Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J
Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.
Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.
In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error
Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.
Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.
Behera, M; Ghangrekar, M M
Performance of four microbial fuel cells (MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4) made up of earthen pots with wall thicknesses of 3, 5, 7 and 8.5 mm, respectively, was evaluated. The MFCs were operated in fed batch mode with synthetic wastewater having sucrose as the carbon source. The power generation decreased with increase in the thickness of the earthen pot which was used to make the anode chamber. MFC-1 generated highest sustainable power density of 24.32 mW/m(2) and volumetric power of 1.04 W/m(3) (1.91 mA, 0.191 V) at 100 Ω external resistance. The maximum Coulombic efficiencies obtained in MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4 were 7.7, 7.1, 6.8 and 6.1%, respectively. The oxygen mass transfer and oxygen diffusion coefficients measured for earthen plate of 3 mm thickness were 1.79 × 10(-5) and 5.38 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively, which implies that earthen plate is permeable to oxygen as other polymeric membranes. The internal resistance increased with increase in thickness of the earthen pot MFCs. The thickness of the earthen material affected the overall performance of MFCs.
Trisha Rude; Anne Trinkle Jones
In North America, prehistoric pottery is primarily earthenware (a porous ceramic, fired at a relatively low temperature). It is not glass-like or dense like other kinds of pottery such as stoneware and porcelain (see chapter 6).
... (radioactive) material. (v) Thirty (30) mL water capacity (1.8 cubic inches) for authorized Division 2.2....2 mm (0.008 inch), or earthenware, glass, or metal; (3) Each inner receptacle with a removable...
porcelain fragments recovered were Group I, Chinese Export Porcelain . No evidence of Group II, English Porcelain , was present. There were 40 fragments...earthenware, stoneware and porcelain . Distribution of colonial ceramics by unit and level appears in Appendices 2 31 and 3. Therefore, only classes and...unidentifiable fragments of stoneware. Similar to the earthenware, they were not identified because of being burned or too small. Class C Porcelain All
... Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A or B material; and (iv) [Reserved] (v) Thirty (30) mL water... of plastic having a minimum thickness of no less than 0.2 mm (0.008 inch), or earthenware, glass, or...
Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John
Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low‐cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m−3, respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m−3, respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio‐film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m−2, respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries. PMID:26692569
Pasternak, Grzegorz; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) made with different types of ceramic membranes were investigated to find a low-cost alternative to commercially available proton exchange membranes. The MFCs operated with fresh human urine as the fuel. Pyrophyllite and earthenware produced the best performance to reach power densities of 6.93 and 6.85 W m(-3), respectively, whereas mullite and alumina achieved power densities of 4.98 and 2.60 W m(-3), respectively. The results indicate the dependence of bio-film growth and activity on the type of ceramic membrane applied. The most favourable conditions were created in earthenware MFCs. The performance of the ceramic membranes was related to their physical and chemical properties determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cost of mullite, earthenware, pyrophyllite and alumina was estimated to be 13.61, 4.14, 387.96 and 177.03 GBP m(-2), respectively. The results indicate that earthenware and mullite are good substitutes for commercially available proton exchange membranes, which makes the MFC technology accessible in developing countries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
children’s shoes. 551.42 Lot No. Fourteen, Notions: pens, needles, thimbles, suspenders, handkerchiefs, trimmings, lace, gloves, tooth -brushes, fans, match...to produce a green opaque glaze. Usually, tin glazed, or tin enameled , earthenwares received hand painted decoration; this class of decoration is a...creamware gives a yellowish appearance, cobalt has the effect of whitening pearlware. Like creamware, pearlware was popular through the 163 a 7
Whalen, Kathryn M.
This dissertation looks at three categories of ceramics and the creation of a hybrid culture during the Early Modern and Modern period in Ireland. During these time periods Ireland was a part of the English global colonial enterprises, and was the site of many legal and cultural changes due to its subordinate position in the hierarchy of socio-political and economic phenomenon that characterize the pinnacle of British global power. This study looks to understand how these powers articulated with England's one European colony, Ireland, and if that articulation has similarities to other colonial cultures across time and space. To study the possibility of hybridity between the Irish and English inhabitants of Ireland during the Post-Medieval Period, three categories of ceramics have been analyzed. Fine earthenwares in the form of tablewares and tea sets were macroscopically analyzed for patterns, age, and place of origin. Coarse earthenwares were subjected to X-ray florescence to look for patterns in the spectral data to see if a point of origin could be ascribed to them. And lastly, white ball clay pipe fragments were both macroscopically analyzed for makers' marks and subjected to X-ray florescence to verify their point of origin. The relationship between where these artifacts come from- if they are local productions or imports- and where they were disposed of- either across the landscaper or only associated with households of particular ethnicities- says something about how people negotiate their ethnic identities in colonial settings. As people in Ireland adopt the English style of tea drinking and start to use English mass-produced fine earthenwares, it disrupts the local cottage industry of coarse earthenware manufacturing. What this study seeks to know is if there is a difference in the adoption of English tea drinking, and if the purchasing of certain types of ceramic vessels contributes to the performance of ethnic identity in a colonial setting.
Pirsig, W; Helidonis, E; Velegrakis, G
A small earthenware statuette was evacuated from the votive-depot of acropolis of Gortys, an ancient town in South-Crete/Greece. This ex-voto is dated approximately 7th to 6th century BC and very probably represents some symptoms of a stroke, especially the left facial palsy and the contracture of the left arm. Since the Minoan time until today, people of Crete have been offering ex-votos to gods or saints to ask for help in specific diseases.
LA R C GOODWIN ET AL. UNCLAssIFIED 05 OCT 83 PD-Rt-83-06 DACW29-83 II 8977 F/6 5/6 N 1.0 , jj8 IM-ff9 1.05 1111_1 MICROCOP RESLUIO TEST CH2.2NIOL BRA...uniits is shown in Table 9. Red colored earthenware has a distinctive paste color, due to the presence o5f i1ron compounds in the clay. Red- ware
Swann, C. P.; Caspi, Sara; Carlson, Janice
Much has been said recently concerning the Moche culture of Peru (100 B.C. to 700 A.D. ) which preceded the more widely known Inca society. Since there was no written language, what is known about the Moche people has been through the artifacts produced, their design and craftsmanship. This study concerns the PIXE analysis of the matrix and the red and white surface patterns of six stirrup handled earthenware vessels. The results suggest different techniques were applied for producing the coloring and surface designs and that a common source of clays was not used in the construction.
Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan
Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.
Maco, Vicente; Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru.
Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru. PMID:21529395
Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.
Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.
Linet, M S; Malker, H S; McLaughlin, J K; Weiner, J A; Blot, W J; Ericsson, J L; Fraumeni, J F
Incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in different employment categories was evaluated from the Swedish Cancer-Environment Registry, which links cancer incidence during 1961 to 1979 with occupational information from the 1960 census. New associations were found for men employed in shoemaking and shoe repair, porcelain and earthenware industries, education, and other white collar occupations. Several findings supported associations found in other countries, including excesses among woodworkers, furniture makers, electric power plant workers, farmers, dairy workers, lorry drivers, and other land transport workers. Risks were not increased among chemists, chemical or rubber manufacturing workers, or petrochemical refinery workers. Caution must be used in drawing causal inferences from these linked registry data because information on exposure and duration of employment is not available. Nevertheless, this study has suggested new clues to possible occupational determinants of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:8431395
We have realized in many documents that in the Ottoman period surgeons were involved in pharmaceutics as much as physicians and herbalists. Surgeons employed by the state ordered more drugs than physicians, and it is interesting that in their order list there were mostly singular drugs instead of ready-made ones. In addition to drugs used by surgeons in preparing ointments and plasters, pans and filters were utilized in the process of production, and earthenware pots, tin and wooden boxes with various kinds of paper were ordered for the purpose of packaging. We have determined that most of the single drugs placed onto the lists of surgeons were "ointment of rust" that dries the pus, and "red ointment" that is good for all kinds of pus. The preparation of the ointments were specified in detail in books of surgery (Cerrahnames)We have observed that parallel to the Regulation of 1826, surgeons were given the title of pharmacist when they were appointed to military bodies. 100 kurus (piaster) were paid to surgeons for performing surgery and 50 kurus for preparing drugs, which is another important document indicating that surgeons were more responsible than physicians in preparing drugs.
From the Nara period through to the end of the Heian and early Kamakura periods, the population of Japan grew by 50% thanks to increases in rice cultivation. Such expanded food production resulted in changes in the social structure providing opportunities to those in control of armed forces to become local feudal lords. Many wars fought in the process necessitated the development of treatment methods for Kinso (wounds caused by swords, spears, and similar weapons), to which Jinsoes (Buddhist monks/doctors that accompanied troops) attended, making extensive use of herbal medicine that had been developed by the people of the time. Many war commanders brought Jinsoes to battle fields, which became a custom during the Sengoku (warring) period. As many of the Jinsoes were well educated, they also served as entertainers to the commanders through their knowledge in Go or Renga (a game involving popular poetical verses). Their talents and training eventually resulted in many of the so called traditional arts including Noh, Kabuki, tea ceremony and earthenware production.
Maness, Niels; McGlynn, William
This research evaluated blackberries grown in Oklahoma and wines produced using a modified traditional Korean technique employing relatively oxygen-permeable earthenware fermentation vessels. The fermentation variables were temperature (21.6°C versus 26.6°C) and yeast inoculation versus wild fermentation. Wild fermented wines had higher total phenolic concentration than yeast fermented wines. Overall, wines had a relatively high concentration of anthocyanin (85–320 mg L−1 malvidin-3-monoglucoside) and antioxidant capacity (9776–37845 µmol Trolox equivalent g−1). “Natchez” berries had a higher anthocyanin concentration than “Triple Crown” berries. Higher fermentation temperature at the start of the winemaking process followed by the use of lower fermentation/storage temperature for aging wine samples maximized phenolic compound extraction/retention. The Korean winemaking technique used in this study produced blackberry wines that were excellent sources of polyphenolic compounds as well as being high in antioxidant capacity as measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test. PMID:28713820
Rashid, Arsalaan F; Fazili, Rifat; Aggarwal, Akash D
Kangri an earthenware firepot has been traditionally used by people of Kashmir for protecting themselves for harsh winter weather. This study done on patients admitted in the burns ward and general emergency ward of a tertiary care hospital, is perhaps the first of its kind. It analyses the use of this very traditional and useful art form as a weapon that can cause significant damage during interpersonal conflicts. As is clear from the study its use as weapon can inflict considerable damage and can lead to lifelong disabilities. Out of the 20 cases studied over a period of one year 2 cases received grievous injuries over head and face region in form of permanent disfigurement. Almost half of the injuries i.e. 7 cases were mechanical in nature whereas rest 13 cases belong to thermal category. Most of the injuries were simple and healed with preliminary medical attention but in 2 cases there was permanent disfigurement and both were because of deep burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Lead poisoning adversely affects children worldwide. During 1999-2000, an estimated 434,000 children aged 1-5 years in the United States had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) >/=10 microg/dL. Glazes found on ceramics, earthenware, bone china, and porcelain often contain lead and are a potential source of lead exposure. Children are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of lead. Exposures to lead in early childhood can have adverse effects on the developing nervous system, resulting in decreased intelligence and changes in behavior. In addition, certain behaviors (e.g., thumb sucking) place children at greater risk for exposure to lead. In 2003, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (LPPP), and the Mount Sinai Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated a case of lead poisoning in a boy aged 20 months. This report summarizes that case investigation, which identified ceramic dinnerware imported from France as the source of lead exposure. This case underscores the susceptibility of children to a toxic exposure associated with 1) the high proportion of time spent in the home and 2) dietary habits that promote exposure to lead leached from ceramic ware.
Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.; Jordán, M. M.
The Oliete basin (Early Cretaceous, NE Teruel, Spain) is one of the most important areas for the supply of mine spoils used as ball clays for the production of white and red stoneware in the Spanish ceramic industry of wall and floor tiles. This study corresponds to the second part of the paper published recently by Meseguer et al. (Environ Geol 2008) about the use of mine spoils from Teruel coal mining district. The present study shows a statistical data analysis from chemical data (major, minor and trace elements). The performed statistical analysis of chemical data included descriptive statistics and cluster analysis (with ANOVA and Scheffé methods). The cluster analysis of chemical data provided three main groups: C3 with the highest mean SiO2 content (66%) and lowest mean Al2O3 content (20%); C2 with lower SiO2 content (48%) and higher mean Al2O3 content (28%); and C1 with medium values for the SiO2 and Al2O3 mean content. The main applications of these materials are refractory, white and red ceramics, stoneware, heavy ceramics (including red earthenware, bricks and roof tiles), and components of white Portland cement and aluminous cement. Clays from group 2 are used in refractories (with higher kaolinite content, and constrictions to CaO + MgO and K2O + Na2O contents). All materials can be used in fine ceramics (white or red, according to the Fe2O3 + TiO2 content).
Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert
A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies.
Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi
The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40–50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge
Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi; Ezigbo, Eucharia Chizoba
The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa ( e x. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40-50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge
Anderson, Paula J
Inhaled therapies have been used since ancient times and may have had their origins with the smoking of datura preparations in India 4,000 years ago. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, earthenware inhalers were popular for the inhalation of air drawn through infusions of plants and other ingredients. Atomizers and nebulizers were developed in the mid-1800s in France and were thought to be an outgrowth of the perfume industry as well as a response to the fashion of inhaling thermal waters at spas. Around the turn of the 20th century, combustible powders and cigarettes containing stramonium were popular for asthma and other lung complaints. Following the discovery of the utility of epinephrine for treating asthma, hand-bulb nebulizers were developed, as well as early compressor nebulizers. The marketing of the first pressurized metered-dose inhaler for epinephrine and isoproterenol, by Riker Laboratories in 1956, was a milestone in the development of inhaled drugs. There have been remarkable advances in the technology of devices and formulations for inhaled drugs in the past 50 years. These have been influenced greatly by scientific developments in several areas: theoretical modeling and indirect measures of lung deposition, particle sizing techniques and in vitro deposition studies, scintigraphic deposition studies, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which banned chlorofluorocarbon propellants. We are now in an era of rapid technologic progress in inhaled drug delivery and applications of aerosol science, with the use of the aerosolized route for drugs for systemic therapy and for gene replacement therapy, use of aerosolized antimicrobials and immunosuppressants, and interest in specific targeting of inhaled drugs.
Vannoni, Francesca; Demaria, M; Quarta, D; Gargiulo, Lidia; Costa, G
Little is known about the distribution by occupation of chronic illness, disability, morbidity, and lifestyles which put health at risk. To provide a map of the social inequalities in various dimensions of health and lifestyle by social class and for specific occupational groups. To formulate a hypothesis about the mechanisms which generate these inequalities. Prevalence rate ratios and prevalence odds ratios of perceived health, chronic illness, disability, absenteeism, trauma, smoking, and obesity calculated with data from the 1999-2000 Italian ISTAT (Central Statistics Institute) health survey; the study population includes adults (aged over 18 years) employed, or searching for a job, or withdrawn from the workforce. Among workers in manual unskilled labour, construction and agriculture are noted for worse health and more unhealthy lifestyles than average. For example, perceived bad health is more widespread among agricultural labourers (OR = 1.63), masons and construction machine operators (OR = 1.75), transport drivers (OR = 1.40), male caretakers, custodians, janitors and domestic help (OR = 1.46), electro-technicians (OR = 1.44), leatherworkers and shoemakers (OR = 3.58), miners and quarrymen (OR = 2.60), earthenware and stone workers (OR = 2.14), garment and furnishings workers (OR = 1.86); in female workers excess risk for perceived bad health was present among agricultural labourers (OR = 2.08), caretakers, custodians, janitors and domestic helpers (OR = 1.49), waitresses, cooks and bartenders, (OR = 1.44), and textile workers (OR = 1.67). Smoking was more widespread among chemical workers (OR = 1.41), and in miners and quarrymen (OR = 1.30). An excess risk of smoking of 20-25% was evident in spinners, weavers and finishers; masons, (and) builders; waiters, cooks and bartenders; garment and furnishings workers; porters and warehouse workers. The risk was 10% higher among foundry workers and forgers, plumbers, carpenters and welders, and transport drivers
Coluzzi, R.; Guariglia, A.; Lacovara, B.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.
This paper analyses the capability of airborne LiDAR derived data in the recognition of archaeological marks. It also evaluates the benefits to integrate them with aerial photos and very high resolution satellite imagery. The selected test site is Monteserico, a medieval village located on a pastureland hill in the North East of Basilicata (Southern Italy). The site, attested by documentary sources beginning from the 12th century, was discovered by aerial survey in 1996  and investigated in 2005 by using QuickBird imagery . The only architectural evidence is a castle, built on the western top of the hill; whereas on the southern side, earthenware, pottery and crumbling building materials, related to the medieval settlement, could be observed. From a geological point of view, the stratigraphic sequence is composed of Subappennine Clays, Monte Marano sands and Irsina conglomerates. Sporadic herbaceous plants grow over the investigated area. For the purpose of this study, a full-waveform laser scanning with a 240.000 Hz frequency was used. The average point density value of dataset is about 30 points/m2. The final product is a 0.30 m Digital Surface Models (DSMs) accurately modelled. To derive the DSM the point cloud of the ALS was filtered and then classified by applying appropriate algorithms. In this way surface relief and archaeological features were surveyed with great detail. The DSM was compared with other remote sensing data source such as oblique and nadiral aerial photos and QuickBird imagery, acquired in different time. In this way it was possible to evaluate, compare each other and overlay the archaeological features recorded from each data source (aerial, satellite and lidar). Lidar data showed some interesting results. In particular, they allowed for identifying and recording differences in height on the ground produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks). Most of these features are visible also by the optical
Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones