Science.gov

Sample records for earth-orbiting space shuttle

  1. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 5: Space shuttle payloads: Safety requirements and guidelines on-orbit phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety requirements and guidelines are listed for the sortie module, upper stage vehicle, and space station for the earth orbit operations of the space shuttle program. The requirements and guidelines are for vehicle design, safety devices, warning devices, operational procedures, and residual hazards.

  2. Aboard the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, astronaut Charles J. Brady,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Aboard the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, astronaut Charles J. Brady, mission specialist and a licensed amateur radio operator or ham, talks to students on Earth. Some of the crew members devoted some of their off-duty time to continue a long-standing Shuttle tradition of communicating with students and other hams between their shifts of assigned duty. Brady joined four other NASA astronauts and two international payload specialists for almost 17-days of research in support of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) mission.

  3. Reaction of metals in lower earth orbit during Space Shuttle flight 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T., Jr.; Daneshvar, K.; Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of ambient space environment on metals were studied by exposing specimens of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Cr, Al, Pt, and Pd on flight 41-G (STS-17). Data obtained by ellipsometry (ELL), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) before and after flight are summarized. Although the effects of space environment were most pronounced for silver, there were significant changes in the surface properties of the majority of the other metals. The surface optical constants proved to be the most sensitive measure of surface changes. These changes are attributed to the interaction of the metals with atomic oxygen.

  4. Earth Orbital Science, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is part of the "Space in the Seventies" series and reviews the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) earth orbital scientific research programs in progress and those to be pursued in the coming decade. Research in space physics is described in Part One in these areas: interplanetary monitoring platforms, small…

  5. Earth-orbit mission considerations and Space Tug requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The reusable Space Tug is a major system planned to augment the Space Shuttle's capability to deliver, retrieve, and support automated payloads. The Space Tug will be designed to perform round-trip missions from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Space Tug goals and requirements are discussed together with the characteristics of the full capability Tug. The Tug is to be operated in an unmanned 'teleoperator' fashion. Details of potential teleoperator applications are considered, giving attention to related systems studies, candidate Tug mission applications, Tug 'end-effector' alternatives, technical issues associated with Tug payload retrieval, and Tug/payload accommodations.

  6. Artist's concept of Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-10-01

    S71-52192 (1971) --- An artist's concept of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth's orbit. The cutaway view shows astronaut activity in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The Skylab cluster is composed of the OWS, Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), and the Command and Service Module (CSM). Photo credit: NASA

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-01

    The free-flying Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E (TDRS-E), still attached to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), was photographed by one of the crewmembers during the STS-43 mission. The TDRS-E was boosted by the IUS into geosynchronous orbit and positioned to remain stationary 22,400 miles above the Pacific Ocean southwest of Hawaii. The TDRS system provides almost uninterrupted communications with Earth-orbiting Shuttles and satellites, and had replaced the intermittent coverage provided by globe-encircling ground tracking stations used during the early space program. The TDRS can transmit and receive data, and track a user spacecraft in a low Earth orbit. The IUS is an unmarned transportation system designed to ferry payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits that are unattainable by the Shuttle. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-43 mission was launched on August 2, 1991.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-01

    The primary payload of the STS-43 mission, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E (TDRS-E) attached to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) was photographed at the moment of its release from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. The TDRS-E was boosted by the IUS into geosynchronous orbit and positioned to remain stationary 22,400 miles above the Pacific Ocean southwest of Hawaii. The TDRS system provides almost uninterrupted communications with Earth-orbiting Shuttles and satellites, and had replaced the intermittent coverage provided by globe-encircling ground tracking stations used during the early space program. The TDRS can transmit and receive data, and track a user spacecraft in a low Earth orbit. The IUS is an unmarned transportation system designed to ferry payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits that are unattainable by the Shuttle. The launch of STS-43 occurred on August 2, 1991.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-01-01

    This artist's concept drawing depicts the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-C (TDRS-C), which was the primary payload of the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-26 mission, launched on September 29, 1988. The TDRS system provides almost uninterrupted communications with Earth-orbiting Shuttles and satellites, and had replaced the intermittent coverage provided by globe-encircling ground tracking stations used during the early space program. The TDRS can transmit and receive data, and track a user spacecraft in a low Earth orbit. The deployment of TDRS-G on the STS-70 mission being the latest in the series, NASA has successfully launched six TDRSs.

  10. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-08-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment.

  11. Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

  12. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery en route to Earth orbit for NASA's 51-A mission is reminiscent of a soaring Eagle. The red and white trailing stripes and the blue background, along with the presence of the Eagle, generate memories of America's 208 year-old history and traditions. The two satellites orbiting the Earth backgrounded amidst a celestial scene are a universal representation of the versatility of the Space Shuttle. White lettering against the blue border lists the surnames of the five-member crew.

  15. Space tourism: from earth orbit to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P.

    Travel to and from the lunar surface has been known to be feasible since it was first achieved 34 years ago. Since that time there has been enormous progress in related engineering fields such as rocket propulsion, materials and avionics, and about 1 billion has been spent on lunar science and engineering research. Consequently there are no fundamental technical problems facing the development of lunar tourism - only business and investment problems. The outstanding problem is to reduce the cost of launch to low Earth orbit. Recently there has been major progress towards overturning the myth that launch costs are high because of physical limits. Several "X Prize" competitor vehicles currently in test-flight are expected to be able to perform sub-orbital flights at approximately 1/1,000 of the cost of Alan Shepard's similar flight in 1961. This activity could have started 30 years ago if space agencies had had economic rather than political objectives. A further encouraging factor is that the demand for space tourism seems potentially limitless. Starting with sub-orbital flights and growing through orbital activities, travel to the Moon will offer further unique attractions. In every human culture there is immense interest in the Moon arising from millennia of myths. In addition, bird-like flying sports, first described by Robert Heinlein, will become another powerful demand factor. Roundtrips of 1 to 2 weeks are very convenient for travel companies; and the radiation environment will permit visitors several days of surface activity without significant health risks. The paper also discusses economic aspects of lunar tourism, including the benefits it will have for those on Earth. Lunar economic development based on tourism will have much in common with economic development on Earth based on tourism: starting from the fact that many people spontaneously wish to visit popular places, companies in the tourism industry invest to sell a growing range of services to ever

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-13

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-66 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to study global environmental change. The payload for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) and complementary experiments were part of a continuing study of the atmosphere and the Sun's influence on it. The Space Shuttle is trailed by gold plumes representing the astronaut symbol and is superimposed over Earth, much of which is visible from the flight's high inclination orbit. Sensitive instruments aboard the ATLAS pallet in the Shuttle payload bay and on the free-flying Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmospheric-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CHRISTA-SPAS) that gazed down on Earth and toward the Sun, are illustrated by the stylized sunrise and visible spectrum.

  17. A low Earth orbit molecular beam space simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief synopsis of the low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite environment is presented including neutral and ionic species. Two ground based atomic and molecular beam instruments are described which are capable of simulating the interaction of spacecraft surfaces with the LEO environment and detecting the results of these interactions. The first detects mass spectrometrically low level fluxes of reactively and nonreactively surface scattered species as a function of scattering angle and velocity while the second ultrahigh velocity (UHV) molecular beam, laser induced fluorescence apparatus is capable of measuring chemiluminescence produced by either gas phase or gas-surface interactions. A number of proposed experiments are described.

  18. The Space Shuttle Program and Its Support for Space Bioresearch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, J. A.; Heberlig, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aimed at not only providing low cost transportation to and from near earth orbit, but also to conduct important biological research. Fields of research identified include gravitational biology, biological rhythms, and radiation biology. (PS)

  19. Degradation mechanisms of materials for large space systems in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, William L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Degradation was explored of various materials used in aerospace vehicles after severe loss of polymeric material coatings (Kapton) was observed on an early shuttle flight in low Earth orbit. Since atomic oxygen is the major component of the atmosphere at 300 km, and the shuttle's orbital velocity produced relative motion corresponding to approx. 5 eV of oxygen energy, it was natural to attribute much of this degradation to oxygen interaction. This assumption was tested using large volume vacuum systems and ion beam sources, in an exploratory effort to produce atomic oxygen of the appropriate energy, and to observe mass loss from various samples as well as optical radiation. Several investigations were initiated and the results of these investigations are presented in four papers. These papers are summarized. They are entitled: (1) The Space Shuttle Glow; (2) Laboratory Degradation of Kapton in a Low Energy Oxygen Ion Beam; (3) The Energy Dependence and Surface Morphology of Kapton Degradation Under Atomic Oxygen Bombardment; and (4) Surface Analysis of STS 8 Samples.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  2. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  3. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-22

    The Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-52) thunders off Launch Pad 39B, embarking on a 10-day flight and carrying a crew of six who will deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite II (LAGEOS). LAGEOS is a spherical passive satellite covered with reflectors which are illuminated by ground-based lasers to determine precise measurements of the Earth's crustal movements. The other major payload on this mission is the United States Microgravity Payload 1 (USMP-1), where experiments will be conducted by crew members while in low earth orbit (LEO).

  4. Space shuttle. [a transportation system for low orbit space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The space shuttle is discussed as a reusable space vehicle operated as a transportation system for space missions in low earth orbit. Space shuttle studies and operational capabilities are reported for potential missions indicating that about 38 percent are likely to be spacelab missions with the remainder being the replacement, revisit, or retrieval of automated spacecraft.

  5. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  6. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on Space Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckernor, Miria M.; Gitlemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation erode and embrittle most polymeric materials. This research was designed to test several different materials and coatings under consideration for their application to space tethers, for resistance to these effects. The samples were vacuum dehydrated, weighed and then exposed to various levels of AO or UV radiation at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. They were then re-weighed to determine mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion, inspected for damage and tensile tested to determine strength loss. The experiments determined that the Photosil coating process, while affording some protection, damaged the tether materials worse than the AO exposure. TOR-LM also failed to fully protect the materials, especially from UV radiation. The POSS and nickel coatings did provide some protection to the tethers, which survived the entire test regime. M5 was tested, uncoated, and survived AO exposure, though its brittleness prevented any tensile testing.

  7. Rings of earth. [orbiting bands of space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard M.; Randolph, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Small particles moving at an orbital velocity of 7.6 kilometers per second can present a considerable hazard to human activity in space. For astronauts outside of the protective shielding of their space vehicles, such particles can be lethal. The powerful radar at NASA's Goldstone Deep Communications Complex was used to monitor such orbital debris. This radar can detect metallic objects as small as 1.8 mm in diameter at 600 km altitude. The results of the preliminary survey show a flux (at 600 km altitude) of 6.4 objects per square kilometer per day of equivalent size of 1.8 mm or larger. Forty percent of the observed particles appear to be concentrated into two orbits. An orbital ring with the same inclination as the radar (35.1 degrees) is suggested. However, an orbital band with a much higher inclination (66 degrees) is also a possibility.

  8. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  9. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-24

    A crewmember aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-46) used a 70mm handheld camera to capture this medium closeup view of early operations with the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). TSS-1 is being deployed from its boom as it is perched above the cargo bay of the Earth-orbiting Shuttle circling the Earth at an altitude of 296 kilometers (184 miles), the TSS-1 will be well within the tenuous, electrically charged layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. There, a satellite attached to the orbiter by a thin conducting cord, or tether, will be reeled from the Shuttle payload bay. On this mission the satellite was plarned to be deployed 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) above the Shuttle. The conducting tether will generate high voltage and electrical currents as it moves through the atmosphere allowing scientists to examine the electrodynamics of a conducting tether system. These studies will not only increase our understanding of physical processes in the near-Earth space environment, but will also help provide an explanation for events witnessed elsewhere in the solar system. The crew of the STS-46 mission were unable to reel the satellite as planned. After several unsuccessful attempts, they were only able to extend the satellite 9.8 kilometers (6.1 miles). The TSS was a cooperative development effort by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and NASA.

  10. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-03

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with its normal routine temporarily interrupted, is about to be captured by the Space Shuttle Columbia prior to a week of servicing and upgrading by the STS-109 crew. The telescope was captured by the shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 space walks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. Launched March 1, 2002, the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Space as a Tool for Astrobiology: Review and Recommendations for Experimentations in Earth Orbit and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Billi, Daniela; Cockell, Charles; Demets, René; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; d'Hendecourt, Louis; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Martins, Zita; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard C.; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Westall, Frances; Carrasco, Nathalie; Fresneau, Aurélien; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Kebukawa, Yoko; Nguyen, Dara; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Stalport, Fabien; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Klamm, Benjamin A.

    2017-07-01

    The space environment is regularly used for experiments addressing astrobiology research goals. The specific conditions prevailing in Earth orbit and beyond, notably the radiative environment (photons and energetic particles) and the possibility to conduct long-duration measurements, have been the main motivations for developing experimental concepts to expose chemical or biological samples to outer space, or to use the reentry of a spacecraft on Earth to simulate the fall of a meteorite. This paper represents an overview of past and current research in astrobiology conducted in Earth orbit and beyond, with a special focus on ESA missions such as Biopan, STONE (on Russian FOTON capsules) and EXPOSE facilities (outside the International Space Station). The future of exposure platforms is discussed, notably how they can be improved for better science return, and how to incorporate the use of small satellites such as those built in cubesat format.

  13. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-24

    This STS-46 onboard photo is of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) being deployed from its boom as it is perched above the cargo bay of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. Circling the Earth at an altitude of 296 kilometers (184 miles), the TSS-1 will be well within the tenuous, electrically charged layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. There, a satellite attached to the orbiter by a thin conducting cord, or tether, will be reeled from the Shuttle payload bay. On this mission the satellite was plarned to be deployed 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) above the Shuttle. The conducting tether will generate high voltage and electrical currents as it moves through the atmosphere allowing scientists to examine the electrodynamics of a conducting tether system. These studies will not only increase our understanding of physical processes in the near-Earth space environment, but will also help provide an explanation for events witnessed elsewhere in the solar system. The crew of the STS-46 mission were unable to reel the satellite as planned. After several unsuccessful attempts, they were only able to extend the satellite 9.8 kilometers (6.1 miles). The TSS was a cooperative development effort by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and NASA.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    The STS-109 crew of seven waved to onlookers as they emerged from the Operations and Checkout Buildings at Kennedy Space Flight Center eager to get to the launch pad to embark upon the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia's 27th flight into space. Crew members included, from front to back, Duane G. Carey (left) and Scott D. Altman (right); Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist; John M. Grunsfield (left), payload commander, and Richard M. Linneham (right); James H. Newman (left) and Michael J. Massimino (right), all mission specialists. Launched March 1, 2002, the goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By using Columbia's robotic arm, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where four members of the crew performed five spacewalks to complete system upgrades to the HST. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-11

    On the Space Shuttle Columbia's mid deck, the STS-109 crew of seven pose for the traditional in-flight portrait. From the left (front row), are astronauts Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist; Scott D. Altman, mission commander; and Duane G. Carey, pilot. Pictured on the back row from left to right are astronauts John M. Grunsfield, payload commander; and Richard M. Lirneham, James H. Newman, and Michael J. Massimino, all mission specialists. The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the STS-109 mission launched March 1, 2002, and lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. The goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Using Columbia's robotic arm, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where four members of the crew performed five space walks to complete system upgrades to the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-08

    After five days of service and upgrade work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the STS-109 crew photographed the giant telescope in the shuttle's cargo bay. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 space walks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. Launched March 1, 2002, the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  19. View of Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit from CSM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-08

    SL4-143-4707 (8 Feb. 1974) --- An overhead view of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit as photographed from the Skylab 4 Command and Service Modules (CSM) during the final fly-around by the CSM before returning home. The space station is contrasted against a cloud-covered Earth. Note the solar shield which was deployed by the second crew of Skylab and from which a micrometeoroid shield has been missing since the cluster was launched on May 14, 1973. The OWS solar panel on the left side was also lost on workshop launch day. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  1. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary Space Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of Space Base technologists.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was designed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the performance of spacecraft materials, components, and systems that have been exposed to the environment of micrometeoroids and space debris for an extended period of time. The LDEF proved invaluable to the development of future spacecraft and the International Space Station (ISS). The LDEF carried 57 science and technology experiments, the work of more than 200 investigators. MSFC`s experiments included: Trapped Proton Energy Determination to determine protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field and the impact of radiation particles; Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum Measurement Experiment which measures the linear energy transfer spectrum behind different shielding configurations; Atomic oxygen-Simulated Out-gassing, an experiment that exposes thermal control surfaces to atomic oxygen to measure the damaging out-gassed products; Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the shuttle induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces; Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe Experiment, to evaluate the zero-gravity performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules and their ability to transport large quantities of heat; Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment to examine the effects of space on mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of lightweight solar array materials; and the Effects of Solar Radiation on Glasses. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger's STS-41C mission April 6, 1984, the LDEF remained in orbit for five years until January 1990 when it was retrieved by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia STS-32 mission and brought back to Earth for close examination and analysis.

  3. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the technical results and conclusions is presented of the hazards analyses of earth orbital operations in conjunction with the space shuttle program. The space shuttle orbiter and a variety of manned and unmanned payloads delivered to orbit by the shuttle are considered. The specific safety areas examined are hazardous payloads, docking, on-orbit survivability, tumbling spacecraft, and escape and rescue.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    This is the insignia of the STS-109 Space Shuttle mission. Carrying a crew of seven, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was launched with goals of maintenance and upgrades to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. During the STS-109 mission, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm where four members of the crew performed five spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when it original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 27th flight of the Orbiter Columbia and the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    This is an onboard photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power control unit (PCU), the heart of the HST's power system. STS-109 payload commander John M. Grunsfeld, joined by Astronaut Richard M. Lirnehan, turned off the telescope in order to replace its PCU while participating in the third of five spacewalks dedicated to servicing and upgrading the HST. Other upgrades performed were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where crew members completed the system upgrades. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from milli-second pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar lightcurve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  8. Application of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation: A Characterization of the Earth Orbit Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne Hong

    2016-01-01

    The potential for pulsars as a navigation source has been studied since their discovery in 1967. X-ray pulsar navigation (XNAV) is a celestial navigation system that uses the consistent timing nature of x-ray photons from millisecond pulsars (MSP) to perform space navigation. By comparing the detected arrival of x-ray photons to a reference database of expected pulsar light-curve timing models, one can infer a range and range rate measurement based on light time delay. Much of the challenge of XNAV comes from the faint signal, availability, and distant nature of pulsars. This is a study of potential pulsar XNAV measurements to measure extended Kalman filter (EKF) tracking performance with a wide trade space of bounded Earth orbits, using a simulation of existing x-ray detector space hardware. An example of an x-ray detector for XNAV is the NASA Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission, a technology demonstration of XNAV set to perform on the International Space Station (ISS) in late 2016early 2017. XNAV hardware implementation is driven by trajectory and environmental influences which add noise to the x-ray pulse signal. In a closed Earth orbit, the radiation environment can exponentially increase the signal noise from x-ray pulsar sources, decreasing the quality and frequency of measurements. The SEXTANT mission in particular improves on the signal to noise ratio by focusing an array of 56 x-ray silicon drift detectors at one pulsar target at a time. This reduces timing glitches and other timing noise contributions from ambient x-ray sources to within a 100 nanosecond resolution. This study also considers the SEXTANT scheduling challenges inherent in a single target observation. Finally, as the navigation sources are now relatively inertial targets, XNAV measurements are also subject to periods of occultation from various celestial bodies. This study focuses on the characterization of these drivers in closed Earth orbits and is not a

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-03

    This is a photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),in its origianl configuration, berthed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-109 mission silhouetted against the airglow of the Earth's horizon. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    Carrying a crew of seven, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia soared through some pre-dawn clouds into the sky as it began its 27th flight, STS-109. Launched March 1, 2002, the goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. During the STS-109 mission, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm. Here four members of the crew performed five spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when it original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  11. The Lunar Space Tug: A sustainable bridge between low Earth orbits and the Cislunar Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, M.; Paissoni, C. A.; Viola, N.; Denaro, A.; Gargioli, E.; Massobrio, F.

    2017-09-01

    The International Space Station is the first space human outpost and over the last 15 years, it has represented a peculiar environment where science, technology and human innovation converge together in a unique microgravity and space research laboratory. With the International Space Station entering the second part of its life and its operations running steadily at nominal pace, the global space community is starting planning how the human exploration could move further, beyond Low-Earth-Orbit. According to the Global Exploration Roadmap, the Moon represents the next feasible path-way for advances in human exploration towards the nal goal, Mars. Based on the experience of the ISS, one of the most widespread ideas is to develop a Cislunar Station in preparation of long duration missions in a deep space environment. Cislunar space is de ned as the area of deep space under the influence of Earth-Moon system, including a set of special orbits, e.g. Earth-Moon Libration points and Lunar Retrograde Orbit. This habitat represents a suitable environment for demonstrating and testing technologies and capabilities in deep space. In order to achieve this goal, there are several crucial systems and technologies, in particular related to transportation and launch systems. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a reusable transportation capsule designed to provide crew transportation in deep space missions, whereas NASA is developing the Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket ever built, which could provide the necessary heavy-lift launch capability to support the same kind of missions. These innovations would allow quite-fast transfers from Earth to the Cislunar Station and vice versa, both for manned and unmanned missions. However, taking into account the whole Concept of Operations for both the growth and sustainability of the Cislunar Space Station, the Lunar Space Tug can be considered as an additional, new and fundamental element for the mission architecture. The

  12. View of Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit from CSM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-18

    SL4-143-4706 (8 Feb. 1974) --- An overhead view of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit as photographed from the Skylab 4 Command and Service Modules (CSM) during the final fly-around by the CSM before returning home. The space station is contrasted against a cloud-covered Earth. Note the solar shield which was deployed by the second crew of Skylab and from which a micro meteoroid shield has been missing since the cluster was launched on May 14, 1973. The Orbital Workshop (OWS) solar panel on the left side was also lost on workshop launch day. Inside the Command Module (CM) when this picture was made were astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander; scientist-astronaut Edward G. Gibson, science pilot; and astronaut William R. Pogue, pilot. The crew used a 70mm hand-held Hasselblad camera to take this photograph. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  14. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Scott, Graham B I; Sutton, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-11

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other "omics" areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  15. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  16. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine undergoes test-firing at the National Space Technology Laboratories (now the Sternis Space Center) in Mississippi. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Main Engines.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high

  20. Liftoff of STS-62 Space Shuttle Columbia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-04

    STS062-S-053 (4 March 1994) --- Carrying a crew of five veteran NASA astronauts and the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP), the Space Shuttle Columbia heads toward its sixteenth mission in Earth-orbit. Launch occurred at 8:53 a.m. (EST), March 4, 1994. Onboard were astronauts John H. Casper, Andrew M. Allen, Marsha S. Ivins, Charles D. (Sam) Gemar and Pierre J. Thuot.

  1. Simulation of major space particles toward selected materials in a near-equatorial low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, Wayan; Zulkeple, Siti Katrina

    2017-05-01

    A low earth orbit near the equator (LEO-NEqO) is exposed to the highest energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and from trapped protons with a wide range of energies. Moreover, GCR fluxes were seen to be the highest in 2009 to 2010 when communication belonging to the RazakSAT-1 satellite was believed to have been lost. Hence, this study aimed to determine the influence of the space environment toward the operation of LEO-NEqO satellites by investigating the behavior of major space particles toward satellite materials. The space environment was referred to GCR protons and trapped protons. Their fluxes were obtained from the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) and their tracks were simulated through three materials using a simulation program called Geometry and Tracking (Geant4). The materials included aluminum (Al), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si). Then the total ionizing dose (TID) and non-ionizing dose (NIEL) were calculated for a three-year period. Simulations showed that GCR traveled at longer tracks and produced more secondary radiation than trapped protons. Al turned out to receive the lowest total dose, while GaAs showed to be susceptible toward GCR than Si. However, trapped protons contributed the most in spacecraft doses where Si received the highest doses. Finally, the comparison between two Geant4 programs revealed the estimated doses differed at <18%.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-06

    This is an onboard photo of Astronaut John M. Grunsfield, STS-109 payload commander, participating in the third of five spacewalks to perform work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). On this particular walk, Grunsfield, joined by Astronaut Richard M. Lirnehan, turned off the telescope in order to replace its power control unit (PCU), the heart of the HST's power system. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where crew members completed system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  4. International Space Station as a Platform for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has established a new model for the achievement of the most difficult engineering goals in space: international collaboration at the program level with competition at the level of technology. This strategic shift in management approach provides long term program stability while still allowing for the flexible evolution of technology needs and capabilities. Both commercial and government sponsored technology developments are well supported in this management model. ISS also provides a physical platform for development and demonstration of the systems needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. These new systems at the leading edge of technology require operational exercise in the unforgiving environment of space before they can be trusted for long duration missions. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. We will describe representative mission profiles showing how ISS can support exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. Example missions would include humans to lunar surface and return, and humans to Mars orbit as well as Mars surface and return. ISS benefits include: international access from all major launch sites; an assembly location with crew and tools that could help prepare departing expeditions that involve more than one launch; a parking place for reusable vehicles; and the potential to add a propellant depot.

  5. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the world's space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organism's self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as "pathfinders," which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes. In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  6. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the worlds space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organisms self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as pathfinders, which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes.In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  8. A laser-optical system to re-enter or lower low Earth orbit space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2014-01-01

    Collisions among existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. Due to their greater number, small (1-10 cm) debris are the main threat, while large (>10 cm) objects are the main source of new debris. Flying up and interacting with each large object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, and quite expensive per object removed. Strategically, it is imperative to remove both small and large debris. Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LODR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. With 20% clear weather, a laser-optical system at either pole could lower the 8-ton ENVISAT by 40 km in about 8 weeks, reducing the hazard it represents by a factor of four. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a space-based LODR system. We estimate cost per object removed for these systems. International cooperation is essential for designing, building and operating any such system.

  9. Effects of space plasma discharge on the performance of large antenna structures in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Hans-Juergen C.

    1987-01-01

    The anomalous plasma around spacecrafts in low Earth orbit represents the coma of an artificial comet. The plasma discharge is caused by an energetic disturbance of charged particles which were formerly in a state of equilibrium. The plasma can effect the passive and active radio frequency operation of large space antennas by inducing corona discharge or strong arcing in the antenna feeds. One such large space antenna is the 15-meter hoop column antenna which consists of a mesh membrane material (tricot knitted gold plated wire) reflector and carbon fiber tension cords. The atomic oxygen in the plasma discharge state can force the wire base metal particles through the gold lattice and oxydize the metal particles to build a Schottky-barrier contact at the point where the wires meet. This effect can cause strong deviations in the reflector performance in terms of antenna pattern and losses. Also, the carbon-fiber cords can experience a strength reduction of 30 percent over a 40-hour exposure time.

  10. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  11. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  12. A Laser Optical System to Remove Low Earth Orbit Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Baker, Kevin L.; Libby, Stephen B.; Liedahl, Duane A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pleasance, Lyn D.; Rubenchik, Alexander; Nikolaev, Sergey; Trebes, James E.; George, Victor E.; Marrcovici, Bogdan; Valley, Michael T.

    2013-08-01

    Collisions between existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. As solutions, flying up and interacting with each object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, while debris removal systems using blocks of aerogel or gas-filled balloons are prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, these solutions to the debris problem address only large debris, but it is also imperative to remove 10-cm-class debris. In Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), a ground-based pulsed laser makes plasma jets on LEO debris objects, slowing them slightly, and causing them to re-enter the atmosphere and burn up. LODR takes advantage of recent advances in pulsed lasers, large mirrors, nonlinear optics and acquisition systems. LODR is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. International cooperation is essential for building and operating such a system. We also briefly discuss the orbiting laser debris removal alternative.

  13. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  14. Essentials for Team Based Rehearsals and the Differences Between Earth Orbiting and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; Cifuentes, Juan; Wasiak, Francis; Alfonzo, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    The mission readiness environment is where spacecraft and ground systems converge to form the entire as built flight system for the final phase of operationally-themed testing. For most space missions, this phase starts between nine to twelve months prior to the planned launch. In the mission readiness environment, the goal is to perform sufficient testing to exercise the flight teams and systems through all mission phases in order to demonstrate that all elements are ready to support. As part of the maturation process, a mission rehearsal program is introduced to focus on team processes within the final flight system, in a more realistic operational environment. The overall goal for a mission rehearsal program is to: 1) ensure all flight system elements are able to meet mission objectives as a cohesive team; 2) reduce the risk in space based operations due to deficiencies in people, processes, procedures, or systems; and 3) instill confidence in the teams that will execute these first time flight activities. A good rehearsal program ensures critical events are exercised, discovers team or flight system nuances whose impact were previously unknown, and provides a real-time environment in which to interact with the various teams and systems. For flight team members, the rehearsal program provides experience and training in the event of planned (or unplanned) flight contingencies. To preserve the essence for team based rehearsals, this paper will explore the important elements necessary for a successful rehearsal program, document differences driven by Earth Orbiting (Aqua, Aura, Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP)) and Deep Space missions (New Horizons, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN)) and discuss common challenges to both mission types. In addition, large scale program considerations and enhancements or additional steps for developing a rehearsal program will also be considered. For NASA missions, the mission rehearsal phase is a key

  15. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  16. Optical Observation, Image-processing, and Detection of Space Debris in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds (or 5 seconds), and the time interval of CCD shutter open is about 4.7 seconds (or 6.7 seconds). In the line detection method, a sufficient number of sample objects are taken from each image based on their shape and intensity, which includes not only faint signals but also background noise (we take 500 sample objects from each image in this paper). Then we search a sequence of sample objects aligning in a straight line in the successive images to exclude the noise sample. We succeed in detecting faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 15.5 among 5 nights data. We also calculate orbits of objects detected using the Simplified General Perturbations Satellite Orbit Model 4(SGP4), and identify the objects listed in the two-line-element (TLE) data catalogue publicly provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the catalogue. We conclude that our ARO and detection method posse a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing specialized for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  17. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  18. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.; Scheiman, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of post-flight performance testing of the solar cells flown on the Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment are reported. Comparison of post-flight current-voltage characteristics with similar pre-flight data revealed little or no change in solar cell conversion efficiency, confirming the reliability and endurance of space photovoltaic cells. This finding is in agreement with the lack of significant physical changes in the solar cells despite nearly six years in the low Earth orbit environment.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-31

    NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach, left, STS-124 Assistant Launch Director Ed Mango, center, and Flow Director for Space Shuttle Discovery Stephanie Stilson clap in the the Launch Control Center after the main engine cut off and successful launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  1. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  2. A comparison of mutations induced by accelerated iron particles versus those induced by low earth orbit space radiation in the FEM-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, P. S.; Hlavacek, A.; Wilde, H.; Lewicki, D.; Schubert, W.; Kern, R. G.; Kazarians, G. A.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The fem-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to determine the mutation frequency as well as the nature of mutations induced by low earth orbit space radiation ambient to Space Shuttle flight STS-76. Recovered mutations were compared to those induced by accelerated iron ions generated by the AGS synchrotron accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. For logistical reasons, dauer larvae were prepared at TCU, transported to either Kennedy Space Center or Brookhaven National Laboratory, flown in space or irradiated, returned to TCU and screened for mutants. A total of 25 fem-3 mutants were recovered after the shuttle flight and yielded a mutation frequency of 2.1x10(-5), roughly 3.3-fold higher than the spontaneous rate of 6.3x10(-6). Four of the mutations were homozygous inviable, suggesting that they were large deletions encompassing fem-3 as well as neighboring, essential genes. Southern blot analyses revealed that one of the 25 contained a polymorphism in fem-3, further evidence that space radiation can induce deletions. While no polymorphisms were detected among the iron ion-induced mutations, three of the 15 mutants were homozygous inviable, which is in keeping with previous observations that high LET iron particles generate deficiencies. These data provide evidence, albeit indirect, that an important mutagenic component of ambient space radiation is high LET charged particles such as iron ions.

  3. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  4. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  5. Space and Atmospheric Environments: From Low Earth Orbits to Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Natural space and atmospheric environments pose a difficult challenge for designers of technological systems in space. The deleterious effects of environment interactions with the systems include degradation of materials, thermal changes, contamination, excitation, spacecraft glow, charging, radiation damage, and induced background interference. Design accommodations must be realistic with minimum impact on performance while maintaining a balance between cost and risk. The goal of applied research in space environments and effects is to limit environmental impacts at low cost relative to spacecraft cost and to infuse enabling and commercial off-the-shelf technologies into space programs. The need to perform applied research to understand the space environment in a practical sense and to develop methods to mitigate these environment effects is frequently underestimated by space agencies and industry. Applied science research in this area is critical because the complexity of spacecraft systems is increasing, and they are exposed simultaneously to a multitude of space environments.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-24

    The official mission insignia for the 41-D Space Shuttle flight features the Discovery - NASA's third orbital vehicle - as it makes its maiden voyage. The ghost ship represents the orbiter's namesakes which have figured prominently in the history of exploration. The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for new horizons to extend that proud tradition. Surnames for the crewmembers of NASA's eleventh Space Shuttle mission encircle the red, white, and blue scene.

  7. Optical property degradation of anodic coatings in the Space Station low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1992-01-01

    The anodic coatings and optical properties to be used for passive thermal control of the SSF are studied. Particular attention is given to the beginning-of-life optical properties for aluminum alloys suitable for structural and radiator applications, the statistical variation in the beginning-of-life properties, and estimates of the end-of-life properties of the alloys based on ultraviolet radiation testing and flight test results. It is concluded that anodic coatings can be used for thermal control of long life, low earth orbit spacecraft. Some use restrictions are defined for specific cases. Anodic coatings have been selected as baseline thermal control coating for large portions of the SSF.

  8. A low cost automatic detection and ranging system for space surveillance in the medium Earth orbit region and beyond.

    PubMed

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-02-11

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image.

  9. A Low Cost Automatic Detection and Ranging System for Space Surveillance in the Medium Earth Orbit Region and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image. PMID:24521941

  10. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    Spectators watch space shuttle Endeavour as it passes by on its way to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour is seen as it traverses through the streest of Los Angeles on its way to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    Spectators are seen as they watch space shuttle Endeavour as it passes by on its way to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    A spectator photographs the space shuttle Endeavour as it passes by on its way to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    A spectator is seen photographing the space shuttle Endeavour as it is moved to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    A spectator on the roof of a building photographs space shuttle Endeavour as it passes by on its way to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour moves out of the Los Angeles International Airport and onto the streets of Los Angeles to make its way to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour is seen as it traverses through Inglewood, Calif. on Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  19. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-02-01

    This photograph shows an inside view of a liquid hydrogen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.

  2. Investigating fundamental physics and space environment with a dedicated Earth-orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto

    The near-Earth environment is a place of first choice for performing fundamental physics experiments, given its proximity to Earth and at the same time being relatively quiet dynamically for particular orbital arrangements. This environment also sees a rich phenomenology for what concerns gravitation. In fact, the general theory of relativity is an incredibly accurate description of gravitational phenomenology. However, its overall validity is being questioned by the theories that aim at reconciling it with the microscopic domain. Challenges come also from the ‘mysteries’ of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, though mainly at scales from the galactic up to the cosmological. It is therefore important to precisely test the consequences of the theory -- as well as those of competing ones -- at all the accessible scales. At the same time, the development of high-precision experimental space techniques, which are needed for tests in fundamental physics, opens the way to complementary applications. The growth of the (man-made) orbital debris population is creating problems to the future development of space. The year 2009 witnessed the first accidental collision between two satellites in orbit (Iridium and Cosmos) that led to the creation of more debris. International and national agencies are intervening by issuing and/or adopting guidelines to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. A central tenet of these guidelines requires a presence in space shorter than 25 years to satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) after the conclusion of their operational lives. However, the determination of the natural lifetime of a satellite in LEO is very uncertain due to a large extent to the short-term and long-term variability of the atmospheric density in LEO and the comparatively low-accuracy of atmospheric density models. Many satellites orbiting in the 500-1200 km region with circular or elliptical orbits will be hard pressed to establish before flight whether or not they meet the 25

  3. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-31

    NASA Administrator, Michael Griffin watches the launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) from the Launch Control Center Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-01

    In this photograph the SYNCOM IV-3, also known as LEASAT 3, satellite moves away from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. SYNCOM (Hughes Geosynchronous Communication Satellite) provides communication services from geosynchronous orbit, principally to the U.S. Government. The satellite was launched on April 12, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  5. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-15

    On the 500th arniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, replicas of his three ships sailed past the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) while the space shuttle Columbia sat poised for lift off.

  6. Risks from Solar Particle Events for Long Duration Space Missions Outside Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, S.; Myers, J.; Ford, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) simulates the medical occurrences and mission outcomes for various mission profiles using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. As part of the work with the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), this project focuses on radiation risks from acute events during extended human missions outside low Earth orbit (LEO). Of primary importance in acute risk assessment are solar particle events (SPEs), which are low probability, high consequence events that could adversely affect mission outcomes through acute radiation damage to astronauts. SPEs can be further classified into coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares/impulsive events (Fig. 1). CMEs are an eruption of solar material and have shock enhancements that contribute to make these types of events higher in total fluence than impulsive events.

  7. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    Onlookers wearing commemorative t-shirts watch as space shuttle Atlantis rolls to ts new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-12

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  9. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise is lowered onto a transport vehicle after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  10. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise hangs from a sling after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  11. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is seen in the background. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  12. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space Shuttle Discovery mounted atop a 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) approaches the runway for landing at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) taxis in front of the main terminal at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  15. Effect of long-term exposure to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimcik, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained from components and materials from the Solar Maximum Mission satellite are presented and compared to data for similar materials obtained from the Advanced Composite Materials Exposure to Space Experiment (ACOMEX) flown on Shuttle mission STS-41G. In addition to evaluation of surface erosion and mass loss that may be of importance to very long-term missions, comparisons of solar absorptance and thermal emittance measurements for both long and short term exposures were made. Although the ratio of absorptance over emittance can be altered by proper choice of materials to ensure a proper operating environment for the spacecraft, once the thermal design is established, it is important that the material properties not change in order to maintain the operating environment for many payload and bus items such as electronics, batteries, fuel, etc. However, data presented show significant changes after short exposure in low Earth environment. Moreover, the measured changes are shown to differ according to the manner of exposure, i.e., normal or oblique, which also affects the resultant eroded surface morphology. These results identify constraints to be considered in development of flight experiments or laboratory testing.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-01

    A liquid hydrogen tank of the Shuttle's external tank (ET) is installed into the S-1C Test Stand for a structural test at the Marshall Space Flight Center. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-03-07

    This early chart conceptualizes the use of two parallel Solid Rocket Motor Boosters in conjunction with three main engines to launch the proposed Space Shuttle to orbit. At approximately twenty-five miles altitude, the boosters would detach from the Orbiter and parachute back to Earth where they would be recovered and refurbished for future use. The Shuttle was designed as NASA's first reusable space vehicle, launching vertically like a spacecraft and landing on runways like conventional aircraft. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility for the Shuttle's propulsion elements, including the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  18. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-04-21

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is lowered into the Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  19. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-04-21

    This is an interior ground level view of the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise being lowered for mating to External Tank (ET) inside Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  20. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-10-04

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise inside of Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters were vertically mated.

  1. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-10-04

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is being installed into liftoff configuration at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  2. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), with space shuttle Enterprise latched on its back, is towed from the hangar at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York late in the night on Saturday, May 12, 2012. Early Sunday morning, Enterprise was removed from the SCA. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  3. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    A yellow sling is lowered onto space shuttle Enterprise, which sits atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) prior to it being demated a few hours later at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  4. Space Shuttle Drawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

  6. Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-12

    Ronnie Rigney (r), chief of the Propulsion Test Office in the Project Directorate at Stennis Space Center, stands with agency colleagues to receive the prestigious American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics George M. Low Space Transportation Award on Sept. 12. Rigney accepted the award on behalf of the NASA and contractor team at Stennis for their support of the Space Shuttle Program that ended last summer. From 1975 to 2009, Stennis Space Center tested every main engine used to power 135 space shuttle missions. Stennis continued to provide flight support services through the end of the Space Shuttle Program in July 2011. The center also supported transition and retirement of shuttle hardware and assets through September 2012. The 2012 award was presented to the space shuttle team 'for excellence in the conception, development, test, operation and retirement of the world's first and only reusable space transportation system.' Joining Rigney for the award ceremony at the 2012 AIAA Conference in Pasadena, Calif., were: (l to r) Allison Zuniga, NASA Headquarters; Michael Griffin, former NASA administrator; Don Noah, Johnson Space Center in Houston; Steve Cash, Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.; and Pete Nickolenko, Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  7. Space Shuttle astrodynamical constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, B. F.; Williamson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Basic space shuttle astrodynamic constants are reported for use in mission planning and construction of ground and onboard software input loads. The data included here are provided to facilitate the use of consistent numerical values throughout the project.

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-01-18

    Pictured is an early testing of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) at the Thiokol facility in Utah. The SRMs later became known as Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) as they were more frequently used on the Space Shuttles.

  9. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The driver of the Over Land Transporter is seen as he maneuvers the space shuttle Endeavour on the streets of Los Angeles as it heads to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The driver of the Over Land Transporter (OLT) is seen as he maneuvers the space shuttle Endeavour on the streets of Los Angeles as it heads to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-16

    A NASA scientist displays Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine component which underwent air flow tests at Marshall's Structures and Dynamics Lab. Such studies could improve efficiency of aircraft engines, and lower operational costs.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main propulsion system includes three major elements. One of those elements is the External Tank (ET). The ET holds over one-half million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen that fuel the main engines.

  13. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-02

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-35) blasts off into a dark Florida sky. Columbia's payload included the ASTRO project which was designed to obtain ultraviolet (UV) data on astronomical objects using a UV telescope flying on Spacelab.

  14. The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-06-07

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  16. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-03-18

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-67) lands at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California after successfully completing NASA's longest plarned shuttle mission. The seven-member crew conducted round-the-clock observations with the ASTRO-2 observatory, a trio of telescopes designed to study the universe of ultraviolet astronomy. Because of Earth's protective ozone layer ultraviolet light from celestial objects does not reach gound-based telescopes, and such studies can only be conducted from space.

  17. Space shuttle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardos, Russell

    1991-01-01

    This is a presentation of view graphs. The design parameters are given for the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation motor, Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS), and the Reaction Control System (RCS) primary and Vernier thrusters. Space shuttle propulsion issues are outlined along with ASA program definition, ASA program selection methodology, its priorities, candidates, and categories.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-29

    This photo depicts the installation of an External Tank (ET) into the Marshall Space Flight Center Dynamic Test Stand, building 4550. It is being mated to the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) for a Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT). At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-30

    The crewmembers of Space Shuttle mission 51-F have chosen as their insignia this design by Houston artist Skip Bradley. The Space Shuttle Challenger is depicted ascending toward the heavens in search of new knowledge in the field of solar and steallar astronomy, with its Spacelab 2 payload. The constellations Leo and Orion are in the positions they will be in, relative to the sun during the flight. The nineteen stars signify that this will be the 19th STS flight.

  20. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  1. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise, mounted on transport vehicle, is backed into a temporary hanger after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. Enterprise will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  2. Space shuttle: News release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle fact sheet is presented. Four important reasons for the program are considered to be: (1) It is the only meaningful new manned space program which can be accomplished on a modest budget. (2) It is needed to make space operations less complex and costly. (3) It is required for scientific applications in civilian and military activities. (4) It will encourage greater international participation in space flight. The space shuttle and orbiter configurations are discussed along with the missions. The scope of the study and the costs of each contract for the major contractor are listed.

  3. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Pilot of the first space shuttle mission, STS-1, Bob Crippen speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    The space shuttle Atlantis is seen in the Orbiter Processing Facility at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Pilot of the first space shuttle mission, STS-1, Bob Crippen speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-03-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-05-01

    This photograph shows a liquid oxygen tank for the Shuttle External Tank (ET) during a hydroelastic modal survey test at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. The effect of the low Earth orbit environment on space solar cells: Results of the advanced photovoltaic experiment (S0014)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Hickey, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment (APEX), containing over 150 solar cells and sensors, was designed to generate laboratory reference standards as well as to explore the durability of a wide variety of space solar cells. Located on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), APEX received the maximum possible dosage of atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, as well as enormous numbers of impacts from micrometeoroids and debris. The effect of the low earth orbital (LEO) environment on the solar cells and materials of APEX will be discussed in this paper. The on-orbit performance of the solar cells, as well as a comparison of pre- and postflight laboratory performance measurements, will be presented.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-11-07

    The STS-28 insignia was designed by the astronaut crew, who said it portrays the pride the American people have in their manned spaceflight program. It depicts America (the eagle) guiding the space program (the Space Shuttle) safely home from an orbital mission. The view looks south on Baja California and the west coast of the United States as the space travelers re-enter the atmosphere. The hypersonic contrails created by the eagle and Shuttle represent the American flag. The crew called the simple boldness of the design symbolic of America's unfaltering commitment to leadership in the exploration and development of space.

  10. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-12

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  11. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  12. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-05-27

    The crew patch of STS-72 depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour and some of the payloads on the flight. The Japanese satellite, Space Flyer Unit (SFU) is shown in a free-flying configuration with the solar array panels deployed. The inner gold border of the patch represents the SFU's distinct octagonal shape. Endeavour’s rendezvous with and retrieval of SFU at an altitude of approximately 250 nautical miles. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology's (OAST) flyer satellite is shown just after release from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The OAST satellite was deployed at an altitude of 165 nautical miles. The payload bay contains equipment for the secondary payloads - the Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV). There were two space walks planned to test hardware for assembly of the International Space Station. The stars represent the hometowns of the crew members in the United States and Japan.

  14. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    From left, Pilot of the first space shuttle mission, STS-1, Bob Crippen, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, NASA Johnson Space Center Director of Flight Crew Operations, and Astronaut, Janet Kavandi, NASA Kennedy Space Center Director and former astronaut Bob Cabana, and Endeavour Vehicle Manager for United Space Alliance Mike Parrish pose for a photograph outside of the an Orbiter Processing Facility with the space shuttle Atlantis shortly after Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    Space shuttle Enterprise is held aloft by a yellow sling and a set of cranes after it was removed from the top of NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft early Sunday morning at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012 .The 747 was towed backwards so that Enterprise could be lowered. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  16. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    NASA and United Space Alliance workers lower a yellow sling onto space shuttle Enterprise, which sits atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) prior to it being demated a few hours later at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. Once the sling was firmly attached early Sunday morning, Enterprise was lifted from the SCA. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  17. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  18. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    A set of cranes and wind restraints constructed to remove space shuttle Enterprise from atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft are being put into place at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. Enterprise will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-01

    The STS-53 crew portrait included astronauts (front left to right): Guion S. Bluford, and James S. Voss, mission specialists. On the back row, left to right, are David M. Walker, commander; Robert D. Cabana, Pilot; and Michael R. (Rick) Clifford, mission specialist. The crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 2, 1992 at 8:24:00 am (EST). This mission marked the final classified shuttle flight for the Department of Defense (DOD).

  20. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-17

    A four-million-mile journey draws to a flawless ending as the orbiter Discovery (STS-56) lands at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility. Aboard for the second shuttle mission of 1993 were a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical make-up, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, at podium, speaks to those in attendance at Apron W after the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) with space shuttle Discovery mounted on top rolled to a halt at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012 in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Dane Penland)

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-06

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on October 6, 1990 at 7:47:15 am (EDT), the STS-41 mission consisted of 5 crew members. Included were Richard N. Richards, commander; Robert D. Cabana, pilot; and Bruce E. Melnick, Thomas D. Akers, and William M. Shepherd, all mission specialists. The primary payload for the mission was the European Space Agency (ESA) built Ulysses Space Craft made to explore the polar regions of the Sun. Other main payloads and experiments included the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment and the INTELSAT Solar Array Coupon (ISAC).

  3. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  4. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  5. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration. PMID:21593797

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-09

    Astronaut and mission specialist Kalpana Chawla, receives assistance in donning a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, prior to an underwater training session in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near Johnson Space Center. This particular training was in preparation for the STS-87 mission. The Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) was the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4) and Spartan-201 satellite, both managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Challenger, making its fourth space flight, highlights the 41B insignia. The reusable vehicle is flanked in the oval by an illustration of a Payload Assist Module-D solid rocket motor (PAM-D) for assisted satellite deployment; an astronaut making the first non-tethered extravehicular activity (EVA); and eleven stars.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-22

    On November 22, 1989, at 7:23:30pm (EST), five astronauts were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the 5th Department of Defense (DOD) mission, STS-33. Crew members included Frederick D. Gregory, commander; John E. Blaha, pilot; and mission specialists Kathryn C. Thornton, Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, and F. Story Musgrave.

  9. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-08-01

    A workman reams holes to the proper size and aligment in the Space Shuttle Main Engine's main injector body, through which propellants will pass through on their way into the engine's combustion chamber. Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division plant produced the engines under contract to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-04-25

    An STS-41D onboard photo shows the Solar Array Experiment (SAE) panel deployment for the Office of Aeronautics and space Technology-1 (OAST-1). OAST-1 is several advanced space technology experiments utilizing a common data system and is mounted on a platform in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-11-12

    The STS-76 crew patch depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis and Russia's Mir Space Station as the space ships prepare for a rendezvous and docking. The Spirit of 76, an era of new beginnings, is represented by the Space Shuttle rising through the circle of 13 stars in the Betsy Ross flag. STS-76 begins a new period of international cooperation in space exploration with the first Shuttle transport of a United States astronaut, Shannon W. Lucid, to the Mir Space Station for extended joint space research. Frontiers for future exploration are represented by stars and the planets. The three gold trails and the ring of stars in union form the astronaut logo. Two suited extravehicular activity (EVA) crew members in the outer ring represent the first EVA during Shuttle-Mir docked operations. The EVA objectives were to install science experiments on the Mir exterior and to develop procedures for future EVA's on the International Space Station. The surnames of the crew members encircle the patch: Kevin P. Chilton, mission commander; Richard A. Searfoss, pilot; Ronald M. Sega, Michael R. ( Rich) Clifford, Linda M. Godwin and Lucid, all mission specialists. This patch was designed by Brandon Clifford, age 12, and the crew members of STS-76.

  13. Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-Based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-17

    Research Laboratory AFRL /RVSV Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave, SE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV...1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSV/Richard S. Erwin 1 cy... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0114 TR-2016-0114 SPECIALIZED FINITE SET STATISTICS (FISST)- BASED ESTIMATION METHODS TO ENHANCE SPACE SITUATIONAL

  14. Space shuttle requirements/configuration evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Space Shuttle chronology; Space Shuttle comparison; Cost comparison; Performance; Program ground rules; Sizing criteria; Crew/passenger provisions; Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) characteristics; Space Shuttle program milestones; and Space Shuttle requirements are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-14

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  16. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    A video highlighting the 30 years of space flight and more than 130 missions of the space shuttle transportation system is shown at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where the four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Workers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center listen as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announces where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Director and former astronaut Bob Cabana introduces NASA Administrator Charles Bolden where Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Endeavour Vehicle Manager for United Space Alliance Mike Parrish speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Johnson Space Center Director of Flight Crew Operations, and Astronaut, Janet Kavandi speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-07

    This is an onboard photo of the deployment of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger STS-41C mission, April 7, 1984. After a five year stay in space, the LDEF was retrieved during the STS-32 mission by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia in January 1990 and was returned to Earth for close examination and analysis. The LDEF was designed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the performance of spacecraft materials, components, and systems that have been exposed to the environment of micrometeoroids, space debris, radiation particles, atomic oxygen, and solar radiation for an extended period of time. Proving invaluable to the development of both future spacecraft and the International Space Station (ISS), the LDEF carried 57 science and technology experiments, the work of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, 7 NASA centers, 9 Department of Defense laboratories, and 8 forein countries.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-11-16

    The 5 member crew of the STS-41 mission included (left to right): Bruce E. Melnick, mission specialist 2; Robert D. Cabana, pilot; Thomas D. Akers, mission specialist 3; Richard N. Richards, commander; and William M. Shepherd, mission specialist 1. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on October 6, 1990 at 7:47:15 am (EDT), the primary payload for the mission was the ESA built Ulysses Space Craft made to explore the polar regions of the Sun. Other main payloads and experiments included the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment and the INTELSAT Solar Array Coupon (ISAC).

  3. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the tremendous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia's seven member crew's mission included continuing experimentation in the Marshall managed payloads including the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) and the keel-mounted accelerometer that characterizes the very low frequency acceleration environment of the orbiter payload bay during space flight, known as the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE).

  4. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-01-22

    Onboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-42) the seven crewmembers pose for a traditional in-space portrait in the shirt-sleeve environment of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) science module in the Shuttle's cargo bay. Pictured are (clockwise from top),Commander Ronald J. Grabe, payload commander Norman E. Thagard, payload specialist Roberta L. Bondar; mission specialists William F. Readdy and David C. Hilmers; pilot Stephen S. Oswald and payload specialist Ulf Merbold. The rotating chair, used often in biomedical tests on the eight-day flight, is in center frame.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-03-13

    The STS-70 crew patch depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery orbiting Earth in the vast blackness of space. The primary mission of deploying a NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) is depicted by three gold stars. They represent the triad composed of spacecraft transmitting data to Earth through the TDRS system. The stylized red, white, and blue ribbon represents the American goal of linking space exploration to the advancement of all humankind.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-07-01

    The STS-103 crew portrait includes (from left) C. Michael Foale, mission specialist; Claude Nicollier, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA) ; Scott J. Kelly, pilot; Curtis L. Brown, commander; and mission specialists Jean-Francois Clervoy (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld, and Steven L. Smith. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 19, 1999 at 6:50 p.m. (CST), the STS-103 mission served as the third Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission.

  7. Exobiology in Earth orbit: The results of science workshops held at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D. (Editor); Brownlee, D. (Editor); Tarter, J. (Editor); Usher, D. (Editor); Irvine, W. (Editor); Klein, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshops on Exobiology in Earth Orbit were held to explore concepts for orbital experiments of exobiological interest and make recommendations on which classes of experiments should be carried out. Various observational and experimental opportunities in Earth orbit are described including those associated with the Space Shuttle laboratories, spacecraft deployed from the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles, the Space Station, and lunar bases. Specific science issues and technology needs are summarized. Finally, a list of recommended experiments in the areas of observational exobiology, cosmic dust collection, and in situ experiments is presented.

  8. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-035 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  9. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-051 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  10. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-053 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  11. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-061 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  12. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-036 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  13. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-060 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  14. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-039 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  15. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-040 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  16. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-056 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  17. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-044 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  18. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-063 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  19. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-062 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  20. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-050 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  1. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-064 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  2. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-058 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  3. STS-132 Space Shuttle Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-015 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller

  4. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-052 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  5. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-038 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  6. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-042 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  7. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-055 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  8. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-065 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  9. STS-132 Space Shuttle Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-016 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller

  10. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-037 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  11. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-057 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  12. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-059 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  13. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-033 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell..

  14. STS-132 Space Shuttle Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-017 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller

  15. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-066 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  16. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-054 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  17. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-067 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  18. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-047 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  19. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-030 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  20. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-048 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  1. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-045 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  2. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-041 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  3. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-049 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  4. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-043 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  5. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-068 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  6. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-034 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  7. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-069 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Rusty Backer and Michael Gayle

  8. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-046 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Tom Farrar

  9. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-031 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Kevin O'Connell

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-04-05

    Aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis, the STS-37 mission launched April 5, 1991 from launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and landed back on Earth April 11, 1991. The 39th shuttle mission included crew members: Steven R. Nagel, commander; Kenneth D. Cameron, pilot; Jerry L,. Ross, mission specialist 1; Jay Apt, mission specialist 2; and Linda M. Godwin, mission specialist 3. The primary payload for the mission was the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The GRO included the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL); the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET); and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSEE). Secondary payloads included Crew and Equipment Translation Aids (CETA); the Ascent Particle Monitor (APM); the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREXII), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG); the Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA); Radiation Monitoring Equipment III (RMEIII); and Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS).

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    This photograph shows stacking of the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) segments in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Staging shown here are the aft skirt, aft segment, and aft center segment. The SRB was attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT is to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB's to which the ET was attached.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    This photograph shows the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) segment as it awaits being mated to the nose cone and forward skirt in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SRB would be attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT was to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB's to which the ET was attached.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    Workmen in the Dynamic Test Stand lowered the nose cone into place to complete stacking of the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SRB would be attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT was to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB'S to which the ET was attached.

  14. Space Shuttle ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1982-08-01

    Estimates are made showing that, as a consequence of rocket activity in the earth's upper atmosphere in the Shuttle era, average ice nuclei concentrations in the upper atmosphere could increase by a factor of two, and that an aluminum dust layer weighing up to 1000 tons might eventually form in the lower atmosphere. The concentrations of Space Shuttle ice nuclei (SSIN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere were estimated by taking into account the composition of the particles, the extent of surface poisoning, and the size of the particles. Calculated stratospheric size distributions at 20 km with Space Shuttle particulate injection, calculated SSIN concentrations at 10 and 20 km altitude corresponding to different water vapor/ice supersaturations, and predicted SSIN concentrations in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere are shown.

  15. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announces where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Intrepid Space Shuttle Pavilion Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-19

    The space shuttle Enterprise is seen shortly after the grand opening of the Space Shuttle Pavilion at the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum on Thursday, July 19, 2012 in New York. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-10

    Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery lifted off for the STS-105 mission on August 10, 2001. The main purpose of the mission was the rotation of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Two crew with the Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). The MISSE experiment was to fly materials and other types of space exposure experiments on the Space Station and was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the ISS.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-19

    Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery lifted off for the STS-105 mission on August 10, 2001. The main purpose of the mission was the rotation of the International Space Station (ISS) Expedition Two crew with the Expedition Three crew and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). The MISSE experiment was to fly materials and other types of space exposure experiments on the Space Station and was the first externally mounted experiment conducted on the ISS.

  19. Differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum vegetative cells into spores during earth orbit in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Masukawa, M.; Sekikawa, K.; Amano, T.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.; Ohnishi, T.

    2001-01-01

    We reported previously that emerged amoebae of Dictyosterium ( D.) discoideum grew, aggregated and differentiated to fruiting bodies with normal morphology in space. Here, we investigated the effects of space radiation and/or microgravity on the number, viability, kinetics of germination, growth rate and mutation frequency of spores formed in space in a radiation-sensitive strain, γs13, and the parental strain, NC4. In γs13, there were hardly spores in the fruiting bodies formed in space. In NC4, we found a decrease in the number of spores, a delay in germination of the spores and delayed start of cell growth of the spores formed in space when compared to the ground control. However, the mutation frequency of the NC4 spores formed in space was similar to that of the ground control. We conclude that the depression of spore formation might be induced by microgravity and/or space radiation through the depression of some stage(s) of DNA repair during cell differentiation in the slime mold.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Separate pressurized tank sections within the external tank hold the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts that branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. The main engines consume 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's external tank is currently the only part of the launch vehicle that is not reused. After its 526,000-gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5-minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-07-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly phase of the Space Shuttle light weight external tanks (LWT) 5, 6, and 7 at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the external tank (ET) acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts which branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's ET is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-04-21

    This is a double exposure of the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise on the strong back of the Dynamic Test Stand at Marshall Space Flight Center's building 4550 as it undergoes a Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT). One exposure depicts a sunset view, while the other depicts a post-sunset view.

  3. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-02-28

    The STS-36 mission launch aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on February 28, 1990 at 2:50:22am (EST). The crew featured five astronauts who served in the 6th Department of Defense (DOD) mission: John H. Creighton, commander; John H. Caster, pilot; and mission specialists Pierre J. Thuot, Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, and David. C. Hilmers.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-11-05

    The seventh mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD), the STS-38 mission, launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on November 15, 1990 at 6:48:15 pm (EST). The STS-38 crew included the following five astronauts: Richard O. Covey, commander; Frank L. Culbertson, pilot; and mission specialists Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, Robert C. Springer, and Carl J. Meade.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-12

    The STS-48 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on September 12, 1991 at 7:11:04 pm. Five astronauts composed the crew including: John O. Creighton, commander; Kenneth S. Reightler, pilot; and Mark N. Brown, Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and James F. Buchli, all mission specialists. The primary payload of the mission was the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-03-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery and its science module payload are featured in the insignia for the STS-51B / Spacelab-3 mission. The seven stars of the constellation Pegasus surround the orbiting spacehip above the flag draped Earth. Surnames of the seven crewmembers encircle the scene. The artwork was done by Carol Ann Lind.

  8. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  9. Interactions between large space power systems and low-Earth-orbit plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is a growing tendency to plan space missions that will incorporate very large space power systems. These space power systems must function in the space plasma environment, which can impose operational limitations. As the power output increases, the operating voltage also must increase and this voltage, exposed at solar array interconnects, interacts with the local plasma. The implications of such interactions are considered. The available laboratory data for biased array segment tests are reviewed to demonstrate the basic interactions considered. A data set for a floating high voltage array test was used to generate approximate relationships for positive and negative current collection from plasmas. These relationships were applied to a hypothetical 100 kW power system operating in a 400 km, near equatorial orbit. It was found that discharges from the negative regions of the array are the most probable limiting factor in array operation.

  10. Low Earth Orbital Mission Aboard the Space Test Experiments Platform (STEP-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES) is presented in vugraph form. The discussion is divided into three sections: (1) a description of SAMMES; (2) a SAMMES/STEP-3 mission overview; and (3) SAMMES follow on efforts. The SAMMES/STEP-3 mission objectives are as follows: assess LEO space environmental effects on SDIO materials; quantify orbital and local environments; and demonstrate the modular experiment concept.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  12. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-11-08

    Astronauts are clowning around in space in this STS-51A onboard photo. Astronaut Gardner, holds a “For Sale” sign after the retrieval of two malfunctioning satellites; the Western Union Telegraph Communication Satellite (WESTAR VI); and the PALAPA-B2 Satellite. Astronaut Allen, who is standing on the RMS (Remote Manipulator System) is reflected in Gardner’s helmet visor. The 51A mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on November 8, 1984.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-11-08

    Astronauts are clowning around in space in this STS-51A onboard photo. Astronaut Gardner, holds a “For Sale” sign after the retrieval of two malfunctioning satellites; the Western Union Telegraph Communication Satellite (WESTAR VI); and the PALAPA-B2 Satellite. Astronaut Allen, who is standing on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is reflected in Gardner’s helmet visor. The 51A mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on November 8, 1984.

  15. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center workers install Structural Test Article Number Three (STA-3) into a Center test facility. From December 1987 to April 1988, STA-3 (a test model of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor) underwent a series of six tests at the Marshall Center designed to demonstrate the structural strength of the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Booster, redesigned after the January 1986 Challenger accident.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-25

    On November 22, 1989, at 7:23:30pm (EST), 5 astronauts were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the 5th Department of Defense mission, STS-33. Photographed from left to right are Kathryn C. Thornton, mission specialist 3; Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, mission specialist 2; Frederick D. Gregory, commander; John E. Blaha, pilot; and F. Story Musgrave, mission specialist 1.

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-08

    The second try works like a charm as the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) lifts off from Launch Pad 39B. The first attempt to launch was halted at T-11 seconds on April 6th. Aboard for the second shuttle mission of 1993 were a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical make-up, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  18. Deployment of DRAGONSAT from Space Shuttle Endeavours Payload Bay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012308 (30 July 2009) --- As seen through windows on the aft flight deck of Space Shuttle Endeavour, a Department of Defense pico-satellite known as Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment 2 (ANDE-2) is released from the shuttle's payload bay by STS-127 crew members. ANDE-2 consists of two spherical micro-satellites which will measure the density and composition of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) atmosphere while being tracked from the ground. The data will be used to better predict the movement of objects in orbit.

  19. Deployment of DRAGONSAT from Space Shuttle Endeavours Payload Bay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-30

    S127-E-012322 (30 July 2009) --- As seen through windows on the aft flight deck of Space Shuttle Endeavour, a Department of Defense pico-satellite known as Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment 2 (ANDE-2) is released from the shuttle's payload bay by STS-127 crew members. ANDE-2 consists of two spherical micro-satellites which will measure the density and composition of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) atmosphere while being tracked from the ground. The data will be used to better predict the movement of objects in orbit.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-07

    STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, perched on the Shuttle's robotic arm, is preparing to install the Electronic Support Module (ESM) in the aft shroud of the Hubble Space telescope (HST), with the assistance of astronaut James H. Newman (out of frame). The module will support a new experimental cooling system to be installed during the next day's fifth and final space walk of the mission. That cooling system is designed to bring the telescope's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi Spectrometer (NICMOS) back to life the which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. In addition to the installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and NICMOS, STS-109 upgrades to the HST included replacement of the solar array panels, replacement of the power control unit (PCU), and replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS). Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-03-01

    This STS-29 mission onboard photo depicts the External Tank (ET) falling toward the ocean after separation from the Shuttle orbiter Discovery. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27,5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts which branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's ET is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  2. Countering the Chinese Threat to Low Earth Orbit Satellites: Building a Defensive Space Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    into, range of its direct~: . ascent capability. Co-orbital weapons can also be launched fromahostspacecraft,l~etheB~- r on Shenzhou-7. The United States...channel= awst &id=news/awO122 07p2.xml (accessed December 21,2008). DeBlois, Bruce M., ed. Beyond the Paths ofHeaven: The Emergence ofSpace Power Thought

  3. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  4. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    As the orbiter Columbia (STS-50) rolled down Runway 33 of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, its distinctively colored drag chute deployed to slow down the spaceship. This landing marked OV-102's first end-of-mission landing at KSC and the tenth in the program, and the second shuttle landing with the drag chute. Edwards Air Force Base, CA, was the designated prime for the landing of Mission STS-50, but poor weather necessitated the switch to KSC after a one-day extension of the historic flight. STS-50 was the longest in Shuttle program historyo date, lasting 13 days, 19 hours, 30 minutes and 4 seconds. A crew of seven and the USML-1 were aboard.

  5. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  7. Potentially efficient forest and range applications of remote sensing using earth orbital space craft, circa 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Sixteen remote sensing applications or groups of related applications judged to be most important of any in the forestry and range disciplines were evaluated. In one application, major land classification, large amounts of useful data are anticipated to be contributed by space sensors in 1980. In four applications moderate amounts are anticipated to be so contributed. These are timber inventory, range inventory, fire weather forecasting, and monitoring snowfields. In the following seven applications small but significant amounts of data are anticipated to be contributed by space sensors: (1) detailed land classification; (2) inventory of wildlife habitat; (3) recreation resource inventory; (4) detecting stresses on the vegetation (5) monitoring air pollution caused by wildfires and prescribed burning; (6) monitoring water cycle, (7) pollution and erosion; and (8) evaluating damage to forests and ranges.

  8. Low Earth Orbit Satellite Tracking Telescope Network: Collaborative Optical Tracking for Enhanced Space Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    i.e., temporarily focusing on one object instead of wide area survey) or SOI collection on high interest objects (e.g., unidentified objects ...The Air Force Institute of Technology has spent the last seven years conducting research on orbit identification and object characterization of space... objects through the use of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware systems controlled via custom software routines, referred to simply as TeleTrak. Year

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Nearby waters reflect the flames of the Space Shuttle Endeavor as she lifts off November 30, 2000, carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Back dropped by a cloudless blue sky, Space Shuttle Endeavor stands ready for launch after the rollback of the Rotating Service Structure, at left. The orbiter launched that night carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electric system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Nearby waters reflect the flames of the Space Shuttle Endeavor as she lifts off November 30, 2000 carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-08

    Five NASA astronauts and a Canadian payload specialist pause from their training schedule to pose for the traditional crew portrait for their mission, STS-85. In front are astronauts Curtis L. Brown, Jr. (right), mission commander, and Kent V. Rominger, pilot. On the back row, from the left, are astronauts Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., Stephen K. Robinson, and N. Jan Davis, all mission specialists, along with the Canadian Space Agency’s (CSA) payload specialist, Bjarni Tryggvason. The five launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on August 7, 1997 at 10:41:00 a.m. (EDT). Major payloads included the satellite known as Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 CRISTA-SPAS-02. CRISTA; a Japanese Manipulator Flight Development (MFD); the Technology Applications and Science (TAS-01); and the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-02).

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-05

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, floats about in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay while working in tandem with astronaut Michael J. Massimino (out of frame),mission specialist, during the STS-109 mission's second day of extravehicular activity (EVA). Inside Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to assist the two in their work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay.Part of the giant telescope's base, latched down in the payload bay, can be seen behind Newman. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had responsibility for the design, development, and contruction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-07

    STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino, mission specialist, perched on the Shuttle's robotic arm is working at the stowage area for the Hubble Space Telescope's port side solar array. Working in tandem with James. H. Newman, Massimino removed the old port solar array and stored it in Columbia's payload bay for return to Earth. The two went on to install a third generation solar array and its associated electrical components. Two crew mates had accomplished the same feat with the starboard array on the previous day. In addition to the replacement of the solar arrays, the STS-109 crew also installed the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera (NICMOS), replaced the power control unit (PCU), and replaced the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS). The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 for 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. Five space walks were conducted to complete the HST upgrades. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-07

    Inside the Space Shuttle Columbia's cabin, astronaut Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, controlled the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) on the crew cabin's aft flight deck to assist fellow astronauts during the STS-109 mission Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). The RMS was used to capture the telescope and secure it into Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  16. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Laser Ranging for Effective and Accurate Tracking of Space Debris in Low Earth Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Haag, Herve; Hennegrave, Laurent; Assemat, Francois; Vial, Sophie; Samain, Etienne

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the results of preliminary design options for an operational laser ranging system adapted to the measurement of the distance of space debris. Thorough analysis of the operational parameters is provided with identification of performance drivers and assessment of enabling design options. Results from performance simulation demonstrate how the range measurement enables improvement of the orbit determination when combined with astrometry. Besides, experimental results on rocket-stage class debris in LEO were obtained by Astrium beginning of 2012, in collaboration with the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA), by operating an experimental laser ranging system supported by the MéO (Métrologie Optique) telescope.

  18. Central electrical utility power for a satellite ring city in low earth orbit space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Ira T.; Faymon, Karl A.; Patton, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on central electrical power for a satellite ring city, defined as a group of large free flyers of 10 to 20 units with perhaps 100 people in each unit, and organized in a circle so that power can be fed from a central location. The free flyers would be located at 300 to 700 miles in altitude, and spaced about a kilometer apart. Potential activities of a ring city are listed as well as the electrical power needs. Information is given on costs and individual and centralized solar arrays and nuclear reactor systems.

  19. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-23

    An STS-75 onboard photo of the Tethered Satellite System-1 Reflight (TSS-1R) atop its extended boom. The TSS-1R was a reflight of TSS-1, which was flown on the Space Shuttle in July/August, 1992. Building on the knowledge gained on the TSS-1 about tether dynamics, the TSS will circle the Earth at an altitude of 296 kilometers (184 miles), placing the tether system well within the rarefield, electrically charged layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. The satellite was plarned to be deployed 20.7 kilometers (12.9 miles) above the Shuttle. The conducting tether, generating high voltage and electrical currents as it moves through the ionosphere cutting magnetic field lines, would allow scientists to examine the electrodynamics of a conducting tether system. In addition, the TSS would increase our understanding of physical processes in the near-Earth space environment, such as plasma waves and currents. The tether on the TSS broke as the Satellite was nearing the full extent of its 12.5 mile deployment from the Shuttle. The TSS was a cooperative development effort by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA, and was managed by scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-12

    This is a view of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it approaches the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-105 mission. Visible in the payload bay of Discovery are the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo at right, which stores various supplies and experiments to be transferred into the ISS; at center, the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) which carries the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS); and two Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) containers at left. Aboard Discovery were the ISS Expedition Three crew, who were to replace the Expedition Two crew that had been living on the ISS for the past five months.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-08

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-63 crew patch depicts the orbiter maneuvering to rendezvous with Russia's Space Station Mir. The name is printed in Cyrillic on the side of the station. Visible in the Orbiter's payload bay are the commercial space laboratory Spacehab and the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) satellite which are major payloads on the flight. The six points on the rising sun and the three stars are symbolic of the mission's Space Transportation System (STS) numerical designation. Flags of the United States and Russia at the bottom of the patch symbolize the cooperative operations of this mission.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-01

    This STS-80 onboard photograph shows the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (ORFEUS-SPAS II), photographed during approach by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for retrieval. Built by the German Space Agency, DARA, the ORFEUS-SPAS II, a free-flying satellite, was dedicated to astronomical observations at very short wavelengths to: investigate the nature of hot stellar atmospheres, investigate the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars, determine the nature of accretion disks around collapsed stars, investigate supernova remnants, and investigate the interstellar medium and potential star-forming regions. Some 422 observations of almost 150 astronomical objects were completed, including the Moon, nearby stars, distant Milky Way stars, stars in other galaxies, active galaxies, and quasar 3C273. The STS-80 mission was launched November 19, 1996.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-11-01

    This image of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission when the Orbiter Atlantis was approaching the Mir Space Station. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir, and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, seperately launched from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean . STS-74 was launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission’s third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter’s heat-shielding tiles located on the craft’s underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. Back dropped by the blackness of space and Earth’s horizon, astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, is anchored to a foot restraint on the extended ISS’s Canadarm-2.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Launched on July 26 2005, from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission’s third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter’s heat-shielding tiles located on the craft’s underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This close up of the thermal tiles was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist (out of frame). Astronaut Soichi Noguchi, STS-114 mission specialist representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration (JAXA), can be seen in the background perched on a Space Station truss.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-04-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-78 mission included (seated left to right) Terrence T. (Tom) Henricks, commander; and Kevin R. Kregel, pilot. Standing, left to right, are Jean-Jacques Favier (CNES), payload specialist; Richard M. Linneham, mission specialist; Susan J. Helms, payload commander; Charles E. Brady, mission specialist; and Robert Brent Thirsk (CSA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on June 20, 1996 at 10:49:00 am (EDT), the STS-78 mission’s primary payloads was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS). Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS.

  8. Space Shuttle Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suiter, D. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Blount, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The technology for lightning protection of even the most advanced spacecraft is available and can be applied through cost-effective hardware designs and design-verification techniques. In this paper, the evolution of the Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Program is discussed, including the general types of protection, testing, and anlayses being performed to assess the lightning-transient-damage susceptibility of solid-state electronics.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51J mission included (seated left to right) Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist; Karol J. Bobko, commander; and Ronald J. Grabe, pilot. On the back row, left to right, are mission specialists David C. Hilmers, and Major Willliam A, Pailles (USAF). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on October 3, 1985 at 11:15:30 am (EDT), the STS-51J mission was the second mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-26

    The STS-27 crew portrait features 5 astronauts. Seated, left to right, are Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist; Guy S. Gardner, pilot; and Robert L. Gibson, commander. On the back row, left to right, are mission specialists Richard M. Mullane, and William M. Shepherd. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on December 2, 1988 at 9:30:34 am (EST), the STS-27 mission was the third mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-07-24

    Five astronauts composed the STS-28 crew. Seated from left to right are Richard N. (Dick) Richards, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; and David C. Leestma, mission specialist 2. Standing, from left to right , are Mark N. Brown, mission specialist 3; and James C. (Jim) Adamson, mission specialist 1. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on August 8, 1989, the STS-28 mission was the 4th mission dedicated to the Department of Defense.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The official STS-38 crew portrait includes the following 5 astronauts (front left to right): Frank L. Culbertson, pilot; and Richard O. Covey, commander. Standing (left to right) are mission specialists (MS) Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, (MS-3), Robert C. Springer, (MS-1), and Carl J. Meade, (MS-2). The seventh mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD), the STS-38 crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on November 15, 1990 at 6:48:15 pm (EST).

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-02-14

    The STS-36 crew portrait features 5 astronauts who served in the 6th Department of Defense (DOD) mission. Posed near the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery are (left to right) Pierre J. Thuot, mission specialist 3; John H. Caster, pilot; John H. Creighton, commander; Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, mission specialist 1; and David. C. Hilmers, mission specialist 2. The crew launched aboard Atlantis on February 28, 1990 at 2:50:22am (EST).

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-01-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51C mission included (kneeling in front left to right) Loren J. Schriver, pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly, II, commander. Standing, left to right, are Gary E. Payton, payload specialist; and mission specialists James F. Buchli, and Ellison L. Onzuka. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on January 24, 1985 at 2:50:00 pm (EST), the STS-51C was the first mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-10-02

    The STS-48 crew portrait includes (front row left to right): Mark N. Brown, mission specialist; John O. Creighton, commander; and Kenneth S. Reightler, pilot. Pictured on the back row (left to right) are mission specialists Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and James F. Buchli. The crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on September 12, 1991 at 7:11:04 pm (EDT). The primary payload of the mission was the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-02

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on August 2, 1991, the STS-43 mission’s primary payload was the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 5 (TDRS-5) attached to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), which became the 4th member of an orbiting TDRS cluster. The flight crew consisted of 5 astronauts: John E. Blaha, commander; Michael A. Baker, pilot; Shannon W. Lucid, mission specialist 1; James C. Adamson, mission specialist 2; and G. David Low, mission specialist 3.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-02

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on August 2, 1991, the STS-43 mission’s primary payload was the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 5 (TDRS-5) attached to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), which became the 4th member of an orbiting TDRS cluster. The flight crew consisted of five astronauts: John E. Blaha, commander; Michael A. Baker, pilot; Shannon W. Lucid, mission specialist 1; James C. Adamson, mission specialist 2; and G. David Low, mission specialist 3.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-08

    Five astronauts launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 9, 1990 at 7:35:00am (EST) for the STS-32 mission. The crew included David C. Brandenstein, commander; James D. Weatherbee, pilot; and mission specialists Marsha S. Ivins, G. David Low, and Bonnie J. Dunbar. Primary objectives of the mission were the deployment of the SYNCOM IV-F5 defense communications satellite and the retrieval of NASA’s Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-04-26

    Five astronauts composed the STS-30 crew. Pictured (left to right) are Ronald J. Grabe, pilot; David M. Walker, commander; and mission specialists Norman E. Thagard, Mary L. Cleave, and Mark C. Lee. The STS-30 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on May 4, 1989 at 2:46:59pm (EDT). The primary payload was the Magellan/Venus Radar mapper spacecraft and attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS).

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-05-05

    The STS-30 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on May 4, 1989 at 2:46:59pm (EDT) carrying a crew of five. Aboard were Ronald J. Grabe, pilot; David M. Walker, commander; and mission specialists Norman E. Thagard, Mary L. Cleave, and Mark C. Lee. The primary payload for the mission was the Magellan/Venus Radar mapper spacecraft and attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS).

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-11-01

    The STS-42 crew portrait includes from left to right: Stephen S. Oswald, pilot; Roberta L. Bondar, payload specialist 1; Norman E. Thagard, mission specialist 1; Ronald J. Grabe, commander; David C. Hilmers, mission specialist 2; Ulf D. Merbold, payload specialist 2; and William F. Readdy, mission specialist 3. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on January 22, 1992 at 9:52:33 am (EST), the STS-42 served as the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (ML-1 ) mission.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-16

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  3. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  4. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-05-01

    Designed by members of the flight crew, the STS-58 insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering Spacelab Life Sciences ll highlight the primary mission of the second Space Shuttle flight dedicated to life sciences research. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the scheduled two-week duration of the longest Space Shuttle mission to date. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring, a molecule common to all living organisms. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA, representing the genetic basis of life. Its yellow background represents the sun, energy source for all life on Earth. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS- 58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research intended to benefit all mankind.

  6. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-074 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  7. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-080 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  8. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-076 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  9. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-072 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  10. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-075 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  11. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-077 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  12. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-081 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  13. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-073 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  14. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-078 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  15. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-079 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  16. Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-071 (14 May 2010) --- Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-11-01

    This fish-eye view of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission after the separation. The image shows the installed Docking Module at bottom. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir; and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-11-01

    This is a view of the Russian Mir Space Station photographed by a crewmember of the second Shuttle/Mir docking mission, STS-74. The image shows: top - Progress supply vehicle, Kvant-1 module, and the Core module; middle left - Spektr module; middle center - Kristall module and Docking module; middle right - Kvant-2 module; and bottom - Soyuz. The Progress was an unmarned, automated version of the Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, designed to resupply the Mir. The Kvant-1 provided research in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars by measuring electromagnetic spectra and x-ray emissions. The Core module served as the heart of the space station and contained the primary living and working areas, life support, and power, as well as the main computer, communications, and control equipment. The Spektr module provided Earth observation. It also supported research into biotechnology, life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronauts used the Spektr as their living quarters. A main purpose of the Kristall module was to develop biological and materials production technologies in the space environment. The Docking module made it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with the Mir. Kvant-2 was a scientific and airlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, and EVA (extravehicular activity) capability. The Soyuz typically ferried three crewmembers to and from the Mir. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as the Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific Ocean.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission’s third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter’s heat-shielding tiles located on the craft’s underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission’s third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter’s heat-shielding tiles located on the craft’s underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles, and a portion of the Canadian built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and the Nile River is visible at the bottom.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission’s third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter’s heat-shielding tiles located on the craft’s underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, used the pictured still digital camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during the EVA. Also visible in the reflection are thermal protection tiles on Discovery’s underside.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-06-01

    This image of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, with cargo bay doors open showing Spacelab Module for the Spacelab Life Science and the docking port, was photographed from the Russian Mir Space Station during STS-71 mission. The STS-71 mission performed the first docking with the Russian Mir Space Station to exchange crews. The Mir 19 crew, cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyev and Nikolai Budarin, replaced the Mir 18 crew, cosmonauts Valdamir Dezhurov and Gernady Strekalov, and astronaut Norman Thagard. Astronaut Thagard was launched aboard a Soyuz spacecraft in March 1995 for a three-month stay on the Mir Space Station as part of the Mir 18 crew. The Orbiter Atlantis was modified to carry a docking system compatible with the Mir Space Station. The Orbiter also carried a Spacelab module for the Spacelab Life Science mission in the payload bay in which various life science experiments and data collection took place throughout the 10-day mission.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-04-05

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991 at 9:22:44am (EST), the STS-37 mission hurtles toward space. Her crew included Steven R. Nagel, commander; Kenneth D. (Ken) Cameron, pilot; and Jay Apt, Jerry L. Ross, and Linda M. Godwin, all mission specialists. The crew’s major objective was the deployment of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). Included in the observatory were the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL); the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET); and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Telescope (OSSEE).

  4. Space Shuttle food tray

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-28

    STS009-05-0153 (28 Nov. - 8 Dec. 1983) --- Though STS-9 was the space shuttle Columbia's sixth spaceflight, it was the first opportunity for an onboard galley, some of the results of which are shown in this 35mm scene on the flight deck. The metal tray makes for easy preparation and serving of in-space meals for crew members. This crewman is seated at the pilot's station on the flight deck. The actual galley is located in the middeck. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-77 mission included (seated left to right) Curtis L. Brown, pilot; and John H. Casper, commander. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Mario Runco, Marc Garneau (CSA), and Andrew S. W. Thomas. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on May 19, 1996 at 6:30:00 am (EDT), the STS-77 mission carried three primary payloads; the SPACEHAB-4 pressurized research module, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) mounted on a Spartan 207 free-flyer, and a suite of four technology demonstration experiments known as Technology Experiments for Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS).

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-41B (STS-11) mission included (seated left to right) Vance D. Brand, commander; and Robert L. Gibson, pilot. Standing left to right are mission specialists Robert L. Stewart, Ronald E. McNair, and Bruce McCandless. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on February 3, 1984 at 8:00:00 am (EST), the STS-41B mission marked the first untethered space walks which were performed by McCandless and Stewart. The crew deployed the WESTAR-VI and PALAPA-B2 satellites.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A scaled-down 24-inch version of the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor was successfully fired for 21 seconds at a Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Test Stand. The motor was tested to ensure a replacement material called Lycocel would meet the criteria set by the Shuttle's Solid Motor Project Office. The current material is a heat-resistant, rayon-based, carbon-cloth phenolic used as an insulating material for the motor's nozzle. Lycocel, a brand name for Tencel, is a cousin to rayon and is an exceptionally strong fiber made of wood pulp produced by a special "solvent-spirning" process using a nontoxic solvent. It will also be impregnated with a phenolic resin. This new material is expected to perform better under the high temperatures experienced during launch. The next step will be to test the material on a 48-inch solid rocket motor. The test, which replicates launch conditions, is part of Shuttle's ongoing verification of components, materials, and manufacturing processes required by MSFC, which oversees the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor project. Manufactured by the ATK Thiokol Propulsion Division in Promontory, California, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor measures 126 feet (38.4 meters) long and 12 feet (3.6 meters) in diameter. It is the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the first designed for reuse. During its two-minute burn at liftoff, each motor generates an average thrust of 2.6 million pounds (1.2 million kilograms).

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-01

    Carrying the STS-109 crew of seven, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia blasted from its launch pad as it began its 27th flight and 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Launched March 1, 2002, the goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) which was developed, designed, and constructed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, the HST received the following upgrades: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when it original coolant ran out. Four of the crewmembers performed 5 space walks in the 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes of the the STS-109 mission.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-05

    STS-109 Astronauts Michael J. Massimino and James H. Newman were making their second extravehicular activity (EVA) of their mission when astronaut Massimino, mission specialist, peered into Columbia's crew cabin during a brief break from work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is latched down just a few feet behind him in Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-30

    These five STS-97 crew members posed for a traditional portrait during training. On the front row, left to right, are astronauts Michael J. Bloomfield, pilot; Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA); and Brent W. Jett, Jr., commander. In the rear, wearing training versions of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suits, (left to right) are astronauts Carlos I. Noriega, and Joseph R. Tarner, both mission specialists. The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-25

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-12-01

    The solid rocket booster (SRB) structural test article is being installed in the Solid Rocket Booster Test Facility for the structural and load verification test at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-11-01

    The structural test article to be used in the solid rocket booster (SRB) structural and load verification tests is being assembled in a high bay building of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-13

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. This onboard photo depicts Florida’s Atlantic coast and the Cape Canaveral area as the backdrop for this scene of the INTELSAT VI’s approach to the Shuttle Endeavour.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-13

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The 4.5 ton INTELSAT VI was successfully snared by three astronauts on a third EVA. In this photo, the satellite, with its newly deployed perigee stage, begins its separation from the Shuttle.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-03-30

    Designed by the mission’s crew members, the STS-57 crew patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour maneuvering to retrieve the European Space Agency's microgravity experiment satellite EURECA. SpaceHab, the first commercial space laboratory, is depicted in the cargo bay, and its characteristic shape is represented by the inner red border of the patch. The three gold plumes surrounded by the five stars trailing EURECA are suggestive of the U.S. astronaut logo. The five gold stars together with the shape of the orbiter's mechanical arm form the mission's numerical designation. The six stars on the American flag represent the U.S. astronauts who comprise the crew. With detailed input from the crew members, the final artwork was accomplished by artist Tim Hall.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-01

    Five astronauts and a payload specialist take a break from training at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to pose for the STS-87 crew portrait. Wearing the orange partial pressure launch and entry suits, from the left, are Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; Steven W. Lindsey, pilot; Kevin R. Kregel, mission commander; and Leonid K. Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist. Wearing the white Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suits are mission specialists Winston E. Scott (left) and Takao Doi (right). Doi represents Japan’s National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The STS-87 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on November 19, 1997. The primary payload for the mission was the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4).

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-03-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  19. Space shuttle simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Smith, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric turbulence in both horizontal and near horizontal flight, during the return of the space shuttle, are important for determining design, control, and 'pilot-in-the-loop' effects. A nonrecursive model (based on von Karman spectra) for atmospheric turbulence along the flight path of the shuttle orbiter was developed which provides for simulation of instantaneous vertical and horizontal gusts at the vehicle center-of-gravity, and also for simulation of instantaneous gust gradients. Based on this model, the time series for both gusts and gust gradients were generated and stored on a series of magnetic tapes which are entitled shuttle simulation turbulence tapes (SSTT). The time series are designed to represent atmospheric turbulence from ground level to an altitude of 10,000 meters. The turbulence generation procedure is described as well as the results of validating the simulated turbulence. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and references cited. The tabulated one dimensional von Karman spectra and the results of spectral and statistical analyses of the SSTT are contained in the appendix.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-12-05

    The mission insignia for NASA's STS-31 mission features the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in its observing configuration against a background of the universe it will study. The cosmos includes a stylistic depiction of galaxies in recognition of the contribution made by Sir Edwin Hubble to our understanding of the nature of galaxies and the expansion of the universe. The STS-31 crew points out that is it in honor of Hubble's work that this great observatory in space bears his name. The depicted Space Shuttle trails a spectrum symbolic of both the red shift observations that were so important to Hubble's work and new information which will be obtained with the HST. Encircling the art work, designed by the crew, are the names of its members.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-35, launched December 2, 1990, was the ASTRO-1 Observatory. Designed for round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, ASTRO-1 featured a collection of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo- Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT). Ultraviolet telescopes mounted on Spacelab elements in cargo bay were to be operated in shifts by flight crew. Loss of both data display units (used for pointing telescopes and operating experiments) during mission impacted crew-aiming procedures and forced ground teams at Marshall Space Flight Center to aim ultraviolet telescopes with fine-tuning by flight crew. BBXRT, also mounted in cargo bay, was directed from outset by ground-based operators at Goddard Space Flight Center. This is the logo or emblem that was designed to represent the ASTRO-1 payload.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-09-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-41G mission included (seated left to right) Jon A. McBride, pilot; mission specialists Sally K. Ride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, and David C. Leestma. Standing in the rear, left to right, are payload specialists Marc Garneau, and Paul D. Scully-Power. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on October 5, 1984 at 7:03:00 am (EDT), the STS-41G mission marked the first flight to include two women. Sullivan was the first woman to walk in space. The crew deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), connected the components of the Orbital Refueling System (ORS) which demonstrated the possibility of refueling satellites in orbit, and carried 3 experiments of the Office of Space Terrestrial Applications-3 (OSTA-3).

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-11-01

    The seven astronauts included in the STS-55 crew portrait are: (front left to right) Terence (Tom) Henricks, pilot; Steven R. Negal, commander; and Charles J. Precourt, mission specialist. On the back row, from left to right, are Bernard A. Harris, mission specialist; Hans Schlegel, payload specialist; Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist; and Ulrich Walter, payload specialist. The crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on April 26, 1993 at 10:50:00 am (EDT). The major payload was the German Dedicated Spacelab, D2.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-14

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. This onboard photo captures the free flying INTELSAT IV.

  5. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-01

    Five NASA astronauts and one Canadian payload specialist composed the STS-52 crew. Pictured on the back row, left to right, are Michael A. Baker, pilot; James B. Wetherbee, commander; and Steven G. Maclean, payload specialist. On the front row, left to right, are mission specialists Charles (Lacy) Veach, Tamara Jernigan, and William Shepherd. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on October 22, 1992 at 1:09:39 p.m. (EDT), the crew’s primary objectives were the deployment of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and operation of the U.S. Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1).

  7. Space shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanaway, John F.; Moorehead, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle avionics system, which was conceived in the early 1970's and became operational in the 1980's represents a significant advancement of avionics system technology in the areas of systems and redundacy management, digital data base technology, flight software, flight control integration, digital fly-by-wire technology, crew display interface, and operational concepts. The origins and the evolution of the system are traced; the requirements, the constraints, and other factors which led to the final configuration are outlined; and the functional operation of the system is described. An overall system block diagram is included.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-06-02

    These five NASA astronauts were the crew members for the STS-69 mission that launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour September 7, 1995. Pictured on the front row (left to right) are David M. Walker, mission commander; and Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot. On the back row (left to right) are Michael L. Gernhardt and James H. Newman, both mission specialists; and James S. Voss, payload commander. The mission’s two primary payloads included the Spartan 201-3 and Wake Shield Facility-2 (WSF-2).

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-14

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3) which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this STS-49 onboard photo, Astronaut Kathryn Thornton joins three struts together during her Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA).

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-07-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51G mission included (kneeling front left to right) Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian; and payload specialists Sultan Salman Al-Saud, and Patrick Baudrey. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 17, 1985 at 7:33:00 am (EDT), the STS-51G mission’s primary payloads were three communications satellites: MORELOS-A for Mexico; ARABSAT-A , for Arab Satellite communications; and TELSTAR-3D, for ATT.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-01

    This is a view of the Russian Mir Space Station photographed by a crewmember of the fifth Shuttle/Mir docking mission, STS-81. The image shows: upper center - Progress supply vehicle, Kvant-1 module, and Core module; center left - Priroda module; center right - Spektr module; bottom left - Kvant-2 module; bottom center - Soyuz; and bottom right - Kristall module and Docking module. The Progress was an unmarned, automated version of the Soyuz crew transfer vehicle, designed to resupply the Mir. The Kvant-1 provided research in the physics of galaxies, quasars, and neutron stars, by measuring electromagnetic spectra and x-ray emissions. The Core module served as the heart of the space station and contained the primary living and working areas, life support, and power, as well as the main computer, communications, and control equipment. Priroda's main purpose was Earth remote sensing. The Spektr module provided Earth observation. It also supported research into biotechnology, life sciences, materials science, and space technologies. American astronauts used the Spektr as their living quarters. Kvant-2 was a scientific and airlock module, providing biological research, Earth observations, and EVA (extravehicular activity) capability. The Soyuz typically ferried three crewmembers to and from the Mir. A main purpose of the Kristall module was to develop biological and materials production technologies in the space environment. The Docking module made it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with the Mir. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as the Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific Ocean.

  12. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-08

    Sharing this scene with a half-moon is the Tethered Satellite System (TSS), in a photo captured onboard the STS-46. Circling Earth at an altitude of 296 kilometers (184 miles), the TSS-1 will be well within the tenuous, electrically charged layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. There, a satellite attached to the orbiter by a thin conducting cord, or tether, will be reeled from the Shuttle payload bay. On this mission the satellite was plarned to be deployed 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) above the Shuttle. The conducting tether will generate high voltage and electrical currents as it moves through the atmosphere allowing scientists to examine the electrodynamics of a conducting tether system. These studies will not only increase our understanding of physical processes in the near-Earth space environment, but will also help provide an explanation for events witnessed elsewhere in the solar system. The crew of the STS-46 mission were unable to reel the satellite as planned. After several unsuccessful attempts, they were only able to extend the satellite 9.8 kilometers (6.1 miles). The TSS was a cooperative development effort by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and NASA.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    This image illustrates the solid rocket motor (SRM)/solid rocket booster (SRB) configuration. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway of the solid rocket booster (SRB) sections with callouts. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-20

    The STS-64 patch depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery in a payload-bay-to-Earth attitude with its primary payload, Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE-1) operating in support of Mission to Planet Earth. LITE-1 is a lidar system that uses a three-wavelength laser, symbolized by the three gold rays emanating from the star in the payload bay that form part of the astronaut symbol. The major objective of the LITE-1 is to gather data about the Earth's troposphere and stratosphere, represented by the clouds and dual-colored Earth limb. A secondary payload on STS-64 is the free-flier SPARTAN 201 satellite shown on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm post-retrieval. The RMS also operated another payload, Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX). A newly tested extravehicular activity (EVA) maneuvering device, Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), represented symbolically by the two small nozzles on the backpacks of the two untethered EVA crew men. The names of the crew members encircle the patch: Astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Jerry M. Linenger, Susan J. Helms, Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee. The gold or silver stars by each name represent that person's parent service.

  17. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Commercial Market Projections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-05-16

    This study assesses the possible number of small commercial satellites to be : launched to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the period 1995-2005. The information : provided reflects an Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) : assessment of overall ...

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction. In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross was working on the ACCESS experiment during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA).

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo astronaut Ross, located on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) over the cargo bay, erects ACCESS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-12-08

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-103 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery approaching the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to its capture and berthing. The purpose of the mission was to remove and replace some of the Telescope's older and out-of-date systems with newer, more reliable and more capable ones, and to make repairs to HST's exterior thermal insulation that had been damaged by more than nine years of exposure to the space environment. The horizontal and vertical lines centered on the Telescope symbolize the ability to reach and maintain a desired attitude in space, essential to the instrument's scientific operation. The preservation of this ability was one of the primary objectives of the mission. After the flight, the Telescope resumed its successful exploration of deep space and will continue to be used to study solar system objects, stars in the making, late phases of stellar evolution, galaxies and the early history of the universe. HST, as represented on this emblem was inspired by views from previous servicing missions, with its solar arrays illuminated by the Sun, providing a striking contrast with the blackness of space and the night side of Earth.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-13

    The Space Shuttle External Tank 120 is shown here during transfer in NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans. Slated for launch on the Orbiter Discovery scheduled for next Spring, the tank will be erected vertically in preparation for its new foam application process on the liquid hydrogen tank-to-inter tank flange area, a tank structural connection point. The foam will be applied with an enhanced finishing procedure that requires two technicians, one for a new mold-injection procedure to the intertank’s ribbing and one for real-time videotaped surveillance of the process. Marshall Space Flight Center played a significant role in the development of the new application process designed to replace the possible debris shedding source previously used.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-13

    The Space Shuttle External Tank 120 is shown here in its vertical position in NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans. Slated for launch on the Orbiter Discovery scheduled for next Spring, the tank is in position for its new foam application process on the liquid hydrogen tank-to-inter tank flange area, a tank structural connection point. The foam will be applied with an enhanced finishing procedure that requires two technicians, one for a new mold-injection procedure to the intertank’s ribbing and one for real-time videotaped surveillance of the process. Marshall Space Flight Center played a significant role in the development of the new application process designed to replace the possible debris shedding source previously used.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-14

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. After securing the satellite with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), the crew proceeded with preparing the satellite for its release into space.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-06-06

    The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-61 crew insignia depicts the astronaut symbol superimposed against the sky with the Earth underneath. Also seen are two circles representing the optical configuration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Light is focused by reflections from a large primary mirror and a smaller secondary mirror. The light is analyzed by various instruments and, according to the crew members, brings to us on Earth knowledge about planets, stars, galaxies and other celestial objects, allowing us to better understand the complex physical processes at work in the universe. The Space Shuttle Endeavour is also represented as the fundamental tool that allows the crew to perform the first servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope so its scientific deep space mission may be extended for several years to come. The overall design of the emblem, with lines converging to a high point, is also a symbolic representation of the large-scale Earth-based effort which involves space agencies, industry, and the universities to reach goals of knowledge and perfection.

  10. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) soared from Launch Pad 39A begirning its 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory -1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch window was opened 47 minutes earlier than the originally scheduled time to improve the opportunity to lift off before Florida summer rain showers reached the space center. During the space flight, the MSL-1 was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that were planned for use on the International Space Station which were managed by scientists and engineers from the Marshall Space Flight Center, while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. Also onboard was the Hitchhiker Cryogenic Flexible Diode (CRYOFD) experiment payload, which was attached to the right side of Columbia's payload bay. These payloads had previously flown on the STS-83 mission in April, which was cut short after nearly four days because of indications of a faulty fuel cell. STS-94 was a reflight of that mission.

  11. Spacecraft Instrumentation to Measure and Stimulate Space Particles and Plasma Waves in the Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-12

    fluxgate magnetometer for the AFRL-DSX mission. The instrument is designed to measure the medium-Earth orbit geomagnetic field with precision of 0.1 nT and...which is essential to fulfill the two primary goals of the DSX science program. 1.1. Scientific Rationale: Ring Current and The fluxgate magnetometer ...UCLA’s ments and the Radiation Belt Remediation primary motivation in providing fluxgate requirements. The magnetic field is necessary magnetometers for

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-08

    The mission patch for STS-85 is designed to reflect the broad range of science and engineering payloads on the flight. The primary objectives of the mission were to measure chemical constituents in Earth’s atmosphere with a free-flying satellite and to flight-test a new Japanese robotic arm designed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). STS-85 was the second flight of the satellite known as Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 CRISTA-SPAS-02. CRISTA, depicted on the right side of the patch pointing its trio of infrared telescopes at Earth’s atmosphere, stands for Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere. The high inclination orbit is shown as a yellow band over Earth’s northern latitudes. In the Space Shuttle Discovery’s open payload bay an enlarged version of the Japanese National Space Development Agency’s (NASDA) Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD) robotic arm is shown. Also shown in the payload bay are two sets of multi-science experiments: the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-02) nearest the tail and the Technology Applications and Science (TAS-01) payload. Jupiter and three stars are shown to represent sources of ultraviolet energy in the universe. Comet Hale-Bopp, which was visible from Earth during the mission, is depicted at upper right. The left side of the patch symbolizes daytime operations over the Northern Hemisphere of Earth and the solar science objectives of several of the payloads.

  13. Intrepid Space Shuttle Pavilion Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and Enterprise Commander Joe Engle looks at an exhibit in the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum's Space Shuttle Pavilion where the space shuttle Enterprise is on Thursday, July 19, 2012 in New York. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Humans in earth orbit and planetary exploration missions; IAA Man in Space Symposium, 8th, Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, Sept. 29-Oct. 3, 1990, Selection of Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigor'ev, A. I. (Editor); Klein, K. E. (Editor); Nicogossian, A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on findings from space life science investigations relevant to long-term earth orbit and planetary exploration missions, as well as considerations for future research projects on these issues, discusses the cardiovascular system and countermeasures against its deterioration in the microgravity environment, cerebral and sensorimotor functions, findings to date in endocrinology and immunology, the musculoskeletal system, and health maintenance and medical care. Also discussed are radiation hazards and protective systems, life-support and habitability factors, and such methodologies and equipment for long space mission research as the use of animal models, novel noninvasive techniques for space crew health monitoring, and an integrated international aerospace medical information system.

  15. Space Shuttle Payload Information Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Payload Information Source Compact Disk (CD) is a joint NASA and USA project to introduce Space Shuttle capabilities, payload services and accommodations, and the payload integration process. The CD will be given to new payload customers or to organizations outside of NASA considering using the Space Shuttle as a launch vehicle. The information is high-level in a visually attractive format with a voice over. The format is in a presentation style plus 360 degree views, videos, and animation. Hyperlinks are provided to connect to the Internet for updates and more detailed information on how payloads are integrated into the Space Shuttle.

  16. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  17. Toward large space systems. [Space Construction Base development from shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daros, C. J.; Freitag, R. F.; Kline, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The design of the Space Transportation System, consisting of the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and upper stages, provides experience for the development of more advanced space systems. The next stage will involve space stations in low earth orbit with limited self-sufficiency, characterized by closed ecological environments, space-generated power, and perhaps the first use of space materials. The third phase would include manned geosynchronous space-station activity and a return to lunar operations. Easier access to space will encourage the use of more complex, maintenance-requiring satellites than those currently used. More advanced space systems could perform a wide range of public services such as electronic mail, personal and police communication, disaster control, earthquake detection/prediction, water availability indication, vehicle speed control, and burglar alarm/intrusion detection. Certain products, including integrated-circuit chips and some enzymes, can be processed to a higher degree of purity in space and might eventually be manufactured there. Hardware including dishes, booms, and planar surfaces necessary for advanced space systems and their development are discussed.

  18. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-19

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space walkers in transporting Orbital Replacement Units (ORU), with a mass up to 600 pounds (like the simulated battery pictured here), from translating carts on the exterior of ISS to various worksites on the truss structure. Earlier Doi, an international mission specialist representing Japan, and astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, had installed the crane in a socket along the middle port side of Columbia's cargo bay for the evaluation. The two began the crane operations after completing a contingency EVA to snag the free-flying Spartan 201 and berth it in the payload bay (visible in the background).

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-01

    This is a photograph of the free-flying Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMMS), or Solar Max, as seen by the approaching Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger STS-41C mission. Launched April 6, 1984, one of the goals of the STS-41C mission was to repair the damaged Solar Max. The original plan was to make an excursion out to the SMMS for capture to make necessary repairs, however, this attempted feat was unsuccessful. It was necessary to capture the satellite via the orbiter's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and secure it into the cargo bay in order to perform the repairs, which included replacing the altitude control system and the coronograph/polarimeter electronics box. The SMMS was originally launched into space via the Delta Rocket in February 1980, with the purpose to provide a means of studying solar flares during the most active part of the current sunspot cycle. Dr. Einar Tandberg-Hanssen of Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Lab was principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, one of the seven experiments on the Solar Max.

  20. Space Shuttle to deploy Magellan planetary science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-30 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-30 is to successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled to its Venus trajectory by an Inertial Upper Stage booster. The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic map, and near-global gravity field data. Secondary STS-30 payloads include the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE).

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-03-08

    The STS-30 patch depicts the joining of NASA's manned and unmanned space programs. The sun and inner planets of our solar system are shown with the curve connecting Earth and Venus symbolizing the shuttle orbit, the spacecraft trajectory toward Venus, and its subsequent orbit around our sister planet. A Spanish caravel similar to the ship on the official Magellan program logo commemorates the 16th century explorer's journey and his legacy of adventure and discovery. Seven stars on the patch honor the crew of Challenger. The five-star cluster in the shape of the constellation Cassiopeia represent the five STS-30 crewmembers - Astronauts David Walker, Ronald Grabe, Norman Thagard, Mary Cleave and Mark Lee - who collectively designed the patch.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-14

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this onboard photo, astronaut Kathryn Thornton is working on the Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM) in the cargo bay.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-01-20

    This photograph shows a static firing test of the Solid Rocket Qualification Motor-8 (QM-8) at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah. The twin solid rocket boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-05-27

    This photograph is a long shot view of a full scale solid rocket motor (SRM) for the solid rocket booster (SRB) being test fired at Morton Thiokol's Wasatch Operations in Utah. The twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1979-07-13

    This is a photograph of the solid rocket booster's (SRB's) Qualification Motor-1 (QM-1) being prepared for a static firing in a test stand at the Morton Thiokol Test Site in Wasatch, Utah, showing the aft end of the booster. The twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. Under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  6. Space Shuttle development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-07-01

    A forward segment is being lowered into the Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) east test area. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide, 27-feet long, and 33-feet high, was built in 1987 to provide data to verify the sealing capability of the redesign solid rocket motor (SRM) field and nozzle joints. The test facility applies pressure, temperature, and external loads to a short stack of solid rocket motor hardware. The simulated SRM ignition pressure and temperature transients are achieved by firing a small amount of specially configured solid propellant. The pressure transient is synchronized with external programmable dynamic loads that simulate lift off loads at the external tank attach points. Approximately one million pounds of dead weight on top of the test article simulates the weight of the other Shuttle elements.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-07-01

    A forward segment is being lowered into the Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test stand at thw Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) east test area. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide, 27-feet long, and 33-feet high, was built in 1987 to provide data to verify the sealing capability of the redesign solid rocket motor (SRM) field and nozzle joints. The test facility applies pressure, temperature, and external loads to a short stack of solid rocket motor hardware. The simulated SRM ignition pressure and temperature transients are achieved by firing a small amount of specially configured solid propellant. The pressure transient is synchronized with external programmable dynamic loads that simulate lift off loads at the external tank attach points. Approximately one million pounds of dead weight on top of the test article simulates the weight of the other Shuttle elements.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-07

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The 4.5 ton INTELSAT VI was successfully snared by three astronauts on a third EVA. The three hand-grabbed the errant satellite, pulled it into the cargo bay, and attached a boost-given perigee stage before its release.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-13

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this onboard photo, astronauts Hieb, Akers, and Thuot have handholds on the satellite.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-14

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. A view through Endeavour’s busy airlock reveals astronauts Thomas Akers and Kathryn Thornton.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-11

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. Recorded with a 35 mm camera inside Endeavour’s cabin, is astronaut Pierre Thuot after his second unsuccessful attempt to affix a specially designed grapple bar to the 4.5 ton INTELSAT VI.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-13

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The 4.5 ton satellite was successfully snared by three astronauts on a third EVA. The three hand-grabbed the errant satellite, pulled it into the cargo bay, and attached a boost-given perigee stage before its release. In this photo, the satellite spins slowly out of cargo bay to begin its “new lift”.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide and a virus. More than 200 scientists from 16 countries participated in the investigations. This is the logo or emblem that was designed to represent the IML-1 payload.

  15. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-07-01

    In this photograph, astronaut Carl Walz performs the Performance Assessment Workstation (PAWS) experiment at the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during the STS-65 mission. Present day astronauts are subject to a variety of stresses during spaceflight. These include microgravity, physical isolation, confinement, lack of privacy, fatigue, and changing work/rest cycles. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of microgravity upon thinking skills critical to the success of operational tasks in space. The principle objective is to distinguish between the effects of microgravity on specific information-processing skills affecting performance and those of fatigue caused by long work periods. To measure these skills, the investigators use a set of computerized performance tests called the Performance Assessment Workstation, which is based on current theoretical models of human performance. The tests were selected by analyzing tasks related to space missions and their hypothesized sensitivity to microgravity. Multiple subjective measures of cumulative fatigue and changing mood states are also included for interpreting performance data.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-08

    Astronauts John M. Grunsfeld (left), STS-109 payload commander, and Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab at Johnson Space Center to train for upcoming duties aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. This type of computer interface paired with virtual reality training hardware and software helps to prepare the entire team to perform its duties for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope Servicing mission. The most familiar form of virtual reality technology is some form of headpiece, which fits over your eyes and displays a three dimensional computerized image of another place. Turn your head left and right, and you see what would be to your sides; turn around, and you see what might be sneaking up on you. An important part of the technology is some type of data glove that you use to propel yourself through the virtual world. Currently, the medical community is using the new technologies in four major ways: To see parts of the body more accurately, for study, to make better diagnosis of disease and to plan surgery in more detail; to obtain a more accurate picture of a procedure during surgery; to perform more types of surgery with the most noninvasive, accurate methods possible; and to model interactions among molecules at a molecular level.

  18. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  19. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary space base. Ph.D. Thesis - Fla. State Univ., 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum hypothetical organizational structure was studied for a large earth-orbiting, multidisciplinary research and applications space base manned by a crew of technologists. Because such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than with the empirical testing of the model. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type total matrix model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of space base technologists.

  20. Photometric analysis of a space shuttle water venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viereck, R. A.; Murad, E.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Satayesh, A.; Berk, A.; Elgin, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a preliminary interpretation of a recent experiment conducted on Space Shuttle Discovery (Mission STS 29) in which a stream of liquid supply water was vented into space at twilight. The data consist of video images of the sunlight-scattering water/ice particle cloud that formed, taken by visible light-sensitive intensified cameras both onboard the spacecraft and at the AMOS ground station near the trajectory's nadir. This experiment was undertaken to study the phenomenology of water columns injected into the low-Earth orbital environment, and to provide information about the lifetime of ice particles that may recontact Space Shuttle orbits later. The findings about the composition of the cloud have relevance to ionospheric plasma depletion experiments and to the dynamics of the interaction of orbiting spacecraft with the environment.

  1. ITOS/space shuttle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are reported of a study to explore the potential cost reductions in the operational ITOS weather satellite program as a consequence of shuttle/bug availability for satellite placement and retrieval, and satellite servicing and maintenance. The study program was divided into shuttle impact on equipment and testing costs, and shuttle impact on overall future ITOS operational program costs, and shuttle impact on configuration. It is concluded that savings in recurring spacecraft costs can be realized in the 1978 ITOS program, if a space shuttle is utilized.

  2. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-04-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory being released from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-35 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered the Earth's atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, GRO's Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center, kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientist to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of star, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in BATSE's science program.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    The STS-77 crew patch displays the Shuttle Endeavour in the lower left and its reflection within the tripod and concave parabolic mirror of the SPARTAN Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE). The center leg of the tripod also delineates the top of the Spacehab's shape, the rest of which is outlined in gold just inside the red perimeter. The Spacehab was carried in the payload bay and housed the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF). Also depicted within the confines of the IAE mirror are the mission's rendezvous operations with the Passive Aerodynamically-Stabilized Magnetically-Damped satellite (PAM/STU) appears as a bright six-pointed star-like reflection of the sun on the edge of the mirror with Endeavour in position to track it. The sunlight on the mirror's edge, which also appears as an orbital sunset, is located over Goddard Space Flight Center, the development facility for the SPARTAN/IAE and Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) experiments. The reflection of the Earth is oriented to show the individual countries of the crew as well as the ocean which Captain Cook explored in the original Endeavour. The mission number 77 is featured as twin stylized chevrons and an orbiting satellite as adapted from NASA's logo. The stars at the top are arranged as seen in the northern sky in the vicinity of the constellation Ursa Minor. The field of 11 stars represents both the TEAMS cluster of experiments (the four antennae of GPS Attitude and Navigation Experiment (GANE), the single canister of Liquid Metal Thermal Experiment (LMTE), the three canisters of Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE), and the three canisters of PAM/STU) and the 11th flight of Endeavour. The constellation at the right shows the fourth flight of Spacehab Experiments.

  5. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 4: Space shuttle nuclear system transportation. Part 1: Space shuttle nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the nuclear safety aspects (design and operational considerations) in the transport of nuclear payloads to and from earth orbit by the space shuttle is presented. Three representative nuclear payloads used in the study were: (1) the zirconium hydride reactor Brayton power module, (2) the large isotope Brayton power system and (3) small isotopic heat sources which can be a part of an upper stage or part of a logistics module. Reference data on the space shuttle and nuclear payloads are presented in an appendix. Safety oriented design and operational requirements were identified to integrate the nuclear payloads in the shuttle mission. Contingency situations were discussed and operations and design features were recommended to minimize the nuclear hazards. The study indicates the safety, design and operational advantages in the use of a nuclear payload transfer module. The transfer module can provide many of the safety related support functions (blast and fragmentation protection, environmental control, payload ejection) minimizing the direct impact on the shuttle.

  6. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  7. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  8. Expendable Second Stage Reusable Space Shuttle Booster. Volume 9; Preliminary System Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The specification for establishing the requirements for the system performance, design, development, and ground and flight operations of the expendable second stage on a reusable space shuttle booster system is presented. The basic specification is that the system shall be capable of placing payloads in excess of 100,000 pounds into earth orbit. In addition, the expendable second stage provides a multimission, economical, large capability system suitable for a variety of space missions in the 1980 time period.

  9. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  10. Planned development of the space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information pertaining to the planned development of the space shuttle vehicle is presented. The package contains: (1) President's statement; (2) Dr. Fletcher's statement; (3) space shuttle fact sheet; (4) important reasons for the space shuttle.

  11. Upgrading the Space Shuttle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Motors, Honda , Toyota , and Nissan ). By learning from and applying the technologies developed elsewhere, NASA could greatly leverage its funding for...assessing risks to the shuttle. The committee believes that this tool has the potential to be very helpful in assessing and comparing the impact of...environmental regulations). Figure 2-2 shows how the S&PU budget compared to the total shuttle budget during four different years since 1985

  12. Natural and Induced Environment in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Heinbockel, John H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Atwell, William; Huston, Stuart L.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind which varies over the solar cycle. The neutron environment within the Shuttle in low Earth orbit has two sources. A time dependent model for the ambient environment is used to evaluate the natural and induced environment. The induced neutron environment is evaluated using measurements on STS-31 and STS-36 near the 1990 solar maximum.

  13. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  14. Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink.

    PubMed

    Wright, Malcolm W; Morris, Jeffery F; Kovalik, Joseph M; Andrews, Kenneth S; Abrahamson, Matthew J; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-12-28

    An adaptive optics (AO) testbed was integrated to the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) ground station telescope at the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) as part of the free space laser communications experiment with the flight system on board the International Space Station (ISS). Atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations on the optical downlink were adaptively corrected during an overflight of the ISS so that the transmitted laser signal could be efficiently coupled into a single mode fiber continuously. A stable output Strehl ratio of around 0.6 was demonstrated along with the recovery of a 50 Mbps encoded high definition (HD) video transmission from the ISS at the output of the single mode fiber. This proof of concept demonstration validates multi-Gbps optical downlinks from fast slewing low-Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft to ground assets in a manner that potentially allows seamless space to ground connectivity for future high data-rates network.

  15. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

  16. Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth's magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors. The models discussed herein are being developed to evaluate the natural and induced environment data for the Intelligence Synthesis Environment Project and eventual use in spacecraft optimization.

  17. The Space Shuttle in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial aspects of the Space Shuttle are examined, with attention given to charges to users, schedule of launches and reimbursement, kinds of payload and their selection, NASA authority, space allocation, and risk, liability, and insurance. It is concluded that insurance to reduce the risk, incentives that NASA is willing to make available to U.S. industry, and the demonstrated willingness of industry and the financial community to invest their funds in space ventures indicate that the new Shuttle capabilities will exponentially increase commercial activities in space during the 1980s.

  18. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  19. The space shuttle at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the orbital flight of the space shuttle and the development of the space transportation system are addressed. How the system came to be, why it is designed the way it is, what is expected of it, and how it may grow are among the questions considered. Emphasis is placed on the effect of the space transportation system on U.S. space exploration in the next decade, including plans to make space an extension of life on the Earth's surface.

  20. Earth observations taken from Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-80 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-30

    STS080-733-021 (19 Nov.-7 Dec. 1996) --- The crewmembers of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia took this view that shows Kuwait City (mid-center right and along the coastal area), most of Kuwait, portions of Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. Faylakah Awhah Island is seen in the Persian Gulf to the bottom right. Most of the darkened areas represent the residual from oil well fires during the Gulf War of the early 1990?s.

  1. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  2. Low-Earth orbit satellite servicing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. F.; Cepollina, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Servicing economics of low Earth orbit satellites were studied. The following topics are examined: the economic importance of the repair missions; comparison of mission cost as opposed to satellite modulation transfer functions over a 10 year period; the effect of satellite flight rate change due to changes in satellite failure rate; estimated satellite cost reduction with shuttle operation projects from the 1960's to the 1970's; design objectives of the multimission modular spacecraft; and the economic importance of the repair mission.

  3. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  4. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  5. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-08

    The STS-86 flight was the seventh shuttle-Mir docking mission, symbolized by seven stars. The international crew includes astronauts from the United States, Russia, and France. The flags of these nations are incorporated in the rays of the astronaut logo. The rays of light streaking across the sky depict the orbital tracks of the two spacecraft as they prepare to dock. During the flight, an American astronaut and a Russian cosmonaut will perform an extravehicular activity (EVA). The mercator projection of Earth illustrates the global cooperative nature of the flight.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-04-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-11-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  9. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  10. Collision warning and avoidance considerations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Collins, Michael F.; Kramer, Paul C.; Arndt, G. Dickey; Suddath, Jerry H.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing hazard of manmade debris in low earth orbit (LEO) has focused attention on the requirement for collision detection, warning and avoidance systems to be developed in order to protect manned (and unmanned) spacecraft. With the number of debris objects expected to be increasing with time, the impact hazard will also be increasing. The safety of the Space Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom from destructive or catastrophic collision resulting from the hypervelocity impact of a LEO object is of increasing concern to NASA. A number of approaches to this problem are in effect or under development. The collision avoidance procedures now in effect for the Shuttle are described, and detection and avoidance procedures presently being developed at the Johnson Space Center for the Space Station Freedom are discussed.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-04-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle’s airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  12. Space Shuttle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Many students are not even aware of the many activities related to the US Space Program. The intent of this presentation is to introduce students to the world of space exploration and encourage them to pursue math, science, and engineering careers. If this is not their particular interest, I want to encourage them to pursue their dream.

  13. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  14. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

  15. Visitors during STS-132 Space Shuttle Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-013 (14 May 2010) --- As visitors watch, the space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Ben Cooper

  16. Visitors during STS-132 Space Shuttle Atlantis Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-14

    STS132-S-014 (14 May 2010) --- With visitors looking on, the space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member STS-132 crew head toward Earth orbit and rendezvous with the International Space Station. Liftoff was at 2:20 p.m. (EDT) on May 14, 2010, from launch pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are NASA astronauts Ken Ham, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Garrett Reisman, Michael Good, Steve Bowen and Piers Sellers, all mission specialists. The crew will deliver the Russian-built Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) to the International Space Station. Named Rassvet, Russian for "dawn," the module is the second in a series of new pressurized components for Russia and will be permanently attached to the Earth-facing port of the Zarya Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Rassvet will be used for cargo storage and will provide an additional docking port to the station. Also aboard Atlantis is an Integrated Cargo Carrier, or ICC, an unpressurized flat bed pallet and keel yoke assembly used to support the transfer of exterior cargo from the shuttle to the station. STS-132 is the 34th mission to the station and the last scheduled flight for Atlantis. For more information on the STS-132 mission objectives, payload and crew, visit www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/index.html. Photo Credit: NASA/Ben Cooper

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-11-18

    This photograph shows Solid Rocket Booster segments undergoing stacking operations in Marshall Space Flight Center's Building 4707. The Solid Rocket Boosters were designed in-house at the Marshall Center with the Thiokol Corporation as the prime contractor.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    A Virginia student wears gloves inside a water tank to simulate the awkward feel and dexterity that astronauts experience when working in spacesuits. He is directed by Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    Gary Coulter, a special assistant to NASA's life sciences researchers, explains the workings of the irner ear to a Virginia student. The chair rotates to disorient the vestibular system in a simulation of research on how astronauts adapt to space and readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  20. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-20

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission’s crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    A student tries to insert plastic blocks into the correct holes in a baby's toy. The seemingly trivial task becomes nearly impossible when the prism glasses he is wearing reverse left and right. This is similar to tests used to measure how astronauts adapt to space and then readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  3. Space-Shuttle Emulator Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Askew, Bill; Barry, Matthew R.; Leigh, Agnes; Mermelstein, Scott; Owens, James; Payne, Dan; Pemble, Jim; Sollinger, John; Thompson, Hiram; hide

    2007-01-01

    A package of software has been developed to execute a raw binary image of the space shuttle flight software for simulation of the computational effects of operation of space shuttle avionics. This software can be run on inexpensive computer workstations. Heretofore, it was necessary to use real flight computers to perform such tests and simulations. The package includes a program that emulates the space shuttle orbiter general- purpose computer [consisting of a central processing unit (CPU), input/output processor (IOP), master sequence controller, and buscontrol elements]; an emulator of the orbiter display electronics unit and models of the associated cathode-ray tubes, keyboards, and switch controls; computational models of the data-bus network; computational models of the multiplexer-demultiplexer components; an emulation of the pulse-code modulation master unit; an emulation of the payload data interleaver; a model of the master timing unit; a model of the mass memory unit; and a software component that ensures compatibility of telemetry and command services between the simulated space shuttle avionics and a mission control center. The software package is portable to several host platforms.

  4. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  5. Living aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The crew habitat of the Space Shuttle is briefly characterized. Subjects discussed include the overall layout of the crew quarters; the air-purification and climate-control facilities; menus and food-preparation techniques; dishwashing, laundry, toilet, bathing, and shaving procedures; and recreation and sleeping accommodations. Drawings and a photograph are provided.

  6. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  7. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-01

    As early as September 1972, the Marshall Space Flight Center arnounced plans for a series of 20 water-entry simulation tests with a solid-fueled rocket casing assembly. The tests would provide valuable data for assessment of solid rocket booster parachute water recovery and aid in preliminary solid rocket motor design.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-08-08

    On August 8, 1989, the 4th mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD), STS-28, lifted off from Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) launch pad 39B. The five day mission included a crew of five: Richard N. (Dick) Richards, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; and mission specialists David C. Leestma, Mark N. Brown, and James C. (Jim) Adamson.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-06

    A Virginia student wears gloves to simulate the awkward feel and dexterity that astronauts experience when working in spacesuits. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107. (Digital camera image; no film original.

  11. STS-63 Space Shuttle report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-03-21

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) successfully test fired the third in a series of Transient Pressure Test Articles (TPTA) in its east test area. The test article was a short-stack solid rocket motor 52-feet long and 12-feet in diameter. The TPTA tests were designed to evaluate the effects of temperature, pressure and external loads encountered by the SRM, primarily during ignition transients. Instrumentation on the motor recorded approximately 1,000 charnels of data to verify the structural performance, thermal response, sealing capability of the redesign field, and case-to-nozzle joints. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide by 26-feet long by 33-feet high, was built in 1987. The TPTA series was a joint effort among Morton Thiokol, Inc., United Space Boosters, Inc., Wyle Laboratories, and MSFC. Wyle Laboratories conducted the tests for the MSFC, which manages the redesigned SRM program for NASA.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-06

    STS-49 Orbiter Endeavour landed at Edwards Air Force Base on May 16, 1992 after a successful nine day mission dedicated to the retrieval, repair, and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3) satellite. The communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization had been stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The mission marked the first time 3 astronauts worked simultaneously outside the space craft.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-01-01

    Columbia, which opened the era of the Space Transportation System with four orbital flight tests, is featured in re-entry in the emblem designed by the STS-61C crew representing the seven team members who manned the vehicle for its seventh STS mission. Gold lettering against black background honors the astronaut crewmembers on the delta pattern surrounding colorful re-entry shock waves, and the payload specialists are honored similarly below the sphere

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-01

    The STS-105 crew patch symbolizes the exchange of the Expedition Two and Expedition Three crews aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The three gold stars near the ascending orbiter represent the U.S. commanded Expedition Three Crew journeying into space, while the two gold stars near the descending orbiter represent the Russian commanded Expedition Two crew on their return to Earth. The ascending and descending Orbiters form a circle that represents both the crew rotation and the continuous presence in space aboard the station. The plumes of each orbiter represent the flags of the U.S. and Russia, symbolizing the close cooperation between the two nations. The Astronaut office symbol, a star with three rays of light, depicts the unbroken link between Earth and the brightest star on the horizon, the ISS. The names of Discovery's crew of four astronauts are shown along the border of the patch while the names of the Expedition crews are shown on the chevron at the bottom of the patch.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-01

    Launched April 6, 1984, one of the goals of the STS-41C mission was to repair the damaged free-flying Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMMS), or Solar Max. The original plan was to make an excursion out to the SMMS and capture it for necessary repairs. Pictured is Mission Specialist George Nelson approaching the damaged satellite in a capture attempt. This attempted feat was unsuccessful. It was necessary to capture the satellite via the orbiter's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) and secure it into the cargo bay in order to perform the repairs, which included replacing the altitude control system and the coronograph/polarimeter electronics box. The SMMS was originally launched into space via the Delta Rocket in February 1980, with the purpose to provide a means of studying solar flares during the most active part of the current sunspot cycle. Dr. Einar Tandberg-Hanssen of Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Sciences Lab was principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, one of the seven experiments of the Solar Max.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-16

    STS-49 Orbiter Endeavour landed at Edwards Air Force Base on May 16, 1992 The drogue chute precedes the main chute in NASA’s first exercise of its detailed test objective on the drag chute system. STS-49 ended its successful nine day mission dedicated to the retrieval, repair, and redeployment of the the INTELSAT VI (F-3) satellite. The communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization had been stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The mission marked the first time 3 astronauts worked simultaneously outside the space craft.

  18. A Comparison Between Orion Automated and Space Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Jose O,; Hart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the space shuttle and will be the first human spacecraft since the Apollo program to leave low earth orbit. This vehicle will serve as the cornerstone of a complete space transportation system with a myriad of mission requirements necessitating rendezvous to multiple vehicles in earth orbit, around the moon and eventually beyond . These goals will require a complex and robust vehicle that is, significantly different from both the space shuttle and the command module of the Apollo program. Historically, orbit operations have been accomplished with heavy reliance on ground support and manual crew reconfiguration and monitoring. One major difference with Orion is that automation will be incorporated as a key element of the man-vehicle system. The automated system will consist of software devoted to transitioning between events based on a master timeline. This effectively adds a layer of high level sequencing that moves control of the vehicle from one phase to the next. This type of automated control is not entirely new to spacecraft since the shuttle uses a version of this during ascent and entry operations. During shuttle orbit operations however many of the software modes and hardware switches must be manually configured through the use of printed procedures and instructions voiced from the ground. The goal of the automation scheme on Orion is to extend high level automation to all flight phases. The move towards automation represents a large shift from current space shuttle operations, and so these new systems will be adopted gradually via various safeguards. These include features such as authority-to-proceed, manual down modes, and functional inhibits. This paper describes the contrast between the manual and ground approach of the space shuttle and the proposed automation of the Orion vehicle. I will introduce typical orbit operations that are common to all rendezvous missions and go on to describe the current Orion automation

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-07-01

    This photograph shows the Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) test stand with the Modified Nasa Motor (M-NASA) test article at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SPTA test stand, 12-feet wide by 12-feet long by 24-feet high, was built in 1989 to provide comparative performance data on nozzle and case insulation material and to verify thermostructural analysis models. A modified NASA 48-inch solid motor (M-NASA motor) with a 12-foot blast tube and 10-inch throat makes up the SPTA. The M-NASA motor is being used to evaluate solid rocket motor internal non-asbestos insulation materials, nozzle designs, materials, and new inspection techniques. New internal motor case instrumentation techniques are also being evaluated.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-06-03

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers test fired a 26-foot long, 100,000-pound-thrust solid rocket motor for 30 seconds at the MSFC east test area, the first test firing of the Modified NASA Motor (M-NASA Motor). The M-NASA Motor was fired in a newly constructed stand. The motor is 48-inches in diameter and was loaded with two propellant cartridges weighing a total of approximately 12,000 pounds. The purpose of the test was to learn more about solid rocket motor insulation and nozzle materials and to provide young engineers additional hands-on expertise in solid rocket motor technology. The test is a part of NASA's Solid Propulsion Integrity Program, that is to provide NASA engineers with the techniques, engineering tools, and computer programs to be able to better design, build, and verify solid rocket motors.

  1. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  2. NASA Space Shuttle Program: Shuttle Environmental Assurance (SEA) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Steve E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first Space Shuttle flight was in 1981 and the fleet was originally expected to be replaced with a new generation vehicle in the early 21st century. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) elements proactively address environmental and obsolescence concerns and continue to improve safety and supportability. The SSP manager created the Shuttle Environmental Assurance (SEA) Initiative in 2000. SEA is to provide an integrated approach for the SSP to promote environmental excellence, proactively manage materials obsolescence, and optimize associated resources.

  3. Active Radiation Detectors for Use in Space Beyond Low Earth Orbit: Spatial and Energy Resolution Requirements and Methods for Heavy Ion Charge Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeth, Rafe A.

    Space radiation exposure to astronauts will need to be carefully monitored on future missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA has proposed an updated radiation risk framework that takes into account a significant amount of radiobiological and heavy ion track structure information. These models require active radiation detection systems to measure the energy and ion charge Z. However, current radiation detection systems cannot meet these demands. The aim of this study was to investigate several topics that will help next generation detection systems meet the NASA objectives. Specifically, this work investigates the required spatial resolution to avoid coincident events in a detector, the effects of energy straggling and conversion of dose from silicon to water, and methods for ion identification (Z) using machine learning. The main results of this dissertation are as follows: 1. Spatial resolution on the order of 0.1 cm is required for active space radiation detectors to have high confidence in identifying individual particles, i.e., to eliminate coincident events. 2. Energy resolution of a detector system will be limited by energy straggling effects and the conversion of dose in silicon to dose in biological tissue (water). 3. Machine learning methods show strong promise for identification of ion charge (Z) with simple detector designs.

  4. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  5. Effects of the low Earth orbit space environment on the surface chemistry of Kapton polyimide film: An XPS study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Myung; Rooney, William; Whiteside, James

    1992-01-01

    Kapton H (DuPont Trademark) polyimide specimens exposed to the low earth (LEO) space environment suffered significant weathering with surface erosions of approximately 8.0 microns. Despite these effects, no significant changes in bulk chemistry were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine local changes induced from approximately 25 percent in 1980 vintage ground control specimens to nearly 53 percent in space exposed specimens. The greatest increase was observed for the divalent oxygen moieties, although a slight increase in carbonyl oxygen was also measured. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of all XPS peaks of space-exposed Kapton are shifted to higher energy. This is consistent with a higher oxidation state of the space exposed surface. Finally, space exposed specimens had distinct silicon peaks (2p 100 eV and 2s 149 eV) in their XPS spectra in agreement with widespread reports of silicon contamination throughout the LDEF satellite. These results are discussed in terms of surface reactivity of the polyimide exposed to the LEO environment and the chemical nature of contaminants deposited on flight surfaces due to satellite outgassing.

  6. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  7. Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology program summary. Earth orbiting platforms program area of the space platforms technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.

    1991-01-01

    Control-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology embraces the understanding of the interaction between the spacecraft structure and the control system, and the creation and validation of concepts, techniques, and tools, for enabling the interdisciplinary design of an integrated structure and control system, rather than the integration of a structural design and a control system design. The goal of this program is to develop validated CSI technology for integrated design/analysis and qualification of large flexible space systems and precision space structures. A description of the CSI technology program is presented.

  8. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  9. Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-134

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-29

    An faint profile outline of the space shuttle Endeavour is seen projected in the sky as powerful xenon lights illuminate launch pad 39a shortly after the rollback of the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) from Endeavour, Thursday, April 28, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. During the 14-day mission, Endeavour and the STS-134 crew will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) and spare parts including two S-band communications antennas, a high-pressure gas tank and additional spare parts for Dextre. Launch is targeted for Friday, April 29 at 3:47 p.m. EDT. Photo credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Impact: an Integrated Approach (Space and Ground) for Monitoring the Threat of Earth Orbit Corssing Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussolino, L.; Somma, R.

    The threat of possible collision of asteroids and comets with our planet has reached an international stage since 1990 when U.S.A. Congress set up a dedicated committee for the analysis and the assessment of this problem.The U.N. organized a congress later on to summarize the current knowledge on this subject as well as the Europea Council recommended its member states to conduct studies to further deepen the understanding in terms of tackling and solving this kind of problem interesting the entire world. IMPACT is the acronym for " International Monitoring Program for Asteroids and Comets Threats " coming out as proposal from a study funded by the italian region PIEMONTE throughout the Civil Protection Bureau and performed by the Planetology Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Torino ( Italy ) and Alenia Spazio for the engineering part. They have carried out a series of analyses aimed at contributing in subsequent steps to the solution of the two fundamental problems associated to the potential impact threat : the assessment of the numbers of killers/terminators and the impact rates from one side and the development of the idea of considering space segments for supporting activities of discovery as well as the physical and mineralogical characterization using satellites in orbit around the Earth. other additional studies also funded by the European Space Agency where the space technology appears to offer a great contribution if conveniently integrated with the Earth networks for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids ( PHA ) detection. An international approach for monitoring this threat for the Earth is then proposed.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects Overview to Columbia Air Forces War College

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Jody; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, a general overview of space shuttle projects. Some of the topics include: 1) Space Shuttle Projects; 2) Marshall Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Projects Office; 3) Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; 4) Space Shuttle Program Major Sites; 5) NASA Office of Space flight (OSF) Center Roles in Space Shuttle Program; 6) Space Shuttle Hardware Flow; and 7) Shuttle Flights To Date.

  12. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  13. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  14. Potential Applications of Modularity to Enable a Deep Space Habitation Capability for Future Human Exploration Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Smitherman, David

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating preliminary concepts of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) enabling long duration crewed exploration of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars is a technically challenging problem. Sufficient habitat volumes and equipment, necessary to ensure crew health and functionality, increase propellant requirements and decrease launch flexibility to deliver multiple elements on a single launch vehicle; both of which increase overall mission cost. Applying modularity in the design of the habitat structures and subsystems can alleviate these difficulties by spreading the build-up of the overall habitation capability across several smaller parts. This allows for a more flexible habitation approach that accommodates various crew mission durations and levels of functionality. This paper provides a technical analysis of how various modular habitation approaches can impact the parametric design of a DSH with potential benefits in mass, packaging volume, and architectural flexibility. This includes a description of the desired long duration habitation capability, the definition of a baseline model for comparison, a small trade study to investigate alternatives, and commentary on potentially advantageous configurations to enable different levels of habitability. The approaches investigated include modular pressure vessel strategies, modular subsystems, and modular manufacturing approaches to habitat structure. The paper also comments upon the possibility of an integrated habitation strategy using modular components to create all short and long duration habitation elements required in the current exploration architectures.

  15. Space rocket engine on the base of the reactor-pumped laser for the interplanetary flights and earth orbital applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulevich, Andrey V.; Dyachenko, Peter P.; Kukharchuk, Oleg F.; Zrodnikov, Anatoly V.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the concept of vehicle-based reactor-laser engine for long time interplanetary and interorbital (LEO to GEO) flights is proposed. Reactor-pumped lasers offer the perspective way to create on the base of modern nuclear and lasers technologies the low mass and high energy density, repetitively pulsed vehicle-based laser of average power 100 kW. Nowadays the efficiency of nuclear-to-optical energy conversion reached the value of 2-3%. The demo model of reactor-pumped laser facility is under construction in Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russia). It enable us to hope that using high power laser on board of the vehicle could make the effective space laser engine possible. Such engine may provide the high specific impulse ~1000-2000 s with the thrust up to 10-100 n. Some calculation results of the characteristics of vehicle-based reactor-laser thermal engine concept are also presented. .

  16. STS-121 Space Shuttle Processing Update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-27

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, left, and Associate Administrator for Space Operations William Gerstenmaier, right, look on as Space Shuttle Program Manager Wayne Hale talks from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center about the space shuttle's ice frost ramps during a media briefing about the space shuttle program and processing for the STS-121 mission, Friday, April 28, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAleer, Neil

    1989-01-01

    NASA celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1988, two days after the Space Shuttle soared into space once more. When Congress approved the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958, the United States had successfully launched only four small satellites and no American astronaut had yet flown in space. In the three decades since, four generations of manned spacecraft have been built and flown, twelve men have walked on the Moon, more than 100 Americans have flown and worked in space, and communications satellites and other Space-Age technologies have transformed life on planet Earth. When NASA's Golden Anniversary is celebrated in 2008, it is likely that men and women will be permanently living and working in space. There may be a base on the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars may only be years away. If a brief history of the first half-century of the Space Age is written for that event, it will show clearly how the exploration of space has altered the course of human history and allowed us to take a better hold of our destiny on and off planet Earth.

  18. STS-117 S3 and S4 Trusses in the Space Shuttle Atlantis Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This nadir view of the STS-117 mission Space Shuttle Atlantis, taken by the Expedition 15 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS), occurred just before the two spacecraft linked up in Earth orbit. Berthed in the cargo bay are the 17.8 ton second and third (S3 and S4) truss segments ready for installment. STS-117 mission objectives included the addition of S3 and S4 with Photovoltaic Radiator (PVR), the deployment of the third set of solar arrays, and the retraction of the P4 starboard solar array wing and one radiator.

  19. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  20. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  1. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  2. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  3. Transition to the space shuttle operations era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The tasks involved in the Space Shuttle Development Program are discussed. The ten major characteristics of an operational Shuttle are described, as well as the changes occurring in Shuttle processing, on-line operations, operations engineering, and support operations. A summary is given of tasks and goals that are being pursued in the effort to create a cost effective and efficient system.

  4. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  5. Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  6. Space Shuttle orbiter modifications to support Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segert, Randall; Lichtenfels, Allyson

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will be the primary vehicle to support the launch, assembly, and maintenance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). In order to accommodate this function, the Space Shuttle orbiter will require significant modifications. These modifications are currently in development in the Space Shuttle Program. The requirements for the planned modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter are dependent on the design of the SSF. Therefore, extensive coordination is required with the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) in order to identify requirements and resolve integration issues. This paper describes the modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter required to support SSF assembly and operations.

  7. International Space Station from Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour took this spectacular image of the International Space Station during the STS118 mission, August 8-21, 2007. The image was acquired by an astronaut through one of the crew cabin windows, looking back over the length of the Shuttle. This oblique (looking at an angle from vertical, rather than straight down towards the Earth) image was acquired almost one hour after late inspection activities had begun. The sensor head of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is visible at image top left. The entire Space Station is visible at image bottom center, set against the backdrop of the Ionian Sea approximately 330 kilometers below it. Other visible features of the southeastern Mediterranean region include the toe and heel of Italy's 'boot' at image lower left, and the western coastlines of Albania and Greece, which extend across image center. Farther towards the horizon, the Aegean and Black Seas are also visible. Featured astronaut photograph STS118-E-9469 was acquired by the STS-118 crew on August 19, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center.

  8. Characterization of material surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen on space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Material samples prepared for exposure to ambient atomic oxygen encountered during space shuttle flights in low Earth orbit were characterized by the experimental techniques of ELLIPSOMETRY, ESCA, PIXE, and RBS. The first group of samples, which were exposed during the STS-8 mission, exhibited some very interesting results. The second group of samples, which are to be exposed during the upcoming STS-17 mission, have been especially prepared to yield quantitative information on the optical changes, oxygen solution, and surface layer formation on metal films of silver, gold, nickel, chromium, aluminum, platinum, and palladium evaporated onto optically polished silicon wafers.

  9. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  10. Thunderstorm observations from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonnegut, B.; Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Brook, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of the Nighttime/Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiments done on the STS-2 and STS-4 flights are covered. During these two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the astronaut teams of J. Engle and R. Truly, and K. Mattingly II and H. Hartsfield took motion pictures of thunderstorms with a 16 mm cine camera. Film taken during daylight showed interesting thunderstorm cloud formations, where individual frames taken tens of seconds apart, when viewed as stereo pairs, provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the cloud systems. Film taken at night showed clouds illuminated by lightning with discharges that propagated horizontally at speeds of up to 10 to the 5th m/sec and extended for distances on the order of 60 km or more.

  11. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  12. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  13. Shuttle Shortfalls and Lessons Learned for the Sustainment of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Much debate and national soul searching has taken place over the value of the Space Shuttle which first flew in 1981 and which is currently scheduled to be retired in 2010. Originally developed post-Saturn Apollo to emphasize affordability and safety, the reusable Space Shuttle instead came to be perceived as economically unsustainable and lacking the technology maturity to assure safe, routine access to low earth orbit (LEO). After the loss of two crews, aboard Challenger and Columbia, followed by the decision to retire the system in 2010, it is critical that this three decades worth of human space flight experience be well understood. Understanding of the past is imperative to further those goals for which the Space Shuttle was a stepping-stone in the advancement of knowledge. There was significant reduction in life cycle costs between the Saturn Apollo and the Space Shuttle. However, the advancement in life cycle cost reduction from Saturn Apollo to the Space Shuttle fell far short of its goal. This paper will explore the reasons for this shortfall. Shortfalls and lessons learned can be categorized as related to design factors, at the architecture, element and sub-system levels, as well as to programmatic factors, in terms of goals, requirements, management and organization. Additionally, no review of the Space Shuttle program and attempt to take away key lessons would be complete without a strategic review. That is, how do national space goals drive future space transportation development strategies? The lessons of the Space Shuttle are invaluable in all respects - technical, as in design, program-wise, as in organizational approach and goal setting, and strategically, within the context of the generational march toward an expanded human presence in space. Beyond lessons though (and the innumerable papers, anecdotes and opinions published on this topic) this paper traces tangible, achievable steps, derived from the Space Shuttle program experience, that must be

  14. STS-118 Space Shuttle Crew Honored

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-10

    A special event honoring the crew of space shuttle mission STS-118 was held at Walt Disney World. Here, visitors enjoy the NASA display at Epcot's Innoventions Center. The event also honored teacher-turned-astronaut Barbara R. Morgan, who dedicated a plaque outside the Mission: Space attraction. Other activities included meeting with the media and students and a parade down Main Street. Mission STS-118 was the 119th shuttle program flight and the 22nd flight to the International Space Station. Space shuttle Endeavour launched from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Aug. 8 and landed Aug. 21. The mission delivered the S5 truss, continuing the assembly of the space station.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-07-25

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  16. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  17. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  18. The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Wood, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle Earth Observations Office conducts astronaut training in earth observations, provides orbital documentation for acquisition of data and catalogs, and analyzes the astronaut handheld photography upon the return of Space Shuttle missions. This paper provides backgrounds on these functions and outlines the data constraints, organization, formats, and modes of access within the public domain.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery Fly-Over

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Spectators watch as space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) flies over the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Chantilly, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.