, RAD also measures integral particle fluxes for higher energies of these ions. Besides providing insight on the current Martian radiation environment, these fluxes also present an essential input for particle transport codes that are used to model the radiation to be encountered during future manned missions to Mars. Comparing simulation results with actual ground-truth measurements helps to validate these transport codes and identify potential areas of improvements in the underlying physics of these codes. At the First Mars Radiation Modeling Workshop (June 2016 in Boulder, CO), different groups of modelers were asked to calculate the Martian surface radiation environment for the time of November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016. These model results can then be compared with in-situ measurements of MSL/RAD conducted during the same time frame. In this publication, we focus on presenting the charged particle fluxes measured by RAD between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016, providing the necessary data set for the comparison to model outputs from the modeling workshop. We also compare the fluxes to initial GCR intensities, as well as to RAD measurements from an earlier time period (August 2012 to January 2013). Furthermore, we describe how changes and updates in RAD on board processing and the on

  18. Characterization of the particle radiation environment at three potential landing sites on Mars using ESA’s MEREM models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Gonçalves, P.; Keating, A.; Morgado, B.; Heynderickx, D.; Nieminen, P.; Santin, G.; Truscott, P.; Lei, F.; Foing, B.; Balaz, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ‘Mars Energetic Radiation Environment Models’ (dMEREM and eMEREM) recently developed for the European Space Agency are herein used to estimate, for the first time, background Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation and flare related solar energetic particle (SEP) events at three candidate martian landing sites under conditions where particle arrival occurred at solar minimum (December, 2006) and solar maximum (April, 2002) during Solar Cycle 23. The three landing sites were selected on the basis that they are characterized by significantly different hydrological conditions and soil compositions. Energetic particle data sets recorded on orbit at Mars at the relevant times were incomplete because of gaps in the measurements due to operational constraints. Thus, in the present study, comprehensive near-Earth particle measurements made aboard the GOES spacecraft were used as proxies to estimate the overall particle doses at each perspective landing site, assuming in each case that the fluxes fell off as 1/r2 (where r is the helio-radial distance) and that good magnetic connectivity always prevailed. The results indicate that the particle radiation environment on Mars can vary according to the epoch concerned and the landing site selected. Particle estimations obtained using MEREM are in reasonable agreement, given the inherent differences between the models, with the related NASA Heavy Ion-Nucleon Transport Code for Space Radiation/HZETRN. Both sets of results indicated that, for short (30 days) stays, the atmosphere of Mars, in the cases of the SEPs studied and the then prevailing background galactic cosmic radiation, provided sufficient shielding at the planetary surface to maintain annual skin and blood forming organ/BFO dose levels below currently accepted ionizing radiation exposure limits. The threat of occurrence of a hard spectrum SEP during Cruise-Phase transfers to/from Mars over 400 days, combined with the associated cumulative effect of prolonged GCR

  19. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.

    PubMed

    Chin, F K C

    2007-10-01

    In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations.

  20. How Extreme is TRAPPIST-1? A look into the planetary system’s extreme-UV radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-01-01

    The ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 hosts three earth-sized planets at orbital distances where water has the potential to exist in liquid form on the planets’ surface. Close-in exoplanets, such as these, become vulnerable to water loss as stellar XUV radiation heats and expands their upper atmospheres. Currently, little is known about the high-energy radiation environment around TRAPPIST-1. Recent efforts to quantify the XUV radiation rely on empirical relationships based on X-ray or Lyman alpha line observations and yield very different results. The scaling relations used between the X-ray and EUV emission result in high-energy irradiation of the planets 10-1000x greater than present day Earth, stripping atmospheres and oceans in 1 Gyr, while EUV estimated from Lyman alpha flux is much lower. Here we present upper-atmosphere PHOENIX models representing the minimum and maximum potential EUV stellar flux from TRAPPIST-1. We use GALEX FUV and NUV photometry for similar aged M stars to determine the UV flux extrema in an effort to better constrain the high-energy radiation environment around TRAPPIST-1.

  1. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  2. Design Issues for Using Magnetic Materials in Radiation Environments at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of designing motors and alternators for use in nuclear powered space missions is accounting for the effects of radiation. Terrestrial reactor power plants use distance and shielding to minimize radiation damage but space missions must economize volume and mass. Past studies have shown that sufficiently high radiation levels can affect the magnetic response of hard and soft magnetic materials. Theoretical models explaining the radiation-induced degradation have been proposed but not verified. This paper reviews the literature and explains the cumulative effects of temperature, magnetic-load, and radiation-level on the magnetic properties of component materials. Magnetic property degradation is very specific to alloy choice and processing history, since magnetic properties are very much entwined with specific chemistry and microstructural features. However, there is basic theoretical as well as supportive experimental evidence that the negative impact to magnetic properties will be minimal if the bulk temperature of the material is less than fifty percent of the Curie temperature, the radiation flux is low, and the demagnetization field is small. Keywords: Magnets, Permanent Magnets, Power Converters, Nuclear Electric Power Generation, Radiation Tolerance.

  3. Influence of nonequilibrium radiation and shape change on aerothermal environment of a Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of nonequilibrium radiative energy transfer and the effect of probe configuration changes on the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body are investigated. The radiating shock layer flow is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, laminar and in chemical equilibrium. The radiative transfer equations are derived under nonequilibrium conditions which include multilevel energy transitions. The equilibrium radiative transfer analysis is performed with an existing nongray radiation model which accounts for molecular band, atomic line, and continuum transitions. The nonequilibrium results are obtained with and without ablation injection in the shock layer. The nonequilibrium results are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distribution in the shock layer. In the absence of ablative products, the convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced under nonequilibrium conditions. The influence of nonequilibrium is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes. With coupled ablation and carbon phenolic injection, 16 chemical species are used in the ablation layer for radiation absorption. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium results are compared under peak heating conditions.

  4. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Summary of model calculations and comparison to RAD data.

    PubMed

    Matthiä, Daniel; Hassler, Donald M; de Wet, Wouter; Ehresmann, Bent; Firan, Ana; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Guo, Jingnan; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Lee, Kerry; Ratliff, Hunter; Rios, Ryan R; Slaba, Tony C; Smith, Michael; Stoffle, Nicholas N; Townsend, Lawrence W; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-08-01

    The radiation environment at the Martian surface is, apart from occasional solar energetic particle events, dominated by galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced in their interaction with the Martian atmosphere and albedo particles from the Martian regolith. The highly energetic primary cosmic radiation consists mainly of fully ionized nuclei creating a complex radiation field at the Martian surface. This complex field, its formation and its potential health risk posed to astronauts on future manned missions to Mars can only be fully understood using a combination of measurements and model calculations. In this work the outcome of a workshop held in June 2016 in Boulder, CO, USA is presented: experimental results from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory are compared to model results from GEANT4, HETC-HEDS, HZETRN, MCNP6, and PHITS. Charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and model results calculated for this time period are investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a 0-50 mbar pressure measurement channel compatible with the LHC tunnel radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Juan; Jelen, Dorota; Trikoupis, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    The monitoring of cryogenic facilities often require the measurement of pressure in the sub 5’000 Pa range that are used for flow metering applications, for saturated superfluid helium, etc. The pressure measurement is based on the minute displacement of a sensing diaphragm often through contactless techniques by using capacitive or inductive methods. The LHC radiation environment forbid the use of standard commercial sensors because of the embedded electronics that are affected both by radiation induced drift and transient Single Event Effects (SEE). Passive pressure sensors from two manufacturers were investigated and a CERN designed radiation-tolerant electronics has been developed for measuring variable-reluctance sensors. During the last maintenance stop of the LHC accelerator, four absolute pressure sensors were installed in some of the low pressure bayonet heat exchangers and four differential pressure sensors on the venturi flowmeters that monitor the cooling flow of the 20.5 kA current leads of the ATLAS end-cap superconducting toroids. The pressure sensors operating range is about 1000 to 5000 Pa and the targeted uncertainty is +/- 50 Pa which would permit to measure the equivalent saturation temperature at 1.8 K within better than 0.01 K. This paper describes the radiation hard measuring head that is based on an inductive bridge, its associated radiation-tolerant electronics that is installed under the LHC superconducting magnets or the ATLAS detector cavern; and the first operational experience.

  6. Radiation characteristics of water droplets in a fire-inspired environment: A Monte Carlo ray tracing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bifen; Zhao, Xinyu

    2018-06-01

    The effects of radiation of water mists in a fire-inspired environment are numerically investigated for different complexities of radiative media in a three-dimensional cubic enclosure. A Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) method is employed to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The anisotropic scattering behaviors of water mists are modeled by a combination of the Mie theory and the Henyey-Greestein relation. A tabulation method considering the size and wavelength dependencies is established for water droplets, to reduce the computational cost associated with the evaluation of the nongray spectral properties of water mists. Validation and verification of the coupled MCRT solver are performed using a one-dimensional slab with gray gas in comparison with the analytical solutions. Parametric studies are then performed using a three-dimensional cubic box to examine radiation of two monodispersed and one polydispersed water mist systems. The tabulation method can reduce the computational cost by a factor of one hundred. Results obtained without any scattering model better conform with results obtained from the anisotropic model than the isotropic scattering model, when a highly directional emissive source is applied. For isotropic emissive sources, isotropic and anisotropic scattering models predict comparable results. The addition of different volume fractions of soot shows that soot may have a negative impact on the effectiveness of water mists in absorbing radiation when its volume fraction exceeds certain threshold.

  7. Studies of atmosphere radio-sounding for monitoring of radiation environments around nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, Kirill; Karelin, Alexander; Tumanov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear power plants practically do not discharge to the atmosphere any products causing significant radioactive contaminations. However, during the years of the nuclear power industry, some large accidents occurred at the nuclear objects, and that caused enormous environmental contamination. Among the most significant accidents are: thermal explosion of a reservoir with high-level wastes at the Mayak enterprise in the South Ural region, near the town of Kyshtym, in the end of September 1957; accident at the nuclear power plant in Windscale, UK, in October 1957; accident at the Three-Mile Island, USA, in 1979; accident at the Chernobyl power plant in April 1986. In March of 2011, a large earthquake and the following tsunami caused the largest nuclear catastrophe of XXI century, the accident at the Fucushima-1 power plant. The last accident highlighted the need to review seriously the safety issues at the active power plants and to develop the new effective methods for remote detection and control over radioactive environmental contamination and over general geophysical situation in the areas. The main influence of the fission products on the environment is its ionisation, and therefore various detectable biological and physical processes that are caused by ions. Presence of an ionisation source within the area under study may cause significant changes of absolute humidity and, that is especially important, changes of the chemical potential of atmosphere vapours indicating presence of charged condensation centres. These effects may cause anomalies in the IR radiation emitted from the Earth surface and jumps in the chemical potentials of water vapours that may be observed by means of the satellite remote sensing by specialized equipment (works by Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, e.a.). In the current study, the theoretical description is presented from positions of the molecular-kinetic condensation theory that shows significant changes of the absolute and

  8. Evaluation of standard radiation atmosphere aerosol models for a coastal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Suttles, J. T.; Sebacher, D. I.; Fuller, W. H.; Lecroy, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations are compared with data from an experiment to evaluate the utility of standard radiation atmosphere (SRA) models for defining aerosol properties in atmospheric radiation computations. Initial calculations with only SRA aerosols in a four-layer atmospheric column simulation allowed a sensitivity study and the detection of spectral trends in optical depth, which differed from measurements. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis provided a revision in the stratospheric layer, which brought calculations in line with both optical depth and skylight radiance data. The simulation procedure allows determination of which atmospheric layers influence both downwelling and upwelling radiation spectra.

  9. High intensity radiated field external environments for civil aircraft operating in the United States of America

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-01

    NAWCAD Patuxent River, Maryland, was tasked by the FAA to determine the High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) levels for civil aircraft operating in the U.S. The electromagnetic field survey will apply to civil aircraft seeking FAA certification under...

  10. Noise limitations of multiplier phototubes in the radiation environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Eubanks, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The contributions of Cerenkov emission, luminescence, secondary electron emission, and bremsstrahlung to radiation-induced data current and noise of multiplier phototubes were analyzed quantitatively. Fluorescence and Cerenkov emission in the tube window are the major contributors and can quantitatively account for dark count levels observed in orbit. Radiation-induced noise can be minimized by shielding, tube selection, and mode of operation. Optical decoupling of windows and cathode (side-window tubes) leads to further reduction of radiation-induced dark counts, as does reducing the window thickness and effective cathode area, and selection of window/cathode combinations of low fluorescence efficiency. In trapped radiation-free regions of near-earth orbits and in free space, Cerenkov emission by relativistic particles contributes predominantly to the photoelectron yield per event. Operating multiplier phototubes in the photon (pulse) counting mode will discriminate against these large pulses and substantially reduce the dark count and noise to levels determined by fluorescence.

  11. Autonomous Monitoring of Radiation Environment and Personal Systems for Crew Enhanced SPE Protection (AMORE and PSYCHE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.; Baiocco, G.; Berrilli, F.; Giraudo, M.; Ottolenghi, A.; Rizzo, A.; Salina, G.

    2018-02-01

    Understand the relationship between SPE precursors, the related SPE radiation inside the Deep Space Gateway, and the associated risk levels, validating existing models, proposing countermeasures actions via a real time, autonomous intelligent system.

  12. A Review of NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the RHESE technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of these advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the plans for the coming year.

  13. Influence of Coupled Radiation and Ablation on the Aerothermodynamic Environment of Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Mazaheri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    A review of recently published coupled radiation and ablation capabilities involving the simulation of hypersonic flowfields relevant to Earth, Mars, or Venus entry is presented. The three fundamental mechanisms of radiation coupling are identified as radiative cooling, precursor photochemistry, and ablation-radiation interaction. The impact of these mechanisms are shown to be significant for a 3 m radius sphere entering Earth at hypothetical Mars return conditions (approximately 15 km/s). To estimate the influence precursor absorption on the radiative flux for a wide range of conditions, a simplified approach is developed that requires only the non-precursor solution. Details of a developed coupled ablation approach, which is capable of treating both massively ablating flowfields in the sublimation regime and weakly ablating diffusion Climited oxidation cases, are presented. A review of the two primary uncoupled ablation approximations, identified as the blowing correction and film coefficient approximations, is made and their impact for Earth and Mars entries is shown to be significant for recession and convective heating predictions. Fully coupled ablation and radiation simulations are presented for the Mars return sphere throughout its entire trajectory. Applying to the Mars return sphere the Pioneer- Venus heritage carbon phenolic heatshield, which has properties available in the open literature, the differences between steady state ablation and coupling to a material response code are shown to be significant.

  14. Incoming longwave radiation to melting snow: observations, sensitivity and estimation in Northern environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicart, J. E.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Essery, R. L. H.; Bewley, D.

    2006-11-01

    At high latitudes, longwave radiation can provide similar, or higher, amounts of energy to snow than shortwave radiation due to the low solar elevation (cosine effect and increased scattering due to long atmospheric path lengths). This effect is magnified in mountains due to shading and longwave emissions from the complex topography. This study examines longwave irradiance at the snow surface in the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada (60° 36N, 134° 57W) during the springs of 2002 and 2004. Incoming longwave radiation was estimated from standard meteorological measurements by segregating radiation sources into clear sky, clouds and surrounding terrain. A sensitivity study was conducted to detect the atmospheric and topographic conditions under which emission from adjacent terrain significantly increases the longwave irradiance. The total incoming longwave radiation is more sensitive to sky view factor than to the temperature of the emitting terrain surfaces. Brutsaert's equation correctly simulates the clear-sky irradiance for hourly time steps using temperature and humidity. Longwave emissions from clouds, which raised longwave radiation above that from clear skies by 16% on average, were best estimated using daily atmospheric shortwave transmissivity and hourly relative humidity. An independent test of the estimation procedure for a prairie site near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, indicated that the calculations are robust in late winter and spring conditions. Copyright

  15. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  16. The relative impact of photoionizing radiation and stellar winds on different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Seifried, D.; Wünsch, R.; Dinnbier, F.; Naab, T.

    2018-05-01

    Photoionizing radiation and stellar winds from massive stars deposit energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM). They might disperse the local ISM, change its turbulent multi-phase structure, and even regulate star formation. Ionizing radiation dominates the massive stars' energy output, but the relative effect of winds might change with stellar mass and the properties of the ambient ISM. We present simulations of the interaction of stellar winds and ionizing radiation of 12, 23, and 60 M⊙ stars within a cold neutral (CNM, n0 = 100 cm-3), warm neutral (WNM, n0 = 1, 10 cm-3) or warm ionized (WIM, n0 = 0.1 cm-3) medium. The FLASH simulations adopt the novel tree-based radiation transfer algorithm TREERAY. With the On-the-Spot approximation and a temperature-dependent recombination coefficient, it is coupled to a chemical network with radiative heating and cooling. In the homogeneous CNM, the total momentum injection ranges from 1.6× 104 to 4× 105 M⊙ km s-1 and is always dominated by the expansion of the ionized HII region. In the WIM, stellar winds dominate (2× 102 to 5× 103 M⊙ km s-1), while the input from radiation is small (˜ 102 M⊙ km s-1). The WNM (n0 = 1 cm-3) is a transition regime. Energetically, stellar winds couple more efficiently to the ISM (˜ 0.1 percent of wind luminosity) than radiation (< 0.001 percent of ionizing luminosity). For estimating the impact of massive stars, the strongly mass-dependent ratios of wind to ionizing luminosity and the properties of the ambient medium have to be considered.

  17. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important

  18. Concepts and challenges in cancer risk prediction for the space radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Blakely, Eleanor A; Burma, Sandeep; Fornace, Albert J; Gerson, Stanton; Hlatky, Lynn; Kirsch, David G; Luderer, Ulrike; Shay, Jerry; Wang, Ya; Weil, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is an important long-term risk for astronauts exposed to protons and high-energy charged particles during travel and residence on asteroids, the moon, and other planets. NASA's Biomedical Critical Path Roadmap defines the carcinogenic risks of radiation exposure as one of four type I risks. A type I risk represents a demonstrated, serious problem with no countermeasure concepts, and may be a potential "show-stopper" for long duration spaceflight. Estimating the carcinogenic risks for humans who will be exposed to heavy ions during deep space exploration has very large uncertainties at present. There are no human data that address risk from extended exposure to complex radiation fields. The overarching goal in this area to improve risk modeling is to provide biological insight and mechanistic analysis of radiation quality effects on carcinogenesis. Understanding mechanisms will provide routes to modeling and predicting risk and designing countermeasures. This white paper reviews broad issues related to experimental models and concepts in space radiation carcinogenesis as well as the current state of the field to place into context recent findings and concepts derived from the NASA Space Radiation Program. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concepts and challenges in cancer risk prediction for the space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Burma, Sandeep; Fornace, Albert J.; Gerson, Stanton; Hlatky, Lynn; Kirsch, David G.; Luderer, Ulrike; Shay, Jerry; Wang, Ya; Weil, Michael M.

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is an important long-term risk for astronauts exposed to protons and high-energy charged particles during travel and residence on asteroids, the moon, and other planets. NASA's Biomedical Critical Path Roadmap defines the carcinogenic risks of radiation exposure as one of four type I risks. A type I risk represents a demonstrated, serious problem with no countermeasure concepts, and may be a potential "show-stopper" for long duration spaceflight. Estimating the carcinogenic risks for humans who will be exposed to heavy ions during deep space exploration has very large uncertainties at present. There are no human data that address risk from extended exposure to complex radiation fields. The overarching goal in this area to improve risk modeling is to provide biological insight and mechanistic analysis of radiation quality effects on carcinogenesis. Understanding mechanisms will provide routes to modeling and predicting risk and designing countermeasures. This white paper reviews broad issues related to experimental models and concepts in space radiation carcinogenesis as well as the current state of the field to place into context recent findings and concepts derived from the NASA Space Radiation Program.

  20. Radiative Feedback of Forming Star Clusters on Their GMC Environments: Theory and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. S.; Pudritz, R. E.; Harris, W. E.

    2013-07-01

    Star clusters form from dense clumps within a molecular cloud. Radiation from these newly formed clusters feeds back on their natal molecular cloud through heating and ionization which ultimately stops gas accretion into the cluster. Recent studies suggest that radiative feedback effects from a single cluster may be sufficient to disrupt an entire cloud over a short timescale. Simulating cluster formation on a large scale, however, is computationally demanding due to the high number of stars involved. For this reason, we present a model for representing the radiative output of an entire cluster which involves randomly sampling an initial mass function (IMF) as the cluster accretes mass. We show that this model is able to reproduce the star formation histories of observed clusters. To examine the degree to which radiative feedback shapes the evolution of a molecular cloud, we use the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement hydrodynamics code to simulate cluster formation in a turbulent cloud. Unlike previous studies, sink particles are used to represent a forming cluster rather than individual stars. Our cluster model is then coupled with a raytracing scheme to treat radiative transfer as the clusters grow in mass. This poster will outline the details of our model and present preliminary results from our 3D hydrodynamical simulations.

  1. Human response to high-background radiation environments on Earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Manti, L.

    The main long-term goal of the space exploration program is the colonization of the planets of the Solar System The high cosmic radiation equivalent dose rate represents a major problem for a stable and safe colonization of the planets The dose rate on Mars ranges between 60 and 150 mSv year depending on the Solar cycle and altitude and can reach values as high as 360 mSv year on the Moon The average dose rate on the Earth is about 3 mSv year reduced to about 1 mSv year excluding the internal exposure to Rn daughters However some areas of the Earth have anomalously high levels of background radiation Values 200-400 times higher than the world average are found in regions where monazite sand deposits are abundant Population in Tibet experience a high cosmic radiation background Epidemiological studies did not detect any adverse health effects in the populations living in those high-background radiation areas on Earth Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the population living in the high-background radiation areas have been measured in several studies because the chromosomal damage represents an early biomarker of cancer risk Similar cytogenetic studies have been recently performed in cohort of astronauts involved in single or repeated space flights over many years A comparison of the cytogenetic findings in populations exposed at high dose rate on Earth or in space will be described

  2. Feasibility study for distributed dose monitoring in ionizing radiation environments with standard and custom-made optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uffelen, Marco; Berghmans, Francis; Brichard, Benoit; Borgermans, Paul; Decréton, Marc C.

    2002-09-01

    Optical fibers stimulate much interest since many years for their potential use in various nuclear environments, both for radiation tolerant and EMI-free data communication as well as for distributed sensing. Besides monitoring temperature and stress, measuring ionizing doses with optical fibers is particularly essential in applications such as long-term nuclear waste disposal monitoring, and for real-time aging monitoring of power and signal cables installed inside a reactor containment building. Two distinct options exist to perform optical fiber dosimetry. First, find an accurate model for a restricted application field that accounts for all the parameters that influence the radiation response of a standard fiber, or second, develop a dedicated fiber with a response that will solely depend on the deposited energy. Using various models presented in literature, we evaluate both standard commercially available and custom-made optical fibers under gamma radiation, particularly for distributed dosimetry applications with an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). We therefore present the radiation induced attenuation at near-infrared telecom wavelengths up to MGy total dose levels, with dose rates ranging from about 1 Gy/h up to 1 kGy/h, whereas temperature was raised step-wise from 25 °C to 85 °C. Our results allow to determine and compare the practical limitations of distributed dose measurements with both fiber types in terms of temperature sensitivity, dose estimation accuracy and spatial resolution.

  3. TRAP/SEE Code Users Manual for Predicting Trapped Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    TRAP/SEE is a PC-based computer code with a user-friendly interface which predicts the ionizing radiation exposure of spacecraft having orbits in the Earth's trapped radiation belts. The code incorporates the standard AP8 and AE8 trapped proton and electron models but also allows application of an improved database interpolation method. The code treats low-Earth as well as highly-elliptical Earth orbits, taking into account trajectory perturbations due to gravitational forces from the Moon and Sun, atmospheric drag, and solar radiation pressure. Orbit-average spectra, peak spectra per orbit, and instantaneous spectra at points along the orbit trajectory are calculated. Described in this report are the features, models, model limitations and uncertainties, input and output descriptions, and example calculations and applications for the TRAP/SEE code.

  4. Plant architecture, growth and radiative transfer for terrestrial and space environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, John M.; Goel, Narendra S.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to develop a hardware implemented model that would incorporate realistic and dynamic descriptions of canopy architecture in physiologically based models of plant growth and functioning, with an emphasis on radiative transfer while accommodating other environmental constraints. The general approach has five parts: a realistic mathematical treatment of canopy architecture, a methodology for combining this general canopy architectural description with a general radiative transfer model, the inclusion of physiological and environmental aspects of plant growth, inclusion of plant phenology, and integration.

  5. Prediction of the thermal annealing of thick oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor dosimeters irradiated in a harsh radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ravotti, F.; Glaser, M.; Saigne, F.

    Radiation-sensing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors produced by the laboratory LAAS-CNRS were exposed to a harsh hadron field that represents the real radiation environment expected at the CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments. The long-term stability of the transistor's I{sub ds}-V{sub gs} characteristic was investigated using the isochronal annealing technique. In this work, devices exposed to high intensity hadron levels ({phi}{>=}10{sup 12} neutrons/cm{sup 2}) show evidences of displacement damages in the I{sub ds}-V{sub gs} annealing behavior. By comparing experimental and simulated results over 14 months, the isochronal annealing method, originally devoted to oxide trapped charge, is shown to enable prediction of the recoverymore » of silicon bulk defects.« less

  6. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  7. A NASA Perspective and Validation and Testing of Design Hardening for the Natural Space Radiation Environment (GOMAC Tech 03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John H. (Technical Monitor); LaBel, Kenneth A.; Howard, James W.; Carts, Martin A.; Seidleck, Christine

    2003-01-01

    With the dearth of dedicated radiation hardened foundries, new and novel techniques are being developed for hardening designs using non-dedicated foundry services. In this paper, we will discuss the implications of validating these methods for the natural space radiation environment issues: total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). Topics of discussion include: Types of tests that are required, Design coverage (i.e., design libraries: do they need validating for each application?) A new task within NASA to compare existing design. This latter task is a new effort in FY03 utilizing a 8051 microcontroller core from multiple design hardening developers as a test vehicle to evaluate each mitigative technique.

  8. Particle Laden Turbulence in a Radiation Environment Using a Portable High Preformace Solver Based on the Legion Runtime System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Hilario; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Soleil-X is a multi-physics solver being developed at Stanford University as a part of the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program II. Our goal is to conduct high fidelity simulations of particle laden turbulent flows in a radiation environment for solar energy receiver applications as well as to demonstrate our readiness to effectively utilize next generation Exascale machines. The novel aspect of Soleil-X is that it is built upon the Legion runtime system to enable easy portability to different parallel distributed heterogeneous architectures while also being written entirely in high-level/high-productivity languages (Ebb and Regent). An overview of the Soleil-X software architecture will be given. Results from coupled fluid flow, Lagrangian point particle tracking, and thermal radiation simulations will be presented. Performance diagnostic tools and metrics corresponding the the same cases will also be discussed. US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  9. Influence of nonequilibrium radiation and shape change on aerothermal environment of Jovian entry body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    Radiative transfer equations are derived under nonequilibrium conditions which include multilevel energy transitions. The nonequalibrium results, obtained with and without ablation injection in the shock layer, are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distribution in the shock layer. In the absence of ablative products, the convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced significantly under nonequilibrium conditions. The influence of nonequilibrium is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes. With coupled ablation and carbon phenolic injection, 16 chemical species are used in the ablation layer for radiation absorption. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium results are compared under peak heating conditions. A 45 degree sphere cone, a 35 degree hyperboloid, and a 45 degree ellipsoid were used to study probe shape change. Results indicate that the shock layer flow field and heat transfer to the body are influenced significantly by the probe shape change. The effect of shape change on radiative heating of the afterbodies is found to be considerably larger for the sphere cone and ellipsoid than for the hyperboloid.

  10. Observations of enhanced aerosol longwave radiative forcing over an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, A. S.; Pandithurai, G.; Safai, P. D.; Kewat, S.

    2008-02-01

    Collocated measurements of sun/sky radiance, aerosol chemical composition and radiative fluxes have been utilized to estimate longwave aerosol radiative forcing over Pune, an Indian urban site during dry winter [Dec2004 to Feb2005] by two methods. Hybrid method which uses observed downwelling and modeled upwelling longwave fluxes for different aerosol loadings yielded a surface forcing of 9.4 Wm-2. Model approach includes utilization of skyradiometer derived spectral aerosol optical properties in the visible and near infra-red wavelengths, modeled aerosol properties in 1.2-40 μm using observed soot and chemical composition data, MODIS water vapor and TOMS column ozone in a radiative transfer model. Estimates from model method showed longwave enhancement of 6.5 and 8.2 Wm-2 at the surface with tropical model atmosphere and temporally varying profiles of temperature and humidity, respectively. Study reveals that about 25% of the aerosol shortwave cooling is being compensated by increase in longwave radiation due to aerosol absorption.

  11. The ultraviolet radiation environment in the habitable zones around low-mass exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Loyd, R. O. Parke

    2014-11-01

    The EUV (200-911 Å), FUV (912-1750 Å), and NUV (1750-3200 Å) spectral energy distribution of exoplanet host stars has a profound influence on the atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. The stellar EUV radiation drives atmospheric heating, while the FUV (in particular, Ly α) and NUV radiation fields regulate the atmospheric chemistry: the dissociation of H2O and CO2, the production of O2 and O3, and may determine the ultimate habitability of these worlds. Despite the importance of this information for atmospheric modeling of exoplanetary systems, the EUV/FUV/NUV radiation fields of cool (K and M dwarf) exoplanet host stars are almost completely unconstrained by observation or theory. We present observational results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of M dwarf exoplanet host stars, highlighting the importance of realistic UV radiation fields for the formation of potential biomarker molecules, O2 and O3. We conclude by describing preliminary results on the characterization of the UV time variability of these sources.

  12. Evaluation of cryogenic insulation materials and composites for use in nuclear radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The following subjects are studied: (1) composite materials tests; (2) test of liquid level sensors and fission couples; (3) test of valve-seal materials; (4) boron epoxy composites; (5) radiation analysis of explosive materials and bifuels for RNS applications; and (6) test of thermal insulation.

  13. INFLUENCE OF FLORAL OPTICAL PROPERTIES ON THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT OF POLLEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen in unopened flowers of most species is totally screened from solar ultraviolet-B radiation by imbricated petals that are largely opaque to UV-B. Following flower opening but before another dehiscence, the anther walls of the species investigated filter out over 98% of the ...

  14. Low-Energy Cosmic Rays: Radiation Environment Studies and Astrophysics on the Deep Space Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losekamm, M. J.; Berger, T.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway will be ideally located to investigate the cosmic radiation that astronauts are subjected to in deep space and to help shed light on one of the most intriguing astrophysical mysteries of today: What is the universe made of?

  15. Assessment of thunderstorm neutron radiation environment at altitudes of aviation flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Malyshkin, Y.

    2013-02-01

    High-energy radiation emitted from thunderclouds supposes generation of neutrons in photonuclear reactions of the gamma photons with air. This observation is supported by registration of neutrons during thunderstorm activity in a number of experiments, most of which established correlation with lightning. In this work we perform a modeling of the neutron generation and propagation processes at low atmospheric altitudes using current knowledge of the TGF source properties. On this basis we obtain dosimetric maps of thunderstorm neutron radiation and investigate possible radiation threat for aircraft flights. We estimate the maximal effective neutron dose that potentially can be received on board an aircraft in close proximity to the gamma source, to be of the order of 0.54 mSv over a time less than 0.1 s. This dose is considerably less than estimations obtained earlier for the associated electron and gamma radiation; nevertheless, this value is quite large by itself and under some circumstances the neutron component seems to be the most important for the dosimetric effect. Due to wide distribution in space, the thunderstorm neutrons are thought to also provide a convenient means for experimental investigation of gamma emissions from thunderclouds. To register neutrons from powerful gamma flashes that occur at the tops of thunderclouds, however, in the most favorable case one has to take a location above the 2 km level that is appropriate to mountains or aircraft facilities.

  16. Modeling Electrostatic Fields Generated by Internal Charging of Materials in Space Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2011-01-01

    Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.

  17. High temperature antenna development for space shuttle, volume 2. [space environment simulation effects on antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    An S-band antenna system and a group of off-the-shelf aircraft antenna were exposed to temperatures simulating shuttle orbital cold soak and entry heating. Radiation pattern and impedance measurements before and after exposure to the thermal environments were used to evaluate the electrical performance. The results of the electrical and thermal testing are given. Test data showed minor changes in electrical performance and established the capability of these antenna to withstand both the low temperatures of space flight and the high temperatures of entry.

  18. Acoustic Radiation from High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers in a Tunnel-Like Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of acoustic radiation from a turbulent boundary layer in a cylindrical domain will be conducted under the flow conditions corresponding to those at the nozzle exit of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) operated under noisy-flow conditions with a total pressure p(sub t) of 225 kPa and a total temperature of T(sub t) equal to 430 K. Simulations of acoustic radiation from a turbulent boundary layer over a flat surface are used as a reference configuration to illustrate the effects of the cylindrical enclosure. A detailed analysis of acoustic freestream disturbances in the cylindrical domain will be reported in the final paper along with a discussion pertaining to the significance of the flat-plate acoustic simulations and guidelines concerning the modeling of the effects of an axisymmetric tunnel wall on the noise field.

  19. Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature.

    PubMed

    Miner, Brooks E; Kulling, Paige M; Beer, Karlyn D; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Populations of organisms routinely face abiotic selection pressures, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of earth's most pervasive environmental stressors, potentially damaging DNA in any organism exposed to solar radiation. We explored mechanisms underlying differential survival following UVR exposure in genotypes of the water flea Daphnia melanica derived from natural ponds of differing UVR intensity. The UVR tolerance of a D. melanica genotype from a high-UVR habitat depended on the presence of visible and UV-A light wavelengths necessary for photoenzymatic repair of DNA damage, a repair pathway widely shared across the tree of life. We then measured the acquisition and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, the primary form of UVR-caused DNA damage, in D. melanica DNA following experimental UVR exposure. We demonstrate that genotypes from high-UVR habitats repair DNA damage faster than genotypes from low-UVR habitats in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation necessary for photoenzymatic repair, but not in dark treatments. Because differences in repair rate only occurred in the presence of visible and UV-A radiation, we conclude that differing rates of DNA repair, and therefore differential UVR tolerance, are a consequence of variation in photoenzymatic repair efficiency. We then rule out a simple gene expression hypothesis for the molecular basis of differing repair efficiency, as expression of the CPD photolyase gene photorepair did not differ among D. melanica lineages, in both the presence and absence of UVR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Computer Supported Collaborative Environment for Virtual Simulation of Radiation Treatment Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    prescription of a radiation dose, and the evaluation of the treatment plan. Conventional techniques make use of the treatment simulator, the main function of...apparent. At this point, the benefits from the employment of the VS in the RTP procedure are highlighted, since the “ virtualisation ” of the complete...practice the continuous advances in telecommunications, which have contributed vastly in the establishment of teleradiology networks [5][6], the

  1. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment.

    PubMed

    Hastings, J W; Holzapfel, W H; Niemand, J G

    1986-10-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp., one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four references strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO2, and N2). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D10 values [doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1] ) under CO2 packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N2. The D10 values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D10 values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in semisynthetic growth medium.

  2. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment.

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, J W; Holzapfel, W H; Niemand, J G

    1986-01-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp., one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four references strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO2, and N2). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D10 values [doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1] ) under CO2 packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N2. The D10 values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D10 values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in semisynthetic growth medium. PMID:3096207

  3. Feasibility Study for a Combined Radiation Environment in the ACRR-FRECII Cavity.

    SciTech Connect

    Parma, Edward J.

    The objective of this report is to determine the feasibility of a combined pulsed - power accelerator machine, similar to HERMES - III, with the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) Fueled - Ring External Cavity (FREC - II) in a new facility. The document is conceptual in nature, and includes some neutronic analysis that i llustrates that that the physics of such a concept would be feasible. There would still be many engineering design considerations and issues that would need to be investigated in order to determine the true viability of such a concept. This report does n ot addressmore » engineering design details, the cost of such a facility, or what would be required to develop the safety authorization of the concept. The radiation requirements for the "on - target" gamma - ray dose and dose rate are not addressed in this report . It is assumed that if the same general on - target specifications for a HERMES - III type machine could be met with the proposed concept, that the machine would b e considered highly useful as a radiation effects sciences platform. In general, the combined accelerator/ACRR reactor concept can be shown to be feasible with no major issues that would preclude the usefulness of such a facility. The new facility would provide a capability that currently does not exist in the radiation testing complex.« less

  4. Grid2: A Program for Rapid Estimation of the Jovian Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.; Brinza, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid2 is a program that utilizes the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model 2 (GIRE2) Jovian radiation model to compute fluences and doses for Jupiter missions. (Note: The iterations of these two softwares have been GIRE and GIRE2; likewise Grid and Grid2.) While GIRE2 is an important improvement over the original GIRE radiation model, the GIRE2 model can take as long as a day or more to compute these quantities for a complete mission. Grid2 fits the results of the detailed GIRE2 code with a set of grids in local time and position thereby greatly speeding up the execution of the model-minutes as opposed to days. The Grid2 model covers the time period from 1971 to 2050 and distances of 1.03 to 30 Jovian diameters (Rj). It is available as a direct-access database through a FORTRAN interface program. The new database is only slightly larger than the original grid version: 1.5 gigabytes (GB) versus 1.2 GB.

  5. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  6. Taking SiC Power Devices to the Final Frontier: Addressing Challenges of the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide power device technology has the potential to enable a new generation of aerospace power systems that demand high efficiency, rapid switching, and reduced mass and volume in order to expand space-based capabilities. For this potential to be realized, SiC devices must be capable of withstanding the harsh space radiation environment. Commercial SiC components exhibit high tolerance to total ionizing dose but to date, have not performed well under exposure to heavy ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic rays. Insertion of SiC power device technology into space applications to achieve breakthrough performance gains will require intentional development of components hardened to the effects of these highly-energetic heavy ions. This work presents heavy-ion test data obtained by the authors over the past several years for discrete SiC power MOSFETs, JFETs, and diodes in order to increase the body of knowledge and understanding that will facilitate hardening of this technology to space radiation effects. Specifically, heavy-ion irradiation data taken under different bias, temperature, and ion beam conditions is presented for devices from different manufacturers, and the emerging patterns discussed.

  7. A Monte Carlo-based radiation safety assessment for astronauts in an environment with confined magnetic field shielding.

    PubMed

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Gong, Chunhui; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    The active shielding technique has great potential for radiation protection in space exploration because it has the advantage of a significant mass saving compared with the passive shielding technique. This paper demonstrates a Monte Carlo-based approach to evaluating the shielding effectiveness of the active shielding technique using confined magnetic fields (CMFs). The International Commission on Radiological Protection reference anthropomorphic phantom, as well as the toroidal CMF, was modeled using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. The penetrating primary particle fluence, organ-specific dose equivalent, and male effective dose were calculated for particles in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). Results show that the SPE protons can be easily shielded against, even almost completely deflected, by the toroidal magnetic field. GCR particles can also be more effectively shielded against by increasing the magnetic field strength. Our results also show that the introduction of a structural Al wall in the CMF did not provide additional shielding for GCR; in fact it can weaken the total shielding effect of the CMF. This study demonstrated the feasibility of accurately determining the radiation field inside the environment and evaluating the organ dose equivalents for astronauts under active shielding using the CMF.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Habitat Composites' Durability when Exposed to a Long-Term Radiation Environment and Micrometeoroid Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Graves, Russell; Golden, John; Atwell, William; O'Rouke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Alred, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals include extending human presence beyond low earth orbit (LEO). As a result, habitation for crew is a critical requirement for meeting this goal. However, habitats are very large structures that contain a multitude of subsystems to sustain human life over long-durations in space, and one of the key challenges has been keeping weight to a minimum in order to reduce costs. Thus, light-weight and multifunctional structural materials are of great interest for habitation. NASA has started studying polymeric composite materials as potential lightweight and multifunctional structural materials for use in long-duration spaceflight. However, little is known about the survivability of these materials when exposed to the space environment outside of LEO for long durations. Thus, a study has been undertaken to investigate the durability of composite materials when exposed to long-duration radiation. Furthermore, as an addition to the primary study, a secondary preliminary investigation has been started on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) susceptibility of these materials after radiation exposure. The combined effects of radiation and MMOD impacts are the focus of this paper.

  9. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P < 0.05) and root respiration (24%, P < 0.05). These data indicate that plant communities adapt to CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  10. The close environments of accreting massive black holes are shaped by radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Claudio; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Koss, Michael J.; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Schawinski, Kevin; Oh, Kyuseok; Lamperti, Isabella; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ho, Luis C.; Weigel, Anna; Bauer, Franz E.; Paltani, Stephane; Fabian, Andrew C.; Xie, Yanxia; Gehrels, Neil

    2017-09-01

    The majority of the accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe are obscured by large columns of gas and dust. The location and evolution of this obscuring material have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are still debated. A decrease in the covering factor of the circumnuclear material with increasing accretion rates has been found by studies across the electromagnetic spectrum. The origin of this trend may be driven by the increase in the inner radius of the obscuring material with incident luminosity, which arises from the sublimation of dust; by the gravitational potential of the black hole; by radiative feedback; or by the interplay between outflows and inflows. However, the lack of a large, unbiased and complete sample of accreting black holes, with reliable information on gas column density, luminosity and mass, has left the main physical mechanism that regulates obscuration unclear. Here we report a systematic multi-wavelength survey of hard-X-ray-selected black holes that reveals that radiative feedback on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material. Our results imply that the bulk of the obscuring dust and gas is located within a few to tens of parsecs of the accreting supermassive black hole (within the sphere of influence of the black hole), and that it can be swept away even at low radiative output rates. The main physical driver of the differences between obscured and unobscured accreting black holes is therefore their mass-normalized accretion rate.

  11. The close environments of accreting massive black holes are shaped by radiative feedback.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Claudio; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Koss, Michael J; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Schawinski, Kevin; Oh, Kyuseok; Lamperti, Isabella; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ho, Luis C; Weigel, Anna; Bauer, Franz E; Paltani, Stephane; Fabian, Andrew C; Xie, Yanxia; Gehrels, Neil

    2017-09-27

    The majority of the accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe are obscured by large columns of gas and dust. The location and evolution of this obscuring material have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are still debated. A decrease in the covering factor of the circumnuclear material with increasing accretion rates has been found by studies across the electromagnetic spectrum. The origin of this trend may be driven by the increase in the inner radius of the obscuring material with incident luminosity, which arises from the sublimation of dust; by the gravitational potential of the black hole; by radiative feedback; or by the interplay between outflows and inflows. However, the lack of a large, unbiased and complete sample of accreting black holes, with reliable information on gas column density, luminosity and mass, has left the main physical mechanism that regulates obscuration unclear. Here we report a systematic multi-wavelength survey of hard-X-ray-selected black holes that reveals that radiative feedback on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material. Our results imply that the bulk of the obscuring dust and gas is located within a few to tens of parsecs of the accreting supermassive black hole (within the sphere of influence of the black hole), and that it can be swept away even at low radiative output rates. The main physical driver of the differences between obscured and unobscured accreting black holes is therefore their mass-normalized accretion rate.

  12. Grounding and Shielding Requirements for the Radiation and EMP Environments of an Underground Nuclear Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-17

    the trailers as Electro-magnetic Interference ( EMI ) tight as possible; such items included removal of all unnecessary wiring penetrations, conductive...20 12. CABLE TRAYS, GROUT-FILLED ............ .................. 21 13. THE MESA TRAILER PARK CONSIDERATIONS...enclosed cable shields. 12. The mesa trailer park received some attention regarding the GSP, although not as intense as the tunnel environment. Specifically

  13. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, Kristi

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  14. Radiation-Induced Processing of Hydrocarbons in Environments Relevant to Pluto

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-07

    energetic’ (characterized by high levels of electrical and geothermal activity) liquid water environment, are capable of generating significant prebiotic ...synthesis of biogenic molecules (Chyba & Sagan 1992). In this light, a potential cometary source of prebiotic organics (the precursors of biological...precursors for prebiotic molecules. This exogenous source of prebiotic organics on early Earth could provide an alternative method of accounting for

  15. A nonventing cooling system for space environment extravehicular activity, using radiation and regenerable thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayes, Stephen A.; Trevino, Luis A.; Dinsmore, Craig E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the selection, design, and testing of a prototype nonventing regenerable astronaut cooling system for extravehicular activity space suit applications, for mission durations of four hours or greater. The selected system consists of the following key elements: a radiator assembly which serves as the exterior shell of the portable life support subsystem backpack; a layer of phase change thermal storage material, n-hexadecane paraffin, which acts as a regenerable thermal capacitor; a thermoelectric heat pump; and an automatic temperature control system. The capability for regeneration of thermal storage capacity with and without the aid of electric power is provided.

  16. Microbiological studies on the radiation environment of the ionosphere and stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Petras, E; Bisa, K

    1968-01-01

    Rocket, balloon and laboratory experiments have been performed in order to study the survival chances of microorganisms, which exist under the environmental conditions of ionosphere and stratosphere. The main results are: 1. Not only near the earth, but also in the stratosphere and even in the ionosphere, microorganisms are endangered primarily by UV- and EUV-light irradiation. 2. The observed effect of more penetrating kinds of radiation was relatively unimportant. High-vacuum and temperature effects have not been observed at all. Even membrane filters and thin protein layers protected the exposed spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (= Bac. globigii) in a clear-cut manner. 3. UV-light with a wavelength between 200 and 300 nm reduces the number of cells able to divide much quicker, than EUV-light of the same energy level does, but damages caused by EUV-light can not be reversed by photoreactivation. 4. Microbes which have been damaged by solar radiation, can be photoreactivated to a degree. Photoreactivation is high after exposure near the Earth and significant after exposure within the stratosphere. 5. After exposure to ionospheric irradiations no changes in the antigenic behavior of E. coli cells could be detected.

  17. Radiation environment for ATS-F. [including ambient trapped particle fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ambient trapped particle fluxes incident on the ATS-F satellite were determined. Several synchronous circular flight paths were evaluated and the effect of parking longitude on vehicle encountered intensities was investigated. Temporal variations in the electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model extrapolated to a later epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations were performed with the latest proton and electron environment models using new improved computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form; they are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 Mev, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  18. A comparison of neutron and gamma damage effects on silica glass in a nuclear reactor radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, David E.; Miller, Don W.

    1993-08-01

    A study of the relative damage effects of neutrons and gamma rays on silica glass in a nuclear reactor radiation environment is reported. The neutron and gamma energy spectra of the Ohio State University Research Reactor beam port #1 were applied to silica glass to obtain primary knock-on charged particle energy spectra. The resultant charged particle spectra were then applied to the polyatomic forms of the Lindhard et al. integrodifferential equation for damage energy and the Parkin and Coulter integrodifferential equation for net atomic displacement. The results show that near a nuclear reactor core the vast majority of the dose to silica is due to gamma rays (factor of roughly 40) and that neutrons cause much more displacement damage than gamma rays (35 times the oxygen displacement rate and 500 times the silicon displacement rate). However, pure silica core optical fibers irradiated in a nuclear reactor's mixed neutron/gamma environment exhibit little difference in transmission loss on an equal dose basis compared to fibers irradiated in a gamma only environment, indicating that atomic displacement is not a significant damage mechanism.

  19. Improved radiation dose efficiency in solution SAXS using a sheath flow sample environment

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Nigel; Cowieson, Nathan; Hawley, Adrian M.; Mudie, Stephen T.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Kusel, Michael; Samardzic-Boban, Vesna; Ryan, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation damage is a major limitation to synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of biomacromolecules. Flowing the sample during exposure helps to reduce the problem, but its effectiveness in the laminar-flow regime is limited by slow flow velocity at the walls of sample cells. To overcome this limitation, the coflow method was developed, where the sample flows through the centre of its cell surrounded by a flow of matched buffer. The method permits an order-of-magnitude increase of X-ray incident flux before sample damage, improves measurement statistics and maintains low sample concentration limits. The method also efficiently handles sample volumes of a few microlitres, can increase sample throughput, is intrinsically resistant to capillary fouling by sample and is suited to static samples and size-exclusion chromatography applications. The method unlocks further potential of third-generation synchrotron beamlines to facilitate new and challenging applications in solution scattering. PMID:27917826

  20. Design of a radiator shade for testing in a simulated lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Jaimi; Remington, Randy; Tang, Toan

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) have chosen the parabolic/catenary concept from their sponsored Fall 1991 lunar radiation shade project for further testing and development. NASA asked the design team to build a shading device and support structure for testing in a vacuum chamber. Besides the support structure for the catenary shading device, the design team was asked to develop a system for varying the shade shape so that the device can be tested at different focal lengths. The design team developed concept variants and combined the concept variants to form overall designs. Using a decision matrix, an overall design was selected by the team from several overall design alternatives. Concept variants were developed for three primary functions. The three functions were structural support, shape adjustments, and end shielding. The shade adjustment function was divided into two sub-functions, arc length adjustment, and width adjustment.

  1. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  2. Radiation-hardened nano-particles-based Erbium-doped fiber for space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël.; Signoret, Philippe; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Melin, Gilles; Boivin, David; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a radiationresistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites.

  3. Index of thermal stress for cows (ITSC) under high solar radiation in tropical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro C.; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new thermal stress index for dairy cows in inter-tropical regions, with special mention to the semi-arid ones. Holstein cows were measured for rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( F R) and rates of heat exchange by convection ( C), radiation ( R), skin surface evaporation ( E S) and respiratory evaporation ( E R) in the north eastern region of Brazil, after exposure to sun for several hours. Average environmental measurements during the observations were air temperature ( T A) 32.4 °C (24.4-38.9°), wind speed ( U) 1.8 m.s-1 (0.01-11.0), relative humidity 63.6 % (36.8-81.5) and short-wave solar radiation 701.3 W m-2 (116-1,295). The effective radiant heat load (ERHL) was 838.5 ± 4.9 W m-2. Values for the atmospheric transmittance ( τ) were also determined for tropical regions, in order to permit adequate estimates of the solar radiation. The average value was τ = 0.611 ± 0.004 for clear days with some small moving clouds, with a range of 0.32 to 0.91 in the day period from 1000 to 1300 hours. Observed τ values were higher (0.62-0.66) for locations near the seacoast and in those regions well-provided with green fields. Effects of month, location and time of the day were all statistically significant ( P < 0.01). A total of 1,092 data were obtained for cows exposed for 1 to 8 h to sun during the day; in 7 months (February, March, April, July, August, September and November), 4 days per month on the average. A principal component analysis summarised the T R, F R, C, R, E S and E R measurements into just one synthetic variable ( y 1); several indexes were then obtained by multiple regression of y 1 on the four environmental variables and its combinations, by using Origin 8.1 software (OriginLab Corp.). The chosen equation was the index of thermal stress for cows, ITSC = 77.1747 + 4.8327 T A - 34.8189 U + 1.111 U 2 + 118.6981 P V - 14.7956 P V 2 - 0.1059 ERHL with r 2 = 0.812. The correlations of ITSC with T R, F R, C, E S, R and E R

  4. Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John S.; Jones, Felicity C.; Di Palma, Federica; Kingsley, David M.; Reimchen, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation. PMID:28399148

  5. Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments.

    PubMed

    Marques, David A; Taylor, John S; Jones, Felicity C; Di Palma, Federica; Kingsley, David M; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.

  6. Performance of high speed ball bearings with lead plated retainers in liquid hydrogen for potential use in a radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisander, D. W.; Brewe, D. E.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ball bearings (40-mm bore) with lead coated, aluminum-bronze retainers were operated successfully in liquid hydrogen at 30,000 rpm under a thrust load of 1780 newtons (400 lb) for running times up to 15 hours. The lead transfer films on the bearing surfaces prevented galling of bearing components. The lead coated retainers used in this investigation show promise for use in the high radiation environments, where polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based materials are not suitable. Failure was a result of the loss of lead lubricant on the retainer-inner-land and ball-pocket surfaces. The longest bearing life (15 hr) was achieved with a lead coating thickness of 50 micrometers (0.002 in.) on the retainer. Other bearings had lives of 2 to 6 hours.

  7. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz, Martin; CMS Tracker Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to 1.5 ×1015neq /cm2 corresponding to 3000fb-1 after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20 cm < R < 110 cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolation but simultaneously high breakdown voltages. Therefore a study of the isolation characteristics with four different silicon sensor manufacturers has been executed in order to determine the most suitable p-stop parameters for the harsh radiation environment during HL-LHC. Several p-stop doping concentrations, doping depths and different p-stop pattern have been realized and experiments before and after irradiation with protons and neutrons have been performed and compared to T-CAD simulation studies with Synopsys Sentaurus. The measurements combine the electrical characteristics measured with a semi-automatic probestation with Sr90 signal measurements and analogue readout. Furthermore, some samples have been investigated with the help of a cosmic telescope with high resolution allowing charge collection studies of MIPs penetrating the sensor between two strips.

  8. SU-F-T-249: Application of Human Factors Methods: Usability Testing in the Radiation Oncology Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentin, H; Bubric, K; Giovannetti, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As a quality improvement measure, we undertook this work to incorporate usability testing into the implementation procedures for new electronic documents and forms used by four affiliated radiation therapy centers. Methods: A human factors specialist provided training in usability testing for a team of medical physicists, radiation therapists, and radiation oncologists from four radiotherapy centers. A usability testing plan was then developed that included controlled scenarios and standardized forms for qualitative and quantitative feedback from participants, including patients. Usability tests were performed by end users using the same hardware and viewing conditions that are found in the clinical environment.more » A pilot test of a form used during radiotherapy CT simulation was performed in a single department; feedback informed adaptive improvements to the electronic form, hardware requirements, resource accessibility and the usability testing plan. Following refinements to the testing plan, usability testing was performed at three affiliated cancer centers with different vault layouts and hardware. Results: Feedback from the testing resulted in the detection of 6 critical errors (omissions and inability to complete task without assistance), 6 non-critical errors (recoverable), and multiple suggestions for improvement. Usability problems with room layout were detected at one center and problems with hardware were detected at one center. Upon amalgamation and summary of the results, three key recommendations were presented to the document’s authors for incorporation into the electronic form. Documented inefficiencies and patient safety concerns related to the room layout and hardware were presented to administration along with a request for funding to purchase upgraded hardware and accessories to allow a more efficient workflow within the simulator vault. Conclusion: By including usability testing as part of the process when introducing any new

  9. Aging of black carbon particles under polluted urban environments: timescale, hygroscopicity and enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Hu, M.; Guo, S.; Du, Z.; Zheng, J.; Shang, D.; Levy Zamora, M.; Shao, M.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Collins, D. R.; Molina, M.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the hygroscopic and optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using an outdoor environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. The κ (kappa) values of coating materials are calculated as 0.04 at both subsaturation and supersaturation conditions, respectively, indicating that the initial photochemical aging of BC particles does not appreciably alter the BC hygroscopicity. Our findings suggest that BC aging under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries.

  10. Synchrotron Radiation Damage Mechanism of X-Ray Mask Membranes Irradiated in Helium Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Tomiyuki; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Okada, Koichi; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Syoki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Yoh-ichi

    1992-12-01

    The mechanism of X-ray mask membrane displacement induced by synchrotron radiation (SR) has been discussed. Silicon nitride (SiN) and silicon carbide (SiC) membranes were irradiated by SR in a 1 atm helium ambient. SR-induced displacement for both membranes was 25-97 nm (σ). Oxygen concentration in both SiN and SiC was below 0.01 in O/Si atomic ratio. Although an increase in dangling bond density of SiN was observed, no remarkable increase in spin density was detected in SiC. Moreover, the most important finding was that thin oxides were grown on the membrane surface after SR irradiation. From these results, it is considered that the oxide growth on SiC membrane surfaces, and both the oxide growth and the increase of dangling bond density in SiN play an important role in the SR-induced displacement for the X-ray mask membranes.

  11. Specification and Prediction of the Radiation Environment Using Data Assimilative VERB code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam

    2016-07-01

    We discuss how data assimilation can be used for the reconstruction of long-term evolution, bench-marking of the physics based codes and used to improve the now-casting and focusing of the radiation belts and ring current. We also discuss advanced data assimilation methods such as parameter estimation and smoothing. We present a number of data assimilation applications using the VERB 3D code. The 3D data assimilative VERB allows us to blend together data from GOES, RBSP A and RBSP B. 1) Model with data assimilation allows us to propagate data to different pitch angles, energies, and L-shells and blends them together with the physics-based VERB code in an optimal way. We illustrate how to use this capability for the analysis of the previous events and for obtaining a global and statistical view of the system. 2) The model predictions strongly depend on initial conditions that are set up for the model. Therefore, the model is as good as the initial conditions that it uses. To produce the best possible initial conditions, data from different sources (GOES, RBSP A, B, our empirical model predictions based on ACE) are all blended together in an optimal way by means of data assimilation, as described above. The resulting initial conditions do not have gaps. This allows us to make more accurate predictions. Real-time prediction framework operating on our website, based on GOES, RBSP A, B and ACE data, and 3D VERB, is presented and discussed.

  12. Beam test of novel n-in-p strip sensors for high radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, T.; Kishida, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Kimura, N.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Tojo, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Yorita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Highly radiation tolerant n-in-p strip sensors have been developed for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This paper reports the results of measurements with 392 MeV kinetic energy proton beam at RCNP in December 2011. The data was taken with a new DAQ system consisting of an universal read-out board ‘SEABAS’ and beam tracking telescopes whose spacial resolution is better than 5 μm. The aim of this beam test is to evaluate the new 1 cm×1 cm n-in-p miniature sensors before and after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation. The median charge of un-irradiated sensor is 6.2 fC at full depletion voltage, while the median charge after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation of the sensor is 4.2 fC. The novel Punch-Through-Protection (PTP) has been implemented in these sensors. The length of active region of the sensor around PTP is observed to be decreased by 12 μm in the irradiated sensors at 1015 neq cm-2.

  13. Optimising the neutron environment of Radiation Portal Monitors: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Ghani, Zamir; McMillan, John E.; Packer, Lee W.

    2015-09-01

    Efficient and reliable detection of radiological or nuclear threats is a crucial part of national and international efforts to prevent terrorist activities. Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs), which are deployed worldwide, are intended to interdict smuggled fissile material by detecting emissions of neutrons and gamma rays. However, considering the range and variety of threat sources, vehicular and shielding scenarios, and that only a small signature is present, it is important that the design of the RPMs allows these signatures to be accurately differentiated from the environmental background. Using Monte-Carlo neutron-transport simulations of a model 3He detector system we have conducted a parameter study to identify the optimum combination of detector shielding, moderation, and collimation that maximises the sensitivity of neutron-sensitive RPMs. These structures, which could be simply and cost-effectively added to existing RPMs, can improve the detector response by more than a factor of two relative to an unmodified, bare design. Furthermore, optimisation of the air gap surrounding the helium tubes also improves detector efficiency.

  14. The effect of dispersed Petrobaltic oil droplet size on photosynthetically active radiation in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Haule, Kamila; Freda, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Oil pollution in seawater, primarily visible on sea surface, becomes dispersed as an effect of wave mixing as well as chemical dispersant treatment, and forms spherical oil droplets. In this study, we examined the influence of oil droplet size of highly dispersed Petrobaltic crude on the underwater visible light flux and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, including absorption, scattering, backscattering and attenuation coefficients. On the basis of measured data and Mie theory, we calculated the IOPs of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil in constant concentration, but different log-normal size distributions. We also performed a radiative transfer analysis, in order to evaluate the influence on the downwelling irradiance Ed, remote sensing reflectance Rrs and diffuse reflectance R, using in situ data from the Baltic Sea. We found that during dispersion, there occurs a boundary size distribution characterized by a peak diameter d0  = 0.3 μm causing a maximum E d increase of 40% within 0.5-m depth, and the maximum Ed decrease of 100% at depths below 5 m. Moreover, we showed that the impact of size distribution on the "blue to green" ratios of Rrs and R varies from 24% increase to 27% decrease at the same crude oil concentration.

  15. Characterization of the radiation environment for a large-area interim spent-nuclear-fuel storage facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortkamp, Jonathan C.

    Current needs in the nuclear industry and movements in the political arena indicate that authorization may soon be given for development of a federal interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel. The initial stages of the design work have already begun within the Department of Energy and are being reviewed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This dissertation addresses the radiation environment around an interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility. Specifically the dissertation characterizes the radiation dose rates around the facility based on a design basis source term, evaluates the changes in dose due to varying cask spacing configurations, and uses these results to define some applicable health physics principles for the storage facility. Results indicate that dose rates from the facility are due primarily from photons from the spent fuel and Co-60 activation in the fuel assemblies. In the modeled cask system, skyshine was a significant contribution to dose rates at distances from the cask array, but this contribution can be reduced with an alternate cask venting system. With the application of appropriate health physics principles, occupation doses can be easily maintained far below regulatory limits and maintained ALARA.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation environment encountered by a biochip during a space mission to Mars.

    PubMed

    Le Postollec, A; Incerti, S; Dobrijevic, M; Desorgher, L; Santin, G; Moretto, P; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O; Coussot, G; Dartnell, L; Nieminen, P

    2009-04-01

    Simulations with a Monte Carlo tool kit have been performed to determine the radiation environment a specific device, called a biochip, would face if it were placed into a rover bound to explore Mars' surface. A biochip is a miniaturized device that can be used to detect organic molecules in situ. Its specific detection part is constituted of proteins whose behavior under cosmic radiation is completely unknown and must be investigated to ensure a good functioning of the device under space conditions. The aim of this study is to define particle species and energy ranges that could be relevant to investigate during experiments on irradiation beam facilities. Several primary particles have been considered for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar energetic particle (SEP) contributions. Ionizing doses accumulated in the biochip and differential fluxes of protons, alphas, neutrons, gammas, and electrons have been established for both the Earth-Mars transit and the journey at Mars' surface. Neutrons and gammas appear as dominant species on martian soil, whereas protons dominate during the interplanetary travel. Depending on solar event occurrence during the mission, an ionizing dose of around a few Grays (1 Gy = 100 rad) is expected.

  17. Specification of electron radiation environment at GEO and MEO for surface charging estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N.; Dubyagin, S.; Mateo Velez, J. C.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    A series of anomalies at GEO have been attributed to electrons of energy below 100 keV, responsible for surface charging. The process at play is charge deposition on covering insulating surfaces and is directly linked to the space environment at a time scale of a few tens of seconds. Even though modern satellites benefited from the analysis of past flight anomalies and losses, it appears that surface charging remains a source of problems. Accurate specification of the space environment at different orbits is of a key importance. We present the operational model for low energy (< 200 keV) electrons in the inner magnetosphere, Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM). This model has been operating online since March 2013 (http://fp7-spacecast.eu and imptam.fmi.fi) and it is driven by the real time solar wind and IMF parameters and by the real time Dst index. The presented model provides the low energy electron flux at all L-shells and at all satellite orbits, when necessary. IMPTAM is used to simulate the fluxes of low energy electrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere at the time of severe events measured on LANL satellites at GEO. There is no easy way to say what will be the flux of keV electrons at MEO when surface charging events are detected at GEO than to use a model. The maximal electron fluxes obtained at MEO (L = 4.6) within a few tens of minutes hours following the LANL events at GEO have been extracted to feed a database of theoretical/numerical worst-case environments for surface charging at MEO. All IMPTAM results are instantaneous, data have not been average. In order to validate the IMPTAM output at MEO, we conduct the statistical analysis of measured electron fluxes onboard Van Allen Probes (ECT HOPE (20 eV-45 keV) and ECT MagEIS (30 - 300 keV) at distances of 4.6 Re. IMPTAM e- flux at MEO is used as input to SPIS, the Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System Software toolkit for spacecraft-plasma interactions and spacecraft

  18. Effects of stellar evolution and ionizing radiation on the environments of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Mohamed, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Neilson, H. R.; Meyer, D. M.-A.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss two important effects for the astrospheres of runaway stars: the propagation of ionizing photons far beyond the astropause, and the rapid evolution of massive stars (and their winds) near the end of their lives. Hot stars emit ionizing photons with associated photoheating that has a significant dynamical effect on their surroundings. 3-D simulations show that H ii regions around runaway O stars drive expanding conical shells and leave underdense wakes in the medium they pass through. For late O stars this feedback to the interstellar medium is more important than that from stellar winds. Late in life, O stars evolve to cool red supergiants more rapidly than their environment can react, producing transient circumstellar structures such as double bow shocks. This provides an explanation for the bow shock and linear bar-shaped structure observed around Betelgeuse.

  19. Nitrogen and plant population change radiation capture and utilization capacity of sunflower in semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Awais, Muhammad; Wajid, Aftab; Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Habib-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad; Raza, Muhammad Aown Sammar; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Saleem, Muhammad Farrukh; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Mubeen, Muhammad; Saeed, Umer; Arshad, Muhammad Naveed; Fahad, Shah; Nasim, Wajid

    2017-07-01

    sunflower. High temperature during the flowering stage in 2013 shortened the crop maturity duration, which reduced the LAI, leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), TDM, AY, Fi, Sa, and RUE of sunflower. Our results clearly revealed that RUE was enhanced as plant population and N application rates were increased and biomass assimilation in semi-arid environments varied with radiation capture capacity of sunflower.

  20. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  1. Exploration Consequences of Particle Radiation Environments at Airless Planetary Surfaces: Lessons Learned at the Moon by LRO/CRaTER and Scaling to Other Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    We examine and compare the energetic particle ionizing radiation environments at airless planetary surfaces throughout the solar system. Energetic charged particles fill interplanetary space and bathe the environments of planetary objects with a ceaseless source of sometimes powerful yet ever-present ionizing radiation. In turn, these charged particles interact with planetary bodies in various ways, depending upon the properties of the body as well as upon the nature of the charged particles themselves. The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO), launched in 2009, continues to provide new insights into the ways by which the lunar surface is influenced by these energetic particles. In this presentation, we briefly review some of these mechanisms and how they operate at the Moon, and then compare and contrast the radiation environments at other atmospherereless planetary objects within our solar system that are potential future human exploration targets. In particular, we explore two primary sources of ionizing radiation, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP), in the environments of planetary objects that have weak or absent atmospheres and intrinsic magnetic fields. We motivate the use of simplified scaling relationships with heliocentric distance to estimate their intensity, which then serves as a basis for estimating the relative importance of various energetic particle and planetary surface physical interactions, in the context of humankind's expanding explorations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  2. Micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact inspection of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 radiator and the implications for the near-Earth small particle environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P.; Opiela, J.; Christiansen, E.; Cowardin, H.; Davidson, W.; Ed-Wards, D.; Hedman, T.; Herrin, J.; Hyde, J.; Juarez, Q.; Lear, D.; McNamara, K.; Moser, D.; Ross, D.; Stansbery, E.

    The STS-125 Atlantis astronauts retrieved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) during a very successful servicing mission to the HST in May 2009. The radiator attached to WFPC2 has dimensions of 2.2 m by 0.8 m. Its outermost layer is a 4-mm thick aluminum plate covered with a white thermal control coating. This radiator had been exposed to space since the deployment of WFPC2 in 1993. Due to its large surface area and long exposure time, the radiator serves as a unique witness plate for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment between 560 and 620 km altitude. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office is leading an effort, with full support from the HST Program at GSFC, NASA Curation Office at JSC, NASA Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility at JSC, and NASA Meteoroid Environment Office at MSFC, to inspect the exposed radiator surface. The objective is to measure and analyze the MMOD impact damage on the radiator, and then apply the data to validate or improve the near-Earth MMOD environment definition. The initial inspection was completed in September 2009. A total of 685 MMOD impact features (larger than about 0.3 mm) were identified and documented. This paper will provide an overview of the inspection, the analysis of the data, and the initial effort to use the data to model the MMOD environment.

  3. A simplified analytical solution for thermal response of a one-dimensional, steady state transpiration cooling system in radiative and convective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubota, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified analytical method for calculation of thermal response within a transpiration-cooled porous heat shield material in an intense radiative-convective heating environment is presented. The essential assumptions of the radiative and convective transfer processes in the heat shield matrix are the two-temperature approximation and the specified radiative-convective heatings of the front surface. Sample calculations for porous silica with CO2 injection are presented for some typical parameters of mass injection rate, porosity, and material thickness. The effect of these parameters on the cooling system is discussed.

  4. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  5. The effect of solar radiation on the thermal environment inside the air-conditioned automobile chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, L.; Yang, K.; Chen, Z.

    1999-07-01

    The distribution of solar radiant energy inside the specific air-conditioned automobile chamber is studied on the basis of the unique wavelength spectrum. Some important optical parameters of the internal materials are mostly determined by experiments with monochromator, electron-multiplier phototube, etc. Some optical parameters of the thin transparent object are analyzed theoretically. Based on random model, Monte Carlo method is adopted to get the detailed distribution of solar radiant energy. The procedures of absorptivity, reflection and transmission of each ray are simulated and traced during the calculation. The universal software calculates two cases with different kind of glass. The relevant resultsmore » show the importance of solar radiant energy on the thermal environment inside the air-conditioned automobile chamber. Furthermore, the necessity of shield quality of the automobile glass is also obvious. This study is also the basis of the following researches on fluid and temperature fields. The results are also useful for further thermal comfort design.« less

  6. The challenges posed by radiation and radionuclide releases to the environment.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Richard J; Apitz, Sabine E; Backhaus, Thomas; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Batley, Graeme; Brooks, Bryan; Chapman, Peter M; Griffin, Michael; Kapustka, Lawrence; Landis, Wayne; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Suter, Glenn; Tannenbaum, Lawrence

    2011-07-01

    The recent accident at the Fukushima I nuclear power plant in Japan (also known as Fukushima Daiichi) captured the world's attention and re-invigorated concerns about the safety of nuclear power technology. The Editors of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management invited experts in the field to describe the primary issues associated with the control and release of radioactive materials to the environment, particularly those that are of importance to the health of the human populations and the ecological systems that populate our planet. This collection of invited short commentaries aims to inform on the safety of nuclear power plants damaged by natural disasters and provide a primer on the potential environmental impacts. The intent of these invited commentaries is not to fuel the excitement and fears about the Fukushima Daiichi incident; rather, it is to collect views and comments from some of the world's experts on the broad science and policy challenges raised by this event, and to provide high-level views on the science issues that surround this situation in order to improve our collective ability to avoid or at least minimize the consequences of future events. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. No breakdown of the radiatively driven wind theory in low-metallicity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouret, J.-C.; Lanz, T.; Hillier, D. J.; Martins, F.; Marcolino, W. L. F.; Depagne, E.

    2015-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of three massive stars in the low metallicity dwarf galaxies IC 1613 and WLM. These stars, were previously observed with Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-shooter by Tramper et al., who claimed that their mass-loss rates are higher than expected from theoretical predictions for the underlying metallicity. A comparison of the far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra with those of stars of similar spectral types/luminosity classes in the Galaxy, and the Magellanic Clouds provides a direct, model-independent check of the mass-loss-metallicity relation. Then, a quantitative spectroscopic analysis is carried out using the non-LTE (NLTE) stellar atmosphere code CMFGEN. We derive the photospheric and wind characteristics, benefiting from a much better sensitivity of the FUV lines to wind properties than Hα. Iron and CNO abundances are measured, providing an independent check of the stellar metallicity. The spectroscopic analysis indicates that Z/Z⊙ = 1/5, similar to a Small Magellanic Cloud-type environment, and higher than usually quoted for IC 1613 and WLM. The mass-loss rates are smaller than the empirical ones by Tramper et al., and those predicted by the widely used theoretical recipe by Vink et al. On the other hand, we show that the empirical, FUV-based, mass-loss rates are in good agreement with those derived from mass fluxes computed by Lucy. We do not concur with Tramper et al. that there is a breakdown in the mass-loss-metallicity relation.

  8. Radiation Environment at GEO from the FY2G Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2016-12-01

    WANG Chun-Qin1,2*, Zhang Shen-Yi1,2 Jing Tao1,2, Zhang Huan-Xin1,2 Li Jia-Wei3 Zhang Xiao-Xin3 Sun Yue-Qiang1,2 Liang Jin-Bao1,2 Wei Fei1,2 Shen Guo-Hong1,2 Huang Cong3 Shi Chun-Yan1,21.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Space Environment Exploration, Beijing 100190,China 3.National Satellite Meteorological Center, National Center for Space Weather, Beijing 100081, China; Abstract Recent measurements of the high energy electrons and protons with energetic particle instrument carried on the FY-2G satellite are presented. The instrument consist of two detectors-the high energy electrons instrument which can measure 200keV to greater than 4MeV electrons with eleven channels, and the high energy protons and heavy ions instrument which mainly senses incident flux of solar protons with seven channels from 4MeV to 300 MeV. The paper shows electrons and protons observations from Jan 2015 until Oct 2015. A precise description and preliminary analysis of particle dynamic during disturbances of magnetic storms、substorms and solar eruptions suggest that both of the detectors show accurate response to various disturbances and provide refined particles data. Comparison results of FY2G satellite with GOES series satellites reflect obvious local difference in particle flux evolvement especially during intensive disturbances time, which can be helpful for data assimilation of multi-satellite as well as further research in more complicated magnetosphere energy particle dynamic.

  9. Short-wave solar radiation level willingly tolerated by lactating Holstein cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Costa, Cíntia Carol de Melo; de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Costa, Leonardo Lelis de Macedo

    2014-12-01

    The amount of short-wave solar radiation willingly tolerated by lactating Holstein cows on pasture was determined in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The study was carried out on a dairy farm located in Limoeiro do Norte, CE, northeastern Brazil. The observed behaviours were as follows: grazing, under the sun, under the shade, standing, lying, ruminating, idling and wallowing in the water. The behaviours were recorded using instantaneous scan sampling at regular intervals of 15 min from 0600 to 1800 hours over 5 days. On all sampling days, the meteorological variables, including local short-wave solar radiation (R S-W, W m(-2)), were recorded. The R S-W data were divided into five levels. The sun exposure was more frequent under low (100 %) and moderately low (97 %) levels, when R S-W remained below 500 W m(-2). The grazing was more intense under low (100 %) and moderately low (93 %) levels. Above 500 W m(-2), the grazing time significantly decreased (11 %). The cows avoided grazing under high (0 %) and very high (0 %) levels, when R S-W exceeded 700 W m(-2). The ruminating behaviour was more frequent under high (33 %) and very high (37 %) levels, in which the highest averages of R S-W were recorded (815 and 958 W m(-2), respectively). The standing posture was more frequent under low (100 %) and moderately low (97 %) levels. Therefore, the critical R S-W level that motivates cows to stop grazing and seek shade was in the interval between 500 and 700 W m(-2).

  10. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-21

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an 'on-demand' basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture's constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm(2)) from the Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are

  11. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-01

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an ‘on-demand’ basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture’s constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm2) from the Varian TrueBeamTM STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are identical

  12. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Dissolved Organic Matter and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E. C.; Uher, G.; Woodward, M.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Peatlands are globally important reservoirs of carbon and represent important freshwater catchments in many regions. These waters generally contain high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which contains a significant fraction of chromophoric, dissolved organic material (CDOM). CDOM is primarily responsible for light attenuation in these waters and affects a variety of biogeochemically relevant photo-processes including the formation of climatically active trace gases such as CO2, CO, COS and the release of essential plant micro-nutrients such as ammonium. Significant increases in DOM concentrations have been observed in various peatland waters over recent years, associated with increases in temperatures linked to global climate change. UV-B fluxes have also been projected to increase in the future as a consequence of stratospheric ozone depletion. Enhanced UV-B radiation can affect the balance between the biological processes that produce DOM and the chemical and microbial processes that degrade it. This infers that the rate of photochemical release of nutrients such as ammonium (photo-ammonification) is also likely to increase with increasing incident UV-B radiation. Samples of freshwater, riverine and marine, filtered (0.2 ìM) water were exposed to short-term natural and solar simulated irradiation which reduced their absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and total fluorescence intensity within the UV and visible regions and also produced changes in fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, such as the hypsochromic shift of peak A towards shorter wavelengths. Samples were taken from a variety of aqueous environments predominantly from Northern Scotland peatland freshwater catchments but also from the River Tyne, North East England and from the Iberian Coast, Atlantic Ocean, covering the a350 range 0.3 to 50 m-1. The photo-chemical release of ammonium from aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) was also concurrent with the photo-bleaching of DOM

  13. Analysis of Radiation-natural Convection Interactions in 1-g and low-g Environments using the Discrete Exchange Factor Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Naraghi, M. H. N.

    1993-01-01

    A new numerical method is presented for the analysis of combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer with applications in many engineering situations such as materials processing, combustion and fire research. Because of the recent interest in the low gravity environment of space, attention is devoted to both 1-g and low-g applications. The two-dimensional mathematical model is represented by a set of coupled nonlinear integro-partial differential equations. Radiative exchange is formulated using the Discrete Exchange Factor method (DEF). This method considers point to point exchange and provides accurate results over a wide range of radiation parameters. Numerical results show that radiation significantly influences the flow and heat transfer in both low-g and 1-g applications. In the low-g environment, convection is weak, and radiation can easily become the dominant heat transfer mode. It is also shown that volumetric heating by radiation gives rise to an intricate cell pattern in the top heated enclosure.

  14. Radiation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA’s mission in radiation protection is to protect human health and the environment from the ionizing radiation that comes from human use of radioactive elements. Other agencies regulate the ...

  15. Measurement and Analysis of the Extreme Physical Shock Environment Experienced by Crane-Mounted Radiation Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, M; Erchinger, J; Marianno, C

    Potentially, radiation detectors at ports of entry could be mounted on container gantry crane spreaders to monitor cargo containers entering and leaving the country. These detectors would have to withstand the extreme physical environment experienced by these spreaders during normal operations. Physical shock data from the gable ends of a spreader were recorded during the loading and unloading of a cargo ship with two Lansmont SAVER 9X30 units (with padding) and two PCB Piezotronics model 340A50 accelerometers (hard mounted). Physical shocks in the form of rapid acceleration were observed in all accelerometer units with values ranging from 0.20 g’s tomore » 199.99 g’s. The majority of the shocks for all the Lansmont and PCB accelerometers were below 50 g’s. The Lansmont recorded mean shocks of 21.83 ± 13.62 g’s and 24.78 ± 11.49 g’s while the PCB accelerometers experienced mean shocks of 34.39 ± 25.51 g’s and 41.77 ± 22.68 g’s for the landside and waterside units, respectively. Encased detector units with external padding should be designed to withstand at least 200 g’s of acceleration without padding and typical shocks of 30 g’s with padding for mounting on a spreader.« less

  16. Polarization as a probe of dusty environments around Type Ia supernovae: radiative transfer models for SN 2012dn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Masayuki

    2018-06-01

    The geometry of the circumstellar (CS) medium around supernovae (SNe) provides important diagnostics to understand the nature of their progenitors. In this article, the properties of CS dust around SN 2012dn, a super-Chandrasekhar candidate Type Ia supernova (SC-SN), have been studied through detailed three-dimensional radiation transfer simulations. Using the detected near-infrared excess from SN 2012dn, we show that it has a disc-like dusty CS environment, the mass of which is roughly consistent with a branch of an accreting white dwarf system (the single degenerate scenario). We show that a similar system should produce polarization signals up to ˜8 per cent in the B band, depending on the viewing direction if polarimetric observations are performed. We predict that maximum polarization is reached around ˜60 d after the B-band maximum. We show that the temporal and wavelength dependence of the polarization signals, together with other unique features, can be easily distinguished from the interstellar polarization and intrinsic SN polarization. Indeed, the small polarization degree observed for normal Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) can constrain a parameter space in CS dust mass and distribution. We thus encourage multi-band polarimetric observations for SNe Ia, especially for outliers including SC-SNe, for which some arguments for the single degenerate scenario exist but polarization data are very rare so far.

  17. Contribution of cosmic ray particles to radiation environment at high mountain altitude: Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Mishev, A L

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model for assessment of the effective dose due to secondary cosmic ray particles of galactic origin at high mountain altitude of about 3000 m above the sea level is presented. The model is based on a newly numerically computed effective dose yield function considering realistic propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. The yield function is computed using a full Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric cascade induced by primary protons and α- particles and subsequent conversion of secondary particle fluence (neutrons, protons, gammas, electrons, positrons, muons and charged pions) to effective dose. A lookup table of the newly computed effective dose yield function is provided. The model is compared with several measurements. The comparison of model simulations with measured spectral energy distributions of secondary cosmic ray neutrons at high mountain altitude shows good consistency. Results from measurements of radiation environment at high mountain station--Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala (42.11 N, 23.35 E, 2925 m a.s.l.) are also shown, specifically the contribution of secondary cosmic ray neutrons. A good agreement with the model is demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Protection Against Radiation Hazards in Space Book 1: Radiation Environment in Space. Effects of Space Radiation on Radio Sensitive Objects. Biological Effects of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The realization in recent years that outer space is traversed by high-energy radiations has caused man to reevaluate the feasibility of manned or even instrumented exploration outside our atmosphere. Fortunately, it is possible to determine the nature and intensities of these radiations and to produce similar radiations on earth by means of accelerators. Thus we can learn how to attenuate them and to design capsules which afford protection against them. Of course this protection carries a weight penalty so that there is a premium on optimizing the shield design. Many groups in the United states are engaged in research to this end,and it was the purpose of this symposium to bring these groups together so that they could exchange information. To make the meeting more comprehensive, sessions on the nature of the radiations and their effects on people and things were included. However, the major part of the meeting was devoted to discussions on shielding research, comprising theoretical calculations and experiments carried out mainly with high-energy accelerators. The symposium committee feels that the aims of the symposium were met and that progress in space research program was greatly accelerated thereby.

  19. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  20. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F.; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits—conceptually called “rock's habitable architecture.” Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of

  1. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits-conceptually called "rock's habitable architecture." Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of adaptation.

  2. A radiation-free mixed-reality training environment and assessment concept for C-arm-based surgery.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Philipp; Habert, Séverine; Winkler, Alexander; Lazarovici, Marc; Fürmetz, Julian; Eck, Ulrich; Navab, Nassir

    2018-06-25

    The discrepancy of continuously decreasing opportunities for clinical training and assessment and the increasing complexity of interventions in surgery has led to the development of different training and assessment options like anatomical models, computer-based simulators or cadaver trainings. However, trainees, following training, assessment and ultimately performing patient treatment, still face a steep learning curve. To address this problem for C-arm-based surgery, we introduce a realistic radiation-free simulation system that combines patient-based 3D printed anatomy and simulated X-ray imaging using a physical C-arm. To explore the fidelity and usefulness of the proposed mixed-reality system for training and assessment, we conducted a user study with six surgical experts performing a facet joint injection on the simulator. In a technical evaluation, we show that our system simulates X-ray images accurately with an RMSE of 1.85 mm compared to real X-ray imaging. The participants expressed agreement with the overall realism of the simulation, the usefulness of the system for assessment and strong agreement with the usefulness of such a mixed-reality system for training of novices and experts. In a quantitative analysis, we furthermore evaluated the suitability of the system for the assessment of surgical skills and gather preliminary evidence for validity. The proposed mixed-reality simulation system facilitates a transition to C-arm-based surgery and has the potential to complement or even replace large parts of cadaver training, to provide a safe assessment environment and to reduce the risk for errors when proceeding to patient treatment. We propose an assessment concept and outline the steps necessary to expand the system into a test instrument that provides reliable and justified assessments scores indicative of surgical proficiency with sufficient evidence for validity.

  3. The Radiation Environment on the Surface of Mars and its Implications for Human Exploration: Five Years of Measurements with the MSL/RAD instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, B.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Guo, J.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. I.; Burmeister, S.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has now been operating in Gale Crater on the surface of Mars for five years. Onboard Curiosity, the Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) is measuring the Martian surface radiation environment, providing insights into its intensity and composition. This radiation field is mainly composed of primary Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. On short time scales, the radiation environment can be dominated by contributions from Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Due to the shielding effect of the Martian atmosphere, shapes and intensities of SEP spectra differ significantly between interplanetary space and the Martian surface. Understanding how SEP events influence the surface radiation field is crucial to assess associated health risks for potential human missions to Mars. Even in the absence of SEP events, the surface environment is influenced by solar activity, which determines the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field and modulates GCR intensities. The GCR flux has risen considerably since Curiosity's landing as the solar cycle heads towards minimum. Here, we present updated MSL/RAD results for charged particle fluxes measured on the surface from GCRs and SEP events from the five years of MSL operations on Mars. We will present results that incorporate updated analysis techniques for the MSL/RAD data and yield the most robust particle spectra to date. The GCR results will be compared to simulation results. The SEP-induced fluxes on the surface will be compared to measurements from other spacecraft in the inner heliosphere and, in particular, in Martian orbit.

  4. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Numerical calculations of the galactic component with GEANT4/PLANETOCOSMICS.

    PubMed

    Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Galactic cosmic radiation and secondary particles produced in the interaction with the atmosphere lead to a complex radiation field on the Martian surface. A workshop ("1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop") organized by the MSL-RAD science team was held in June 2016 in Boulder with the goal to compare models capable to predict this radiation field with each other and measurements from the RAD instrument onboard the curiosity rover taken between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016. In this work the results of PLANETOCOSMICS/GEANT4 contributed to the workshop are presented. Calculated secondary particle spectra on the Martian surface are investigated and the radiation field's directionality of the different particles in dependence on the energy is discussed. Omnidirectional particle fluxes are used in combination with fluence to dose conversion factors to calculate absorbed dose rates and dose equivalent rates in a slab of tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Methodology trends on gamma and electron radiation damage simulation studies in solids under high fluency irradiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Inclán, Carlos M.; González Lazo, Eduardo; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Arturo; Guzmán Martínez, Fernando; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Piñera Hernández, Ibrahin; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with the numerical simulation of gamma and electron radiation damage processes under high brightness and radiation particle fluency on regard to two new radiation induced atom displacement processes, which concern with both, the Monte Carlo Method based numerical simulation of the occurrence of atom displacement process as a result of gamma and electron interactions and transport in a solid matrix and the atom displacement threshold energies calculated by Molecular Dynamic methodologies. The two new radiation damage processes here considered in the framework of high brightness and particle fluency irradiation conditions are: 1) The radiation induced atom displacement processes due to a single primary knockout atom excitation in a defective target crystal matrix increasing its defect concentrations (vacancies, interstitials and Frenkel pairs) as a result of a severe and progressive material radiation damage and 2) The occurrence of atom displacements related to multiple primary knockout atom excitations for the same or different atomic species in an perfect target crystal matrix due to subsequent electron elastic atomic scattering in the same atomic neighborhood during a crystal lattice relaxation time. In the present work a review numeral simulation attempts of these two new radiation damage processes are presented, starting from the former developed algorithms and codes for Monte Carlo simulation of atom displacements induced by electron and gamma in

  6. High-Resolution and Analytical TEM Investigation of Space Radiation Processing Effects in Primitive Solar System Materials and Airless Planetary Surface Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Dukes, C.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic ions present in the diverse plasma conditions in space play a significant role in the formation and modification of solid phases found in environments ranging from the interstellar medium (ISM) to the surfaces of airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. These effects are often referred to as space radiation processing, a term that encompasses changes induced in natural space-exposed materials that may be only structural, such as in radiation-induced amorphization, or may involve ion-induced nanoscale to microscale chemical changes, as occurs in preferential sputtering and ion-beam mixing. Ion sputtering in general may also be responsible for partial or complete erosion of space exposed materials, in some instances possibly bringing about the complete destruction of free-floating solid grains in the ISM or in circumstellar nebular dust clouds. We report here on two examples of the application of high-resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to problems in space radiation processing. The first problem concerns the role of space radiation processing in controlling the overall fate of Fe sulfides as hosts for sulfur in the ISM. The second problem concerns the known, but as yet poorly quantified, role of space radiation processing in lunar space weathering.

  7. Overview of the ISS Radiation Environment Observed during the ESA EXPOSE-R2 Mission in 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Bankov, N. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, Pl. G.; Häder, D.-P.; Horneck, G.

    2017-11-01

    The radiation risk radiometer-dosimeter (R3D)-R2 solid-state detector performed radiation measurements at the European Space Agency EXPOSE-R2 platform outside of the Russian "Zvezda" module at the International Space Station (ISS) from 24 October 2014 to 11 January 2016. The ISS orbital parameters were average altitude of 415 km and 51.6° inclination. We developed special software and used experimentally obtained formulas to determine the radiation flux-to-dose ratio from the R3DR2 Liulin-type deposited-energy spectrometer. We provide for the first time simultaneous, long-term estimates of radiation dose external to the ISS for four source categories: (i) galactic cosmic ray particles and their secondary products; (ii) protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly region of the inner radiation belt (IRB); (iii) relativistic electrons and/or bremsstrahlung in the outer radiation belt (ORB); and (iv) solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The latter category is new in this study. Additionally, in this study, secondary particles (SP) resulting from energetic particle interaction with the detector and nearby materials are identified. These are observed continuously at high latitudes. The detected SPs are identified using the same sorting requirements as SEP protons. The IRB protons provide the highest consistent hourly dose, while the ORB electrons and SEPs provide the most extreme hourly doses. SEPs were observed 11 times during the study interval. The R3DR2 data support calculation of average equivalent doses. The 30 day and 1 year average equivalent doses are much smaller than the skin and eyes doses recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection (Report 132), which provides radiation protection guidance for Low Earth Orbit.

  8. Survivability of immunoassay reagents exposed to the space radiation environment on board the ESA BIOPAN-6 platform as a prelude to performing immunoassays on Mars.

    PubMed

    Derveni, Mariliza; Allen, Marjorie; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Richter, Lutz; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C

    2013-01-01

    The Life Marker Chip (LMC) instrument is an immunoassay-based sensor that will attempt to detect signatures of life in the subsurface of Mars. The molecular reagents at the core of the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use; therefore, the design of such an instrument must take into account a number of risk factors, including the radiation environment that will be encountered during a mission to Mars. To study the effects of space radiation on immunoassay reagents, primarily antibodies, a space study was performed on the European Space Agency's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-Earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform to complement a set of ground-based radiation studies. Two antibodies were used in the study, which were lyophilized and packaged in the intended LMC format and loaded into a custom-made sample holder unit that was mounted on the BIOPAN-6 platform. The BIOPAN mission went into LEO for 12 days, after which all samples were recovered and the antibody binding performance was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The factors expected to affect antibody performance were the physical conditions of a space mission and the exposure to space conditions, primarily the radiation environment in LEO. Both antibodies survived inactivation by these factors, as concluded from the comparison between the flight samples and a number of shipping and storage controls. This work, in combination with the ground-based radiation tests on representative LMC antibodies, has helped to reduce the risk of using antibodies in a planetary exploration mission context.

  9. A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

    2002-10-08

    The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDARTmore » calculations and Halthore and Schwartz’s MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded “black and white” pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the “diffuse discrepancy” that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.« less

  10. Evaluation of Radiation Exposure to Staff and Environment Dose from [18F]-FDG in PET/CT and Cyclotron Center using Thermoluminescent Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zargan, S.; Ghafarian, P.; Shabestani Monfared, A.; Sharafi, A.A.; Bakhshayeshkaram, M.; Ay, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: PET/CT imaging using [18F]-FDG is utilized in clinical oncology for tumor detecting, staging and responding to therapy procedures. Essential consideration must be taken for radiation staff due to high gamma radiation in PET/CT and cyclotron center. The aim of this study was to assess the staff exposure regarding whole body and organ dose and to evaluate environment dose in PET/CT and cyclotron center. Materials and Methods: 80 patients participated in this study. Thermoluminescence, electronic personal dosimeter and Geiger-Muller dosimeter were also utilized for measurement purpose. Results: The mean annual equivalent organ dose for scanning operator with regard to lens of eyes, thyroid, breast and finger according to mean±SD value, were 0.262±0.044, 0.256±0.046, 0.257±0.040 and 0.316±0.118, respectively. The maximum and minimum estimated annual whole body doses were observed for injector and the chemist group with values of (3.98±0.021) mSv/yr and (1.64±0.014) mSv/yr, respectively. The observed dose rates were 5.67 µSv/h in uptake room at the distance of 0.5 meter from the patient whereas the value 4.94 and 3.08 µSv/h were recorded close to patient’s head in PET/CT room and 3.5 meter from the reception desk. Conclusion: In this study, the injector staff and scanning operator received the first high level and second high level of radiation. This study confirmed that low levels of radiation dose were received by all radiation staff during PET/CT procedure using 18F-FDG due to efficient shielding and using trained radiation staff in PET/CT and cyclotron center of Masih Daneshvari hospital. PMID:28451574

  11. On protection of Freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 1: Preliminary analyses and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Fleming, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis was performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration was found to depend upon mission specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. An approach is described which was developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses are presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented. Plans for further analyses and testing are discussed. These efforts are expected to lead to a radiator design which will perform to requirements over the expected lifetime.

  12. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation: selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J; Woodhead, D S

    2001-09-28

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometrics within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources.

  13. Radiation and mechanical unloading effects on mouse vertebral bone: Ground-based models of the spaceflight environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwood, Joshua Stewart

    Astronauts on long-duration space missions experience increased ionizing radiation background levels and occasional acute doses of ionizing radiation from solar particle events, in addition to biological challenges introduced by weightlessness. Previous research indicates that cancer radiotherapy damages bone marrow cell populations and reduces mechanical strength of bone. However, the cumulative doses in radiotherapy are an order of magnitude or greater than dose predictions for long-duration space missions. Further detriments to the skeletal system are the disuse and mechanical unloading experienced during weightlessness, which causes osteopenia in weight-bearing cancellous bone (a sponge-like bony network of rods, plates and voids) and cortical bone (dense, compact bone). Studies of radiation exposure utilizing spaceflight-relevant types and doses, and in combination with mechanical unloading, have received little attention. Motivated by the future human exploration of the solar system, the effects of acute and increased background radiation on astronaut skeletal health are important areas of study in order to prevent osteopenic deterioration and, ultimately, skeletal fracture. This dissertation addresses how spaceflight-relevant radiation affects bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties in the cancellous-rich vertebrae and compares results to that of mechanical unloading. In addition, a period of re-ambulation is used to test whether animals recover skeletal tissue after irradiation. Whether radiation exposure displays synergism with mechanical unloading is further investigated. Finite element structural and statistical analyses are used to investigate how changes in architecture affect mechanical stress within the vertebra and to interpret the mechanical testing results. In this dissertation, ground-based models provide evidence that ionizing radiation, both highly energetic gamma-rays and charged iron ions, resulted in a persistent loss of cancellous

  14. Effects of Low-Oxygen Environments on the radiation tolerance of the cabbage looper moth (Lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ionizing radiation is phytosanitary treatment to mitigate risks associated with trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commodity producers wish to irradiate fresh product stored in modified atmosphere packaging that increases shelf life and delays ripening. However, irradiating insects in anoxia incr...

  15. Effects of Low-Oxygen Environments on the Radiation Tolerance of the Cabbage Looper Moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Condon, Catriona H; White, Sabrina; Meagher, Robert L; Jeffers, Laura A; Bailey, Woodward D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment to mitigate risks from invasive species associated with trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commodity producers prefer to irradiate fresh product stored in modified atmosphere packaging that increases shelf life and delays ripening. However, irradiating insects in low oxygen may increase radiation tolerance, and regulatory agencies are concerned modified atmosphere packaging will decrease efficacy of radiation doses. Here, we examined how irradiation in a series of oxygen conditions (0.1-20.9 kPa O2) alters radiotolerance of larvae and pupae of a model lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni (Hubner) (Diptera: Noctuidae). Irradiating in severe hypoxia (0.1 kPa O2) increased radiation tolerance of insects compared with irradiating in atmospheric oxygen (20.9 kPa O2). Our data show irradiating pharate adult pupae at 600 Gy in moderately severe hypoxia (5 kPa O2) increased adult emergence compared with irradiation in atmospheric oxygen (20.9 kPa O2). Our data also show that in one of the three temporal replicates, irradiating T. ni larvae in moderately severe hypoxia (5 kPa O2) can also increase radiotolerance at an intermediate radiation dose of 100 Gy compared with irradiating in atmospheric oxygen conditions, but not at higher or lower doses. We discuss implications of our results in this model insect for the current generic doses for phytosanitary irradiation, including the recently proposed 250 Gy generic dose for lepidioptera larvae, and temporary restriction on irradiating commodities in modified atmosphere packaging that reduces the atmosphere to < 18 kPa O2. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A modular approach for assessing the effect of radiation environments on man in operational systems. The radiobiological vulnerability of man during task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A modular approach for assessing the affects of radiation environments on man in operational systems has been developed. The feasibility of the model has been proved and the practicality has been assessed. It has been applied to one operational system to date and information obtained has been submitted to systems analysts and mission planners for the assessment of man's vulnerability and impact on systems survivability. In addition, the model has been developed so that the radiobiological data can be input to a sophisticated man-machine interface model to properly relate the radiobiological stress with other mission stresses including the effects of a degraded system.

  17. [Radiation ecological environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the vicinity of the reactors and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    PubMed

    Kim, D S

    2012-01-01

    The results of research into the environmental conditions in the regions of location of the pressurized water reactor WWR-K, fast neutron breeder BN-350 and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site are represented. The effects of the exposure to aerosol emissions from WWR-K and BN-350 reactors on the environment are summarized. We present some arguments in favor of the safe operation of fission reactors in compliance with the rules and norms of nuclear and radiation protection and the efficient disposal of radioactive waste on the territory of the Republic.

  18. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments - ATLAS12 design and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S. O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; Carter, J. R.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Robinson, D.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; Eklund, L.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O`Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Arai, Y.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grillo, A. A.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Schumacher, D.; Seiden, A.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Paganis, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Motohashi, K.; Todome, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Hara, K.; Hagihara, M.; Garcia, C.; Jimenez, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Soldevila, U.

    2014-11-01

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n+-in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers.

  19. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma -more » ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.« less

  20. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission [1] require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-cm2/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  1. Thermal Radiometer Signal Processing Using Radiation Hard CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuits for Use in Harsh Planetary Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; DuMonthier, J.; Aslam, S.; Lakew, B.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiometers such as proposed for the Europa Clipper flyby mission require low noise signal processing for thermal imaging with immunity to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Latchup (SEL). Described is a second generation Multi- Channel Digitizer (MCD2G) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that accurately digitizes up to 40 thermopile pixels with greater than 50 Mrad (Si) immunity TID and 174 MeV-sq cm/mg SEL. The MCD2G ASIC uses Radiation Hardened By Design (RHBD) techniques with a 180 nm CMOS process node.

  2. Genome Resequencing Identifies Unique Adaptations of Tibetan Chickens to Hypoxia and High-Dose Ultraviolet Radiation in High-Altitude Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Gou, Wenyu; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yawen; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan chicken, unlike their lowland counterparts, exhibit specific adaptations to high-altitude conditions. The genetic mechanisms of such adaptations in highland chickens were determined by resequencing the genomes of four highland (Tibetan and Lhasa White) and four lowland (White Leghorn, Lindian, and Chahua) chicken populations. Our results showed an evident genetic admixture in Tibetan chickens, suggesting a history of introgression from lowland gene pools. Genes showing positive selection in highland populations were related to cardiovascular and respiratory system development, DNA repair, response to radiation, inflammation, and immune responses, indicating a strong adaptation to oxygen scarcity and high-intensity solar radiation. The distribution of allele frequencies of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms between highland and lowland populations was analyzed using chi-square test, which showed that several differentially distributed genes with missense mutations were enriched in several functional categories, especially in blood vessel development and adaptations to hypoxia and intense radiation. RNA sequencing revealed that several differentially expressed genes were enriched in gene ontology terms related to blood vessel and respiratory system development. Several candidate genes involved in the development of cardiorespiratory system (FGFR1, CTGF, ADAM9, JPH2, SATB1, BMP4, LOX, LPR, ANGPTL4, and HYAL1), inflammation and immune responses (AIRE, MYO1F, ZAP70, DDX60, CCL19, CD47, JSC, and FAS), DNA repair, and responses to radiation (VCP, ASH2L, and FANCG) were identified to play key roles in the adaptation to high-altitude conditions. Our data provide new insights into the unique adaptations of highland animals to extreme environments. PMID:26907498

  3. Near infrared radio-luminescence of O{sub 2} loaded radiation hardened silica optical fibers: A candidate dosimeter for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Di Francesca, D., E-mail: diego.di.francesca@univ-st-etienne.fr; Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo; Girard, S.

    2014-11-03

    We report on an experimental investigation of the infrared Radio-Luminescence (iRL) emission of interstitial O{sub 2} molecules loaded in radiation hardened pure-silica-core and fluorine-doped silica-based optical fibers (OFs). The O{sub 2} loading treatment successfully dissolved high concentrations of oxygen molecules into the silica matrix. A sharp luminescence at 1272 nm was detected when 2.5 cm of the treated OFs were irradiated with 10 keV X-rays. This emission originates from the radiative decay of the first excited singlet state of the embedded O{sub 2} molecules. The dose, dose-rate, and temperature dependencies of the infrared emission are studied through in situ optical measurements. The resultsmore » show that the iRL is quite stable in doses of up to 1 MGy(SiO{sub 2}) and is linearly dependent on the dose-rate up to the maximum investigated dose-rate of ∼200 kGy(SiO{sub 2})/h. The temperature dependency of the iRL shows a decrease in efficiency above 200 °C, which is attributed to the non-radiative decay of the excited O{sub 2} molecules. The results obtained and the long-term stability of the O{sub 2}-loading treatment (no out-gassing effect) strongly suggest the applicability of these components to real-time remote dosimetry in environments characterized by high radiation doses and dose-rates.« less

  4. Genome Resequencing Identifies Unique Adaptations of Tibetan Chickens to Hypoxia and High-Dose Ultraviolet Radiation in High-Altitude Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Gou, Wenyu; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yawen; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Hongliang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hao

    2016-02-23

    Tibetan chicken, unlike their lowland counterparts, exhibit specific adaptations to high-altitude conditions. The genetic mechanisms of such adaptations in highland chickens were determined by resequencing the genomes of four highland (Tibetan and Lhasa White) and four lowland (White Leghorn, Lindian, and Chahua) chicken populations. Our results showed an evident genetic admixture in Tibetan chickens, suggesting a history of introgression from lowland gene pools. Genes showing positive selection in highland populations were related to cardiovascular and respiratory system development, DNA repair, response to radiation, inflammation, and immune responses, indicating a strong adaptation to oxygen scarcity and high-intensity solar radiation. The distribution of allele frequencies of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms between highland and lowland populations was analyzed using chi-square test, which showed that several differentially distributed genes with missense mutations were enriched in several functional categories, especially in blood vessel development and adaptations to hypoxia and intense radiation. RNA sequencing revealed that several differentially expressed genes were enriched in gene ontology terms related to blood vessel and respiratory system development. Several candidate genes involved in the development of cardiorespiratory system (FGFR1, CTGF, ADAM9, JPH2, SATB1, BMP4, LOX, LPR, ANGPTL4, and HYAL1), inflammation and immune responses (AIRE, MYO1F, ZAP70, DDX60, CCL19, CD47, JSC, and FAS), DNA repair, and responses to radiation (VCP, ASH2L, and FANCG) were identified to play key roles in the adaptation to high-altitude conditions. Our data provide new insights into the unique adaptations of highland animals to extreme environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Understanding Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radiation is a natural energy force that has been a part of the environment since the Earth was formed. It takes various forms, none of which can be smelled, tasted, seen, heard, or felt. Nevertheless, scientists know what it is, where it comes from, how to measure and detect it, and how it affects people. Cosmic radiation from outer space and…

  6. Spacecraft Environment Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2011-01-01

    As electronic components have grown smaller in size and power and have increased in complexity, their enhanced sensitivity to the space radiation environment and its effects has become a major source of concern for the spacecraft engineer. As a result, the description of the sources of space radiation, the determination of how that radiation propagates through material, and, ultimately, how radiation affects specific circuit components are primary considerations in the design of modern spacecraft. The objective of this paper will be to address the first 2 aspects of the radiation problem. This will be accomplished by first reviewing the natural and man-made space radiation environments. These environments include both the particulate and, where applicable, the electromagnetic (i.e., photon) environment. As the "ambient" environment is typically only relevant to the outer surface of a space vehicle, it will be necessary to treat the propagation of the external environment through the complex surrounding structures to the point inside the spacecraft where knowledge of the internal radiation environment is required. While it will not be possible to treat in detail all aspects of the problem of the radiation environment within a spacecraft, by dividing the problem into these parts-external environment, propagation, and internal environment-a basis for understanding the practical process of protecting a spacecraft from radiation will be established. The consequences of this environment will be discussed by the other presenters at this seminar.

  7. Radiation environment simulations at the Tevatron, studies of the beam profile and measurement of the B c meson mass

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, Ludovic Y.

    2005-09-01

    The description of a computer simulation of the CDF detector at Fermilab and the adjacent accelerator parts is detailed, with MARS calculations of the radiation background in various elements of the model due to the collision of beams and machine-related losses. Three components of beam halo formation are simulated for the determination of the principal source of radiation background in CDF due to beam losses. The effect of a collimator as a protection for the detector is studied. The simulation results are compared with data taken by a CDF group. Studies of a 150 GeV Tevatron proton beam are performedmore » to investigate the transverse diffusion growth and distribution. A technique of collimator scan is used to scrape the beam under various experimental conditions, and computer programs are written for the beam reconstruction. An average beam halo growth speed is given and the potential of beam tail reconstruction using the collimator scan is evaluated. A particle physics analysis is conducted in order to detect the B c → J/Ψπ decay signal with the CDF Run II detector in 360 pb -1 of data. The cut variables and an optimization method to determine their values are presented along with a criterion for the detection threshold of the signal. The mass of the B{sub c} meson is measured with an evaluation of the significance of the signal.« less

  8. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Wilson, J W; Singleterry, R C

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  9. A Determination of the Risk of Intentional and Unintentional Electromagnetic Radiation Emitters Degrading Installed Components in Closed Electromagnetic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    shield that tends to lower the EM levels at the surface of the Earth (Christopoulos 2007). It is important to note for the purposes of this paper...ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR( S ) Jared A. Johnson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING

  10. Update on the Worsening Particle Radiation Environment Observed by CRaTER and Implications for Future Human Deep-Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Rahmanifard, F.; Wilson, J.; Jordan, A. P.; Spence, H. E.; Joyce, C. J.; Blake, J. B.; Case, A. W.; de Wet, W.; Farrell, W. M.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Lugaz, N.; Mays, L.; Mazur, J. E.; Niehof, J.; Petro, N.; Smith, C. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Winslow, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, the solar wind has exhibited low densities and magnetic field strengths, representing anomalous states that have never been observed during the space age. As discussed by Schwadron, Blake, et al. (2014, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014SW001084), the cycle 23-24 solar activity led to the longest solar minimum in more than 80 years and continued into the "mini" solar maximum of cycle 24. During this weak activity, we observed galactic cosmic ray fluxes that exceeded theERobserved small solar energetic particle events. Here we provide an update to the Schwadron, Blake, et al. (2014, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014SW001084) observations from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Schwadron, Blake, et al. (2014, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014SW001084) study examined the evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field and utilized a previously published study by Goelzer et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JA019404) projecting out the interplanetary magnetic field strength based on the evolution of sunspots as a proxy for the rate that the Sun releases coronal mass ejections. This led to a projection of dose rates from galactic cosmic rays on the lunar surface, which suggested a ˜20% increase of dose rates from one solar minimum to the next and indicated that the radiation environment in space may be a worsening factor important for consideration in future planning of human space exploration. We compare the predictions of Schwadron, Blake, et al. (2014, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014SW001084) with the actual dose rates observed by CRaTER in the last 4 years. The observed dose rates exceed the predictions by ˜10%, showing that the radiation environment is worsening more rapidly than previously estimated. Much of this increase is attributable to relatively low-energy ions, which can be effectively shielded. Despite the continued paucity of solar activity, one of the hardest solar events in

  11. Proton Radiation Therapy in the Hospital Environment: Conception, Development, and Operation of the Initial Hospital-Based Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.; Wroe, Andrew J.

    The world's first hospital-based proton treatment center opened at Loma Linda University Medical Center in 1990, following two decades of development. Patients' needs were the driving force behind its conception, development, and execution; the primary needs were delivery of effective conformal doses of ionizing radiation and avoidance of normal tissue to the maximum extent possible. The facility includes a proton synchrotron and delivery system developed in collaboration with physicists and engineers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and from other high-energy-physics laboratories worldwide. The system, operated and maintained by Loma Linda personnel, was designed to be safe, reliable, flexible in utilization, efficient in use, and upgradeable to meet demands of changing patient needs and advances in technology. Since the facility opened, nearly 14,000 adults and children have been treated for a wide range of cancers and other diseases. Ongoing research is expanding the applications of proton therapy, while reducing costs.

  12. Evolution in an extreme environment: developmental biases and phenotypic integration in the adaptive radiation of antarctic notothenioids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yinan; Ghigliotti, Laura; Vacchi, Marino; Pisano, Eva; Detrich, H William; Albertson, R Craig

    2016-06-29

    Over the past 40 million years water temperatures have dramatically dropped in the Southern Ocean, which has led to the local extinction of most nearshore fish lineages. The evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins in notothenioids, however, enabled these ancestrally benthic fishes to survive and adapt as temperatures reached the freezing point of seawater (-1.86 °C). Antarctic notothenioids now represent the primary teleost lineage in the Southern Ocean and are of fundamental importance to the local ecosystem. The radiation of notothenioids has been fostered by the evolution of "secondary pelagicism", the invasion of pelagic habitats, as the group diversified to fill newly available foraging niches in the water column. While elaborate craniofacial modifications have accompanied this adaptive radiation, little is known about how these morphological changes have contributed to the evolutionary success of notothenioids. We used a 3D-morphometrics approach to investigate patterns of morphological variation in the craniofacial skeleton among notothenioids, and show that variation in head shape is best explained by divergent selection with respect to foraging niche. We document further an accelerated rate of morphological evolution in the icefish family Channichthyidae, and show that their rapid diversification was accompanied by the evolution of relatively high levels of morphological integration. Whereas most studies suggest that extensive integration should constrain phenotypic evolution, icefish stand out as a rare example of increased integration possibly facilitating evolutionary potential. Finally, we show that the unique feeding apparatus in notothenioids in general, and icefish in particular, can be traced to shifts in early developmental patterning mechanisms and ongoing growth of the pharyngeal skeleton. Our work suggests that ecological opportunity is a major factor driving craniofacial variation in this group. Further, the observation that closely related

  13. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications.

    PubMed

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Olmo, F J; Vilaplana, J M; Gil-Ojeda, M; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O3, SO2, CO and NO2) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2±4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2±1.7 cm(-3) s(-1), with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8±2.4 nm h(-1) with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM10 and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of Van Allen Belt Radiation Environment Modeling Programs: AE8/AP8 Legacy, AE9/AP9, and SPENVIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Evan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In the space surrounding Earth there exists an active radiation environment consisting mostly of electrons and protons that have been trapped by Earths magnetic field. This radiation, also known as the Van Allen Belts, has the potential to damage man-made satellites in orbit; thus, proper precautions must be taken to shield NASA assets from this phenomenon. Data on the Van Allen Belts has been collected continuously by a multitude of space-based instruments since the beginning of space exploration. Subsequently, using theory to fill in the gaps in the collected data, computer models have been developed that take in the orbital information of a hypothetical mission and output the expected particle fluence and flux for that orbit. However, as new versions of the modeling system are released, users are left wondering how the new version differs from the old. Therefore, we performed a comparison of three different editions of the modeling system: AE8/AP8 (legacy), which is included in the model 9 graphical user interface as an option for ones calculations, AE9/AP9, and the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS), which is an online-based form of AE8/AP8 developed by NASA and the European Space Agency that changed the code to allow the program to extrapolate data to predict fluence and flux at higher energies. Although this evaluation is still ongoing, it is predicted that the model 8 (legacy) and SPENVIS version will have identical outputs with the exception of the extended energy levels from SPENVIS, while model 9 will provide different fluences than model 8 based on additional magnetic field descriptions and on-orbit data.

  15. Evaluating MTCLIM for incident daily solar radiation and humidity in diverse meteorological and topographical environments in the main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Needham, H.; Longman, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous and high resolution climatologies are important inputs in determining future scenarios for land processes. In Hawaíi, a lack of continuous meteorological data has been a problem for both ecological and hydrological research of land-surface processes at daily time scales. For downward shortwave radiation (SWdown) and relative humidity (RH) climate variables, the number of surface stations which record daily values are limited and tend to be situated at city airports or in convenient locations leaving large sections of the islands underrepresented. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rationale behind using the mountain microclimate simulator MTCLIM to obtain a gridded observation based ensemble of SWdown and RH data at a daily increment for the period of 1990-2014 for the main Hawaiian Islands. Preliminary results, testing model output with observed data, show mean bias errors (%MBE) of 1.15 W/m2 for SWdown and -0.8% for RH. Mean absolute errors (%MAE) of 32.83 W/m2 SWdown and 14.96% RH, with root mean square errors (%RMSE) of 40.17 W/m2 SWdown and 11.75% RH. Further optimization of the model and additional methods to reduce errors are being investigated to improve the model's functionality with Hawaíi's extreme climate gradients.

  16. Changes in severe thunderstorm environment frequency during the 21st century caused by anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Robert J.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Brooks, Harold E.; Baldwin, Michael E.; Robinson, Eric D.; Pal, Jeremy S.

    2007-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms comprise an extreme class of deep convective clouds and produce high-impact weather such as destructive surface winds, hail, and tornadoes. This study addresses the question of how severe thunderstorm frequency in the United States might change because of enhanced global radiative forcing associated with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. We use global climate models and a high-resolution regional climate model to examine the larger-scale (or “environmental”) meteorological conditions that foster severe thunderstorm formation. Across this model suite, we find a net increase during the late 21st century in the number of days in which these severe thunderstorm environmental conditions (NDSEV) occur. Attributed primarily to increases in atmospheric water vapor within the planetary boundary layer, the largest increases in NDSEV are shown during the summer season, in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastal regions. For example, this analysis suggests a future increase in NDSEV of 100% or more in locations such as Atlanta, GA, and New York, NY. Any direct application of these results to the frequency of actual storms also must consider the storm initiation.

  17. Explosive radiation and spatial expansion across the cold environments of the Old World in an avian family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyan; Alström, Per; Olsson, Urban; Fjeldså, Jon; Quan, Qing; Roselaar, Kees C S; Saitoh, Takema; Yao, Cheng-Te; Hao, Yan; Wang, Wenjuan; Qu, Yanhua; Lei, Fumin

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to elucidate the biogeography and speciation patterns in an entire avian family, which shows a complex pattern of overlapping and nonoverlapping geographical distributions, and much variation in plumage, but less in size and structure. We estimated the phylogeny and divergence times for all of the world's species of Prunella based on multiple genetic loci, and analyzed morphometric divergence and biogeographical history. The common ancestor of Prunella was present in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains or these mountains and Central Asia-Mongolia more than 9 million years ago (mya), but a burst of speciations took place during the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The relationships among the six primary lineages resulting from that differentiation are unresolved, probably because of the rapid radiation. A general increase in sympatry with increasing time since divergence is evident. With one exception, species in clades younger than c. 3.7 my are allopatric. Species that are widely sympatric, including the most recently diverged (2.4 mya) sympatric sisters, are generally more divergent in size/structure than allo-/parapatric close relatives. The distributional pattern and inferred ages suggest divergence in allopatry and substantial waiting time until secondary contact, likely due to competitive exclusion. All sympatrically breeding species are ecologically segregated, as suggested by differences in size/structure and habitat. Colonizations of new areas were facilitated during glacial periods, followed by fragmentation during interglacials-contrary to the usual view that glacial periods resulted mainly in fragmentations.

  18. Mitigated FPGA design of multi-gigabit transceivers for application in high radiation environments of High Energy Physics experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Brusati, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; ...

    2017-02-20

    SRAM-ba8ed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) logic devices arc very attractive in applications where high data throughput is needed, such as the latest generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. FPGAs have been rarely used in such experiments because of their sensitivity to radiation. The present paper proposes a mitigation approach applied to commercial FPGA devices to meet the reliability requirements for the front-end electronics of the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, located at CERN. Particular attention will be devoted to define a proper mitigation scheme of the multi-gigabit transceivers embedded in the FPGA, which ismore » a critical part of the LAr data acquisition chain. A demonstrator board is being developed to validate the proposed methodology. :!\\litigation techniques such as Triple Modular Redundancy (T:t\\IR) and scrubbing will be used to increase the robustness of the design and to maximize the fault tolerance from Single-Event Upsets (SEUs).« less

  19. Tolerance of the High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology ASIC to potentially destructive radiation processes in Earth-orbit-equivalent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. F.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Wilson, M.; Benmoussa, A.; Campola, M.; Christe, S. D.; Gissot, S.; Jones, L.; Newport, J.; Prydderch, M.; Richards, S.; Seller, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Thomas, S.

    2018-02-01

    The High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) ASIC is designed on a 0.35 μm CMOS process to read out CdTe or CZT detectors and hence provide fine-pixellated spectroscopic imaging in the range 2-200 keV. In this paper, we examine the tolerance of HEXITEC to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event radiation effects. Bare ASICs are irradiated with X-rays up to a total ionising dose (TID) of 1 Mrad (SiO2) and bombarded with heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. HEXITEC is shown to operate reliably below a TID of 150 krad, have immunity to fatal single event latchup (SEL) and have high tolerance to non-fatal SEL up to LETs of at least 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. The results are compared to predictions of TID and SELs for various Earth-orbits and aluminium shielding thicknesses. It is found that HEXITEC's radiation tolerance to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event effects is sufficient to reliably operate in these environments with moderate shielding.

  20. Grid2: A Program for Rapid Estimation of the Jovian Radiation Environment: A Numeric Implementation of the GIRE2 Jovian Radiation Model for Estimating Trapped Radiation for Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.; Brinza, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid2 is a program that utilizes the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model 2 (GIRE2) Jovian radiation model to compute fluences and doses for Jupiter missions. (Note: The iterations of these two softwares have been GIRE and GIRE2; likewise Grid and Grid2.) While GIRE2 is an important improvement over the original GIRE radiation model, the GIRE2 model can take as long as a day or more to compute these quantities for a complete mission. Grid2 fits the results of the detailed GIRE2 code with a set of grids in local time and position thereby greatly speeding up the execution of the model--minutes as opposed to days. The Grid2 model covers the time period from 1971 to 2050and distances of 1.03 to 30 Jovian diameters (Rj). It is available as a direct-access database through a FORTRAN interface program. The new database is only slightly larger than the original grid version: 1.5 gigabytes (GB) versus 1.2 GB.

  1. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  2. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  3. Accelerated aging studies of UHMWPE. I. Effect of resin, processing, and radiation environment on resistance to mechanical degradation.

    PubMed

    Edidin, A A; Herr, M P; Villarraga, M L; Muth, J; Yau, S S; Kurtz, S M

    2002-08-01

    The resin and processing route have been identified as potential variables influencing the mechanical behavior, and hence the clinical performance, of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) orthopedic components. Researchers have reported that components fabricated from 1900 resin may oxidize to a lesser extent than components fabricated from GUR resin during shelf aging after gamma sterilization in air. Conflicting reports on the oxidation resistance for 1900 raise the question of whether resin or manufacturing method, or an interaction between resin and manufacturing method, influences the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE. We conducted a series of accelerated aging studies (no aging, aging in oxygen or in nitrogen) to systematically examine the influence of resin (GUR or 1900), manufacturing method (bulk compression molding or extrusion), and sterilization method (none, in air, or in nitrogen) on the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE. The small punch testing technique was used to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the materials, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxidation in selected samples. Our study showed that the sterilization environment, aging condition, and specimen location (surface or subsurface) significantly affected the mechanical behavior of UHMWPE. Each of the three polyethylenes evaluated seem to degrade according to a similar pathway after artificial aging in oxygen and gamma irradiation in air. The initial ability of the materials to exhibit post-yield strain hardening was significantly compromised by degradation. In general, there were only minor differences in the aging behavior of molded and extruded GUR 1050, whereas the molded 1900 material seemed to degrade slightly faster than either of the 1050 materials. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets Around Low-mass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Ardila, David; Barman, Travis; Beasley, Matthew; Bowman, Judd D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jacobs, Daniel; Jewell, April; Llama, Joe; Meadows, Victoria; Nikzad, Shouleh; Scowen, Paul; Swain, Mark; Zellem, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Roughly seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M stars in the far-UV and near-UV, measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously over at least one complete stellar rotation (5 - 45 days). SPARCS will also advance UV detector technology by flying high quantum efficiency, UV-optimized detectors developed at JPL. These Delta-doped detectors have a long history of deployment demonstrating greater than five times the quantum efficiency of the detectors used by GALEX. SPARCS will pave the way for their application in missions like LUVOIR or HabEx, including interim UV-capable missions. SPARCS will also be capable of ‘target-of-opportunity’ UV observations for the rocky planets in M dwarf HZs soon to be discovered by NASA’s TESS mission, providing the needed UV context for the first habitable planets that JWST will characterize.Acknowledgements: Funding for SPARCS is provided by NASA’s Astrophysics Research and Analysis program, NNH16ZDA001N.

  5. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel sensors for extremely high radiation environments, designed to retain high efficiency after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Yajima, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirose, M.; Homma, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kimura, K.; Motohashi, K.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Todome, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Hara, K.; Sato, Kz.; Sato, Kj.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed n+-in-p pixel sensors to obtain highly radiation tolerant sensors for extremely high radiation environments such as those found at the high-luminosity LHC. We have designed novel pixel structures to eliminate the sources of efficiency loss under the bias rails after irradiation by removing the bias rail out of the boundary region and routing the bias resistors inside the area of the pixel electrodes. After irradiation by protons with the fluence of approximately 3 ×1015neq /cm2, the pixel structure with the polysilicon bias resistor and the bias rails removed far away from the boundary shows an efficiency loss of < 0.5 % per pixel at the boundary region, which is as efficient as the pixel structure without a biasing structure. The pixel structure with the bias rails at the boundary and the widened p-stop's underneath the bias rail also exhibits an improved loss of approximately 1% per pixel at the boundary region. We have elucidated the physical mechanisms behind the efficiency loss under the bias rail with TCAD simulations. The efficiency loss is due to the interplay of the bias rail acting as a charge collecting electrode with the region of low electric field in the silicon near the surface at the boundary. The region acts as a "shield" for the electrode. After irradiation, the strong applied electric field nearly eliminates the region. The TCAD simulations have shown that wide p-stop and large Si-SiO2 interface charge (inversion layer, specifically) act to shield the weighting potential. The pixel sensor of the old design irradiated by γ-rays at 2.4 MGy is confirmed to exhibit only a slight efficiency loss at the boundary.

  6. A questionnaire study to derive information on the working environment, clinical training, use of ancillary staff and optimization of patient radiation dose within UK dental practice.

    PubMed

    Orafi, I; Rushton, V E

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the working environment of GDPs and Endodontists and the methods used to optimize patient radiation dose. A total of 857 GDPs and 170 specialist Endodontists were contacted. The responders, 603 of the former and 132 of the latter, completed a questionnaire covering practitioner demographics, pattern of practice, the use of radiographic techniques and the optimization of dose. Chi-squared tests were used to compare groups at the P=0.05 level of significance. For nonparametric data, the Mann-Whitney U-test was employed. A response rate of 73% was achieved. Overall, 79.5% of endodontic specialists used film holders compared with 65.9% of GDPs (P=0.001). One hundred and thirty (98.5%) endodontists and 581 (96.3%) GDPs reported that they were well prepared or adequately prepared in radiographically assessing the presence of apical pathosis. The study found significant differences (P<0.001) between the use of digital radiography by specialist endodontists 93 (70.5%) compared with general dental practitioners 167 (27.7%). Significant differences (P=0.004) were also observed in the use of rectangular collimation between endodontic specialists 55 (42%) and GDPs 223 (37%). With regard to the use of film holders in diagnostic radiography, 105 (79.5%) of endodontic specialists employed these devices compared with 396 (65.7%) GDPs; this finding was significant (P=0.005). For working length estimation, significant differences (P=0.001) were noted in the use of a film holder between endodontic specialists 105 (79.5%) and GDPs 386 (64%). Both Endodontists and GDPs demonstrated compliance with guidelines relating to radiation protection being more significant amongst those clinicians working within specialist clinical practice. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    Micrograys are unit of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. The vertical axis is in micrograys per day. The RAD instrument on NASA Curiosity Mars rover monitors the natural radiation environment at the surface of Mars.

  8. Inspecting Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    A technician inspects the special radiation vault being installed atop the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft; the vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  9. Protecting Juno Electronics from Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians installed the special radiation vault for NASA Juno spacecraft on the propulsion module. The radiation vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  10. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

  11. Radiating despite a Lack of Character: Ecological Divergence among Closely Related, Morphologically Similar Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) Co-occurring in Arid Australian Environments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eliot T; Wagner, Sarah K; Harmon, Luke J; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent. We found that morphology explained 37% of the variance in ecology (and 62% vice versa), and we uncovered well-known bivariate relationships among the multivariate ecomorphological data. Ecological trait diversity declined less rapidly than phylogenetic diversity along a gradient of decreasing precipitation. We employ a new method (trait fields) and extend another (phylogenetic fields) to show that while species in phylogenetically clustered, arid-environment assemblages are similar morphologically, they are as varied in foraging behavior as those from more diverse assemblages. Thus, although closely related and similar morphologically, these arid-adapted species have diverged in ecological space to a similar degree as their mesic counterparts.

  12. A study of the effect on a typical orbiter payload thermal environment resulting from specular reflections from the forward orbiter radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, R.; Turner, L.; Littles, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The orbiter radiator external coating is highly specular silverized Teflon. Solar energy specularly reflected from these radiators on a typical payload which, when deployed, extends above the payload bay envelope was studied. The flux levels are compared assuming both diffuse and specular radiators.

  13. Curiosity First Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-08

    Like a human working in a radiation environment, NASA Curiosity rover carries its own version of a dosimeter to measure radiation from outer space and the sun. This graphic shows the flux of radiation detected the rover Radiation Assessment Detector.

  14. Orbiter Avionics Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon D.

    1999-01-01

    This handbook was assembled to document he radiation environment for design of Orbiter avionics. It also maps the environment through vehicle shielding and mission usage into discrete requirements such as total dose. Some details of analytical techniques for calculating radiation effects are provided. It is anticipated that appropriate portions of this document will be added to formal program specifications.

  15. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets around Lowmass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya

    Seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). JWST will characterize HZ M dwarf planets and attempt the first spectroscopic search for life beyond the Solar System. Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The UV flux emitted during the super-luminous premain sequence phase of M stars drives water loss and photochemical O2 buildup for terrestrial planets within the HZ. This phase can persist for up to a billion years for the lowest mass M stars. Afterwards, UV-driven photochemistry during the main sequence phase strongly affects a planet’s atmosphere, could limit the planet’s potential for habitability, and may confuse studies of habitability by creating false chemical biosignatures. Our proposed CubeSat observatory will be the first mission to provide the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. These measurements are crucial to interpreting observations of planetary atmospheres around low-mass stars. Mission: The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to monitoring 25 M stars in two UV bands: SPARCS far-UV (S- FUV: 153–171 nm) and SPARCS near-UV (S-NUV: 260– 300 nm). For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously between one and three complete stellar rotations (4–45 days) over a mission lifetime of 2 years. A UV characterization survey of M dwarfs, the most common of planet hosts, is a perfect experiment for a CubeSat: - UV astronomy cannot be done from the ground because of Earth’s atmospheric absorption

  16. Simulating the Lunar Environment: Partial Weightbearing and High-LET Radiation-Induce Bone Loss and Increase Sclerostin-Positive Osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Macias, B R; Lima, F; Swift, J M; Shirazi-Fard, Y; Greene, E S; Allen, M R; Fluckey, J; Hogan, H A; Braby, L; Wang, Suojin; Bloomfield, S A

    2016-09-01

    Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure. Female BALB/cByJ four-month-old mice were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1 gravity (1G) control; 1G with radiation; G/6 control; and G/6 with radiation. Mice were exposed to either silicon-28 or X-ray radiation. (28)Si radiation (300 MeV/nucleon) was administered at acute doses of 0 (sham), 0.17 and 0.5 Gy, or in three fractionated doses of 0.17 Gy each over seven days. X radiation (250 kV) was administered at acute doses of 0 (sham), 0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy, or in three fractionated doses of 0.33 Gy each over 14 days. Bones were harvested 21 days after the first exposure. Acute 1 Gy X-ray irradiation during G/6, and acute or fractionated 0.5 Gy (28)Si irradiation during 1G resulted in significantly lower cancellous mass [percentage bone volume/total volume (%BV/TV), by microcomputed tomography]. In addition, G/6 significantly reduced %BV/TV compared to 1G controls. When acute X-ray irradiation was combined with G/6, distal femur %BV/TV was significantly lower compared to G/6 control. Fractionated X-ray irradiation during G/6 protected against radiation-induced losses in %BV/TV and trabecular number, while fractionated (28)Si irradiation during 1G exacerbated the effects compared to single-dose exposure. Impaired bone formation capacity, measured by percentage mineralizing surface, can partially explain the lower cortical bone thickness. Moreover, both partial weightbearing and (28)Si-ion exposure contribute to a higher proportion of

  17. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Dose Calculator Use the Radiation ... the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) Radiation Protection Radiation Sources and Doses Calculate Your Radiation Dose ...

  18. Radiation exposure of air carrier crewmembers II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-01-01

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposur...

  19. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  20. Radiation Hardening of Digital Color CMOS Camera-on-a-Chip Building Blocks for Multi-MGy Total Ionizing Dose Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goiffon, Vincent; Rolando, Sébastien; Corbière, Franck; Rizzolo, Serena; Chabane, Aziouz; Girard, Sylvain; Baer, Jérémy; Estribeau, Magali; Magnan, Pierre; Paillet, Philippe; Van Uffelen, Marco; Mont Casellas, Laura; Scott, Robin; Gaillardin, Marc; Marcandella, Claude; Marcelot, Olivier; Allanche, Timothé

    2017-01-01

    The Total Ionizing Dose (TID) hardness of digital color Camera-on-a-Chip (CoC) building blocks is explored in the Multi-MGy range using 60Co gamma-ray irradiations. The performances of the following CoC subcomponents are studied: radiation hardened (RH) pixel and photodiode designs, RH readout chain, Color Filter Arrays (CFA) and column RH Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC). Several radiation hardness improvements are reported (on the readout chain and on dark current). CFAs and ADCs degradations appear to be very weak at the maximum TID of 6 MGy(SiO2), 600 Mrad. In the end, this study demonstrates the feasibility of a MGy rad-hard CMOS color digital camera-on-a-chip, illustrated by a color image captured after 6 MGy(SiO2) with no obvious degradation. An original dark current reduction mechanism in irradiated CMOS Image Sensors is also reported and discussed.

  1. Status of LDEF radiation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

  2. Why Space is Unique? The Basic Environment Challenges for EEE Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation includes an introduction the space radiation environment, the effects on electronics, the environment in action, flight projects, mission needs, and radiation hardness assurance (RHA).

  3. Nuclear radiation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knies, R. J.; Byrn, N. R.; Smith, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study program of radiation shielding against the deleterious effects of nuclear radiation on man and equipment is reported. The methods used to analyze the radiation environment from bremsstrahlung photons are discussed along with the methods employed by transport code users. The theory and numerical methods used to solve transport of neutrons and gammas are described, and the neutron and cosmic fluxes that would be present on the gamma-ray telescope were analyzed.

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  6. Radiation transport calculations for cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Sato, T

    2012-01-01

    The radiation environment inside and near spacecraft consists of various components of primary radiation in space and secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the primary radiation with the walls and equipment of the spacecraft. Radiation fields inside astronauts are different from those outside them, because of the body's self-shielding as well as the nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring in the human body. Several computer codes have been developed to simulate the physical processes of the coupled transport of protons, high-charge and high-energy nuclei, and the secondary radiation produced in atomic and nuclear collision processes in matter. These computer codes have been used in various space radiation protection applications: shielding design for spacecraft and planetary habitats, simulation of instrument and detector responses, analysis of absorbed doses and quality factors in organs and tissues, and study of biological effects. This paper focuses on the methods and computer codes used for radiation transport calculations on cosmic radiation, and their application to the analysis of radiation fields inside spacecraft, evaluation of organ doses in the human body, and calculation of dose conversion coefficients using the reference phantoms defined in ICRP Publication 110. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1986-10-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showingmore » a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.« less

  8. Inner Radiation Belt Representation of the Energetic Electron Environment: Model and Data Synthesis Using the Salammbo Radiation Belt Transport Code and Los Alamos Geosynchronous and GPS Energetic Particle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedel, R. H. W.; Bourdarie, S.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Cayton, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    The highly energetic electron environment in the inner magnetosphere (GEO inward) has received a lot of research attention in resent years, as the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration and transport are not yet fully understood. These electrons can cause deep dielectric charging in any space hardware in the MEO to GEO region. We use a new and novel approach to obtain a global representation of the inner magnetospheric energetic electron environment, which can reproduce the absolute environment (flux) for any spacecraft orbit in that region to within a factor of 2 for the energy range of 100 KeV to 5 MeV electrons, for any levels of magnetospheric activity. We combine the extensive set of inner magnetospheric energetic electron observations available at Los Alamos with the physics based Salammbo transport code, using the data assimilation technique of "nudging". This in effect input in-situ data into the code and allows the diffusion mechanisms in the code to interpolate the data into regions and times of no data availability. We present here details of the methods used, both in the data assimilation process and in the necessary inter-calibration of the input data used. We will present sample runs of the model/data code and compare the results to test spacecraft data not used in the data assimilation process.

  9. SiC vs. Si for High Radiation Environments: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Commercial silicon carbide and silicon Schottky barrier power diodes have been subjected to 203 MeV proton irradiation and the effects of the resultant displacement damage on the I-V characteristics have been observed. Changes in forward bias I-V characteristics are reported for fluences up to 4 x 10(exp 14) p/cm2. For devices of both material types, the series resistance is observed to increase as the fluence increases. The changes in series resistance result from changes in the free carrier concentration due to carrier removal by the defects produced. A simple model is presented that allows calculation of the series resistance of the device and then relates the carrier removal rate to the changes in series resistance. Using this model to calculate the carrier removal rate in both materials reveals that the carrier removal rate in silicon is less than that in silicon carbide, indicating that silicon is the more radiation tolerant material.

  10. Daily reference crop evapotranspiration with reduced data sets in the humid environments of Azores islands using estimates of actual vapor pressure, solar radiation, and wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, P.; Fontes, J. C.; Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2017-11-01

    Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) estimations using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (PM-ETo) require a set of weather data including maximum and minimum air temperatures (T max, T min), actual vapor pressure (e a), solar radiation (R s), and wind speed (u 2). However, those data are often not available, or data sets are incomplete due to missing values. A set of procedures were proposed in FAO56 (Allen et al. 1998) to overcome these limitations, and which accuracy for estimating daily ETo in the humid climate of Azores islands is assessed in this study. Results show that after locally and seasonally calibrating the temperature adjustment factor a d used for dew point temperature (T dew) computation from mean temperature, ETo estimations shown small bias and small RMSE ranging from 0.15 to 0.53 mm day-1. When R s data are missing, their estimation from the temperature difference (T max-T min), using a locally and seasonal calibrated radiation adjustment coefficient (k Rs), yielded highly accurate ETo estimates, with RMSE averaging 0.41 mm day-1 and ranging from 0.33 to 0.58 mm day-1. If wind speed observations are missing, the use of the default u 2 = 2 m s-1, or 3 m s-1 in case of weather measurements over clipped grass in airports, revealed appropriated even for the windy locations (u 2 > 4 m s-1), with RMSE < 0.36 mm day-1. The appropriateness of procedure to estimating the missing values of e a, R s, and u 2 was confirmed.

  11. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  12. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  13. [Effect of radioactive, toxic, and combined radiation and toxic pollution of the environment on the incidence of malignant neoplasms in children of the Briansk region].

    PubMed

    Korsakov, A V; Troshin, V P; Mikhalev, V P

    2012-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the frequency of incidence of all forms of primary malignant tumors in the child population over the fourteen-year period (1995-2008.) is presented. Evaluation was carried out in ecologically unfavorable territories of the Bryansk region with varying density of radioactive (from 28.1 to 661.9 kBq/m2 for 137Cs), toxic (from 1.47 to 183.6 kg/person/year for gaseous toxic substances) and combined environment pollution. Statistically significant differences of incidence of malignant neoplasms in children in ecologically unfavorable areas have been established.

  14. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  15. STUDY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAJPUR REGION OF UTTARAKHAND HIMALAYA.

    PubMed

    Kandari, Tushar; Aswal, Sunita; Prasad, Mukesh; Pant, Preeti; Bourai, A A; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in the Rajpur region of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India by using LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector-based time-integrated techniques. The gas concentrations have been measured by single-entry pin-hole dosemeter technique, while for the progeny concentrations, deposition-based Direct Thoron and Radon Progeny Sensor technique has been used. The radiation doses due to the inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny have also been determined by using obtained concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny in the study area. The average radon concentration varies from 75 to 123 Bq m -3 with an overall average of 89 Bq m -3 The average thoron concentration varies from 29 to 55 Bq m -3 with an overall average of 38 Bq m -3 The total annual effective dose received due to radon, thoron and their progeny varies from 2.4 to 4.1 mSv y -1 with an average of 2.9 mSv y -1 While the average equilibrium factor for radon and its progeny was found to be 0.39, for thoron and its progeny, it was 0.06. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of Target Fragmentation on Evaluation of LET Spectra From Space Radiation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Environment: Impact on SEU Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

  17. The U.S. Department of Energy's Regulatory and Evaluation Framework for Demonstrating Radiation Protection of the Environment: Implementation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Tiller, Brett L.; Domotor, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Abstract. In 2001, a multi-agency study was conducted to characterize potential environmental effects from radiological and chemical contaminants on the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. Historically, the 300 Area was the location of nuclear fuel fabrication and was the main location for research and development activities from the 1940s until the late 1980s. During past waste handling practices uranium, copper, and other heavy metals were routed to liquid waste streams and ponds near the Columbia River shoreline. The Washington State Department of Health and the Pacific Northwestmore » National Laboratory’s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project sampled various environmental components including river water, riverbank spring water, sediment, fishes, crustaceans, bivalve mollusks, aquatic insects, riparian vegetation, small mammals, and terrestrial invertebrates for analyses of radiological and chemical constituents. The radiological analysis results for water and sediment were used as initial input into the RESRAD BIOTA. The RESRAD BIOTA code showed that maximum radionuclide concentrations measured in water and sediment were lower than the initial screening criteria for concentrations to produce dose rates at existing or proposed limits. Radionuclide concentrations measured in biota samples were used to calculate site-specific bioaccumulation coefficients (Biv) to test the utility of the RESRAD BIOTA’s site-specific screening phase. To further evaluate site-specific effects, the default Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for internal alpha particle emissions was reduced by half and the program’s kinetic/allometric calculation approach was initiated. The subsequent calculations showed the initial RESRAD BIOTA results to be conservative, which is appropriate for screening purposes.« less

  18. Radiation Assessment Detector for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    The Radiation Assessment Detector, shown prior to its September 2010 installation onto NASA Mars rover Curiosity, will aid future human missions to Mars by providing information about the radiation environment on Mars and on the way to Mars.

  19. Advanced Multifunctional MMOD Shield: Radiation Shielding Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Christiansen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions must contend with a harsh radiation environment Impacts to crew and electronics. Need to invest in multifunctionality for spacecraft optimization. MMOD shield. Goals: Increase radiation mitigation potential. Retain overall MMOD shielding performance.

  20. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  1. Ionizing Radiation: The issue of radiation quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prise, Kevin; Schettino, Giuseppe

    Types of Ionising radiations are differentiated from each other by fundamental characteristics of their energy deposition patterns when they interact with biological materials. At the level of the DNA these non-random patterns drive differences in the yields and distributions of DNA damage patterns and specifically the production of clustered damage or complex lesions. The complex radiation fields found in space bring significant challenges for developing a mechanistic understanding of radiation effects from the perspective of radiation quality as these consist of a diverse range of particle and energy types unique to the space environment. Linear energy transfer, energy deposited per unit track length in units of keV per micron, has long been used as a comparator for different types of radiation but has limitations in that it is an average value. Difference in primary core ionizations relative to secondary delta ray ranges vary significantly with particle mass and energy leading to complex interrelationships with damage production at the cellular level. At the cellular level a greater mechanistic understanding is necessary, linking energy deposition patterns to DNA damage patterns and cellular response, to build appropriate biophysical models that are predictive for different radiation qualities and mixed field exposures. Defined studies using monoenergetic beams delivered under controlled conditions are building quantitative data sets of both initial and long term changes in cells as a basis for a great mechanistic understanding of radiation quality effects of relevance to not only space exposures but clinical application of ion-beams.

  2. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  3. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Solar cell theory cells are manufactured, and how they are modeled mathematically is reviewed. The interaction of energetic charged particle radiation with solar cells is discussed in detail and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Finally, an extensive body of data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence is presented.

  4. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF-1 results from the particle astrophysics, radiation environments, and dosimetry measurements on LDEF-1 are summarized, including highlights from presentations at the 2nd symposium. Progress in using LDEF data to improve radiation environment models and calculation methods is reviewed. Radiation effects, or the lack thereof are discussed. Future plans of the LDEF Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group are presented.

  5. The Problems of Human Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Presented is a summary of considerations Specialized Agencies within the United Nations have given to the problems of the human environment. Uppermost are the problems of pollution--air, water, noise, marine, radiation, food, pesticide--as well as those of economic and social concern, environmental health, and misuse of the environment. Agencies…

  6. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  7. FPGAs in Space Environment and Design Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) in the space environment and design techniques. Details are given on the effects of the space radiation environment, total radiation dose, single event upset, single event latchup, single event transient, antifuse technology and gate rupture, proton upsets and sensitivity, and loss of functionality.

  8. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  9. The earth's trapped radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    The near-earth charged particle environment is discussed in terms of spacecraft design criteria. Models are presented of the trapped radiation belts and based on in-situ data obtained from spacecraft.

  10. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Been, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  11. Measurement of Optical Radiations in Spacecraft Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    intended to test the Critical Ionization Velocity hypothesis, and thus could result in structured ion clouds), outgas contamination, and recombination...scene radiances from computer models of the exhaust and outgassing (such as the CHARM code), we are using the simple distribution of outgas applied...OH (A, v = 0) -> OH (X, v = 0) + hv (X = 3064 A [+-40 -0 A]). Our overall conclusion is, that water outgas rates greater than roughly I milligram per

  12. Assurance Against Radiation Effects on Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: The Space Radiation Environment. The Effects on Electronics. The Environment in Action. NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics: the mission mix, flight projects, and proactive research. Final Thoughts: atomic interactions, direct ionization, interaction with nucleus.

  13. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How