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Sample records for earthquake disaster management

  1. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SHARING DEMONSTRATION AMONG ORGANIZATIONS IN CHARGE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN TOKYO METROPOLITAN NEAR FIELD EARTHQUAKE DISASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Yasunori; Kondo, Shinya; Meguro, Kimiro; Ohara, Miho; Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Kobayashi, Keiji; Suzuki, Takeyasu; Noda, Itsuki; Shimora, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Arakawa, Junpei; Yoshimoto, Kenichi

    For realizing cross-sectional inform ation sharing in the Tokyo metropolitan area, we develop disaster management applications to reduce negative impact due to vital issue in phase of initial response, and cooperation of those applications are demonstrated toward public officials in charge of disaster management. The demonstration of information sharing among disaster related organizations focusing on issues about simultaneous multiple post-earthquake fires and rescue operations after an earthquake directly underneath Tokyo are reported.

  3. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C

    2014-01-01

    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation.

  4. Earthquake parametrics based protection for microfinance disaster management in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedayo, M. H.; Damanik, R.

    2017-07-01

    Financial institutions included microfinance institutions those lend money to people also face the risk when catastrophe event hit their operation area. Liquidity risk when withdrawal amount and Non Performance Loan (NPL) hiking fast in the same time could hit their cash flow. There are products in market that provide backup fund for this kind of situation. Microfinance institution needs a guideline too make contingency plan in their disaster management program. We develop a probabilistic seismic hazard, index and zonation map as a tool to help in making financial disaster impact reduction program for microfinance in Indonesia. GMPE was used to estimate PGA for each Kabupaten points. PGA to MMI conversion was done by applied empirical relationship. We used loan distribution data from Financial Service Authority and Bank Indonesia as exposure in indexing. Index level from this study could be use as rank of urgency. Probabilistic hazard map was used to pricing two backup scenarios and to make a zonation. We proposed three zones with annual average cost 0.0684‰, 0.4236‰ and 1.4064 for first scenario and 0.3588‰, 2.6112‰, and 6.0816‰ for second scenario.

  5. Van, Turkey Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2; An Overview on Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    ZARÉ, Mehdi; NAZMAZAR, Behnaz

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake was happened on 23 October 2011 in Van, Turkey (Mw7.2) at the eastern most area of Anatolian plateau and in the neighborhood of Iranian border (West Azerbaijan Province). The study was performed based on field and office observations and has been focused on the process of disaster management in Turkey after the 23 October 2011 earthquake. We surveyed the quake from the view point of disaster management, and study the relief process during and after the catastrophe. The day-to-day disaster management procedure in seventeen days after the event has been scrutinized as well. The number of victims and extent of damage in Van earthquake was relatively limited according to the national experiences and recent modernization of infrastructures in Turkey. The Van earthquake caused 644 deaths and demolishing of several buildings in the cities of Van and Erciş in Van Province. The performance of the government organizations is however criticized based on their response to the event. PMID:23515082

  6. Simulation and monitoring tools to protect disaster management facilities against earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    The earthquakes that hit Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan on April 14 and 16, 2016 severely damaged over 180,000 houses, including over 8,000 that were completely destroyed and others that were partially damaged according to the Cabinet Office's report as of November 14, 2016 [1]. Following these earthquakes, other parts of the world have been struck by earthquakes including Italy and New Zealand as well as the central part of Tottori Prefecture in October, where the earthquake-induced collapse of buildings has led to severe damage and casualties. The earthquakes in Kumamoto Prefecture, in fact, damaged various disaster management facilities including Uto City Hall, which significantly hindered the city's evacuation and recovery operations. One of the most crucial issues in times of disaster is securing the functions of disaster management facilities such as city halls, hospitals and fire stations. To address this issue, seismic simulations are conducted on the East and the West buildings of Toyohashi City Hall using the analysis tool developed by the author, STERA_3D, with the data of the ground motion waveform prediction for the Nankai Trough earthquake provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As the result, it was found that the buildings have sufficient earthquake resistance. It turned out, however, that the west building is at risk for wall cracks or ceiling panel's collapse while in the east building, people would not be able to stand through the strong quakes of 7 on the seismic intensity scale and cabinets not secured to the floors or walls would fall over. Additionally, three IT strong-motion seismometers were installed in the city hall to continuously monitor vibrations. Every five minutes, the vibration data obtained by the seismometers are sent to the computers in Toyohashi University of Technology via the Internet for the analysis tools to run simulations in the cloud. If an earthquake strikes, it is able to use the results

  7. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  8. Policy development in disaster preparedness and management: lessons learned from the January 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Rannveig

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades, several humanitarian emergencies have occurred, with an increasing number of humanitarian organizations taking part in providing assistance. However, need assessments, medical intelligence, and coordination of the aid often are sparse, resulting in the provision of ineffective and expensive assistance. When an earthquake with the strength of 7.7 on the Richter scale struck the state of Gujarat, India, during the early morning on 26 January 2001, nearly 20,000 persons were killed, nearly 170,000 were injured, and 600,000 were rendered homeless. This study identifies how assigned indicators to measure the level of health care may improve disaster preparedness and management, thus, reducing human suffering. During a two-week mission in the disaster area, the disaster relief provided to the disaster-affected population of Gujarat was evaluated. Vulnerability due to climate, geography, culture, religion, gender, politics, and economy, as each affected the outcome, was studied. By assigning indicators to the eight ELEMENTS of the Primary Health Care System as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO), the level of public health and healthcare services were estimated, an evaluation of the impact of the disaster was conducted, and possible methods for improving disaster management are suggested. Representatives of the major relief organizations involved were interviewed on their relief policies. Strategies to improve disaster relief, such as policy development in the different aspects of public health/primary health care, were sought. Evaluation of the pre-event status of the affected society revealed a complex situation in a vulnerable society with substantial deficiencies in the existing health system that added to the severity of the disaster. Most of the civilian hospitals had collapsed, and army field hospitals provided medical care to most of the patients under primitive conditions using tents. When the foreign field hospitals arrived

  9. Disaster triage after the Haitian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Dyer, G S M; Antonangeli, K; Arredondo, N; Bedlion, H; Dalal, A; Deveny, G M; Joseph, G; Lauria, D; Lockhart, S H; Lucien, S; Marsh, S; Rogers, S O; Salzarulo, H; Shah, S; Toussaint, R J; Wagoner, J

    2012-11-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating Haitian earthquake, we became the primary relief service for a large group of severely injured earthquake victims. Finding ourselves virtually isolated with extremely limited facilities and a group of critically injured patients whose needs vastly outstripped the available resources we employed a disaster triage system to organize their clinical care. This report describes the specific injury profile of this group of patients, their clinical course, and the management philosophy that we employed. It provides useful lessons for similar situations in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural disaster management: experience of an academic institution after a 7.8 magnitude earthquake in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Reyes, A M; Palacios, I; Ramia, D; West, R; Valencia, M; Ramia, N; Egas, D; Rodas, P; Bahamonde, M; Grunauer, M

    2017-03-01

    This case study describes the implementation of an academic institution's disaster management plan. Case study. USFQ's Medical School developed a six-phase disaster relief plan consisting of: induction, establishing a base camp, crisis management and mental health aid, creation of multidisciplinary teams and multi-agency teams, and reconstruction. Each phase uses a community-oriented approach to foster survivor autonomy and recovery. Our methodology facilitated the successful implementation of multidisciplinary interventions to manage the earthquake's aftermath on the personal, community and regional levels, treated and prevented psychological and physical morbidity among survivors and promoted healthy living conditions and independence. A multidisciplinary response team that addresses medical needs, mental health, education, food, nutrition and sanitation is highly effective in contributing to timely, effective relief efforts. The short- and long-term solutions we describe could be applicable to other academic centres' interventions in future disaster scenarios around the world. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthcare waste management during disasters and its effects on climate change: Lessons from 2010 earthquake and cholera tragedies in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Raila, Emilia M; Anderson, David O

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing effects of human activities on climate change throughout the world, and global South in particular, scientists are yet to understand how poor healthcare waste management practices in an emergency influences the climate change. This article presents new findings on climate change risks of healthcare waste disposal during and after the 2010 earthquake and cholera disasters in Haiti. The researchers analysed quantities of healthcare waste incinerated by the United Nations Mission in Haiti for 60 months (2009 to 2013). The aim was to determine the relationship between healthcare waste incinerated weights and the time of occurrence of the two disasters, and associated climate change effects, if any. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient indicated a weak correlation between the quantities of healthcare waste disposed of and the time of occurrence of the actual emergencies (r (58) = 0.406, p = 0.001). Correspondingly, linear regression analysis indicated a relatively linear data trend (R 2 = 0.16, F (1, 58) = 11.42, P = 0.001) with fluctuating scenarios that depicted a sharp rise in 2012, and time series model showed monthly and yearly variations within 60 months. Given that the peak healthcare waste incineration occurred 2 years after the 2010 disasters, points at the need to minimise wastage on pharmaceuticals by improving logistics management. The Government of Haiti had no data on healthcare waste disposal and practised smoky open burning, thus a need for capacity building on green healthcare waste management technologies for effective climate change mitigation.

  12. Study of Earthquake Disaster Prediction System of Langfang city Based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Dian; Li, Pan; Zhang, YunHui; Zhang, RuoFei

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, according to the status of China’s need to improve the ability of earthquake disaster prevention, this paper puts forward the implementation plan of earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city based on GIS. Based on the GIS spatial database, coordinate transformation technology, GIS spatial analysis technology and PHP development technology, the seismic damage factor algorithm is used to predict the damage of the city under different intensity earthquake disaster conditions. The earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city is based on the B / S system architecture. Degree and spatial distribution and two-dimensional visualization display, comprehensive query analysis and efficient auxiliary decision-making function to determine the weak earthquake in the city and rapid warning. The system has realized the transformation of the city’s earthquake disaster reduction work from static planning to dynamic management, and improved the city’s earthquake and disaster prevention capability.

  13. The 2015 Nepal earthquake disaster: lessons learned one year on.

    PubMed

    Hall, M L; Lee, A C K; Cartwright, C; Marahatta, S; Karki, J; Simkhada, P

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 earthquake in Nepal killed over 8000 people, injured more than 21,000 and displaced a further 2 million. One year later, a national workshop was organized with various Nepali stakeholders involved in the response to the earthquake. The workshop provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their experiences and sought to learn lessons from the disaster. One hundred and thirty-five participants took part and most had been directly involved in the earthquake response. They included representatives from the Ministry of Health, local and national government, the armed forces, non-governmental organizations, health practitioners, academics, and community representatives. Participants were divided into seven focus groups based around the following topics: water, sanitation and hygiene, hospital services, health and nutrition, education, shelter, policy and community. Facilitated group discussions were conducted in Nepalese and the key emerging themes are presented. Participants described a range of issues encountered, some specific to their area of expertize but also more general issues. These included logistics and supply chain challenges, leadership and coordination difficulties, impacts of the media as well as cultural beliefs on population behaviour post-disaster. Lessons identified included the need for community involvement at all stages of disaster response and preparedness, as well as the development of local leadership capabilities and community resilience. A 'disconnect' between disaster management policy and responses was observed, which may result in ineffective, poorly planned disaster response. Finding time and opportunity to reflect on and identify lessons from disaster response can be difficult but are fundamental to improving future disaster preparedness. The Nepal Earthquake National Workshop offered participants the space to do this. It garnered an overwhelming sense of wanting to do things better, of the need for a Nepal-centric approach

  14. A disaster's effects on material management operations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B B; Sadock, J M

    1990-11-01

    No one should ever have to encounter a disaster of the magnitude of Avianca flight 052, Hurricane Hugo, or the San Francisco earthquake of 1989. However, we all learn about the appropriate preparation and response that is necessary for managing a disaster effectively after these events. The importance of material management functions in providing the resources for the implementation of direct patient care is often neglected, and recognition is rarely given to these heroes in a disaster situation.

  15. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters.

  16. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  17. Development and Progress of Education for Earthquake Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Hiromoto

    We had experienced the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster around ten years ago. Recently, the succession of disaster memory to the next generation becomes an important action-assignment. Since the occurrence of huge earthquake is expected in the near future, it is important to teach widely the lesson of the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake disaster to the next generation, and this educational activity is also important for the disaster mitigation strategy in Japan. In this project, the accumulated data of disaster memory can be utilized to construct the educational system for earthquake disaster, and the collaboration between Kobe University, local government, city, civic group and media organization can be exploited to characterize the educational system of earthquake disaster mitigation.

  18. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  19. Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through Periodical Hospital Visits in the Aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Fukuda, Yuji; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster on daily diabetes practice and to determine the feasibility of controlling type 2 diabetes mellitus in an outpatient department. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data on disaster-affected patients with type 2 diabetes who periodically attended outpatient department of Soma Central Hospital. There were 767 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in total. The primary outcome measure was the change in HbA1c. Results HbA1c levels of 58 patients with periodical hospital visits did not deteriorate after the disasters. Moreover, there observed no significant difference in the mean of HbA1c levels among all age and sex throughout the year. While several changes in diabetes medication usage occurred, DPP4-inhibitor was the only oral diabetic agent that increased in frequency (+60%). Conclusions Patients with type 2 diabetes who were managed with periodical hospital visits did not show significant deterioration in HbA1c levels. PMID:25946187

  20. Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through Periodical Hospital Visits in the Aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Fukuda, Yuji; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster on daily diabetes practice and to determine the feasibility of controlling type 2 diabetes mellitus in an outpatient department. We retrospectively reviewed the data on disaster-affected patients with type 2 diabetes who periodically attended outpatient department of Soma Central Hospital. There were 767 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in total. The primary outcome measure was the change in HbA1c. HbA1c levels of 58 patients with periodical hospital visits did not deteriorate after the disasters. Moreover, there observed no significant difference in the mean of HbA1c levels among all age and sex throughout the year. While several changes in diabetes medication usage occurred, DPP4-inhibitor was the only oral diabetic agent that increased in frequency (+60%). Patients with type 2 diabetes who were managed with periodical hospital visits did not show significant deterioration in HbA1c levels.

  1. Disaster nursing experiences of Chinese nurses responding to the Sichuan Ya'an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Li, Y H; Li, S J; Chen, S H; Xie, X P; Song, Y Q; Jin, Z H; Zheng, X Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the disaster experiences of nurses called to assist survivors one month after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. China has experienced an increasing number of earthquake disasters in the past four decades. Although a health and disaster management system was initiated after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, nurses' roles and experiences in a disaster have been overlooked. The researchers used qualitative descriptive design that included 16 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observation notes, after which a qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three major themes emerged: the process of being dispatched from hospitals to the disaster zone, the effort involved in getting to and working in the affected site and reflecting on the challenges they encountered. About half of the participants had received disaster nursing training before deploying to the disaster site, but they consistently expressed a lack of physical and psychological preparedness regarding the process of being dispatched from their hospitals to the disaster zone. This was a single-incident experience. Caution should be taken when trying to extend the findings to other parts of China. These findings highlighted the need for disaster in-service training as well as for having disaster plans in place. Hospital and nursing leaders should provide disaster training opportunities that included topics such as compiling resource inventories, formulating disaster drills and simulations, managing emergencies, and using emergency communication methods. Health policy-makers should be required to prioritize capacity-building training for front-line nurses as well as to develop and implement disaster management plans to better prepare nurses for future disasters. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  2. The Relationship between Starting to Drink and Psychological Distress, Sleep Disturbance after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Ueda, Yuka; Suzuki, Yuriko; Maeda, Masaharu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji

    2017-10-24

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from 37,687 pre-disaster non-drinkers who participated in the 2012 and 2013 surveys conducted in Fukushima. We defined newly-started drinkers as those who did not drink before the disaster but who began drinking after the disaster, based on information collected retrospectively. In 2012, 9.6% of non-drinkers began drinking, of which the prevalence of heavy drinkers was 18.4%. The prevalence of continued drinking among newly-started drinkers in 2013 was 53.8%. Logistic regression analyses revealed post-disaster newly-started drinking was significantly associated with being male, less than 65 years old, sleep dissatisfaction and psychological distress (Kessler 6 ≤ 13) when this model was adjusted for disaster-related experience and perceived radiation risk. Moreover, psychological distress and heavy drinking were significant risk factors for continued drinking among newly-started drinkers. Newly-started drinkers might use alcohol to cope with disaster-related stress. Thus, they may be targeted for disaster-related health services. Moreover, early intervention should encourage responsible drinking, since post-disaster heavy drinkers were likely to continue heavy drinking.

  3. E-DECIDER Decision Support Gateway For Earthquake Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T. M.; Parker, J. W.; Burl, M. C.; Donnellan, A.; Blom, R. G.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; Yoder, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software in order to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project in order to produce standards-compliant map data products to aid in decision-making following an earthquake. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools, help provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER utilizes a service-based GIS model for its cyber-infrastructure in order to produce standards-compliant products for different user types with multiple service protocols (such as KML, WMS, WFS, and WCS). The goal is to make complex GIS processing and domain-specific analysis tools more accessible to general users through software services as well as provide system sustainability through infrastructure services. The system comprises several components, which include: a GeoServer for thematic mapping and data distribution, a geospatial database for storage and spatial analysis, web service APIs, including simple-to-use REST APIs for complex GIS functionalities, and geoprocessing tools including python scripts to produce standards-compliant data products. These are then served to the E-DECIDER decision support gateway (http://e-decider.org), the E-DECIDER mobile interface, and to the Department of Homeland Security decision support middleware UICDS (Unified Incident Command and Decision Support). The E-DECIDER decision support gateway features a web interface that

  4. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  5. Influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the birth weight of newborns in Fukushima Prefecture: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shun; Kyozuka, Hyo; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Hata, Kennichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on 11 March 2011. We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area. The incidence of SGA was compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for SGA. In total, 325(5.6%) women had infants with SGA. Neither area nor the trimester of pregnancy at the time of the disasters influenced the incidence of SGA. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the SGA group. PIH was found to be an independent risk factor for SGA. We found no evidence that the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster increased the incidence of SGA in the Fukushima Prefecture.

  6. Crisis management and disaster planning: some recent lessons.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    Two recent disasters--Hurricane Hugo and the San Francisco-Oakland area earthquake--put a number of hospitals (and their disaster plans) to the text this fall. In future issues, we will present details on how hospitals faced those emergencies. The need for crisis management and disaster planning, however, is not limited to natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, or floods. Man-made disasters, both internal and external, can occur virtually at any time. These include accidents, terrorists bombs, fires, explosions, and toxic chemical spills. In this report, we will present the key elements of a crisis management plan, as well as some expert pointers on what to include in a disaster plan. We will give you details on how two hospitals fared when a major air crash occurred in their community. We will tell you some of the things they would do differently, and we will also describe how an interagency disaster planning committee responded.

  7. Insuring against earthquakes: simulating the cost-effectiveness of disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    de Hoop, Thomas; Ruben, Ruerd

    2010-04-01

    Ex-ante measures to improve risk preparedness for natural disasters are generally considered to be more effective than ex-post measures. Nevertheless, most resources are allocated after an event in geographical areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters. This paper analyses the cost-effectiveness of ex-ante adaptation measures in the wake of earthquakes and provides an assessment of the future role of private and public agencies in disaster risk management. The study uses a simulation model approach to evaluate consumption losses after earthquakes under different scenarios of intervention. Particular attention is given to the role of activity diversification measures in enhancing disaster preparedness and the contributions of (targeted) microcredit and education programmes for reconstruction following a disaster. Whereas the former measures are far more cost-effective, missing markets and perverse incentives tend to make ex-post measures a preferred option, thus occasioning underinvestment in ex-ante adaptation initiatives.

  8. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  9. Chinese nurses' relief experiences following two earthquakes: implications for disaster education and policy development.

    PubMed

    Wenji, Zhou; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A

    2015-01-01

    Disasters require well trained nurses but disaster nursing education is very limited in China and evidence is urgently required for future planning and implementation of specialized disaster education. This describes the themes arising from narratives of Chinese registered nurses who worked in disaster relief after two major earthquakes. In-depth interviews were held with 12 registered nurses from Hubei Province. Riessman's narrative inquiry method was used to develop individual stories and themes, and socio-cultural theory informed this study. Five themes emerged: unbeatable challenges; qualities of a disaster nurse; mental health and trauma; poor disaster planning and co-ordination; and urgently needed disaster education. Participants were challenged by rudimentary living conditions, a lack of medical equipment, earthquake aftershocks, and cultural differences in the people they cared for. Participants placed importance on the development of teamwork abilities, critical thinking skills, management abilities of nurses in disasters, and the urgency to build a better disaster response system in China in which professional nurses could more actively contribute their skills and knowledge. Our findings concur with previous research and emphasize the urgency for health leaders across China to develop and implement disaster nursing education policies and programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Prioritization of disasters and their management in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Rugigana, E; Nyirazinyoye, L; Umubyeyi, A; Nsengiyumva, J B; Kanyandekwe, C; Ntahobakulira, I

    2013-06-01

    Rwanda has been experiencing quite a significant number of disastrous events of both natural and man-made origin in the last 2 decades. Many cases of disasters are particularly linked to the geographic, historical and socio-cultural aspects of the country. The overall objective of the present article is to perform a situation analysis of disasters in Rwanda and to highlight the institutional and legal framework of disaster management. An assessment questionnaire focused on the current capacity, institutional frameworks and on-going initiatives for disaster management at country level and operational level was administered. The assessment was descriptive and used mainly qualitative methods. These included review of records (country policies and policy briefs, programme documents), interviews with key informants from line ministries, and interviews with key informants from stakeholder agencies. The Rwandan hazard profile, its vulnerability and capacity assessment shows top seven disasters which are related to epidemics, hails storms/floods; roads accidents; environmental degradation and earthquakes/volcanic eruption. Currently, the Institutional framework for disaster management and response is coordinated by Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs through the Rwanda National Disasters Operation Center. Although disaster risk reduction has been integrated into sustainable policies and plans, most districts do not have adequate capacity to plan for disasters and the majority of districts disaster committees have not yet been trained. Rwanda has established a legal and institutional framework for disasters management. There is a need to build capacity in disaster management at operational level (District).

  12. Ethics in disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash, S.

    2012-04-01

    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  13. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  14. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Kalafat, Dogan; Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo; Sakamoto, Mayumi; Pinar, Ali; Oguz Ozel, Asim; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Tanircan, Gulum; Demirtas, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    There have been many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in the world.The recent events are, 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan, 2015 Nepal Earthquake and 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake in Japan, and so on. And very recently a destructive earthquake occurred in Central Italy. In Turkey, the 1999 Izmit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The NAF crosses the Sea of Marmara and the only "seismic gap" remains beneath the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul with high population similar to Tokyo in Japan, is located around the Sea of Marmara where fatal damages expected to be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction, when the next destructive Marmara Earthquake occurs. The seismic risk of Istanbul seems to be under the similar risk condition as Tokyo in case of Nankai Trough earthquake and metropolitan earthquake. It was considered that Japanese and Turkish researchers can share their own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and can prepare for the future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. Therefore, in 2013 the two countries, Japan and Turkey made an agreement to start a multidisciplinary research project, MarDiM SATREPS. The Project runs researches to aim to raise the preparedness for possible large-scale earthquake and Tsunami disasters in Marmara Region and it has four research groups with the following goals. 1) The first one is Marmara Earthquake Source region observational research group. This group has 4 sub-groups such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. Preliminary results such as seismicity and crustal deformation on the sea floor in Sea of Marmara have already achieved. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia Fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Research results from this group are to be the model of earthquake occurrence scenario in Sea of Marmara and the

  15. Nutrition in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Teruyoshi; Ichimaru, Satomi; Tai, Mayumi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Muto, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) struck the northeast region of Honshu, the main island of Japan, on March 11, 2011. This mega-disaster claimed more than 15,000 lives, with approximately 3000 later deaths being disaster related. The GEJED consisted of a mega-earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident. Survivors living in temporary shelters might have received insufficient levels of vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B1, which appeared to be overestimated, and excess levels of sodium. However, scientific data collection and surveys following the GEJED were extremely limited. This experience highlights the need to prepare an “emergency nutrition assessment” system for optimal nutrition in future disasters.

  16. Physics of Earthquake Disaster: From Crustal Rupture to Building Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2018-05-01

    Earthquakes of relatively greater magnitude may cause serious, sometimes unexpected failures of natural and human-made structures, either on the surface, underground, or even at sea. In this review, by treating several examples of extraordinary earthquake-related failures that range from the collapse of every second building in a commune to the initiation of spontaneous crustal rupture at depth, we consider the physical background behind the apparently abnormal earthquake disaster. Simple but rigorous dynamic analyses reveal that such seemingly unusual failures actually occurred for obvious reasons, which may remain unrecognized in part because in conventional seismic analyses only kinematic aspects of the effects of lower-frequency seismic waves below 1 Hz are normally considered. Instead of kinematics, some dynamic approach that takes into account the influence of higher-frequency components of waves over 1 Hz will be needed to anticipate and explain such extraordinary phenomena and mitigate the impact of earthquake disaster in the future.

  17. Research on Collection of Earthquake Disaster Information from the Crowd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In China, the assessment of the earthquake disasters information is mainly based on the inversion of the seismic source mechanism and the pre-calculated population data model, the real information of the earthquake disaster is usually collected through the government departments, the accuracy and the speed need to be improved. And in a massive earthquake like the one in Mexico, the telecommunications infrastructure on ground were damaged , the quake zone was difficult to observe by satellites and aircraft in the bad weather. Only a bit of information was sent out through maritime satellite of other country. Thus, the timely and effective development of disaster relief was seriously affected. Now Chinese communication satellites have been orbiting, people don't only rely on the ground telecom base station to keep communication with the outside world, to open the web page,to land social networking sites, to release information, to transmit images and videoes. This paper will establish an earthquake information collection system which public can participate. Through popular social platform and other information sources, the public can participate in the collection of earthquake information, and supply quake zone information, including photos, video, etc.,especially those information made by unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) after earthqake, the public can use the computer, potable terminals, or mobile text message to participate in the earthquake information collection. In the system, the information will be divided into earthquake zone basic information, earthquake disaster reduction information, earthquake site information, post-disaster reconstruction information etc. and they will been processed and put into database. The quality of data is analyzed by multi-source information, and is controlled by local public opinion on them to supplement the data collected by government departments timely and implement the calibration of simulation results ,which will better guide

  18. A survey of the practice of nurses' skills in Wenchuan earthquake disaster sites: implications for disaster training.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci

    2011-10-01

    To determine nursing skills most relevant for nurses participating in disaster response medical teams; make recommendations to enhance training of nurses who will be first responders to a disaster site; to improve the capacity of nurses to prepare and respond to severe natural disasters. Worldwide, nurses play a key role in disaster response teams at disaster sites. They are often not prepared for the challenges of dealing with mass casualties; little research exists into what basic nursing skills are required by nurses who are first responders to a disaster situation. This study assessed the most relevant disaster nursing skills of first responder nurses at the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake disaster site. Data were collected in China in 2008 using a self-designed questionnaire, with 24 participants who had been part of the medical teams that were dispatched to the disaster sites. The top three skills essential for nurses were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage. The three most frequently used skills were: debridement and dressing; observation and monitoring; intravenous insertion. The three skills performed most proficiently were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; urethral catheterization. The top three ranking skills most important for training were: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling. The core nursing skills for disaster response training are: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage; controlling specific infection; psychological crisis intervention; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; debridement and dressing; central venous catheter insertion; patient care recording. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake. This qualitative study was of phenomenological type. Using the purposive sampling method, 10 people who had experienced nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake (Iran; 2003) were interviewed. Colaizzi's method of analysis was used to analyze interview data. The findings of this study identified four main categories and 19 sub-categories concerning challenges in the nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake. The main topics included managerial, aiding, infrastructural, and administrative problems. The major problems in nutritional aiding include lack of prediction and development of a specific program of suitable nutritional pattern and nutritional assessment of the victims in critical conditions. Forming specialized teams, educating team members about nutrition, and making use of experts' knowledge are the most important steps to resolve these problems in the critical conditions; these measures are the duties of the relevant authorities. Nekouie Moghadam M , Amiresmaieli M , Hassibi M , Doostan F , Khosravi S . Toward a better nutritional aiding in disasters: relying on lessons learned during the Bam Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):382-386.

  20. Administrative issues involved in disaster management in India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdish

    2006-12-01

    India as a country is vulnerable to a number of disasters, from earthquakes to floods. Poor and weaker members of the society have always been more vulnerable to various types of disasters. Disasters result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality amongst the affected population. Damage to infrastructure and reduction in revenues from the affected region due to low yield add to the economic losses. Poor co-ordination at the local level, lack of early-warning systems, often very slow responses, paucity of trained dedicated clinicians, lack of search and rescue facilities and poor community empowerment are some of the factors, which have been contributing to poor response following disasters in the past. The first formal step towards development of policies relating to disaster care in India was the formulation of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) which was formulated initially by the Government of India for managing natural disasters only. However, this was subsequently amended to include man-made disasters as well. It sets the scene for formulating state and district level plans in all states to bring cohesiveness and a degree of uniform management in dealing with disasters. A National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted which aims to provide national guidelines and is headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is the highest decision-making body for the management of disasters in the country. The authority has the responsibility for co-ordinating response and post-disaster relief and rehabilitation. Each state is required to set up Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Committees for co-ordination and close supervision of activities and efforts related to the management of disasters.

  1. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams After Earthquakes in Iran: Propose a Localized Model

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mohsen; Salehnia, M Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past 10 years, 13 fatal earthquakes have occurred in Iran and led to death of 30,000 people whom most of them were killed in the earlier hours of the disaster. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams are groups of trained medical and non-medical personnel with various combinations that on the optimal conditions are deployed just within 8 hours of notification and are able to work self-sufficiently for at least 72 hours without any outside help and can treat up to 250 patients per day. Currently there are no such rapid-response teams in case of unexpected events in Iran, which causes the responses to such disasters, not to be organized or practiced. For instance, there were many rescue forces in 2003 Bam earthquake but not enough skilled ones to cope with; consequently they themselves became a problem in crisis management instead of solving the problem. Objectives In this study, we have investigated which of the following is more efficient: changing the size and combination of the team depending on the type of disaster and environmental conditions or, determine a fixed combination team. Materials and Methods Totally, several reasons for dynamic combination and size of the teams are presented. later, earthquake disaster is divided into 3 phases in terms of time including the acute phase (1st to 4th day after disaster), the sub-acute phase (5th to 14thday) and the recovery phase (after the 14th day), and finally the appropriate team combinations in every phases are offered. Results Regarding to introduction and considering the existing statistics in different legal Iranian resources and by division of the earthquake disaster to three phases including acute phase (1st to the 4th day after disaster), sub-acute phase (5th to 14th day) and recovery phase (after the 14th day) Conclusions The countries pioneer in disaster medical assistance teams, now are inclined to deploy different teams consistent with each kind of disasters or with other effective components

  2. UAVSAR for the Management of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Y.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The unique capabilities of imaging radar to penetrate cloud cover and collect data in darkness over large areas at high resolution makes it a key information provider for the management and mitigation of natural and human-induced disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, and wildfires. Researchers have demonstrated the use of UAVSAR's fully polarimetric data to determine flood extent, forest fire extent, lava flow, and landslide. The ability for UAVSAR to provide high accuracy repeated flight tracks and precise imaging geometry for measuring surface deformation to a few centimeter accuracy using InSAR techniques. In fact, UAVSAR's repeat-pass interferometry capability unleashed new potential approaches to manage the risk of natural disasters prior to the occurrence of these events by modeling and monitoring volcano inflation, earthquake fault movements, landslide rate and extent, and sink hole precursory movement. In this talk we will present examples of applications of UAVSAR for natural disaster management. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  4. E-DECIDER: Using Earth Science Data and Modeling Tools to Develop Decision Support for Earthquake Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, Margaret T.; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon E.; Yoder, Mark R.; Parker, Jay W.; Burl, Michael C.; Stough, Timothy M.; Granat, Robert A.; Donnellan, Andrea; Rundle, John B.; Ma, Yu; Bawden, Gerald W.; Yuen, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing new capabilities for decision making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates the earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools allows us to provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). This in turn is delivered through standards-compliant web services for desktop and hand-held devices.

  5. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  6. The disaster prevention awareness of foreign residents and disaster management of organizations for foreign employees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan Yen; Sugiki, Nao; Matsuo, Kojiro

    2017-10-01

    Japan is known to have many natural disasters occurrences, especially in recent years, the seismic hazard named "Nankai-trough Disastrous Earthquake" of magnitude 9(M) was predicted and will have caused huge damages. Therefore, disaster management should be well planned and executed to ensure minimal amount of victims and damages from disaster. However, foreign residents are mostly vulnerable and ill-equipped to face such consequences compared to Japanese residents, especially when there is limited information available for foreigners presently. As the influx of foreigner migration has been steadily increasing annually, it is vital for disaster management to be compulsively planned to cope up with the great variety of foreigners' needs from diverse backgrounds accordingly. The purpose of this study is to comprehend foreign residents' disaster prevention awareness, in order to provide a more effective information provision on disaster management, so as to help improve their disaster prevention awareness. Thus, this study is set in Toyohashi city, and the methodology used is by conducting two questionnaires. Firstly, to have an accurate understanding on the awareness of foreign residents towards disasters prevention, the questionnaire is conducted towards foreign university students, on pertinent issues such as on the degree of preparedness and their matters of concern of which is related to natural disasters. Secondly, to comprehend disaster management of organizations, the other focuses on preventive measures adopted by manufacturing industry organizations, such as types of preventive measures as a whole and on the issues and challenges encountered during foreign employee-related enforcement of disaster management. Finally, based both results of the questionnaire, the key factors on effective information provision of disaster management is considered.

  7. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.

  8. Earthquake Loss Scenarios: Warnings about the Extent of Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Tolis, S.; Rosset, P.

    2016-12-01

    It is imperative that losses expected due to future earthquakes be estimated. Officials and the public need to be aware of what disaster is likely in store for them in order to reduce the fatalities and efficiently help the injured. Scenarios for earthquake parameters can be constructed to a reasonable accuracy in highly active earthquake belts, based on knowledge of seismotectonics and history. Because of the inherent uncertainties of loss estimates however, it would be desirable that more than one group calculate an estimate for the same area. By discussing these estimates, one may find a consensus of the range of the potential disasters and persuade officials and residents of the reality of the earthquake threat. To model a scenario and estimate earthquake losses requires data sets that are sufficiently accurate of the number of people present, the built environment, and if possible the transmission of seismic waves. As examples we use loss estimates for possible repeats of historic earthquakes in Greece that occurred between -464 and 700. We model future large Greek earthquakes as having M6.8 and rupture lengths of 60 km. In four locations where historic earthquakes with serious losses have occurred, we estimate that 1,000 to 1,500 people might perish, with an additional factor of four people injured. Defining the area of influence of these earthquakes as that with shaking intensities larger and equal to V, we estimate that 1.0 to 2.2 million people in about 2,000 settlements may be affected. We calibrate the QLARM tool for calculating intensities and losses in Greece, using the M6, 1999 Athens earthquake and matching the isoseismal information for six earthquakes, which occurred in Greece during the last 140 years. Comparing fatality numbers that would occur theoretically today with the numbers reported, and correcting for the increase in population, we estimate that the improvement of the building stock has reduced the mortality and injury rate in Greek

  9. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  10. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  11. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  12. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  13. Defining Community Disaster Preparedness as a Resilience Factor for Earthquake Risk Assessment in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungay, B.; Durukal, E.; Kilic, O.; Konukcu, B.; Basmaci, A. E.; Khazai, B.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The natural events such as earthquakes turn out to be disasters as a result of not only the poor conditions of the built area and infrastructure, but also affected by the socioeconomic fragility and lack of resilience of the community exposed. Likewise, resilience factors play role in increasing the ability of people to cope with hazards. Social resilience is the capacity of social groups and communities to recover from, or respond positively to, crises. Emergency management plans must recognize and build on this capacity, and that improved indicators of social resilience should receive priority consideration in the application of these plans. The physical risk factors and their damage assessment have been pointed out in previous earthquake risk assessment and scenario studies conducted by Bogazici University and OYO International. A rational assessment of the risk aggravating factors is essential in order to reach to a more complete coverage of the overall risk. It would also introduce the social factors that need to be reduced or strengthened through public policies and actions in order to increase the resilience of the community. With experience from several social studies conducted under CENDIM, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute's Disaster Preparedness Education Unit, and research of the studies conducted by several other national and international institutions, we are defining the community disaster preparedness as an indicator for resilience. Social resilience is understood to have two important properties: resistance, recovery. Resistance relates to a community's efforts to withstand a disaster and its consequences whereas recovery relates to a community's ability to coming back to its pre-disaster level of "normalcy". Researches also indicate that the need for local-level and community-based approaches is recognized in achieving sustainable hazard risk reduction. We will conceptually discuss the description and assessment of the community

  14. Disaster waste characteristics and radiation distribution as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Hata, Toshimitsu

    2012-04-03

    The compounded impacts of the catastrophes that resulted from the Great East Japan Earthquake have emphasized the need to develop strategies to respond to multiple types and sources of contamination. In Japan, earthquake and tsunami-generated waste were found to have elevated levels of metals/metalloids (e.g., mercury, arsenic, and lead) with separation and sorting more difficult for tsunami-generated waste as opposed to earthquake-generated waste. Radiation contamination superimposed on these disaster wastes has made it particularly difficult to manage the ultimate disposal resulting in delays in waste management. Work is needed to develop policies a priori for handling wastes from combined catastrophes such as those recently observed in Japan.

  15. Healthcare delivery aboard US Navy hospital ships following earthquake disasters: implications for future disaster relief missions.

    PubMed

    Sechriest, V Franklin; Wing, Vern; Walker, G Jay; Aubuchon, Maureen; Lhowe, David W

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, the US Navy has provided ship-borne medical assistance during three earthquake disasters. Because Navy ship deployment for disaster relief (DR) is a recent development, formal guidelines for equipping and staffing medical operations do not yet exist. The goal of this study was to inform operational planning and resource allocation for future earthquake DR missions by 1) reporting the type and volume of patient presentations, medical staff, and surgical services and 2) providing a comparative analysis of the current medical and surgical capabilities of a hospital ship and a casualty receiving and treatment ship (CRTS). The following three earthquake DR operations were reviewed retrospectively: 1) USNS Mercy to Indonesia in 2004, 2) USNS Mercy to Indonesia in 2005, and 3) USNS Comfort/USS Bataan to Haiti in 2010. (The USS Bataan was a CRTS.) Mission records and surgical logs were analyzed. Descriptive and statistical analysis was performed. Comparative analysis of hospital ship and CRTS platforms was made based on firsthand observations. For the three missions, 986 patient encounters were documented. Of 1,204 diagnoses, 80 percent were disaster-related injuries, more than half of which were extremity trauma. Aboard hospital ships, healthcare staff provided advanced (Echelon III) care for disaster-related injuries and various nondisaster-related conditions. Aboard the CRTS, staff provided basic (Echelon II) care for disaster-related injuries. Our data indicate that musculoskeletal extremity injuries in sex- and age-diverse populations comprised the majority of clinical diagnoses. Current capabilities and surgical staffing of hospital ships and CRTS platforms influenced their respective DR operations, including the volume and types of surgical care delivered.

  16. Crisis management aspects of bam catastrophic earthquake: review article.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  17. New Satellite Damage Maps Assist Italy Earthquake Disaster Response

    2016-09-01

    Italy earthquake. The quake has caused significant damage in the historic town of Amatrice. To assist in the disaster response efforts, scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI), generated this image of the earthquake's hardest-hit region. The 40-by-75 mile (65-by-120 kilometer) Damage Proxy Map (DPM) was derived from two consecutive frames of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the ALOS-2 satellite (cyan rectangles), and the 25-by-31 mile (40-by-50 kilometer) DPM was derived from InSAR data from the Agenzia Spaciale Italiana's (ASI's) X-band COSMO-SkyMed satellite (red rectangle). Both DPMs cover the historic town of Amatrice, revealing severe damage in the western side of the town (right panels). The time span of the data for the change is Jan. 27, 2016 to Aug. 24, 2016 for ALOS-2 and Aug. 20, 2016 to Aug. 28, 2016 for COSMO-SkyMed. Each pixel in the damage proxy map is about 100 feet (30 meters) across. The SAR data were processed by the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team at JPL and Caltech. The technique uses a prototype algorithm to rapidly detect surface changes caused by natural or human-produced damage. The assessment technique is most sensitive to destruction of the built environment. When the radar images areas with little to no destruction, its image pixels are transparent. Increased opacity of the radar image pixels reflects damage, with areas in red reflecting the heaviest damage to cities and towns. The color variations from yellow to red indicate increasingly more significant ground surface change. Preliminary validation was done by comparing the DPMs to a damage assessment map produced by the Copernicus Emergency Management Service, which is based on visual inspection of before and after high-resolution aerial imagery

  18. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  19. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  20. USGS GNSS Applications to Earthquake Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Murray, J. R.; Minson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid characterization of earthquake rupture is important during a disaster because it establishes which fault ruptured and the extent and amount of fault slip. These key parameters, in turn, can augment in situ seismic sensors for identifying disruption to lifelines as well as localized damage along the fault break. Differential GNSS station positioning, along with imagery differencing, are important methods for augmenting seismic sensors. During response to recent earthquakes (1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah, 2012 Brawley Swarm and 2014 South Napa earthquakes), GNSS co-seismic and post-seismic observations proved to be essential for rapid earthquake source characterization. Often, we find that GNSS results indicate key aspects of the earthquake source that would not have been known in the absence of GNSS data. Seismic, geologic, and imagery data alone, without GNSS, would miss important details of the earthquake source. That is, GNSS results provide important additional insight into the earthquake source properties, which in turn help understand the relationship between shaking and damage patterns. GNSS also adds to understanding of the distribution of slip along strike and with depth on a fault, which can help determine possible lifeline damage due to fault offset, as well as the vertical deformation and tilt that are vitally important for gravitationally driven water systems. The GNSS processing work flow that took more than one week 25 years ago now takes less than one second. Formerly, portable receivers needed to be set up at a site, operated for many hours, then data retrieved, processed and modeled by a series of manual steps. The establishment of continuously telemetered, continuously operating high-rate GNSS stations and the robust automation of all aspects of data retrieval and processing, has led to sub-second overall system latency. Within the past few years, the final challenges of

  1. Disaster Metrics: Evaluation of de Boer's Disaster Severity Scale (DSS) Applied to Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; McCord, Caitlin M; Sherak, Raphael A G; Hsu, Edberdt B; Kelen, Gabor D

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative measurement of the medical severity following multiple-casualty events (MCEs) is an important goal in disaster medicine. In 1990, de Boer proposed a 13-point, 7-parameter scale called the Disaster Severity Scale (DSS). Parameters include cause, duration, radius, number of casualties, nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community. Hypothesis This study aimed to examine the reliability and dimensionality (number of salient themes) of de Boer's DSS scale through its application to 144 discrete earthquake events. A search for earthquake events was conducted via National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and US Geological Survey (USGS) databases. Two experts in the field of disaster medicine independently reviewed and assigned scores for parameters that had no data readily available (nature of injuries, rescue time, and effect on surrounding community), and differences were reconciled via consensus. Principle Component Analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics for Windows Version 22.0 (IBM Corp; Armonk, New York USA) to evaluate the reliability and dimensionality of the DSS. A total of 144 individual earthquakes from 2003 through 2013 were identified and scored. Of 13 points possible, the mean score was 6.04, the mode = 5, minimum = 4, maximum = 11, and standard deviation = 2.23. Three parameters in the DSS had zero variance (ie, the parameter received the same score in all 144 earthquakes). Because of the zero contribution to variance, these three parameters (cause, duration, and radius) were removed to run the statistical analysis. Cronbach's alpha score, a coefficient of internal consistency, for the remaining four parameters was found to be robust at 0.89. Principle Component Analysis showed uni-dimensional characteristics with only one component having an eigenvalue greater than one at 3.17. The 4-parameter DSS, however, suffered from restriction of scoring range on both parameter and scale levels. Jan de Boer

  2. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  3. The earthquake disaster risk characteristic and the problem in the earthquake emergency rescue of mountainous southwestern Sichuan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Xin, C.; Ying, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, earthquake disaster occurred frequently in Chinese mainland, the secondary disaster which have been caused by it is more serious in mountainous region. Because of the influence of terrain and geological conditions, the difficulty of earthquake emergency rescue work greatly increased, rescue force is also urged. Yet, it has been studied less on earthquake emergency rescue in mountainous region, the research in existing equipment whether can meet the actual needs of local earthquake emergency rescue is poorly. This paper intends to discuss and solve these problems. Through the mountainous regions Ganzi and Liangshan states in Sichuan field research, we investigated the process of earthquake emergency response and the projects for rescue force after an earthquake, and we also collected and collated local rescue force based data. By consulting experts and statistical analyzing the basic data, there are mainly two problems: The first is about local rescue force, they are poorly equipped and lack in the knowledge of medical help or identify architectural structure. There are no countries to establish a sound financial investment protection mechanism. Also, rescue equipment's updates and maintenance; The second problem is in earthquake emergency rescue progress. In the complicated geologic structure of mountainous regions, traffic and communication may be interrupted by landslides and mud-rock flows after earthquake. The outside rescue force may not arrive in time, rescue equipment was transported by manpower. Because of unknown earthquake disaster information, the local rescue force was deployed unreasonable. From the above, the local government worker should analyze the characteristics of the earthquake disaster in mountainous regions, and research how to improve their earthquake emergency rescue ability. We think they can do that by strengthening and regulating the rescue force structure, enhancing the skills and knowledge, training rescue workers

  4. Don't forget about the Christchurch earthquake: Lessons learned from this disaster

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating magnitude-9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck the Tohoku region of Japan on March 11, attention quickly turned away from a much smaller, but also highly destructive earthquake that struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, just a few weeks earlier, on Feb. 22. Both events are stark reminders of human vulnerability to natural disasters and provide a harsh reality check: Even technologically advanced countries with modern building codes are not immune from earthquake disasters. The Christchurch earthquake carried an additional message: Urban devastation can be triggered even by moderate-sized earthquakes.

  5. Disaster waste management in Italy: Analysis of recent case studies.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Francesco; Amato, Alessia; Balducci, Susanna; Magi Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Beolchini, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Italian territory causes the incidence of many disasters like earthquakes and floods, with the consequent production of large volumes of waste. The management of such huge flows, produced in a very short time, may have a high impact on the whole emergency response. Moreover, historical data related to disaster waste management are often not easily accessible; on the other hand, the availability of data concerning previous events could support the emergency managers, that have to take a decision in a very short time. In this context, the present paper analyses four relevant recent case studies in Italy, dealing with disaster waste management after geologic and hydrologic natural events. Significant differences have been observed in the quantity and types of generated wastes, and, also, in the management approach. Such differences are mainly associated with the kind of disaster (i.e. earthquake vs. flood), to the geographical location (i.e. internal vs. coastal area), to the urbanisation level (i.e. industrial vs. urban). The study allowed the identification of both strengths and weaknesses of the applied waste management strategies, that represent "lessons to learn" for future scenarios. Even though it deals with Italian case studies, this manuscript may have a high impact also at international level, making available for the first-time emergency waste management data, that are considered an indispensable support for decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Innovative Traffic Management Following The 1994 Northridge Earthquake

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-08-09

    IT IS OFTEN NECESSARY TO STUDY THE METHODOLOGY OF WHAT WAS DONE TO KEEP A SOCIETY MOVING WHEN DISASTER STRIKES. OTHERS MAY LOOK BACK ON THOSE METHODS TO HELP THEM IN THEIR TIMES OF NEED. THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING THE 1994 NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE...

  7. Lessons learned from the aeromedical disaster relief activities following the great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisashi; Motomura, Tomokazu; Hara, Yoshiaki; Masuda, Yukiko; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Koido, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Since 2001, a Japanese national project has developed a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) system ("doctor-helicopter") and a central Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) composed of mobile and trained medical teams for rapid deployment during the response phase of a disaster. In Japan, the DMAT Research Group has focused on command and control of doctor-helicopters in future disasters. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of such planning, as well as the problems encountered in deploying the doctor-helicopter fleet with DMAT members following the March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. This study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of aeromedical disaster relief activities following the Great East Japan Earthquake and to evaluate the assembly and operations of 15 doctor-helicopter teams dispatched for patient evacuation with medical support. Fifteen DMATs from across Japan were deployed from March 11th through March 13th to work out of two doctor-helicopter base hospitals. The dispatch center at each base hospital directed its own doctor-helicopter fleet under the command of DMAT headquarters to transport seriously injured or ill patients out of hospitals located in the disaster area. Disaster Medical Assistance Teams transported 149 patients using the doctor-helicopters during the first five days after the earthquake. The experiences and problems encountered point to the need for DMATs to maintain direct control over 1) communication between DMAT headquarters and dispatch centers; 2) information management concerning patient transportation; and 3) operation of the doctor-helicopter fleet during relief activities. As there is no rule of prioritization for doctor-helicopters to refuel ahead of other rotorcraft, many doctor-helicopters had to wait in line to refuel. The "doctor-helicopter fleet" concept was vital to Japan's disaster medical assistance and rescue activities. The smooth and immediate dispatch of the

  8. Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time GNSS networks are making a significant impact on our ability to forecast, assess, and mitigate the effects of geological hazards. I describe the activities of the Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) working group. The group leverages 600+ real-time GPS stations in western North America operated by UNAVCO (PBO network), Central Washington University (PANGA), US Geological Survey & Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SCIGN project), UC Berkeley & US Geological Survey (BARD network), and the Pacific Geosciences Centre (WCDA project). Our goal is to demonstrate an earthquake and tsunami early warning system for western North America. Rapid response is particularly important for those coastal communities that are in the near-source region of large earthquakes and may have only minutes of warning time, and who today are not adequately covered by existing seismic and basin-wide ocean-buoy monitoring systems. The READI working group is performing comparisons of independent real time analyses of 1 Hz GPS data for station displacements and is participating in government-sponsored earthquake and tsunami exercises in the Western U.S. I describe a prototype seismogeodetic system using a cluster of southern California stations that includes GNSS tracking and collocation with MEMS accelerometers for real-time estimation of seismic velocity and displacement waveforms, which has advantages for improved earthquake early warning and tsunami forecasts compared to seismic-only or GPS-only methods. The READI working group's ultimate goal is to participate in an Indo-Pacific Tsunami early warning system that utilizes GNSS real-time displacements and ionospheric measurements along with seismic, near-shore buoys and ocean-bottom pressure sensors, where available, to rapidly estimate magnitude and finite fault slip models for large earthquakes, and then forecast tsunami source, energy scale, geographic extent, inundation and runup. This will require

  9. Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster.

    PubMed

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Shuto, Nobuo

    2015-10-28

    We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. The responses to the 2011 event are discussed specifically on the tsunami warning system and efforts to identify the tsunami impacts. The nation-wide post-tsunami survey results shed light on the mechanisms of structural destruction, tsunami loads and structural vulnerability to inform structural rehabilitation measures and land-use planning. Remarkable paradigm shifts in designing coastal protection and disaster mitigation measures were introduced, leading with a new concept of potential tsunami levels: Prevention (Level 1) and Mitigation (Level 2) levels according to the level of 'protection'. The seawall is designed with reference to Level 1 tsunami scenario, while comprehensive disaster management measures should refer to Level 2 tsunami for protection of human lives and reducing potential losses and damage. Throughout the case study in Sendai city, the proposed reconstruction plan was evaluated from the tsunami engineering point of view to discuss how the post 2011 paradigm was implemented in coastal communities for future disaster mitigation. The analysis revealed that Sendai city's multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to a substantial reduction of the tsunami inundation zone and potential losses, combined with an effective tsunami evacuation plan. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. IMPROVEMENT SUPPORT RESEARCH OF LOCAL DISASTER PREVENTION POWER USING THE FIRE SPREADING SIMULATION SYSTEM IN CASE OF A BIG EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futagami, Toru; Omoto, Shohei; Hamamoto, Kenichirou

    This research describes the risk communication towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power for Gobusho town in Marugame city which is only a high density city area in Kagawa Pref. Specifically, the key persons and authors of the area report the practice research towards improvement in the local disaster prevention power by the PDCA cycle of the area, such as formation of local voluntary disaster management organizations and implementation of an emergency drill, applying the fire spreading simulation system in case of a big earthquake. The fire spreading simulation system in case of the big earthquake which authors are developing describes the role and subject which have been achieved to BCP of the local community as a support system.

  11. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  12. Earthquake forecasting test for Kanto district to reduce vulnerability of urban mega earthquake disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project on earthquake predictability research. The final goal of this project is to search for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo joined CSEP and started the Japanese testing center called as CSEP-Japan. This testing center provides an open access to researchers contributing earthquake forecast models applied to Japan. Now more than 100 earthquake forecast models were submitted on the prospective experiment. The models are separated into 4 testing classes (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions covering an area of Japan including sea area, Japanese mainland and Kanto district. We evaluate the performance of the models in the official suite of tests defined by CSEP. The total number of experiments was implemented for approximately 300 rounds. These results provide new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. We started a study for constructing a 3-dimensional earthquake forecasting model for Kanto district in Japan based on CSEP experiments under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters. Because seismicity of the area ranges from shallower part to a depth of 80 km due to subducting Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, we need to study effect of depth distribution. We will develop models for forecasting based on the results of 2-D modeling. We defined the 3D - forecasting area in the Kanto region with test classes of 1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years, and magnitudes from 4.0 to 9.0 as in CSEP-Japan. In the first step of the study, we will install RI10K model (Nanjo, 2011) and the HISTETAS models (Ogata, 2011) to know if those models have good performance as in the 3 months 2-D CSEP-Japan experiments in the Kanto region before the 2011 Tohoku event (Yokoi et al., in preparation). We use CSEP

  13. The Global Earthquake Model and Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced, reliable and transparent tools and data to assess earthquake risk are inaccessible to most, especially in less developed regions of the world while few, if any, globally accepted standards currently allow a meaningful comparison of risk between places. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a collaborative effort that aims to provide models, datasets and state-of-the-art tools for transparent assessment of earthquake hazard and risk. As part of this goal, GEM and its global network of collaborators have developed the OpenQuake engine (an open-source software for hazard and risk calculations), the OpenQuake platform (a web-based portal making GEM's resources and datasets freely available to all potential users), and a suite of tools to support modelers and other experts in the development of hazard, exposure and vulnerability models. These resources are being used extensively across the world in hazard and risk assessment, from individual practitioners to local and national institutions, and in regional projects to inform disaster risk reduction. Practical examples for how GEM is bridging the gap between science and disaster risk reduction are: - Several countries including Switzerland, Turkey, Italy, Ecuador, Papua-New Guinea and Taiwan (with more to follow) are computing national seismic hazard using the OpenQuake-engine. In some cases these results are used for the definition of actions in building codes. - Technical support, tools and data for the development of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk models for regional projects in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. - Going beyond physical risk, GEM's scorecard approach evaluates local resilience by bringing together neighborhood/community leaders and the risk reduction community as a basis for designing risk reduction programs at various levels of geography. Actual case studies are Lalitpur in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal and Quito/Ecuador. In agreement with GEM's collaborative approach, all

  14. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2013-03-15

    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  15. General overview of the disaster management framework in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bang, Henry Ngenyam

    2014-07-01

    Efficient and effective disaster management will prevent many hazardous events from becoming disasters. This paper constitutes the most comprehensive document on the natural disaster management framework of Cameroon. It reviews critically disaster management in Cameroon, examining the various legislative, institutional, and administrative frameworks that help to facilitate the process. Furthermore, it illuminates the vital role that disaster managers at the national, regional, and local level play to ease the process. Using empirical data, the study analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of disaster managers. Its findings reveal inadequate disaster management policies, poor coordination between disaster management institutions at the national level, the lack of trained disaster managers, a skewed disaster management system, and a top-down hierarchical structure within Cameroon's disaster management framework. By scrutinising the disaster management framework of the country, policy recommendations based on the research findings are made on the institutional and administrative frameworks. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  16. Climate change and disaster management.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Geoff; O'Keefe, Phil; Rose, Joanne; Wisner, Ben

    2006-03-01

    Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A focus that neglects to enhance capacity-building and resilience as a prerequisite for managing climate change risks will, in all likelihood, do little to reduce vulnerability to those risks. Reducing vulnerability is a key aspect of reducing climate change risk. To do so requires a new approach to climate change risk and a change in institutional structures and relationships. A focus on development that neglects to enhance governance and resilience as a prerequisite for managing climate change risks will, in all likelihood, do little to reduce vulnerability to those risks.

  17. Recent innovation of geospatial information technology to support disaster risk management and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Une, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Geographic location is one of the most fundamental and indispensable information elements in the field of disaster response and prevention. For example, in the case of the Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, aerial photos taken immediately after the earthquake greatly improved information sharing among different government offices and facilitated rescue and recovery operations, and maps prepared after the disaster assisted in the rapid reconstruction of affected local communities. Thanks to the recent development of geospatial information technology, this information has become more essential for disaster response activities. Advancements in web mapping technology allows us to better understand the situation by overlaying various location-specific data on base maps on the web and specifying the areas on which activities should be focused. Through 3-D modelling technology, we can have a more realistic understanding of the relationship between disaster and topography. Geospatial information technology can sup-port proper preparation and emergency responses against disasters by individuals and local communities through hazard mapping and other information services using mobile devices. Thus, geospatial information technology is playing a more vital role on all stages of disaster risk management and responses. In acknowledging geospatial information's vital role in disaster risk reduction, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, repeatedly reveals the importance of utilizing geospatial information technology for disaster risk reduction. This presentation aims to report the recent practical applications of geospatial information technology for disaster risk management and responses.

  18. [Operating room during natural disaster: lessons from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Satomi, Susumu; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2012-03-01

    Objective of this study is to clarify damages in operating rooms after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. To survey structural and non-structural damage in operating theaters, we sent questionnaires to 155 acute care hospitals in Tohoku area. Questionnaires were sent back from 105 hospitals (70.3%). Total of 280 patients were undergoing any kinds of operations during the earthquake and severe seismic tremor greater than JMA Seismic Intensity 6 hit 49 hospitals. Operating room staffs experienced life-threatening tremor in 41 hospitals. Blackout occurred but emergency electronic supply unit worked immediately in 81 out of 90 hospitals. However, emergency power plant did not work in 9 hospitals. During earthquake some materials fell from shelves in 44 hospitals and medical instruments fell down in 14 hospitals. In 5 hospitals, they experienced collapse of operating room wall or ceiling causing inability to maintain sterile operative field. Damage in electric power and water supply plus damage in logistics made many operating rooms difficult to perform routine surgery for several days. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake affected medical supply in wide area of Tohoku district and induced dysfunction of operating room. Supply-chain management of medical goods should be reconsidered to prepare severe natural disaster.

  19. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disaster waste management: A review article

    SciT

    Brown, Charlotte, E-mail: charlotte.brown@pg.canterbury.ac.nz; Milke, Mark, E-mail: mark.milke@canterbury.ac.nz; Seville, Erica, E-mail: erica.seville@canterbury.ac.nz

    2011-06-15

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.;more » however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.« less

  1. Obstetrical care and women's health in the aftermath of disasters: the first 14 days after the 2010 Haitian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn; Black, Lynn; Briggs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters disproportionately injure women and children. Disaster teams need intensive training in the management of obstetrics and women's healthcare at the disaster site. This article summarizes the obstetrical experience for the International Medical Surgical Response Team (IMSuRT) stationed at Gheskio in Port Au Prince during the first 2 weeks after the 2010 Haitian earthquake. The world's literature on the impact of disasters on women is reviewed. Sixty-three members of the IMSuRT and Disaster Medical Assistance Team set up a mobile surgical field hospital after the 2010 Haitian earthquake. One member (AG) managed all the obstetrical care and taught the other team members essentials of labor management and assessment in pregnancy. Six hundred patients were treated in the first 14 days. Ten percent of these patients were pregnant.There were 12 deliveries. All pregnant patients were evaluated by a Sonosite ultrasound device. Pregnant patients with earthquake-related injuries were treated for their injuries.Women in labor were managed by active management in labor. No cesarean sections were needed. Well-being of mother and babies. Sixty pregnant women presented to the mobile hospital for evaluation from January 17, 2010, through January 28, 2012. Twelve women in labor delivered healthy infants by vaginal delivery. Gestational ages ranges from 34 to 40 weeks. Active management of labor included the use of intravenous Pitocin, which was titrated to contractions. Duration of labor ranged from 2 to 12 hours. Three team members participated in each delivery. Two women were discharged on the same day as their deliveries. Eight women were discharged on the first postpartum day and two on the second postpartum day. Pregnant women suffered severe injuries. Additionally, pregnant women with pre-existing medical conditions were treated after the earthquake. Active management of labor allowed all women to deliver vaginally. The labor management required tremendous

  2. Disaster resilience and population ageing: the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haili; Maki, Norio; Hayashi, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating the effects of population ageing on disaster resilience. In so doing, it focuses on the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes, two major disasters that affected Japan before the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. It analyses regional population recovery on the basis of pre-disaster and post-recovery demographic characteristics using defined transition patterns of population ageing. The evaluation framework demonstrates that various recovery measures make different contributions to disaster resilience for each transition pattern of population ageing. With reference to regional population ageing, the framework allows for a prediction of disaster resilience, facilitating place vulnerability assessments and potentially informing policy-making strategies for Japan and other countries with ageing populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  3. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen

    2013-05-01

    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  4. USGS Imagery Applications During Disaster Response After Recent Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is not only important to rapidly characterize surface fault rupture and related ground deformation after an earthquake, but also to repeatedly make observations following an event to forecast fault afterslip. These data may also be used by other agencies to monitor progress on damage repairs and restoration efforts by emergency responders and the public. Related requirements include repeatedly obtaining reference or baseline imagery before a major disaster occurs, as well as maintaining careful geodetic control on all imagery in a time series so that absolute georeferencing may be applied to the image stack through time. In addition, repeated post-event imagery acquisition is required, generally at a higher repetition rate soon after the event, then scaled back to less frequent acquisitions with time, to capture phenomena (such as fault afterslip) that are known to have rates that decrease rapidly with time. For example, lidar observations acquired before and after the South Napa earthquake of 2014, used in our extensive post-processing work that was funded primarily by FEMA, aided in the accurate forecasting of fault afterslip. Lidar was used to independently validate and verify the official USGS afterslip forecast. In order to keep pace with rapidly evolving technology, a development pipeline must be established and maintained to continually test and incorporate new sensors, while adapting these new components to the existing platform and linking them to the existing base software system, and then sequentially testing the system as it evolves. Improvements in system performance by incremental upgrades of system components and software are essential. Improving calibration parameters and thereby progressively eliminating artifacts requires ongoing testing, research and development. To improve the system, we have formed an interdisciplinary team with common interests and diverse sources of support. We share expertise and leverage funding while effectively and

  5. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Life losses following disastrous earthquake depends mainly by the building vulnerability, intensity of shaking and timeliness of rescue operations. In recent decades, the increase in population and industrial density has significantly increased the exposure to earthquakes of urban areas. The potential impact of a strong earthquake on a town center can be reduced by timely and correct actions of the emergency management centers. A real time urban seismic network can drastically reduce casualties immediately following a strong earthquake, by timely providing information about the distribution of the ground shaking level. Emergency management centers, with functions in the immediate post-earthquake period, could be use this information to allocate and prioritize resources to minimize loss of human life. However, due to the high charges of the seismological instrumentation, the realization of an urban seismic network, which may allow reducing the rate of fatalities, has not been achieved. Recent technological developments in MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology could allow today the realization of a high-density urban seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment, suitable for the earthquake effects mitigation. In the 1990s, MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are today widely used in laptops, games controllers and mobile phones. Due to their great commercial successes, the research into and development of MEMS accelerometers are actively pursued around the world. Nowadays, the sensitivity and dynamics of these sensors are such to allow accurate recording of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude. Due to their low cost and small size, the MEMS accelerometers may be employed for the realization of high-density seismic networks. The MEMS accelerometers could be installed inside sensitive places (high vulnerability and exposure), such as schools, hospitals, public buildings and places of

  6. A quick earthquake disaster loss assessment method supported by dasymetric data for emergency response in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghai; An, Jiwen; Nie, Gaozong

    2016-04-01

    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of the key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has several stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding damage probability matrices, calculating building damage and calculating human losses. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of losses from the pre-calculated estimation data. Thus, the final loss estimation results are obtained. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significantly improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation but also provides the spatial distribution of the losses, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes occur. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  7. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  8. An integrated approach: managing resources for post-disaster reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Brunsdon, David; Seville, Erica; Potangaroa, Regan

    2011-10-01

    A lack of resources for post-disaster housing reconstruction significantly limits the prospects for successful recovery. Following the earthquake in Wenchuan, China, in May 2008, housing reconstruction was not immune to resource shortages and price inflation. Difficulties in sourcing materials and labour considerably impeded recovery. This paper provides evidence of the resourcing bottlenecks inherent in the post-Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction process. Its aim is to present an integrated planning framework for managing resources for post-disaster housing rebuilding. The results are drawn from in-field surveys that highlight the areas where stakeholders need to concentrate effort, including revising legislation and policy, enhancing capacity for rebuilding in the construction industry, strengthening the transportation network, restructuring market mechanisms, and incorporating environmental considerations into overall planning. Although the case study presented here is country-specific, it is hoped that the findings provide a basis for future research to identify resourcing constraints and solutions in other disaster contexts. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  9. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  10. [Principles of management of All-Russia Disaster Medicine Services].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, I I

    2000-11-01

    Experience of liquidation of earthquake consequences in Armenia (1988) has shown that it is extremely necessary to create the system of management in regions of natural disaster, large accident or catastrophe before arrival of main forces in order to provide reconnaissance, to receive the arriving units. It will help to make well-grounded decisions, to set tasks in time, to organize and conduct emergency-and-rescue works. The article contains general material concerning the structure of All-Russia service of disaster medicine (ARSDM), organization of management at all levels and interaction between the components of ARSDM and other subsystems of Russian Service of Extreme Situations. It is recommended how to organize management of ARSDM during liquidation of medical-and-sanitary consequences of large-scale extreme situations.

  11. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  12. Analysis of Free Legal Counselling for the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Outlook for the Field of Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law

    PubMed Central

    OKAMOTO, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Of the free legal counselling conducted by lawyers following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the results of analysis of approx. 40,000 cases have been disclosed by the Japan Federation of Bar Associations. These analysis results have been used as evidence serving as the basis for system revision and new legislation following the disaster, and have been of value to public policy, to a certain extent. In order to identify methods for realizing policy targets as know-how for public policy through the integration and analysis of legal needs in disaster areas, in FY2012 and thereafter, lectures on the “Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law” were initiated by the Graduate School of Public Policy, Chuo University; Keio University Law School; and other institutions. Under the Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law, new public policy education fusing various fields of government, policy, law, disaster prevention and crisis management, etc. has been implemented. By utilizing the database on free legal counselling, it may be possible to identify legal systems that need to be ironed out or problems related to public policy in preparation for a huge disaster such as an earthquake directly striking the Tokyo metropolitan area or an earthquake in the Nankai Trough. It is thought that intensifying study of relevant fields will result in the proposal of new designs in the fields of disaster prevention and crisis management. PMID:28299243

  13. Analysis of Free Legal Counselling for the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Outlook for the Field of Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    Of the free legal counselling conducted by lawyers following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the results of analysis of approx. 40,000 cases have been disclosed by the Japan Federation of Bar Associations. These analysis results have been used as evidence serving as the basis for system revision and new legislation following the disaster, and have been of value to public policy, to a certain extent. In order to identify methods for realizing policy targets as know-how for public policy through the integration and analysis of legal needs in disaster areas, in FY2012 and thereafter, lectures on the "Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law" were initiated by the Graduate School of Public Policy, Chuo University; Keio University Law School; and other institutions. Under the Disaster Recovery and Revitalization Law, new public policy education fusing various fields of government, policy, law, disaster prevention and crisis management, etc. has been implemented. By utilizing the database on free legal counselling, it may be possible to identify legal systems that need to be ironed out or problems related to public policy in preparation for a huge disaster such as an earthquake directly striking the Tokyo metropolitan area or an earthquake in the Nankai Trough. It is thought that intensifying study of relevant fields will result in the proposal of new designs in the fields of disaster prevention and crisis management.

  14. Resources for business continuity in disaster-based hospitals in the great East Japan earthquake: survey of Miyagi Prefecture disaster base hospitals and the prefectural disaster medicine headquarters.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Koido, Yuichi; Matsumura, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Konishi, Ryota; Matoba, Masaaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2013-10-01

    To clarify advance measures for business continuity taken by disaster base hospitals involved in the Great East Japan Earthquake. The predisaster situation regarding stockpiles was abstracted from a 2010 survey. Timing of electricity and water restoration and sufficiency of supplies to continue operations were investigated through materials from Miyagi Prefecture disaster medicine headquarters (prefectural medical headquarters) and disaster base hospitals (14 hospitals) in Miyagi Prefecture after the East Japan earthquake. The number of hospitals with less than 1 day of stockpiles in reserve before the disaster was 7 (50%) for electricity supplies, 8 (57.1%) for water, 6 (42.9%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. After the disaster, restoration of electricity and water did not occur until the second day or later at 8 of 13 (61.5%) hospitals, respectively. By the fourth postdisaster day, 14 hospitals had requested supplies from the prefectural medical headquarters: 9 (64.3%) for electricity supplies, 2 (14.3%) for water trucks, 9 (64.3%) for medical goods, and 6 (42.9%) for food. The lack of supplies needed to continue operations in disaster base hospitals following the disaster clearly indicated that current business continuity plans require revision.

  15. Recommended satellite imagery capabilities for disaster management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. B.; Robinove, C. J.; Wiesnet, D. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores the role that satellite imaging systems might play in obtaining information needed in the management of natural and manmade disasters. Information requirements which might conceivably be met by satellite were identified for over twenty disasters. These requirements covered pre-disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, disaster response activities, and post-disaster recovery activities. The essential imaging satellite characteristics needed to meet most of the information requirements are 30 meter (or finer) spatial resolution, frequency of observations of one week or less, data delivery times of one day or less, and stereo, synoptic all-weather coverage of large areas in the visible, near infrared, thermal infrared and microwave bands. Of the current and planned satellite systems investigated for possible application to disaster management, Landsat-D and SPOT appear to have the greatest potential during disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, but all satellites studied have serious deficiencies during response and recovery activities. Several strawman concepts are presented for a satellite system optimized to support all disaster management activities.

  16. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  17. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  18. [High Resolution Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of Secondary Geological Disasters Triggered by the Lushan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li; Li, Wen-jun; Liu, Xiong-fei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary geological disasters triggered by the Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, such as landslides, collapses, debris flows, etc., had caused great casualties and losses. We monitored the number and spatial distribution of the secondary geological disasters in the earthquake-hit area from airborne remote sensing images, which covered areas about 3 100 km2. The results showed that Lushan County, Baoxing County and Tianquan County were most severely affected; there were 164, 126 and 71 secondary geological disasters in these regions. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between the distribution of the secondary geological disasters, geological structure and intensity. The results indicate that there were 4 high-hazard zones in the monitored area, one focused within six kilometers from the epicenter, and others are distributed along the two main fault zones of the Longmen Mountain. More than 97% secondary geological disasters occurred in zones with a seismic intensity of VII to IX degrees, a slope between 25 A degrees and 50 A degrees, and an altitude of between 800 and 2 000 m. At last, preliminary suggestions were proposed for the rehabilitation and reconstruction planning of Lushan earthquake. According to the analysis result, airborne and space borne remote sensing can be used accurately and effectively in almost real-time to monitor and assess secondary geological disasters, providing a scientific basis and decision making support for government emergency command and post-disaster reconstruction.

  19. Supply Chain Management in Disaster Response

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    In todays society that disasters seem to be striking all corners of the United States and the globe, the importance of emergency management is undeniable. Much human loss and unnecessary destruction of infrastructure can be avoided with more fores...

  20. GIS Based System for Post-Earthquake Crisis Managment Using Cellular Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. Earthquakes happen mainly near the edges of tectonic plates, but they may happen just about anywhere. Earthquakes cannot be predicted. Quick response after disasters, like earthquake, decreases loss of life and costs. Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. After the earthquake and destroyed some areas, several teams are sent to find the location of the destroyed areas. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days. Time reduction for surviving people is very important. A Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used for decreasing response time and management in critical situations. Position estimation in short period of time time is important. This paper proposes a GIS based system for post-earthquake disaster management solution. This system relies on several mobile positioning methods such as cell-ID and TA method, signal strength method, angel of arrival method, time of arrival method and time difference of arrival method. For quick positioning, the system can be helped by any person who has a mobile device. After positioning and specifying the critical points, the points are sent to a central site for managing the procedure of quick response for helping. This solution establishes a quick way to manage the post-earthquake crisis.

  1. Burden and Management of Noncommunicable Diseases After Earthquakes and Tsunamis.

    PubMed

    Suneja, Amit; Gakh, Maxim; Rutkow, Lainie

    This integrative review examines extant literature assessing the burden and management of noncommunicable diseases 6 months or more after earthquakes and tsunamis. We conducted an integrative review to identify and characterize the strength of published studies about noncommunicable disease-specific outcomes and interventions at least 6 months after an earthquake and/or tsunami. We included disasters that occurred from 2004 to 2016. We focused primarily on the World Health Organization noncommunicable disease designations to define chronic disease, but we also included chronic renal disease, risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, and other chronic diseases or symptoms. After removing duplicates, our search yielded 6,188 articles. Twenty-five articles met our inclusion criteria, some discussing multiple noncommunicable diseases. Results demonstrate that existing medical conditions may worsen and subsequently improve, new diseases may develop, and risk factors, such as weight and cholesterol levels, may increase for several years after an earthquake and/or tsunami. We make 3 recommendations for practitioners and researchers: (1) plan for noncommunicable disease management further into the recovery period of disaster; (2) increase research on the burden of noncommunicable diseases, the treatment modalities employed, resulting population-level outcomes in the postdisaster setting, and existing models to improve stakeholder coordination and action regarding noncommunicable diseases after disasters; and (3) coordinate with preexisting provision networks, especially primary care.

  2. Cost and efficiency of disaster waste disposal: A case study of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the cost and efficiency of waste disposal associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. The following two analyses were performed: (1) a popular parametric approach, which is an ordinary least squares (OLS) method to estimate the factors that affect the disposal costs; (2) a non-parametric approach, which is a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of each municipality and clarify the best performance of the disaster waste management. Our results indicate that a higher recycling rate of disaster waste and a larger amount of tsunami sediments decrease the average disposal costs. Our results also indicate that area-wide management increases the average cost. In addition, the efficiency scores were observed to vary widely by municipality, and more temporary incinerators and secondary waste stocks improve the efficiency scores. However, it is likely that the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station influenced the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crisis management of tohoku; Japan earthquake and tsunami, 11 march 2011.

    PubMed

    Zaré, M; Afrouz, S Ghaychi

    2012-01-01

    The huge earthquake in 11 March 2012 which followed by a destructive tsunami in Japan was largest recorded earthquake in the history. Japan is pioneer in disaster management, especially earthquakes. How this developed country faced this disaster, which had significant worldwide effects? The humanitarian behavior of the Japanese people amazingly wondered the word's media, meanwhile the management of government and authorities showed some deficiencies. The impact of the disaster is followed up after the event and the different impacts are tried to be analyzed in different sectors. The situation one year after Japan 2011 earthquake and Tsunami is overviewed. The reason of Japanese plans failure was the scale of tsunami, having higher waves than what was assumed, especially in the design of the Nuclear Power Plant. Japanese authorities considered economic benefits more than safety and moral factors exacerbate the situation. Major lessons to be learnt are 1) the effectiveness of disaster management should be restudied in all hazardous countries; 2) the importance of the high-Tech early-warning systems in reducing risk; 3) Reconsidering of extreme values expected/possible hazard and risk levels is necessary; 4) Morality and might be taken as an important factor in disaster management; 5) Sustainable development should be taken as the basis for reconstruction after disaster.

  4. Crisis Management of Tohoku; Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 11 March 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zaré, M; Afrouz, S Ghaychi

    2012-01-01

    The huge earthquake in 11 March 2012 which followed by a destructive tsunami in Japan was largest recorded earthquake in the history. Japan is pioneer in disaster management, especially earthquakes. How this developed country faced this disaster, which had significant worldwide effects? The humanitarian behavior of the Japanese people amazingly wondered the word’s media, meanwhile the management of government and authorities showed some deficiencies. The impact of the disaster is followed up after the event and the different impacts are tried to be analyzed in different sectors. The situation one year after Japan 2011 earthquake and Tsunami is overviewed. The reason of Japanese plans failure was the scale of tsunami, having higher waves than what was assumed, especially in the design of the Nuclear Power Plant. Japanese authorities considered economic benefits more than safety and moral factors exacerbate the situation. Major lessons to be learnt are 1) the effectiveness of disaster management should be restudied in all hazardous countries; 2) the importance of the high-Tech early-warning systems in reducing risk; 3) Reconsidering of extreme values expected/possible hazard and risk levels is necessary; 4) Morality and might be taken as an important factor in disaster management; 5) Sustainable development should be taken as the basis for reconstruction after disaster. PMID:23113189

  5. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  6. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  7. Disaster Management and Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Grace

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes discussions from a seminar focusing on earthquakes and educational facilities, including findings related to educational buildings; partnerships; training; standards, regulations, and procedures; finance and legislation; and research and support. (EV)

  8. Disaster management: using Internet-based technology.

    PubMed

    Dimitruk, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Disasters impose operational challenges and substantial financial burdens on hospitals. Internet-based disaster management technology can help. This technology should: Capture, analyze, and track relevant data. Be available 24/7. Guide decision makers in setting up an incident command center and monitor the completion of jobs by ICC role. Provide assistance in areas that hospitals are not used to dealing with, e.g., chemical or bio-terror agents.

  9. Experiences of municipal public health nurses following Japan's earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Mami; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Akiko; Horikoshi, Naoko; Kido, Yoshifumi; Murakata, Tazuko; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of municipal public health nurses in the wake of the March 2011 massive earthquake and tsunami and resulting nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, from the time of the disaster until December 2013. Thirty-two public health nurses working in three cities in Fukushima prefecture were divided into four focus groups and took part in interviews, which were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive method. Two major themes were extracted: (1) experiences of difficulties and dilemmas, and (2) professional challenges and the meaning of excellence as a public health nurse. Subjects recounted their experiences based on the timeline of events. The process of overcoming various dilemmas--between prescribed roles and actual needs on the ground, being both civil servants and private citizens with families, and having to be publicly accountable while lacking adequate information--caused participants to reexamine the meaning of excellence in the practice of public health. The strenuous and complex demands of extended disaster management caused subjects to grow professionally. Helping them process their emotions should also help these nurses give focus to their posttraumatic growth, and strengthen their sense of professionalism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the management of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayi, A.; Erdogan, M.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-11-01

    An earthquake occurred at Van City on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 local time. The magnitude, moment magnitude and depth of earthquake were respectively MI:6.7, Mw:7.0 and 19.07 km. Van city centre and its surrounding villages were affected from this destructive earthquake. Many buildings were ruined and approximately 600 people died. Acquisition and use of geospatial data is very important and crucial for the management of such kind of natural disasters. In this paper, the role of national and international geospatial data in the management of Van earthquake is investigated.. With an international collaboration with Charter, pre and post-earthquake satellite images were acquired in 24 hours following the Earthquake. Also General Command of Mapping (GCM), the national mapping agency of Turkey, produced the high resolution multispectral orthophotos of the region. Charter presented the orthophotos through 26-28 October 2012. Just after the earthquake with a quick reaction, GCM made the flight planning of the 1296 km2 disaster area to acquire aerial photos. The aerial photos were acquired on 24 October 2012 (one day after the earthquake) by UltraCamX large format digital aerial camera. 152 images were taken with 30 cm ground sample distance (GSD) by %30 sidelap and %60 overlap. In the evening of same flight day, orthophotos were produced without ground control points by direct georeferencing and GCM supplied the orthophotos to the disaster management authorities. Also 45 cm GSD archive orthophotos, acquired in 2010, were used as a reference in order to find out the effects of the disaster. The subjects written here do not represent the ideas of Turkish Armed Forces.

  11. Three-Dimensional Maps for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.

    2012-07-01

    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to property, improve the monitoring of these disasters, and facilitate estimates of the damages and losses resulting from them. The maintenance and accessibility of spatial information has improved enormously with the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), especially with second-generation SDIs, in which the original product-based SDI was improved to a process-based SDI. Through the use of SDIs, geo-information is made available to local, national and international organisations in regions affected by natural disasters as well as to volunteers serving in these areas. Volunteer-based systems for information collection (e.g., Ushahidi) have been created worldwide. However, the use of 3D maps is still limited. This paper discusses the applicability of 3D geo-information to disaster management. We discuss some important aspects of maps for disaster management, such as user-centred maps, the necessary components for 3D maps, symbols, and colour schemas. In addition, digital representations are evaluated with respect to their visual controls, i.e., their usefulness for the navigation and exploration of the information. Our recommendations are based on responses from a variety of users of these technologies, including children, geospecialists and disaster managers from different countries.

  12. Understanding Earthquake Hazard & Disaster in Himalaya - A Perspective on Earthquake Forecast in Himalayan Region of South Central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, D.; Paudyal, ,; Singh, H.

    2010-12-01

    It is not only the basic understanding of the phenomenon of earthquake, its resistance offered by the designed structure, but the understanding of the socio-economic factors, engineering properties of the indigenous materials, local skill and technology transfer models are also of vital importance. It is important that the engineering aspects of mitigation should be made a part of public policy documents. Earthquakes, therefore, are and were thought of as one of the worst enemies of mankind. Due to the very nature of release of energy, damage is evident which, however, will not culminate in a disaster unless it strikes a populated area. The word mitigation may be defined as the reduction in severity of something. The Earthquake disaster mitigation, therefore, implies that such measures may be taken which help reduce severity of damage caused by earthquake to life, property and environment. While “earthquake disaster mitigation” usually refers primarily to interventions to strengthen the built environment, and “earthquake protection” is now considered to include human, social and administrative aspects of reducing earthquake effects. It should, however, be noted that reduction of earthquake hazards through prediction is considered to be the one of the effective measures, and much effort is spent on prediction strategies. While earthquake prediction does not guarantee safety and even if predicted correctly the damage to life and property on such a large scale warrants the use of other aspects of mitigation. While earthquake prediction may be of some help, mitigation remains the main focus of attention of the civil society. Present study suggests that anomalous seismic activity/ earthquake swarm existed prior to the medium size earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The mainshocks were preceded by the quiescence period which is an indication for the occurrence of future seismic activity. In all the cases, the identified episodes of anomalous seismic activity were

  13. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.

    2017-07-01

    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  14. Radiology diagnostic devices under emergency electric power at disaster base hospitals during the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: results of a survey of all disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Shota; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013. Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals. Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552).

  15. The Academic Impact of Natural Disasters: Evidence from L'Aquila Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses a standard difference-in-differences approach to examine the effect of the L'Aquila earthquake on the academic performance of the students of the local university. The empirical results indicate that this natural disaster reduced students' probability of graduating on-time and slightly increased students' probability of dropping…

  16. Teaching through 10,000 Earthquakes: Constructive Practice for Instructors in a Post-Disaster Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah; Wordsworth, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe their experiences of teaching through a series of major earthquakes and the lessons learned regarding sustaining teaching and learning through an ongoing natural disaster. Student feedback data from across the university is analyzed to generate a model of constructive practice for instructors responding to a crisis. The…

  17. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN DISASTER RESTORATION ACTIVITY AFTER SOME MAJOR EARTHQUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Yasuo; Itoh, Kazuya; Kikkawa, Naotaka

    Occupational safety and health in disaster restoration activity following the Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995), Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004), Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) Great East Japan Earthquake (2011) were analyzed and characterized in order to raise awareness on the risks and hazards in such work. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall" which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides were prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring during geotechnical works rather than in buildings construction works. In the abnormal conditions that characterize recovery activities, when safety and health measures have a tendency to be neglected, it is important to reinstate adequate measures as soon as possible by carrying out the usial risk assessments.

  18. Modeling financial disaster risk management in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.

    2005-12-01

    The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.

  19. NASA Applied Sciences Disasters Program Support for the September 2017 Mexico Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Osmanoglu, B.; Amini, R.; Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.; Struve, J. C.; Seepersad, J.; Thompson, V.

    2017-12-01

    The 8 September M 8.1 Tehuantepec and 19 September M 7.1 Puebla earthquakes were among the largest earthquakes recorded in Mexico. These two events caused widespread damage, affecting several million people and causing numerous casualties. A team of event coordinators in the NASA Applied Sciences Program activated soon after these devastating earthquakes in order to support decision makers in Mexico, using NASA modeling and international remote sensing capabilities to generate decision support products to aid in response and recovery. The NASA Disasters Program promotes the use of Earth observations to improve the prediction of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural and technological disasters. For these two events, the Disasters Program worked with Mexico's space agency (Agencia Espacial Mexico, AEM) and the National Center for Prevention of Disasters (Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, CENAPRED) to generate products to support response, decision-making, and recovery. Products were also provided to academic partners, technical institutions, and field responders to support response. In addition, the Program partnered with the US Geological Survey (USGS), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and other partners in order to provide information to federal and domestic agencies that were supporting event response. Leveraging the expertise of investigators at NASA Centers, products such as landslide susceptibility maps, precipitation models, and radar based damage assessments and surface deformation maps were generated and used by AEM, CENAPRED, and others during the event. These were used by AEM in collaboration with other government agencies in Mexico to make appropriate decisions for mapping damage, rescue and recovery, and informing the population regarding areas prone to potential risk. We will provide an overview of the response activities and data products generated in support of the earthquake response, partnerships with

  20. The orientation of disaster donations: differences in the global response to five major earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiuchang; Marinova, Dora

    2016-07-01

    This study analyses the influence of gift giving, geographical location, political regime, and trade openness on disaster donation decisions, using five severe earthquakes that occurred between 2008 and 2012 as case studies. The results show that global disaster donation is not dominated by only philanthropy or trade interests, and that the determinants of donation decisions vary with the scale of the natural disaster and the characteristics of the disaster-affected countries. While gift giving exists in the case of middle-size earthquakes, political regimes play a very important part in the overall donation process. Countries with higher perceived corruption may donate more frequently, but those that are more democratic may be more generous in their donations. Generosity based on geographical proximity to the calamity is significant in the decision-making process for most natural disasters, yet it may have a negative effect on donations in Latin America and the Caribbean. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  1. Update on Activities of CEOS Disaster Management Support Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) has supported natural and technological disaster management on a worldwide basis by fostering improved utilization of existing and planned Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. The DMSG has focused on developing and refining recommendations for the application of satellite data to selected hazard areas--drought, earthquake, fire, flood, ice, landslide, oil spill, and volcanic hazards. Particular emphasis was placed on working closely with space agencies, international and regional organizations, and commercial organizations on the implementation of these recommendations. The DMSG is in its last year with its primary focus on documenting its work and migrating on going activities to other fora. With over 300 participants from more than 140 organizations, the DMSG has found strong support among CEOS space agencies and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), as well as an enthusiastic reception from numerous international, regional, and national emergency managers, and distinct interest from the commercial sector. In addition, the group has worked to give full support to the work of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in pursuit of decisions taken at UNISPACE III and the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In conjunction with the IGOS, several of the DMSG hazards teams (earthquake, landslide, and solid Earth dimensions of volcanoes) are joining in the effort to develop an IGOS Geohazards theme team. Cooperation efforts with organizations such as IGOS, COPUOS, and ISDR will hopefully lead to the pick up of much of the on going DMSG activities. Since the inception of this ad hoc working group and its predecessor project, the DMSG has developed and refined recommendations for the application of satellite data by bringing together experts from eight hazard areas to identify user needs, as well as

  2. The application of unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing for monitoring secondary geological disasters after earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianjie; Zhang, Yazhen; Wang, Xingyong; Fu, Jun'e.; Li, Lin; Pang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaolei; Kan, Guangyuan

    2017-07-01

    Remote sensing system fitted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can obtain clear images and high-resolution aerial photographs. It has advantages of strong real-time, flexibility and convenience, free from influence of external environment, low cost, low-flying under clouds and ability to work full-time. When an earthquake happened, it could go deep into the places safely and reliably which human staff can hardly approach, such as secondary geological disasters hit areas. The system can be timely precise in response to secondary geological disasters monitoring by a way of obtaining first-hand information as quickly as possible, producing a unique emergency response capacity to provide a scientific basis for overall decision-making processes. It can greatly enhance the capability of on-site disaster emergency working team in data collection and transmission. The great advantages of UAV remote sensing system played an irreplaceable role in monitoring secondary geological disaster dynamics and influences. Taking the landslides and barrier lakes for example, the paper explored the basic application and process of UAV remote sensing in the disaster emergency relief. UAV high-resolution remote sensing images had been exploited to estimate the situation of disaster-hit areas and monitor secondary geological disasters rapidly, systematically and continuously. Furthermore, a rapid quantitative assessment on the distribution and size of landslides and barrier lakes was carried out. Monitoring results could support relevant government departments and rescue teams, providing detailed and reliable scientific evidence for disaster relief and decision-making.

  3. The roles, barriers and experiences of rehabilitation therapists in disaster relief: post-earthquake Haiti 2010.

    PubMed

    Klappa, Susan; Audette, Jennifer; Do, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the roles and experiences of rehabilitation therapists involved in disaster relief work (DRW) in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. The results of a pilot study and phenomenological study are presented. A phenomenological study of rehabilitation providers' experiences in post-disaster relief care is presented along with preliminary pilot study results. The phenomenological study explored the experiences of therapists from a lived experience perspective through the roles they played in DRW. Participants provided disaster relief through direct patient care, adaptive equipment sourcing and allocation, education and training, community outreach and logistic or administrative duties. Barriers and challenges included: (1) emotions: ups and downs; (2) challenges: working at the edge of practice; (3) education: key to success and sustainability; (4) lessons learned: social responsibility is why we go; and (5) difficulty coming home: no one understands. Therapists play a key role in disaster relief situations. Data presented should encourage organizations to include therapists from early planning to implementation of relief services. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of rehabilitation interventions in disaster settings. Understanding the roles and experiences of therapists in disaster relief setting is important Certain barriers to providing care in post-disaster settings exist Those participating in disaster response should be well prepared and aware of that they might be asked to do.

  4. Technological disasters, crisis management and leadership stress.

    PubMed

    Weisaeth, Lars; Knudsen, Øistein; Tønnessen, Arnfinn

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses how psychological stress disturbs decision making during technological crisis and disaster, and how to prevent this from happening. This is exemplified by scientific studies of a Norwegian large scale accident involving hazardous material, and of handling the far-off effects of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. The former constitutes an operative level of crisis management, whereas the latter involves crisis management at the strategic and political level. We conclude that stress had a negative effect on decision making in both cases.

  5. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  6. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  7. Natural Disaster & Crisis Management in School Districts and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This document provides school districts and community colleges in Florida with guidance on disaster preparedness planning and management for all types of disasters. Procedures include those for insurance coverage, emergency shelters, command centers and disaster team organization, emergency communications, security, preparation prior to disaster,…

  8. Post-disaster resettlement, development and change: a case study of the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran.

    PubMed

    Badri, S Ali; Asgary, Ali; Eftekhari, A R; Levy, Jason

    2006-12-01

    Planned and involuntary resettlement after natural disasters has been a major policy in post-disaster reconstruction in developing countries over the past few decades. Studies show that resettlement can result in significant adverse impacts on the resettled population. Conversely, a well-planned and managed resettlement process can produce positive long-term development outcomes. This article presents the results of a case study undertaken 11 years after the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran. During the reconstruction period, a policy of involuntary planned resettlement was pursued extensively. The socioeconomic changes that occurred as a consequence of this policy of involuntary resettlement are analysed. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey that involved a sample of 194 relocated households (grouped into a settlement that later became a town). The paper shows that relocated families face difficult socioeconomic challenges after relocation and regrouping. This is especially true with respect to employment, income, the empowerment of women and lifestyle issues.

  9. Development of the Japanese National Disaster Medical System and Experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Masato

    2015-01-01

    After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the Japanese national disaster medical system (NDMS) was developed. It mainly consists of four components, namely, a disaster base hospital, an emergency medical information system, a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), and national aeromedical evacuation (AE). The NDMS was tested for the first time in a real disaster situation during the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. Two airports and one base were appointed as DMAT gathering places, and approximately 393 DMAT members divided into 78 teams were transported by Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) aircrafts to two AE staging bases the following day. Staging care units were installed at Hanamaki Airport, Fukushima Airport, and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Camp Kasuminome, and 69, 14 and 24 DMAT teams were placed at those locations, respectively. In total, 19 patients were evacuated using JASDF fixed-wing aircraft. Important issues requiring attention became clear through the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake and will be discussed in this paper. PMID:26306054

  10. Development of an Android App for notification and reporting of natural disaster such as earthquakes and tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Steffen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Disasters like the Tohoku tsunami in March 2011 and the earthquake in Haiti in January 2010, have shown clearly that the rapid detection of possible negative impact on population and infrastructure is crucial for the rapid organization of effective counter measures integration activities. It has turned out that effective planning of relief and rescue measures requires both information provided by governmental authorities and feedback of the general public. Every citizen experiencing the events directly on site becomes a potential witness and can provide valuable information about the disaster. Citizens can use various information channels to communicate and share their experiences. During the last years, the crowdsourcing approach has gained the attention of users of modern communication and information systems. The term crowdsourcing describes the interactive collaboration of voluntary users on the Internet, working on a common topic. A similar approach is mobile crowdsourcing which evolved in the quickly growing community of smartphone users: Crowdsourcing platforms provide additional application scenarios for modern smartphone. Smartphone users are enabled to compose and share reports immediately at the scene of the disaster. A growing number of modern smartphones also includes sensors for taking pictures and to determine the current geographical position. This additional content can significantly enhance the value of a disaster event report. The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the management of crisis situations. Part of the project is the development of an application for the Android smartphone platform. This application enables access to an continuously updated situation report for current natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis based on incoming crowdsourced reports. The App is used to immediately sent

  11. Timing and type of disaster severity data available on Internet following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Wefer, Agnes; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Background To adequately plan relief, adequate information that describe and quantify the severity of a disaster, and estimate the number of affected population, is rapidly needed. However, needs assessments describing the severity of the disaster has been shown to be conducted too late in order to guide the first days relief interventions. The aim of this study was to assess availability of early disaster severity information on Internet during the first seven days following the 2010 Haiti earthquake and assess to which extent the information was consistent with later revelations. Methods We searched the well acknowledged web portal Relief Web for all Haiti postings during the first seven days (12 -18 January 2010) after the earthquake. A form was created to classify and quantify extracted severity variables found in the postings. The results were compiled, analysed and compared with CRED (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster) official data made available later. Findings A total of 822 reports were posted where of 15 % provided a numerical estimate of the affected population, while 10% had an estimate on the number of dead. On day four 200 000 dead was reported, which is of the same magnitud compared to later official estimates (CRED data). Not a single report described the data collection method. Conclusions Within a few days of the 2010 Haiti earthquake it was possible to find surprisingly accurate information regarding severity of the earthquake but the available data must be questioned as no method was reported. More specialized and independent needs assessment agencies may improve availability of strategic information in the early onset of a disaster. PMID:23066517

  12. Digital disaster evaluation and its application to 2015 Ms 8.1 Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Xiaoqing; LV, Jinxia; DING, Xiang; DOU, Aixia

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the article is to probe the technique resolution of disaster information extraction and evaluation from the digital RS images based on the internet environment and aided by the social and geographic information. The solution is composed with such methods that the fast post-disaster assessment system will assess automatically the disaster area and grade, the multi-phase satellite and airborne high resolution digital RS images will provide the basis to extract the disaster areas or spots, assisted by the fast position of potential serious damage risk targets according to the geographic, administrative, population, buildings and other information in the estimated disaster region, the 2D digital map system or 3D digital earth system will provide platforms to interpret cooperatively the damage information in the internet environment, and further to estimate the spatial distribution of damage index or intensity, casualties or economic losses, which are very useful for the decision-making of emergency rescue and disaster relief, resettlement and reconstruction. The spatial seismic damage distribution of 2015 Ms 8.1 Nepal earthquake, as an example of the above solution, is evaluated by using the high resolution digital RS images, auxiliary geographic information and ground survey. The results are compared with the statistical disaster information issued by the ground truth by field surveying, and show good consistency.

  13. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  14. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  15. A matter of life or limb? A review of traumatic injury patterns and anesthesia techniques for disaster relief after major earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Missair, Andres; Pretto, Ernesto A; Visan, Alexandru; Lobo, Laila; Paula, Frank; Castillo-Pedraza, Catalina; Cooper, Lebron; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2013-10-01

    All modalities of anesthetic care, including conscious sedation, general, and regional anesthesia, have been used to manage earthquake survivors who require urgent surgical intervention during the acute phase of medical relief. Consequently, we felt that a review of epidemiologic data from major earthquakes in the context of urgent intraoperative management was warranted to optimize anesthesia disaster preparedness for future medical relief operations. The primary outcome measure of this study was to identify the predominant preoperative injury pattern (anatomic location and pathology) of survivors presenting for surgical care immediately after major earthquakes during the acute phase of medical relief (0-15 days after disaster). The injury pattern is of significant relevance because it closely relates to the anesthetic techniques available for patient management. We discuss our findings in the context of evidence-based strategies for anesthetic management during the acute phase of medical relief after major earthquakes and the associated obstacles of devastated medical infrastructure. To identify reports on acute medical care in the aftermath of natural disasters, a query was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, as well as an online search engine (Google Scholar). The search terms were "disaster" and "earthquake" in combination with "injury," "trauma," "surgery," "anesthesia," and "wounds." Our investigation focused only on studies of acute traumatic injury that specified surgical intervention among survivors in the acute phase of medical relief. A total of 31 articles reporting on 15 major earthquakes (between 1980 and 2010) and the treatment of more than 33,410 patients met our specific inclusion criteria. The mean incidence of traumatic limb injury per major earthquake was 68.0%. The global incidence of traumatic limb injury was 54.3% (18,144/33,410 patients). The pooled estimate of the proportion of limb injuries was calculated to be 67.95%, with a

  16. NGO collaboration in community post-disaster reconstruction: field research following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-04-01

    The number of communities affected by disasters has been rising. As a result, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that attend community post-disaster reconstruction are often unable to deliver all requirements and have to develop cooperative approaches. However, this collaboration can cause problems because of the complex environments, the fight for limited resources and uncoordinated management, all of which result in poor service delivery to the communities, adding to their woes. From extensive field research and case studies conducted in the post-Wenchuan earthquake-stricken communities, this paper introduces an integrated collaboration framework for community post-disaster reconstruction with the focus on three types of NGOs: international, government organised and civil. The proposed collaboration framework examines the three interrelated components of organisational structure, operational processes and reconstruction goals/implementation areas. Of great significance in better promoting collaborative participation between NGOs are the crucial concepts of participatory reconstruction, double-layer collaborative networks, and circular review and revision. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  17. Lessons from the Chilean earthquake: how a human rights framework facilitates disaster response.

    PubMed

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Cordero

    2011-07-14

    The earthquake of 2010 in Chile holds important lessons about how a rights-based public health system can guide disaster response to protect vulnerable populations. This article tells the story of Chile Grows With You (Chile Crece Contigo), an intersectoral system created three years before the earthquake for protection of child rights and development, and its role in the disaster response. The creation of Chile Grows With You with an explicit rights-oriented mandate established intersectoral mechanisms, relationships, and common understanding between governmental groups at the national and local levels. After the earthquake, Chile Grows With You organized its activities according to its founding principles: it provided universal access and support for all Chilean children, with special attention and services for those at greatest risk. This tiered approach involved public health and education materials for all children and families; epidemiologic data for local planners about children in their municipalities at-risk before the earthquake; and an instrument developed to assist in the assessment and intervention of children put at risk by the earthquake. This disaster response illustrates how a rights-based framework defined and operationalized in times of stability facilitated organization, prioritization, and sustained action to protect and support children and families in the acute aftermath of the earthquake, despite a change in government from a left-wing to a right-wing president, and into the early recovery period. Copyright © 2011 Arbour, Murray, Arriet, Moraga, and Vega. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  18. Disaster management and mitigation: the telecommunications infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Patricelli, Frédéric; Beakley, James E; Carnevale, Angelo; Tarabochia, Marcello; von Lubitz, Dag K J E

    2009-03-01

    Among the most typical consequences of disasters is the near or complete collapse of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructures (especially the distribution network--the 'last mile') and their concomitant unavailability to the rescuers and the higher echelons of mitigation teams. Even when such damage does not take place, the communications overload/congestion resulting from significantly elevated traffic generated by affected residents can be highly disturbing. The paper proposes innovative remedies to the telecommunications difficulties in disaster struck regions. The offered solutions are network-centric operations-cap able, and can be employed in management of disasters of any magnitude (local to national or international). Their implementation provide ground rescue teams (such as law enforcement, firemen, healthcare personnel, civilian authorities) with tactical connectivity among themselves, and, through the Next Generation Network backbone, ensure the essential bidirectional free flow of information and distribution of Actionable Knowledge among ground units, command/control centres, and civilian and military agencies participating in the rescue effort.

  19. The Determination Method of Extreme Earthquake Disaster Area Based on the Dust Detection Result from GF-4 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, A.; Ding, L.; Chen, M.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    The remote sensing has played an important role in many earthquake emergencies by rapidly providing the building damage, road damage, landslide and other disaster information. The earthquake in the mountains often caused to the loosening of the mountains and the blowing of the dust in the epicentre area. The dust particles are more serious in the epicentre area than the other disaster area. Basis on the analysis of abnormal spectrum characteristics, the dust detection methods from medium and high resolutions satellite imagery are studied in order to determinate the extreme earthquake disaster area. The results indicate the distribution of extreme disaster can be acquired using the dust detection information from imagery, which can provide great help for disaster intensity assessment.

  20. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Needs for disaster medicine: lessons from the field of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Foxwell, Alice Ruth; Bice, Steven; Matsui, Tamano; Ueki, Yutaka; Tosaka, Naoki; Shoko, Tomohisa; Aiboshi, Junichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. Context The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. Action The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Outcome Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. Discussion These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts. PMID:23908957

  2. Needs for disaster medicine: lessons from the field of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ushizawa, Hiroto; Foxwell, Alice Ruth; Bice, Steven; Matsui, Tamano; Ueki, Yutaka; Tosaka, Naoki; Shoko, Tomohisa; Aiboshi, Junichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.

  3. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  4. Progress report on the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program

    Algermissen, S.T.; Hays, Walter W.; Krumpe, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program since its initiation in late 1989 as a cooperative program of the Agency for International Development (AID), Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), and the U.S. Geological Survey. Probabilistic peak acceleration and peak Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) maps have been prepared for Chile and for Sulawesi province in Indonesia. Earthquake risk (loss) studies for dwellings in Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, have been completed and risk studies for dwellings in selected areas of central Chile are underway. A special study of the effect of site response on earthquake ground motion estimation in central Chile has also been completed and indicates that site response may modify the ground shaking by as much as plus or minus two units of MMI. A program for the development of national probabilistic ground motion maps for the Philippines is now underway and pilot studies of earthquake ground motion and risk are being planned for Morocco.

  5. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P < .001), with hospitalization rates between 3% and 66% (P < .001) and surgical rates from 1% to 24% (P < .001). In spite of characteristic scenarios and injury patterns after earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  6. A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions.

  7. A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Context: Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. Aims: This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Results: Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. Conclusions: According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions. PMID:23555130

  8. Clinical review: SARS - lessons in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Hawryluck, Laura; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Stewart, Thomas E

    2005-08-01

    Disaster management plans have traditionally been required to manage major traumatic events that create a large number of victims. Infectious diseases, whether they be natural (e.g. SARS [severe acute respiratory syndrome] and influenza) or the result of bioterrorism, have the potential to create a large influx of critically ill into our already strained hospital systems. With proper planning, hospitals, health care workers and our health care systems can be better prepared to deal with such an eventuality. This review explores the Toronto critical care experience of coping in the SARS outbreak disaster. Our health care system and, in particular, our critical care system were unprepared for this event, and as a result the impact that SARS had was worse than it could have been. Nonetheless, we were able to organize a response rapidly during the outbreak. By describing our successes and failures, we hope to help others to learn and avoid the problems we encountered as they develop their own disaster management plans in anticipation of similar future situations.

  9. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida

    2005-03-01

    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  10. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them

  11. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  12. Children’s Play Environment after a Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Isami; Woolley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, together with the subsequent tsunami and nuclear power station accident, damaged a wide area of land. Children who experienced these terrible disasters and the post-disaster situation are still suffering in mental, physical and social ways. Children’s play is an activity that they undertake naturally and which can help them recover from such disasters. This paper addresses the role of play, adventure playgrounds and other play interventions, including play buses, for the health triangle, which addresses mental, physical and social issues of children after the disasters. These interventions were shown to be effective because children could express their stress. This included play for their mental health, different body movements for their physical health and communication with playworkers and new friends for restructuring their social health. These three aspects relate to and support each other within the health triangle. An increase in childhood obesity and lack of exercise is an additional health issue in Fukushima. For a balanced recovery within the health triangle, more play environments should be provided and some improved. A child’s right to play should be implemented in the recovery stage after a disaster. PMID:27417348

  13. Satellite remote sensing as a tool in Lahar disaster management.

    PubMed

    Kerle, Norman; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2002-06-01

    At least 40,000 deaths have been attributed to historic lahars (volcanic mudflows). The most recent lahar disaster occurred in 1998 at Casita volcano, Nicaragua, claiming over 2,500 lives. Lahars can cover large areas and be highly destructive, and constitute a challenge for disaster management. With infrastructure affected and access frequently impeded, disaster management can benefit from the synoptic coverage provided by satellite imagery. This potential has been recognisedfor other types of natural disasters, but limitations are also known. Dedicated satellite constellations for disaster response and management have been proposed as one solution. Here we investigate the utility of currently available and forthcoming optical and radar sensors as tools in lahar disaster management. Applied to the Casita case, we find that imagery available at the time could not have significantly improved disaster response. However, forthcoming satellites, especially radar, will improve the situation, reducing the benefit of dedicated constellations.

  14. Meteorological disaster management and assessment system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wu, Huanping

    2009-09-01

    Disaster prevention and mitigation get more and more attentions by Chinese government, with the national economic development in recent years. Some problems exhibit in traditional disaster management, such as the chaotic management of data, low level of information, poor data sharing. To improve the capability of information in disaster management, Meteorological Disaster Management and Assessment System (MDMAS) was developed and is introduced in the paper. MDMAS uses three-tier C/S architecture, including the application layer, data layer and service layer. Current functions of MDMAS include the typhoon and rainstorm assessment, disaster data query and statistics, automatic cartography for disaster management. The typhoon and rainstorm assessment models can be used in both pre-assessment of pre-disaster and post-disaster assessment. Implementation of automatic cartography uses ArcGIS Geoprocessing and ModelBuilder. In practice, MDMAS has been utilized to provide warning information, disaster assessment and services products. MDMAS is an efficient tool for meteorological disaster management and assessment. It can provide decision supports for disaster prevention and mitigation.

  15. Meteorological disaster management and assessment system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wu, Huanping

    2010-11-01

    Disaster prevention and mitigation get more and more attentions by Chinese government, with the national economic development in recent years. Some problems exhibit in traditional disaster management, such as the chaotic management of data, low level of information, poor data sharing. To improve the capability of information in disaster management, Meteorological Disaster Management and Assessment System (MDMAS) was developed and is introduced in the paper. MDMAS uses three-tier C/S architecture, including the application layer, data layer and service layer. Current functions of MDMAS include the typhoon and rainstorm assessment, disaster data query and statistics, automatic cartography for disaster management. The typhoon and rainstorm assessment models can be used in both pre-assessment of pre-disaster and post-disaster assessment. Implementation of automatic cartography uses ArcGIS Geoprocessing and ModelBuilder. In practice, MDMAS has been utilized to provide warning information, disaster assessment and services products. MDMAS is an efficient tool for meteorological disaster management and assessment. It can provide decision supports for disaster prevention and mitigation.

  16. Finding positives after disaster: Insights from nurses following the 2010-2011 Canterbury, NZ earthquake sequence.

    PubMed

    Johal, Sarbjit S; Mounsey, Zoe R

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies positive aspects of nurse experiences during the Canterbury 2010-2011 earthquake sequence and subsequent recovery process. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 nurses from the Christchurch area to explore the challenges faced by the nurses during and following the earthquakes. The interviews took place three years after the start of the earthquake experience to enable exploration of the longer term recovery process. The interview transcripts were analysed and coded using a grounded theory approach. The data analysis identified that despite the many challenges faced by the nurses during and following the earthquakes they were able to identify positives from their experience. A number of themes were identified that are related to posttraumatic growth, including; improvement in relationships with others, change in perspective/values, changed views of self and acknowledgement of the value of the experience. The research indicates that nurses were able to identify positive aspects of their experiences of the earthquakes and recovery process, suggesting that both positive and negative impacts on wellbeing can co-exist. These insights have value for employers designing support processes following disasters as focusing on positive elements could enhance nurse wellbeing during stressful times. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Luzio, D.; D'Anna, G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce a project for the realization of the first European real-time urban seismic network based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. MEMS accelerometers are a highly enabling technology, and nowadays, the sensitivity and the dynamic range of these sensors are such as to allow the recording of earthquakes of moderate magnitude even at a distance of several tens of kilometers. Moreover, thanks to their low cost and smaller size, MEMS accelerometers can be easily installed in urban areas in order to achieve an urban seismic network constituted by high density of observation points. The network is being implemented in the Acireale Municipality (Sicily, Italy), an area among those with the highest hazard, vulnerability and exposure to the earthquake of the Italian territory. The main objective of the implemented urban network will be to achieve an effective system for post-earthquake rapid disaster assessment. The earthquake recorded, also that with moderate magnitude will be used for the effective seismic microzonation of the area covered by the network. The implemented system will be also used to realize a site-specific earthquakes early warning system.

  18. Report on Maternal Anxiety 16 Months After the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: Anxiety Over Radioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information. PMID:25363115

  19. Report on maternal anxiety 16 months after the great East Japan earthquake disaster: anxiety over radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-06-25

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information.

  20. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  1. Modelling airborne dispersion for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musliman, I. A.; Yohnny, L.

    2017-05-01

    Industrial disasters, like any other disasters, can happen anytime, anywhere and in any form. Airborne industrial disaster is a kind of catastrophic event involving the release of particles such as chemicals and industrial wastes into environment in gaseous form, for instance gas leakages. Unlike solid and liquid materials, gases are often colourless and odourless, the particles are too tiny to be visible to the naked eyes; hence it is difficult to identify the presence of the gases and to tell the dispersion and location of the substance. This study is to develop an application prototype to perform simulation modelling on the gas particles to determine the dispersion of the gas particles and to identify the coverage of the affected area. The prototype adopted Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) model to calculate the position of the gas particles under the influence of wind and turbulent velocity components, which are the induced wind due to the rotation of the Earth, and Convex Hull algorithm to identify the convex points of the gas cloud to form the polygon of the coverage area. The application performs intersection and overlay analysis over a set of landuse data at Pasir Gudang, Johor industrial and residential area. Results from the analysis would be useful to tell the percentage and extent of the affected area, and are useful for the disaster management to evacuate people from the affected area. The developed application can significantly increase efficiency of emergency handling during a crisis. For example, by using a simulation model, the emergency handling can predict what is going to happen next, so people can be well informed and preparations works can be done earlier and better. Subsequently, this application helps a lot in the decision making process.

  2. Burnout among public servants after the Great East Japan Earthquake: decomposing the construct aftermath of disaster

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Fukasawa, Maiko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether disaster-related variables, in addition to known work-related risk factors, influence burnout and its subscales (exhaustion, cynicism, and lack of professional efficacy) among public servants who experienced a major disaster. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were conducted among public servants of Miyagi prefecture at 2 and 16 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (n=3,533, response rate 66.8%); burnout was assessed at 16 months using the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. We examined the relationships between burnout and its subscales with disaster-related variables at 2 months after the disaster, while controlling for age, gender, and work-related variables at 16 months after the disaster. Results: After controlling for age, gender, and work-related variables, a significant risk factor of burnout was having severe house damage. For the each subscale of burnout, living someplace other than their own house increased the risk of both exhaustion and cynicism, while handling residents' complaints did so only for exhaustion. Notably, workers from health and welfare departments showed an increased risk of burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism, but not lack of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The findings suggest that special attention is needed for workers with severe house damage to prevent burnout, as well as those who lived someplace other than their own house to prevent exhaustion and cynicism after a major disaster. Interventions directed at workers of the health and welfare department should focus more on limiting exhaustion and cynicism, rather than promoting professional efficacy. PMID:28077824

  3. Mental Health Crisis in Northeast Fukushima after the 2011 Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Kumakawa, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    The great earthquake of 11 March 2011 and resulting tsunami caused serious damage to various areas of the Pacific coast in northeast Fukushima, and all the residents faced fears of meltdown of the reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One of the most seriously affected areas was the district of Soso, located in the northeast part of Fukushima prefecture, with 12 municipalities (Soma City, Minamisoma City, Shinchi Town, Namie Town, Futaba Town, Ōkuma Town, Tomioka Town, Naraha Town, Hirono Town, Iitate Village, Katsurao Village and Kawauchi Village). The district of Soso is home to approximately 200,000 residents, many of whom were seriously affected by the threefold disaster. During the subsequent four years, the population of Soso decreased by nearly 10%. In March 2011 before the disaster, five hospitals and two clinics for psychiatric patients, along with 712 inpatients, were operating in the district of Soso. However, as of March 2015, there were only one hospital and three clinics, along with approximately 50 inpatients, although a new mental health clinic in Soma City was opened in 2012 for supporting victims suffering from the disaster. We hereby suggest that the patients and residents of northeast Fukushima may be undergoing mental health crisis. In fact, disaster-related psychological stress could have induced several physical and mental disorders. The mid- and long-term supports are urgently needed not only for psychiatric patients but also for all residents in the district of Soso.

  4. Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2017-04-01

    Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  5. Is Your Class a Natural Disaster? It can be... The Real Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, J. S.; Furlong, K.

    2003-12-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden, Colorado, we have implemented an autonomous version of the NEIC's real-time earthquake database management and earthquake alert system (Earthworm). This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system, Penn State University students participating in natural hazard classes receive real-time alerts of worldwide earthquake events on cell phones distributed to the class. The students are then responsible for reacting to actual earthquake events, in real-time, with the same data (or lack thereof) as earthquake professionals. The project was first implemented in Spring 2002, and although it had an initial high intrigue and "coolness" factor, the interest of the students waned with time. Through student feedback, we observed that scientific data presented on its own without an educational context does not foster student learning. In order to maximize the impact of real-time data and the accompanying e-media, the students need to become personally involved. Therefore, in collaboration with the Incorporated Research Institutes of Seismology (IRIS), we have begun to develop an online infrastructure that will help teachers and faculty effectively use real-time earthquake information. The Real-Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) website promotes student learning by integrating inquiry-based education modules with real-time earthquake data. The first module guides the students through an exploration of real-time and historic earthquake datasets to model the most important criteria for determining the potential impact of an earthquake. Having provided the students with content knowledge in the first module, the second module presents a more authentic, open-ended educational experience by setting up an earthquake role-play situation. Through the Earthworm system, we have the ability to "set off

  6. Development of an UAS for post-earthquake disaster surveying and its application in Ms7.0 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jiansi; Peng, Chaoyong; Wu, Ying; Jiang, Xudong; Li, Rui; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yu; Liu, Sha; Tian, Baofeng

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of early impact analysis after a disaster is to produce georeferenced data about the affected areas, in support of humanitarian action. Crucial information is the identification of the disaster areas and the estimation of the number of people involved. Satellite imageries are mainly used as input data for early impact analysis in medium and large scale map. Analyses aimed at defining the damages of infrastructure and/or to facilities require suitable data, such as high resolution satellite images. Unfortunately, satellite images are not always available in a few days after the event. Therefore in situ surveys are preferred. Innovations in Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have allowed them to become valuable tools in capturing and assessing the extents and amount of damages. Flexibility, safety, ease of operation, and relatively low-cost of ownership and operation facilitate UAS implementation in disaster situations. In this paper, an example of UAS was developed for rapidly obtaining disaster information. Data acquisition at specified scales was successfully performed with the chosen fixed-wing UAS. For the image analysis, a photogrammetric workflow was applied to cope with the very high resolution of the images acquired without ground control points. Tests showed that the system plays an important role in the work of investigating and gathering information about disaster in epicentral areas of the earthquake, such as road detection, secondary disaster investigation, and rapid disaster evaluation. It can effectively provide earthquake information to salvation headquarters for swiftly developing the relief measures and improving the efficiency of emergency rescue.

  7. The capacity building of disaster management in Bojonegoro regency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbandono, P.; Prastyawan, A.; Gamaputra, G.

    2018-01-01

    East Java is a disaster-prone area. Head of the National Disaster Management Agency, Syamsul Maarif (2012) states that “East Java is a disaster supermarket area. Referring to Act Number 24 Year 2007 Concerning Disaster Management, disaster prevention activities are a series of activities undertaken as an effort to eliminate and/or reduce the threat of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 6).The disaster mitigation is a series of efforts to reduce disaster risk, through physical development and awareness and capacity building in the face of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 9). In 2009, the Provincial Government of East Java has been established Regional Disaster Management Agency and complete it through Local Regulation of East Java Province Number 3 Year 2010. This research was conducted in Bojonegoro. This study described the capacity building disaster handling and used descriptive research with qualitative approach. It focused on the capacity building for community preparedness in the face of. This study showed the vulnerability of regions and populations to threats flood and drought in could be physical, social and/or economical. The aims of the capacity building for the individuals and organizations are to be used effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the goals of the individuals and organizations.

  8. NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake

  9. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: distribution of hospital damage in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Lewis, James; Hodgson, Susan; Murray, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    In catastrophic events, a key to reducing health risks is to maintain functioning of local health facilities. However, little research has been conducted on what types and levels of care are the most likely to be affected by catastrophic events. Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) was one of a few "mega disasters" that have occurred in an industrialized society. This research aimed to develop an analytical framework for the holistic understanding of hospital damage due to the disaster. Hospital damage data in Miyagi Prefecture at the time of the GEJED were collected retrospectively. Due to the low response rate of questionnaire-based surveillance (7.7%), publications of the national and local governments, medical associations, other nonprofit organizations, and home web pages of hospitals were used, as well as literature and news sources. The data included information on building damage, electricity and water supply, and functional status after the earthquake. Geographical data for hospitals, coastline, local boundaries, and the in undated areas, as well as population size and seismic intensity were collected from public databases. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for hospitals ceasing inpatient and outpatient services. The impact was displayed on maps to show the geographical distribution of damage. Data for 143 out of 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (97%) were obtained. Building damage was significantly associated with closure of both inpatient and outpatient wards. Hospitals offering tertiary care were more resistant to damage than those offering primary care, while those with a higher proportion of psychiatric care beds were more likely to cease functioning, even after controlling for hospital size, seismic intensity, and distance from the coastline. Implementation of building regulations is vital for all health care facilities, irrespective of function. Additionally, securing electricity and water supplies

  10. Risk management of a fund for natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, C.

    2003-04-01

    Mexico is a country which has to deal with several natural disaster risks: earthquakes, droughts, volcanic eruptions, floods, slides, wild fires, extreme temperatures, etc. In order to reduce the country's vulnerability to the impact of these natural disasters and to support rapid recovery when they occur, the government established in 1996 Mexico's Fund for Natural Disasters (FONDEN). Since its creation, its resources have been insufficient to meet all government obligations. The aim of this project is the development of a dynamic strategy to optimise the management of a fund for natural disasters starting from the example of FONDEN. The problem of budgetary planning is being considered for the modelling. We control the level of the fund's cash (R_t)0<= t0 at t=0 and then we try to pull at every moment the process to this objective. Multifractal models in geophysics are physically based stochastic models. A multiplicative cascade model fitted to a data set can be used for generation of synthetic sequences that resemble the original data in terms of its scaling properties. Since recent years, uncertainty concepts based on multifractal fields are being applied to the development of techniques to calculate marginal and conditional probabilities of an extreme rainfall event in a determined zone. As initial point to the development of the model, a multifractal model for extreme rainfall events will be used as part of the input for the stochastic control model. A theme for further research is linking more warning systems to the model. Keywords: risk management, stochastic control, multifractal

  11. Principles of hospital disaster management: an integrated and multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, C; Hoker, S D; Michiels, G; Sabbe, M B

    Principles of hospital disaster management: an integrated and multidisciplinary approach. Hospitals play an important role during a disaster response, and are also at risk for internal incidents. We propose an integrated and multidisciplinary approach towards hospital disaster management and preparedness. In addition to response strategies, much attention is given to risk assessment and preparedness in the pre-incident phase and to business continuity planning (BCP) in the post-incident phase. It is essential to train key players and all personnel to understand the Hospital Incident Management System (HIMS) and to perform specific emergency procedures. All emergency procedures should be grounded in evidence-based practice resulting from essential disaster response research.

  12. Why are older peoples' health needs forgotten post-natural disaster relief in developing countries? A healthcare provider survey of 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang

    2009-01-01

    Although older people may be recognized as a vulnerable group post-natural disasters, their particular needs are rarely met by the providers of emergency services. Studies about older people's health needs post disasters in the South East Asia Tsunami, Kashmir, Pakistan, China, and United States has revealed the lack of concern for older people's health needs. Recent study of older people's health needs post the Kashmir Pakistan earthquake (2005) found older peoples' health needs were masked within the general population. This survey study examines the providers' perceptions of older people's vulnerabilities post-2005 Pakistan earthquake. It aims to understand the awareness of geriatric issues and issues related to current service provision/planning for older people's health needs post disasters. Specifically, service delivery patterns will be compared among different relief agencies. Cross-sectional, structured stakeholder interviews were conducted within a 2 weeks period in February 2006, 4 months post-earthquake in Pakistan-administrated Kashmir. Health/medical relief agencies of three different types of organizational nature: international nongovernmental organization (INGO), national organization, and local/community group were solicited to participate in the study. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Important issues identified include the need to sensitize relief and health workers about older people's health needs post disaster the development of relevant clinical guidelines for chronic disease management postdisaster in developing countries and the advocacy of building in geriatric related components in natural disaster medical relief programs. To effectively address the vulnerability of older people, it is important for governments, relief agencies, and local partners to include and address these issues during their relief operations and policy planning.

  13. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p < 0.05), while an interactive effect between house damage and anxiety about radioactive contamination was not significant. Being female, middle-to-low educational status and unemployed were additional risk factors for psychological distress. This dual-disaster was associated with a moderate prevalence of psychological distress in the area. The impact of the earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  14. Enhancing Earth Observation and Modeling for Tsunami Disaster Response and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Post, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In the aftermath of catastrophic natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, our society has experienced significant difficulties in assessing disaster impact in the limited amount of time. In recent years, the quality of satellite sensors and access to and use of satellite imagery and services has greatly improved. More and more space agencies have embraced data-sharing policies that facilitate access to archived and up-to-date imagery. Tremendous progress has been achieved through the continuous development of powerful algorithms and software packages to manage and process geospatial data and to disseminate imagery and geospatial datasets in near-real time via geo-web-services, which can be used in disaster-risk management and emergency response efforts. Satellite Earth observations now offer consistent coverage and scope to provide a synoptic overview of large areas, repeated regularly. These can be used to compare risk across different countries, day and night, in all weather conditions, and in trans-boundary areas. On the other hand, with use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, the great advances of real-time simulation have been achieved. The data and information derived from satellite Earth observations, integrated with in situ information and simulation modeling provides unique value and the necessary complement to socio-economic data. Emphasis also needs to be placed on ensuring space-based data and information are used in existing and planned national and local disaster risk management systems, together with other data and information sources as a way to strengthen the resilience of communities. Through the case studies of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster, we aim to discuss how earth observations and modeling, in combination with local, in situ data and information sources, can support the decision-making process before, during and after a disaster strikes.

  15. Method meets application: on the use of earthquake scenarios in community-based disaster preparedness and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, S.; Sorensen, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    More than 50% of the world's population now live in urban areas. In less developed countries, future urban population increase will be due to natural population growth and rural-to-urban migration. As urban growth continues, the vulnerability of those living in these areas is also increasing. This presents a wide variety of challenges for humanitarian organisations that often have more experience of disaster response in rural settings rather than planning for large urban disasters. The 2010 Haiti earthquake highlighted the vulnerability of these organisations and the communities that they seek to support. To meet this challenge, a key consideration is how scientific information can support the humanitarian sector and their working practices. Here we review the current state of earthquake scenario modelling practice, with special focus on scenarios to be used in disaster response and response planning, and present an evaluation of how the field looks set to evolve. We also review current good practice and lessons learned from previous earthquakes with respect to planning for and responding to earthquakes in urban settings in the humanitarian sector, identifying key sectoral priorities. We then investigate the interface between these two areas to investigate the use of earthquake scenarios in disaster response planning and identify potential challenges both with respect to development of scientific models and their application on the ground.

  16. Essentials of disaster management: the role of the orthopaedic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Born, Christopher T; Monchik, Keith O; Hayda, Roman A; Bosse, Michael J; Pollak, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and management education is essential for allowing orthopaedic surgeons to play a valuable, constructive role in responding to disasters. The National Incident Management System, as part of the National Response Framework, provides coordination between all levels of government and uses the Incident Command System as its unified command structure. An "all-hazards" approach to disasters, whether natural, man-made, intentional, or unintentional, is fundamental to disaster planning. To respond to any disaster, command and control must be established, and emergency management must be integrated with public health and medical care. In the face of increasing acts of terrorism, an understanding of blast injury pathophysiology allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents and their attendant clinical symptoms is also prerequisite. Credentialing and coordination between designated organizations and the federal government are essential to allow civilian orthopaedic surgeons to access systems capable of disaster response.

  17. Medical response to the 2009 Sumatra earthquake: health needs in the post-disaster period.

    PubMed

    Tan, C M; Lee, V J; Chang, G H; Ang, H X; Seet, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of cases seen by the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) medical and surgical teams in the 2009 Sumatra earthquake and discusses the role of militaries in the acute phase of a disaster. Two SAF primary healthcare clinics prospectively collected patient medical information for comparison. Descriptive analysis of the Emergency Department (ED) and surgical case records was performed. 1,015 patients were seen by the two primary healthcare clinics. In both Koto Bangko and Pariaman, respiratory-related conditions were the most common diagnoses (47.2% and 30.6%, respectively), followed by musculoskeletal/joint conditions (31.6% and 20.6%, respectively). In the ED, 55% and 27% of the 113 patients had trauma-related and infective-related diagnoses, respectively. Lacerations and contusions were the most common forms of trauma. Lung infection was the most common infective diagnosis seen at the ED. The number of ED cases was high during the first week and gradually declined in the second week. 56% of the 102 surgical procedures were performed on dirty or infective wounds. Fractures requiring fixation comprised 38% of surgical procedures. Medical aid remains an important component of the overall humanitarian response. Militaries could play an important role in disaster response due to their ability to respond in a timely fashion and logistic capabilities. Pre-launch research on the affected area and knowledge on disaster-specific injury patterns would impact the expertise, equipment and supplies required. The increasing evidence base for disaster preparedness and medical response allows for better planning and reduces the impact of disasters on affected populations.

  18. Preparing for veterinary emergencies: disaster management and the Incident Command System.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J; Dacre, I

    2009-08-01

    An important question that all veterinary schools should consider is whether veterinary students should be trained to deal with local or regional states of emergency or disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires, hail and ice storms, wind storms, fires, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and epidemics. When a large-scale emergency or disaster does strike, the consequences can be dire for the domestic and wild animals of the region and for the humans within the vicinity of seriously and painfully injured animals. The authors argue that emergency preparedness is essential for the veterinary profession to meet its obligations to both animals and humans. The four basic components of disaster management are: mitigation, preparedness, response/emergency relief and recovery.

  19. [The nutritional status of reproductive women at one year after the disaster of Earthquake in Wenchuan].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi-an; Zhao, Xian-feng; Zhao, Li-yun; Fu, Ping; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of Wenchuan Earthquake on the nutritional status and the prevalence of nutritional anemia, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and vitamin D deficiency among reproductive women (15 - 44 years old) in the disaster areas one year after the Earthquake. A nutritional survey was conducted in 3 counties in April 2009, one year after the Earthquake. Two towns from each county were selected as study sites, and this survey recruited 58 pregnant, 66 lactating and 242 non-pregnant-non-lactating women. A comparison was made to the results of 2002 Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey. The cereals and roots intakes of the pregnant, lactating and non-pregnant-non-lactating women living in the disaster area were (426.8 ± 271.8), (568.0 ± 306.1), and (483.0 ± 277.7) g/d respectively, which were almost the same results (486.8, 509.3 and 495.1 g/d, respectively) from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The fat and oil intakes were (41.9 ± 51.6), (55.5 ± 69.2), and (66.9 ± 125.7) g/d, respectively, which were also the same ad the results (45.2, 43.9 and 41.4 g/d, respectively) from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The intakes of meats and poultries were only (58.1 ± 67.7), (76.3 ± 218.7), and (23.9 ± 29.6) g/d respectively, which were much lower than the recommended food intakes from the Branch of Maternal and Child Nutrition of Chinese Nutrition Society. The vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency prevalence were 6.9% (24/347) and 18.2% (63/347), respectively. The deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin D was sum to 93.9% (323/344). The prevalence of anemia was 32.6% (112/344). 51.0% (171/335) reproductive women were iron deficient, and 61.6% (210/347) women were suffering zinc deficiency. The study findings indicated that the dietary structure was seriously effected by the Earthquake. The sources from animal and legume products were relatively low. The micronutrients nutritional status was poor. The vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron, zinc

  20. The 2015 Nepal Earthquake(s): Lessons Learned From the Disability and Rehabilitation Sector's Preparation for, and Response to, Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Sheppard, Phillip S; Leung, Kit; Retis, Chiara; Salvador, Edwin C; Raman, Sudha R

    2016-11-01

    The frequency of natural disasters appears to be mounting at an alarming rate, and the degree to which people are surviving such traumatic events also is increasing. Postdisaster survival often triggers increases in population and individual disability-related outcomes in the form of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions, all of which have an important impact on the individual, his or her family, and their community. The increase in postdisaster disability-related outcomes has provided a rationale for the increased role of the disability and rehabilitation sector's involvement in emergency response, including physical therapists. A recent major earthquake that has drawn the world's attention occurred in the spring of 2015 in Nepal. The response of the local and international communities was large and significant, and although the collection of complex health and disability issues have yet to be fully resolved, there has been a series of important lessons learned from the 2015 Nepal earthquake(s). This perspective article outlines lessons learned from Nepal that can be applied to future disasters to reduce overall disability-related outcomes and more fully integrate rehabilitation in preparation and planning. First, information is presented on disasters in general, and then information is presented that focuses on the earthquake(s) in Nepal. Next, field experience in Nepal before, during, and after the earthquake is described, and actions that can and should be adopted prior to disasters as part of disability preparedness planning are examined. Then, the emerging roles of rehabilitation providers such as physical therapists during the immediate and postdisaster recovery phases are discussed. Finally, approaches are suggested that can be adopted to "build back better" for, and with, people with disabilities in postdisaster settings such as Nepal. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Developing disaster management modules: a collaborative approach.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Valerie

    Disasters, whether natural or human induced, can strike when least expected. The events of 9/11 in the US, the 7/7 bombings in the UK, and the anthrax incident in the US on 10th October 2001 indicate that there is a need to have a nursing workforce who is able to respond effectively to mass casualty events and incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances. Multi-agency collaboration is one of the fundamental principles of disaster preparedness and response. It was therefore necessary to take a similar multi-agency collaborative approach to develop modules on the management of mass casualty events and incidents involving hazardous substances. The modules are offered to registered nurses and registered paramedics. They can be taken independently or as part of a BSc in nursing or health pathway, on a part-time basis. Since the commencement of the modules in September 2004, registered paramedics and registered nurses who work in a wide range of specialties have accessed them.

  2. Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local

  3. Disaster Response and Decision Support in Partnership with the California Earthquake Clearinghouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Rosinski, A.; Vaughan, D.; Morentz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Getting the right information to the right people at the right time is critical during a natural disaster. E-DECIDER (Emergency Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response) is a NASA decision support system designed to produce remote sensing and geophysical modeling data products that are relevant to the emergency preparedness and response communities and serve as a gateway to enable the delivery of NASA decision support products to these communities. The E-DECIDER decision support system has several tools, services, and products that have been used to support end-user exercises in partnership with the California Earthquake Clearinghouse since 2012, including near real-time deformation modeling results and on-demand maps of critical infrastructure that may have been potentially exposed to damage by a disaster. E-DECIDER's underlying service architecture allows the system to facilitate delivery of NASA decision support products to the Clearinghouse through XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration that allows trusted information exchange among partner agencies. This in turn allows Clearinghouse partners to visualize data products produced by E-DECIDER and other NASA projects through incident command software such as SpotOnResponse or ArcGIS Online.

  4. Incertitude in disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities: A case study of the L'Aquila earthquake trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Oki, Satoko

    2015-04-01

    What disaster sciences are expected by the society is to prevent or mitigate future natural disasters, and therefore it is necessary to foresee natural disasters. However, various constraints often make the foreseeing difficult so that there is a high incertitude in the social contribution of disaster sciences. If scientists overstep this limitation, they will be held even criminally responsible. The L'Aquila trial in Italy is such a recent example and so we have performed data collections, hearing investigations, analyses of the reasons for the initial court's judgment, etc., to explore the incertitude of disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities. As a result, we concluded that the casualties during the L'Aquila earthquake were mainly due to a careless "safety declaration" by the vice-director of the Civil Protection Agency, where the incertitude of disaster sciences had never been considered. In addition, news media which reported only this "safety declaration" were also seriously responsible for the casualties. The accused other than the vice-director were only morally responsible, because their meeting remarks included poor risk communication in disaster sciences but those were not reported to the citizens in advance to the L'Aquila earthquake. In the presentation, we will also discuss the similarities and differences between our conclusions above and the reasons for the appeals court's judgement, which will be published in February.

  5. Hospital Workers Disaster Management and Hospital Nonstructural: A Study in Bandar Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lakbala, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A devastating earthquake is inevitable in the long term and likely in the near future in Iran. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of hospital staff to disaster management system in hospital and to determine nonstructural safety assessment in Shahid Mohammadi hospital in Bandar Abbas city of Iran. This hospital is the main referral hospital in Hormozgan province with a capacity of about 450 beds and the highest patient admissions. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 on 200 healthcare workers at Shahid Mohammadi hospital, in the city of Bandar Abbas, Iran. This hospital is the main referral hospital in Hormozgan province and has a capacity of about 450 beds with highest numbers of patient admissions. Questionnaire and checklist used for assessing health workers knowledge and awareness towards disaster management and nonstructural safety this hospital. Results: This study found that knowledge, awareness, and disaster preparedness of hospital staff need continual reinforcement to improve self efficacy for disaster management. Equipping health care facilities at the time of natural disasters, especially earthquakes are of great importance all over the world, especially in Iran. This requires the national strategies and planning for all health facilities. Conclusion: It seems due to limitations of hospital beds, insufficient of personnel, and medical equipment, health care providers paid greater attention to this issue. Since this hospital is the only educational public hospital in the province, it is essential to pay much attention to the risk management not only to this hospital but at the national level to health facilities. PMID:26573039

  6. A governor's guide to emergency management. Volume one, Natural disasters

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-02-27

    With lives, infrastructure, and resources at stake, governors must become instant experts in emergency management when their states are affected by natural disaster. The purpose of A Governor's Guide to Emergency Management is to provide governors an...

  7. Understanding the disaster experience of older adults by gender: the experience of survivors of the 2007 earthquake in Peru.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Dena; Mahon, Joan; Kalaw, Karel J; Ramos, Blanca; Tufan, Ismail

    2010-11-01

    We examine the experiences of older adult survivors of the August 2007 "Southern earthquake" in Peru within the cultural context of gender roles and family relationships. The data include 24 semistructured videotaped interviews conducted in Pisco in December 2007 with survivors of the earthquake aged 60-90. The responses, experiences, and adjustments of the older adult disaster survivors will be discussed in terms of their family and social support systems and gender roles. These older adults sustain their personal identities and deal with their health concerns in the aftermath of the earthquake in the context of these cultural systems of support.

  8. Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management in Istanbul (MegaIST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya Menteşe, Emin; Kılıç, Osman; Baş, Mahmut; Khazai, Bijan; Ergün Konukcu, Betul; Emre Basmacı, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers need tools to understand the priorities and to set up benchmarks and track progress in their disaster risk reduction activities, so that they can justify their decisions and investments. In this regard, Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management (MegaIST), is developed in order to be used in disaster risk management studies, for decision makers and managers to establish right strategies and proper risk reduction actions, enhance resource management and investment decisions, set priorities, monitor progress in DRM and validate decisions taken with the aim of helping disaster oriented urban redevelopment, inform investors about risk profile of the city and providing a basis for dissemination and sharing of risk components with related stakeholders; by Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM). MegaIST achieves these goals by analyzing the earthquake risk in three separate but complementary sub-categories consisting of "urban seismic risk, coping capacity and disaster risk management index" in an integrated way. MegaIST model fosters its analyses by presenting the outputs in a simple and user friendly format benefiting from GIS technology that ensures the adoptability of the model's use. Urban seismic risk analysis includes two components, namely; Physical Risk and Social Vulnerability Analysis. Physical risk analysis is based on the possible physical losses (such as building damage, casualties etc.) due to an earthquake while social vulnerability is considered as a factor that increases the results of the physical losses in correlation with the level of education, health, economic status and disaster awareness/preparedness of society. Coping capacity analysis is carried out with the aim of understanding the readiness of the Municipality to respond and recover from a disaster in Istanbul can be defined both in terms of the Municipality's operational capacities - the capacity of the

  9. Inter-organizational network in Indonesia during disasters: Examples and research agenda on disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisri, M. B. F.

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia is facing various type of disaster risks, each with its own nature (sudden or slow onset, purely natural or man-made) and coverage of affected areas. Whereas science, technology and engineering intervention requires different modalities for each hazard, little has been known on whether the institutional setup and organizations involvement requires a different or similar types of intervention. Under a decentralized disaster management system, potential involvement of international organizations in response and growing diversified organizations involved in responding to disaster, it is important to understand the nature of inter-organizational network during various type of disasters in Indonesia. This paper is mixture of in-depth literature review and multiple case studies on utilization of social network analysis (SNA) in modelling inter-organizational network during various disasters in Indonesia.

  10. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  11. Probabilistic economic frameworks for disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Guillaume; Forni, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Starting from the general concept of risk, we set up an economic analysis framework for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) investment. It builds on uncertainty management techniques - notably Monte Carlo simulations - and includes both a risk and performance metrics adapted to recurring issues in disaster risk management as entertained by governments and international organisations. This type of framework proves to be enlightening in several regards, and is thought to ease the promotion of DRM projects as "investments" rather than "costs to be born" and allow for meaningful comparison between DRM and other sectors. We then look at the specificities of disaster risk investments of medium to large scales through this framework, where some "invariants" can be identified, notably: (i) it makes more sense to perform analysis over long-term horizons -space and time scales are somewhat linked; (ii) profiling of the fluctuations of the gains and losses of DRM investments over long periods requires the ability to handle possibly highly volatile variables; (iii) complexity increases with the scale which results in a higher sensitivity of the analytic framework on the results; (iv) as the perimeter of analysis (time, theme and space-wise) is widened, intrinsic parameters of the project tend to weight lighter. This puts DRM in a very different perspective from traditional modelling, which usually builds on more intrinsic features of the disaster as it relates to the scientific knowledge about hazard(s). As models hardly accommodate for such complexity or "data entropy" (they require highly structured inputs), there is a need for a complementary approach to understand risk at global scale. The proposed framework suggests opting for flexible ad hoc modelling of specific issues consistent with one's objective, risk and performance metrics. Such tailored solutions are strongly context-dependant (time and budget, sensitivity of the studied variable in the economic framework) and can

  12. Prospect of future housing and risk of psychological distress at 1 year after an earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Naho; Narita, Akira; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, many of the affected have been forced to live in temporary housing or at a relative's house. Special attention needs to be paid to the negative health impacts resulting from such changes in living conditions. This study examined the association between future housing prospects and the risk of psychological distress 1 year after the earthquake. In 2012, a questionnaire was completed by a cross-sectional study of people aged 20 years or older living in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, northeastern Japan, an area that had been severely inundated by the tsunami. Future housing prospects post-earthquake were classified into four categories: already settled in permanent housing, moving to new housing, under consideration, or unable to make any plans. Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 scale, defined as ≥5 points out of 24. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding factors. Of the 3614 individuals studied, subjects whose future housing was under consideration (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-2.7, P < 0.01) and those who were unable to make any future housing plans (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.4-2.5, P < 0.01) exhibited a significantly higher risk of psychological distress compared with subjects who had already settled in permanent housing. In this study, subjects whose future housing prospects were under consideration and those who were unable to make any future housing plans were at a higher risk of psychological distress 1 year after the earthquake disaster. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries.

    PubMed

    Uzwyshyn, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries. It is suitable for a broad audience interested in online libraries and research centers in universities and colleges. It outlines risk mitigation strategies, and disaster recover planning for online resource-centered information systems.

  14. Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguillos, C.; Deng, H.

    2018-04-01

    The integration and use of different space technology applications for disasters management, play an important role at the time of prevents the causes and mitigates the effects of the natural disasters. Nevertheless, the space technology counts with the appropriate technological resources to provide the accurate and timely information required to support in the decision making in case of disasters. Considering the aforementioned aspects, in this research is presented the design and implementation of an Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela. Network based on the design of a topology that integrates the satellites platforms in orbit operation under administration of Venezuelan state, such as: the communications satellite VENESAT-1 and the remote sensing satellites VRSS-1 and VRSS-2; as well as their ground stations with the aim to implement an emergency communications network to be activated in case of disasters which affect the public and private communications infrastructures in Venezuela. In this regard, to design the network several technical and operational specifications were formulated, between them: Emergency Strategies to Maneuver the VRSS-1 and VRSS-2 satellites for optimal images capture and processing, characterization of the VENESAT-1 transponders and radiofrequencies for emergency communications services, technologies solutions formulation and communications links design for disaster management. As result, the emergency network designed allows to put in practice diverse communications technologies solutions and different scheme or media for images exchange between the areas affected for disasters and the entities involved in the disasters management tasks, providing useful data for emergency response and infrastructures recovery.

  15. Disasters and women's health: reflections from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Christina M; Miller, Andrew C

    2013-04-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on the needs of vulnerable populations during humanitarian emergency response. Vulnerable populations are those groups with increased susceptibility to poor health outcomes rendering them disproportionately affected by the event. This discussion focuses on women's health needs during the disaster relief effort after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The Emergency Department (ED) of the temporary mobile encampment in L'Hôpital de l'Université d'Etat d'Haïti (HUEH) was the site of the team's disaster relief mission. In February 2010, most of the hospital was staffed by foreign physicians and nurses, with a high turnover rate. Although integration with local Haitian staff was encouraged, implementation of this practice was variable. Common presentations in the ED included infectious diseases, traumatic injuries, chronic disease exacerbations, and follow-up care of post-earthquake injuries and infections. Women-specific complaints included vaginal infections, breast pain or masses, and pregnancy-related concerns or complications. Women were also targets of gender-based violence. Recent disasters in Haiti, Pakistan, and elsewhere have challenged the international health community to provide gender-balanced health care in suboptimal environments. Much room for improvement remains. Although the assessment team was gender-balanced, improved incorporation of Haitian personnel may have enhanced patient trust, and improved cultural sensitivity and communication. Camp geography should foster both patient privacy and security during sensitive examinations. This could have been improved upon by geographically separating men's and women's treatment areas and using a barrier screen to generate a more private examination environment. Women's health supplies must include an appropriate exam table, emergency obstetrical and midwifery supplies, urine dipsticks, and sanitary and reproductive health supplies. A referral system must be established for

  16. The design and implementation of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation and emergency response decision support systems based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Xu, Quan-li; Peng, Shuang-yun; Cao, Yan-bo

    2008-10-01

    Based on the necessity analysis of GIS applications in earthquake disaster prevention, this paper has deeply discussed the spatial integration scheme of urban earthquake disaster loss evaluation models and visualization technologies by using the network development methods such as COM/DCOM, ActiveX and ASP, as well as the spatial database development methods such as OO4O and ArcSDE based on ArcGIS software packages. Meanwhile, according to Software Engineering principles, a solution of Urban Earthquake Emergency Response Decision Support Systems based on GIS technologies have also been proposed, which include the systems logical structures, the technical routes,the system realization methods and function structures etc. Finally, the testing systems user interfaces have also been offered in the paper.

  17. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677–779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents’ accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups. PMID:29538320

  18. How communities' perceptions of disasters influence disaster response: managing landslides on Mount Elgon, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Misanya, Doreen; Øyhus, Arne Olav

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the role of people's perception in disaster management. It is based on a study carried out along the slopes of Mount Elgon in Eastern Uganda. People living in the study area have experienced a number of landslides, but the landslide in 2010 had the most far-reaching effects on community livelihoods and resulted in a major setback to development efforts in the area. Experiences of landslides have enabled the local people to develop a number of interpretations of the causes and effects of the phenomena. The study revealed that community members did not share uniform perceptions. Whereas some members advanced technical or physical explanations for the 2010 disaster, others believed that some form of divine power was behind it. Strengthening social networks and integrating communities' perceptions in intervention mechanisms were identified as possible ways of managing future landslide disasters. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  19. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS OCCURRING IN DISASTER RESTORATION WORK FOLLOWING THE NIIGATA CHUETSU EARTHQUAKE (2004) AND THE NIIGATA CHUETSU-OKI EARTHQUAKE (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuya; Noda, Masashi; Kikkawa, Naotaka; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Suemasa, Naoaki

    Labour accidents in disaster-relief and disaster restoration work following the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004) and the Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) were analysed and characterised in order to raise awareness of the risks and hazards in such work. The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake affected houses and buildings rather than roads and railways, which are generally disrupted due to landslides or slope failures caused by earthquakes. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall to lower level," which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides and slope failures were much more prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring in geotechnical works rather than in construction works. Therefore, care should be taken in preventing "fall to lower level" accidents associated with repair work on the roofs of low-rise houses, "cut or abrasion" accidents due to the demolition of damaged houses and "caught in or compressed by equipment" accidents in road works and water and sewage works.

  20. Fear based Education or Curiosity based Education as an Example of Earthquake and Natural Disaster Education: Results of Statistical Study in Primary Schools in Istanbul-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.

    2012-04-01

    Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake

  1. [Earthquakes in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    de Ville de Goyet, C

    2001-02-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has 25 years of experience dealing with major natural disasters. This piece provides a preliminary review of the events taking place in the weeks following the major earthquakes in El Salvador on 13 January and 13 February 2001. It also describes the lessons that have been learned over the last 25 years and the impact that the El Salvador earthquakes and other disasters have had on the health of the affected populations. Topics covered include mass-casualties management, communicable diseases, water supply, managing donations and international assistance, damages to the health-facilities infrastructure, mental health, and PAHO's role in disasters.

  2. D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management: Core Results of Ditac Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.

    2013-08-01

    According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce

  3. Disaster Victim Identification using Orthopedic Implants in the 2011 East-Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Numata, Norio; Makinae, Haruka; Yoshida, Wataru; Daimon, Masao; Murakami, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake (magnitude 9.0) devastated Japan's east coast, and the associated tsunami resulted in social and mechanical destruction. Search for the missing people is still ongoing. Surgical implants are common in the general population. Medical implants usually have lot numbers, and their forensic use is common for victim identification. This investigation was conducted mainly in the cities of Kamaishi and Otsuchi, both of which were affected by the tsunami disaster in 2011. We visited 6 mortuaries with the police between March 20 (9 days after the tsunami) and April 20 (40 days after the tsunami) to examine the presence of surgical scars and related information. Unidentified human remains were investigated by visual and tactile examination. We also visited temples where the ashes were preserved. If implants were found, their lot numbers and estimated surgical procedures were recorded to determine positive identification. Ten of 233 sets of unidentified human remains before cremation displayed characteristics of a potential past surgical history. However, only 2 of these 233 sets had orthopedic implants. Instead, non-combustible orthopedic implants were found and recognized in 8 of the 331 sets of unidentified human ashes in the temples after cremation; the lot numbers were fully legible in 2 of the 8 sets. We estimated the surgical procedures, which led to positive identification. In conclusion, lot numbers and the surgical knowledge of orthopedic surgeons could assist with the positive identification of disaster victims. However, the relevant information can be erased after cremation.

  4. Systematic Consensus Building on Disaster Mental Health Services After the Great East Japan Earthquake by Phase.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nakajima, Satomi; Asano, Keiko; Narisawa, Tomomi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-01

    We intended to build consensus on appropriate disaster mental health services among professionals working in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We focused on the first 3 months after the disaster, divided into 3 phases: immediate aftermath, acute phase, and midphase. We adopted the Delphi process and asked our survey participants (n=115) to rate the appropriateness of specific mental health services in each phase and comment on them. We repeated this process 3 times, giving participants feedback on the results of the previous round. Through this process, we determined the criterion for positive consensus for each item as having the agreement of more than 80% of the participants. We found that the importance of acute psychiatric care and prescribing regular medication for psychiatric patients gained positive consensus in the immediate aftermath and acute phase. Counseling and psychoeducation after traumatic events or provision of information gained consensus in the acute phase and midphase, and screening of mental distress gained consensus in the midphase. Higher priority was given to continuous psychiatric services in the immediate aftermath and mental health activities in later phases.

  5. Notification: Evaluation of EPA Oversight of Disaster Debris Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY15-0012, November 24, 2014. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin preliminary research on EPA's oversight of disaster debris management in December 2014.

  6. L'Aquila's reconstruction challenges: has Italy learned from its previous earthquake disasters?

    PubMed

    Ozerdem, Alpaslan; Rufini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Italy is an earthquake-prone country and its disaster emergency response experiences over the past few decades have varied greatly, with some being much more successful than others. Overall, however, its reconstruction efforts have been criticised for being ad hoc, delayed, ineffective, and untargeted. In addition, while the emergency relief response to the L'Aquila earthquake of 6 April 2009-the primary case study in this evaluation-seems to have been successful, the reconstruction initiative got off to a very problematic start. To explore the root causes of this phenomenon, the paper argues that, owing to the way in which Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has politicised the process, the L'Aquila reconstruction endeavour is likely to suffer problems with local ownership, national/regional/municipal coordination, and corruption. It concludes with a set of recommendations aimed at addressing the pitfalls that may confront the L'Aquila reconstruction process over the next few years. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  7. space technology and nigerian national challenges in disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Akinyede, J., , Dr.; Abdullahi, R.

    One of the sustainable development challenges of any nation is the nation s capacity and capabilities to manage its environment and disaster According to Abiodun 2002 the fundamental life support systems are air clean water and food or agricultural resources It also includes wholesome environment shelter and access to energy health and education All of these constitute the basic necessities of life whose provision and preservation should be a pre-occupation of the visionary leaders executive legislative and judiciary of any nation and its people in order to completely eradicate ignorance unemployment poverty and disease and also increase life expectancy Accordingly many societies around the globe including Nigeria are embarking on initiatives and developing agenda that could address redress the threats to the life supporting systems Disaster prevention management and reduction therefore present major challenges that require prompt attention locally nationally regionally and globally Responses to disasters vary from the application of space-derived data for disaster management to the disbursement of relief to the victims and the emplacement of recovery measures The role of space technology in particular in all the phases of disaster management planning against disaster disaster early warning risk reduction preparedness crises and damage assessment response and relief disbursement and recovery and reconstruction cannot be overemphasized Akinyede 2005 Therefore this paper seeks to focus on space

  8. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    The rapid changes in climate over the last decades, together with the explosion of human population, have shaped the context for a fragile biosphere, prone to natural and manmade disasters that result in massive flows of environmental immigrants and great disturbances of ecosystems. The magnitude of the latest great disasters have shown evidence for high quality Earth Observation (EO) services as it regards disaster risk reduction and emergency support (DRR & EMS). The EO community runs ambitious initiatives in order to generate services with direct impact in the biosphere, and intends to stimulate the wider participation of citizens, enabling the Openness effect through the Open Innovation paradigm. This by its turn results in the tremendous growth of open source software technologies associated with web, social media, mobile and Crowdsourcing. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of National Observatory of Athens has developed, in the framework of the BEYOND Centre of Excellence for EO-based monitoring of Natural Disasters (http://www.beyond-eocenter.eu), a rich ecosystem of Copernicus compliant services addressing diverse hazardous phenomena caused from climate and weather extremes (fires, floods, windstorms, heat waves), atmospheric disturbances (smoke, dust, ozone, UV), and geo-hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes). Several services are delivered in near-real time to the public and the institutional authorities at national and regional level in southeastern Europe. Specific ones have been recognized worldwide for their innovation and operational aspects (e.g. FIREHUB was awarded the first prize as Best Service Challenge in the Copernicus Masters Competition, 2014). However, a communication gap still exists between the BEYOND ecosystem and those directly concerned by the natural disasters, the citizens and emergency response managers. This disruption of information flow between interested parties is addressed

  9. Dream project: Applications of earth observations to disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, G.; Gill, S.; Davies, R.; Betorz, F.; Andalsvik, Y.; Cackler, J.; Dos Santos, W.; Dunlop, K.; Ferreira, I.; Kebe, F.; Lamboglia, E.; Matsubara, Y.; Nikolaidis, V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, S.; Sakita, M.; Verstappen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The field of disaster risk management is relatively new and takes a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to the threat of natural and man-made disasters. Disaster risk management consists primarily of risk assessment and the development of strategies to mitigate disaster risk. This paper will discuss how increasing both Earth observation data and information technology capabilities can contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in Belize. The paper presents the results and recommendations of a project conducted by an international and interdisciplinary team of experts at the 2009 session of the International Space University in NASA Ames Research Center (California, USA). The aim is to explore the combination of current, planned and potential space-aided, airborne, and ground-based Earth observation tools, the emergence of powerful new web-based and mobile data management tools, and how this combination can support and improve the emerging field of disaster risk management. The starting point of the project was the World Bank's Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) program, focused in Central America. This program was used as a test bed to analyze current space technologies used in risk management and develop new strategies and tools to be applied in other regions around the world.

  10. Principles of disaster management lesson. 12: structuring organizations.

    PubMed

    Cuny, F C

    2001-01-01

    This lesson discusses various structures for organizations that have functional roles in disaster responses, relief, and/or management activities. It distinguishes between pyramidal and matrix structures, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to disasters. Span of control issues are dissected including the impact of the "P" factor on the performance of disaster managers and workers including its relationship to the coordination and control function. The development of a Table of Organization and how it relates to departmentalization within an organization also is provided.

  11. On the historical account of disastrous landslides in Mexico: the challenge of risk management and disaster prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Ayala, I.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides disasters in Mexico caused more than 3500 deaths between 1935 and 2006. Such disasters have been mainly associated to intense precipitation events derived from hurricanes, tropical storms and their interactions with cold fronts, although earthquake triggered landslides have also occurred to a lesser extent. The impact of landsliding in Mexico is basically determined by the geomorphic features of mountain ranges and dissected plateaus inhabited by vulnerable communities. The present contribution provides a comprehensive temporal assessment of historical landslide disasters in Mexico. Moreover, it aims at exploring the future directions of risk management and disaster prevention, in order to reduce the impact of landslides on populations as a result of climatic change, urban sprawl, land use change and social vulnerability.

  12. Wave-Wave Coupling and Disasters: The 1985 Mexico Earthquake and the 2001 WTC Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2002-12-01

    Wave-wave coupling occurs in the presence of weak nonlinearity. It can generate quite dramatic, unexpected effects. In the 1985 earthquake disaster in Mexico City more than 400 high-rise buildings collapsed on soft ground with a loss of life of around 10,000. The emergence of a large, monochromatic, coherent ground wave was an unforeseen factor. Linear modeling failed to reproduce the main features of this signal including the prominent spectral peak close to the resonant frequency of the high-rise buildings, and an extremely long time duration (more than five minutes). The signal was apparently due to coupling of a fundamental Rayleigh mode to the quarter-wavelength shear resonance in the surface mud layer through their common frequency at 0.4 Hz. An additional unexpected feature was the low attenuation of these modes in the mud layer, and the presence of prograde particle motion. Prograde rotation, though not necessarily caused by nonlinear effects, will couple with structural modes of vibration that tend to destabilize a tall building, much like a tall ship in ocean waves. Such unanticipated features may play a critical role in earthquake disasters on soft ground. A related case is the World Trade Center disaster of 11 September 2001, which was presumed to be due to gradual heat softening of steel girders. If so, the Twin Towers should have leaned over sideways but actually the collapse occurred vertically and quite suddenly. A likely alternative is coupling between a fireball caused by a phase transition between low- and high-oxygen consumption modes in burning jet fuel: (low-oxygen) 2CnH2n+2 + (n+1)O2 = nC2 + (2n+2)H2O, (1) (high-oxygen) 2CnH2n+2 + (3n+1)O2 = 2nCO2 + (2n+2)H2O, (2) and a pressure pulse propagating vertically inside the tubular structure. The pulse would have taken out the concrete floors, thus initiating collapse by implosion of the structural shell. Linear thinking may fail to anticipate coupling, and thus appropriate preventive measures may

  13. Using social media for disaster emergency management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Wang, T.; Ye, X. Y.; Zhu, J. Q.; Lee, J.

    2016-06-01

    Social media have become a universal phenomenon in our society (Wang et al., 2012). As a new data source, social media have been widely used in knowledge discovery in fields related to health (Jackson et al., 2014), human behaviour (Lee, 2014), social influence (Hong, 2013), and market analysis (Hanna et al., 2011). In this paper, we report a case study of the 2012 Beijing Rainstorm to investigate how emergency information was timely distributed using social media during emergency events. We present a classification and location model for social media text streams during emergency events. This model classifies social media text streams based on their topical contents. Integrated with a trend analysis, we show how Sina-Weibo fluctuated during emergency events. Using a spatial statistical analysis method, we found that the distribution patterns of Sina-Weibo were related to the emergency events but varied among different topics. This study helps us to better understand emergency events so that decision-makers can act on emergencies in a timely manner. In addition, this paper presents the tools, methods, and models developed in this study that can be used to work with text streams from social media in the context of disaster management.

  14. Rapid and Near Real-Time Assessments of Population Displacement Using Mobile Phone Data Following Disasters: The 2015 Nepal Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robin; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Albert, Maximilian; Power, Daniel; Tudge, Simon; Gonzalez, Miguel; Guthrie, Sam; Chamberlain, Heather; Brooks, Christopher; Hughes, Christopher; Pitonakova, Lenka; Buckee, Caroline; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew; Bengtsson, Linus

    2016-02-24

    Sudden impact disasters often result in the displacement of large numbers of people. These movements can occur prior to events, due to early warning messages, or take place post-event due to damages to shelters and livelihoods as well as a result of long-term reconstruction efforts. Displaced populations are especially vulnerable and often in need of support. However, timely and accurate data on the numbers and destinations of displaced populations are extremely challenging to collect across temporal and spatial scales, especially in the aftermath of disasters. Mobile phone call detail records were shown to be a valid data source for estimates of population movements after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, but their potential to provide near real-time ongoing measurements of population displacements immediately after a natural disaster has not been demonstrated. A computational architecture and analytical capacity were rapidly deployed within nine days of the Nepal earthquake of 25th April 2015, to provide spatiotemporally detailed estimates of population displacements from call detail records based on movements of 12 million de-identified mobile phones users. Analysis shows the evolution of population mobility patterns after the earthquake and the patterns of return to affected areas, at a high level of detail. Particularly notable is the movement of an estimated 390,000 people above normal from the Kathmandu valley after the earthquake, with most people moving to surrounding areas and the highly-populated areas in the central southern area of Nepal. This analysis provides an unprecedented level of information about human movement after a natural disaster, provided within a very short timeframe after the earthquake occurred. The patterns revealed using this method are almost impossible to find through other methods, and are of great interest to humanitarian agencies.

  15. Incorporating Real-time Earthquake Information into Large Enrollment Natural Disaster Course Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Villasenor, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although most would agree that the occurrence of natural disaster events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods can provide effective learning opportunities for natural hazards-based courses, implementing compelling materials into the large-enrollment classroom environment can be difficult. These natural hazard events derive much of their learning potential from their real-time nature, and in the modern 24/7 news-cycle where all but the most devastating events are quickly out of the public eye, the shelf life for an event is quite limited. To maximize the learning potential of these events requires that both authoritative information be available and course materials be generated as the event unfolds. Although many events such as hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic eruptions provide some precursory warnings, and thus one can prepare background materials to place the main event into context, earthquakes present a particularly confounding situation of providing no warning, but where context is critical to student learning. Attempting to implement real-time materials into large enrollment classes faces the additional hindrance of limited internet access (for students) in most lecture classrooms. In Earth 101 Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs Reality, taught as a large enrollment (150+ students) general education course at Penn State, we are collaborating with the USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) to develop efficient means to incorporate their real-time products into learning activities in the lecture hall environment. Over time (and numerous events) we have developed a template for presenting USGS-produced real-time information in lecture mode. The event-specific materials can be quickly incorporated and updated, along with key contextual materials, to provide students with up-to-the-minute current information. In addition, we have also developed in-class activities, such as student determination of population exposure to severe ground

  16. Strengthening the Federal Emergency Management Agency's disaster response capabilities.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Glenn M

    2008-04-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Disaster Operations Directorate provides the core federal response capability to save lives and to protect property in US communities that have been overwhelmed by the impact of a major disaster or emergency. The directorate executes its mission through three main programme areas: operational direction, command and control; operational teams; and operational planning. Based on lessons learned from years of disaster response experience, FEMA is now taking a more proactive and collaborative approach with its partners. This paper discusses how FEMA is placing a greater emphasis on response operations and strengthening capabilities across the full range of operational and support missions by comprehensively revamping its disaster operations model; enhancing its headquarters and regional operations centres; enhancing its headquarters and regional operational planning capabilities; and addressing catastrophic disaster planning and related critical preparedness issues.

  17. Conceptualization of a Collaborative Decision Making for Flood Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aishah Zubir, Siti; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Razak, Normy Norfiza Abdul; Aziz Mat Isa, Abdul; Hasini, Hasril; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Mat Husin, Norhayati; Ezanee Rusli, Mohd; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Basri, Hidayah; Tukiman, Izawati

    2016-03-01

    Flooding is the utmost major natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of populations affected, frequency, area extent, flood duration and social economic damage. The recent flood devastation towards the end of 2014 witnessed almost 250,000 people being displaced from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia. The affected victims required evacuation within a short period of time to the designated evacuation centres. An effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life-saving. Effective flood disaster management requires collective and cooperative emergency teamwork from various government agencies. Intergovernmental collaborations among government agencies at different levels have become part of flood disaster management due to the need for sharing resources and coordinating efforts. Collaborative decision making during disaster is an integral element in providing prompt and effective response for evacuating the victims.

  18. Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones--the case of post-earthquake Haiti.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

    2014-10-15

    Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 62433 - Delegation of Authority to the Office of Disaster Management and National Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... the Office of Disaster Management and National Security AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION... Disaster and National Security Officer, Office of Disaster Management and National Security. DATES... and National Security Officer, Office of Disaster Management and National Security, Department of...

  20. Risk communication, geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Issues in Japan's disaster management system were revealed by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident. Many important decisions were based on scientific data, but appear not to have sufficiently considered the uncertainties of the data and the societal aspects of the problems. The issues that arose show the need for scientists to appropriately deal with risk communication and geoethics and issues. This paper discusses necessity of education for risk communication, geoethics and decisions science in school before students become sicentific decision makers in future.

  1. Disaster management curricula: strategy to create doctors with disaster resilience in Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuniati, N.; Maulana, R.; Ichsan, I.

    2017-02-01

    Faculty of Medicine of Syiah Kuala University has one special block called Disaster Management block (the last block on the curricula) on Competency-Based Curriculum of Medical Sciences with the Problem-Based Learning method. This block has four credits, allocated seven weeks learning period including one week for evaluation. The placement of disaster management block in the 7th semester (last semester) aims to allow students to implement more easily the complete basic and clinical medical knowledge and then have it integrated with the management capabilities during adisaster. This article evaluates two components: 1) Disaster management module, by comparing the content of modules used in three different academic years, the academic year 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016, 2) The final grade, by comparing the final grade of disaster management block in 4 years (comparing students class of 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011). The results revealed that on every academic year there were additions and strengthening of the material to ensure that students achieve a complete learning experience, and there was a slight increase in student’s grades where the number of students who receive grades A has increased while the number of students who receive grades E decreased.

  2. A WiFi public address system for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless of public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas.

  3. A WiFi Public Address System for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Nicholas; Palmer, Douglas A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    The WiFi Bullhorn is designed to assist emergency workers in the event of a disaster situation by offering a rapidly configurable wireless public address system for disaster sites. The current configuration plays either pre recorded or custom recorded messages and utilizes 802.11b networks for communication. Units can be position anywhere wireless coverage exists to help manage crowds or to recall first responders from dangerous areas. PMID:17238466

  4. Menstrual hygiene management among women and adolescent girls in the aftermath of the earthquake in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Bhattachan, Meika; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Rayamajhi, Rajan Bikram; Rai, Pramila; Sharma, Gaurav

    2018-02-02

    Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an essential aspect of hygiene for women and adolescent girls between menarche and menopause. Despite being an important issue concerning women and girls in the menstruating age group MHM is often overlooked in post-disaster responses. Further, there is limited evidence of menstrual hygiene management in humanitarian settings. This study aims to describe the experiences and perceptions of women and adolescent girls on menstrual hygiene management in post-earthquake Nepal. A mixed methods study was carried out among the earthquake affected women and adolescent girls in three villages of Sindhupalchowk district of Nepal. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured experiences and perceptions of respondents on menstrual hygiene management in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake. Quantitative data were triangulated with in-depth interview regarding respondent's personal experiences of menstrual hygiene management. Menstrual hygiene was rated as the sixth highest overall need and perceived as an immediate need by 18.8% of the respondents. There were 42.8% women & girls who menstruated within first week of the earthquake. Reusable sanitary cloth were used by about 66.7% of the respondents before the earthquake and remained a popular method (76.1%) post-earthquake. None of the respondents reported receiving menstrual adsorbents as relief materials in the first month following the earthquake. Disposable pads (77.8%) were preferred by respondents as they were perceived to be clean and convenient to use. Most respondents (73.5%) felt that reusable sanitary pads were a sustainable choice. Women who were in the age group of 15-34 years (OR = 3.14; CI = (1.07-9.20), did not go to school (OR = 9.68; CI = 2.16-43.33), married (OR = 2.99; CI = 1.22-7.31) and previously used reusable sanitary cloth (OR = 5.82; CI = 2.33-14.55) were more likely to use the reusable sanitary cloth. In

  5. The Role of Citizen Science in Risk Mitigation and Disaster Response: A Case Study of 2015 Nepalese Earthquake Using OpenStreetMap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen science includes networks of ordinary people acting as sensors, observing and recording information for science. OpenStreetMap is one such sensor network which empowers citizens to collaboratively produce a global picture from free geographic information. The success of this open source software is extended by the development of freely used open databases for the user community. Participating citizens do not require a high level of skill. Final results are processed by professionals following quality assurance protocols before map information is released. OpenStreetMap is not only the cheapest source of timely maps in many cases but also often the only source. This is particularly true in developing countries. Emergency responses to the recent earthquake in Nepal illustrates the value for rapidly updated geographical information. This includes emergency management, damage assessment, post-disaster response, and future risk mitigation. Local disaster conditions (landslides, road closings, bridge failures, etc.) were documented for local aid workers by citizen scientists working remotely. Satellites and drones provide digital imagery of the disaster zone and OpenStreetMap participants shared the data from locations around the globe. For the Nepal earthquake, OpenStreetMap provided a team of volunteers on the ground through their Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) which contribute data to the disaster response through smartphones and laptops. This, combined with global citizen science efforts, provided immediate geographically useful maps to assist aid workers, including the Red Cross and Canadian DART Team, and the Nepalese government. As of August 2014, almost 1.7 million users provided over 2.5 billion edits to the OpenStreetMap map database. Due to the increased usage of smartphones, GPS-enabled devices, and the growing participation in citizen science projects, data gathering is proving an effective way to contribute as a global citizen. This paper

  6. Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

  7. Infection surveillance after a natural disaster: lessons learnt from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Osuke; Oki, Tomoharu; Ishiki, Aiko; Shimanuki, Masaaki; Fuchimukai, Toru; Chosa, Toru; Chida, Shoichi; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Shima, Hiroji; Kanno, Michihiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Ishiki, Mikihito; Urabe, Daisaku

    2013-10-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake produced a catastrophic tsunami that devastated the city of Rikuzen-Takata and left it without an effective health infrastructure and at increased risk of outbreaks of disease. On 2 May 2011, a disease-surveillance team was formed of volunteers who were clinicians or members of Rikuzen-Takata's municipal government. The team's main goal was to detect the early signs of disease outbreaks. Seven weeks after the tsunami, 16 support teams were providing primary health care in Rikuzen-Takata but the chain of command between them was poor and 70% of the city's surviving citizens remained in evacuation centres. The communication tools that were available were generally inadequate. The surveillance team collected data from the city's clinics by using a simple reporting form that could be completed without adding greatly to the workloads of clinicians. The summary findings were reported daily to clinics. The team also collaborated with public health nurses in rebuilding communication networks. Public health nurses alerted evacuation centres to epidemics of communicable disease. Modern health-care systems are highly vulnerable to the loss of advanced technological tools. The initiation--or re-establishment--of disease surveillance following a natural disaster can therefore prove challenging even in a developed country. Surveillance should be promptly initiated after a disaster by (i) developing a surveillance system that is tailored to the local setting, (ii) establishing a support team network, and (iii) integrating the resources that remain--or soon become--locally available.

  8. Infection surveillance after a natural disaster: lessons learnt from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Tomoharu; Ishiki, Aiko; Shimanuki, Masaaki; Fuchimukai, Toru; Chosa, Toru; Chida, Shoichi; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Shima, Hiroji; Kanno, Michihiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Ishiki, Mikihito; Urabe, Daisaku

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake produced a catastrophic tsunami that devastated the city of Rikuzen-Takata and left it without an effective health infrastructure and at increased risk of outbreaks of disease. Approach On 2 May 2011, a disease-surveillance team was formed of volunteers who were clinicians or members of Rikuzen-Takata’s municipal government. The team’s main goal was to detect the early signs of disease outbreaks. Local setting Seven weeks after the tsunami, 16 support teams were providing primary health care in Rikuzen-Takata but the chain of command between them was poor and 70% of the city’s surviving citizens remained in evacuation centres. The communication tools that were available were generally inadequate. Relevant changes The surveillance team collected data from the city’s clinics by using a simple reporting form that could be completed without adding greatly to the workloads of clinicians. The summary findings were reported daily to clinics. The team also collaborated with public health nurses in rebuilding communication networks. Public health nurses alerted evacuation centres to epidemics of communicable disease. Lessons learnt Modern health-care systems are highly vulnerable to the loss of advanced technological tools. The initiation – or re-establishment – of disease surveillance following a natural disaster can therefore prove challenging even in a developed country. Surveillance should be promptly initiated after a disaster by (i) developing a surveillance system that is tailored to the local setting, (ii) establishing a support team network, and (iii) integrating the resources that remain – or soon become – locally available. PMID:24115802

  9. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  10. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  12. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases. PMID:26132753

  13. Japanese Experience with Long-term Recovery from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    On March 11, 2011, a huge tsunami disaster hit Pacific coast of Tohoku region due to a magnitude of 9.0 earthquake, and killed almost 20,000 people. It was also the beginning of long-term recovery to prepare for next tsunami attack in the future. In this presentation, I would like to review the recovery process from the following five elements: quantification of tsunami hazards, public education, evacuation model, land-use planning, and real-time tsunami warning. It should be noted that there are lessons from the 2011 event at two different levels: national level and prefecture levels. In relation to the quantification of tsunami hazard and real-time tsunami warning, it followed a big change in tsunami policy at national level such as setting up two levels of tsunami scenarios for tsunami preparedness and mitigation: Level 1 tsunami (L1) and Level 2 tsunami (L2). L1 is the tsunami risk with 50 year return period, and L2 is the one with 1,000 year return period. As for public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning, There existed a big difference for what happened in the northern half of the coast and the southern half. Northern half of the coast belongs to Iwate Prefecture whose geography is rias coast. People in the Rias coast of Iwate Prefecture has been hit many times by tsunami on the average of about 50 years. With these many experiences, they succeeded in reducing the number of mortality down to 4,000 in comparison with 20,000 at the 1886 tsunami disaster. Most of the Southern half belongs to Miyagi Prefecture whose geography is coastal plain. People in the coastal plain in Miyagi Prefecture has little experience with tsunami disaster and end up with 14,000 deaths due to tsunami attack. The differences in the past tsunami experiences in these two prefectures resulted in big differences in public education, evacuation model, and land-use planning.

  14. The Great East Japan Earthquake: a need to plan for post-disaster surveillance in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Tamano; Partridge, Jeffrey; Kasai, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries. In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the “inter-disaster” period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster. PMID:23908893

  15. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  16. What tourist business managers must learn from disaster research.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Death and social disruption caused by disasters of varying forms will continue to increase in the future. So too will the impacts on tourism, now one of the fastest growing and largest sectors of the worldwide economy. Tourist business managers must implement evidence-based preparedness activities to enhance the survival potential and future profitability of their firms. Drawing upon recent research studies of the tourist industry during times of crisis and the broad social science knowledge base regarding human responses to disaster, seven key lessons are described. Emergency managers must facilitate the incorporation of these lessons into the culture of tourist business managers.

  17. A software framework for assessing the resilience of drinking water systems to disasters with an example earthquake case study

    DOE PAGES

    Klise, Katherine A.; Bynum, Michael; Moriarty, Dylan; ...

    2017-07-07

    Water utilities are vulnerable to a wide variety of human-caused and natural disasters. The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source PythonTM package designed to help water utilities investigate resilience of water distribution systems to hazards and evaluate resilience-enhancing actions. In this paper, the WNTR modeling framework is presented and a case study is described that uses WNTR to simulate the effects of an earthquake on a water distribution system. The case study illustrates that the severity of damage is not only a function of system integrity and earthquake magnitude, but also of the available resourcesmore » and repair strategies used to return the system to normal operating conditions. While earthquakes are particularly concerning since buried water distribution pipelines are highly susceptible to damage, the software framework can be applied to other types of hazards, including power outages and contamination incidents.« less

  18. A software framework for assessing the resilience of drinking water systems to disasters with an example earthquake case study

    SciT

    Klise, Katherine A.; Bynum, Michael; Moriarty, Dylan

    Water utilities are vulnerable to a wide variety of human-caused and natural disasters. The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source PythonTM package designed to help water utilities investigate resilience of water distribution systems to hazards and evaluate resilience-enhancing actions. In this paper, the WNTR modeling framework is presented and a case study is described that uses WNTR to simulate the effects of an earthquake on a water distribution system. The case study illustrates that the severity of damage is not only a function of system integrity and earthquake magnitude, but also of the available resourcesmore » and repair strategies used to return the system to normal operating conditions. While earthquakes are particularly concerning since buried water distribution pipelines are highly susceptible to damage, the software framework can be applied to other types of hazards, including power outages and contamination incidents.« less

  19. Disaster preparedness and response improvement: comparison of the 2010 Haiti earthquake-related diagnoses with baseline medical data.

    PubMed

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Staes, Tom; Danschutter, Dirk; Ackermans, Ronald; Zannini, Stefano; Rossi, Gabriele; Buyl, Ronald; Gijs, Geert; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

    2017-10-01

    Disaster medicine research generally lacks control groups. This study aims to describe categories of diagnoses encountered by the Belgian First Aid and Support Team after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and extract earthquake-related changes from comparison with comparable baseline data. The hypothesis is that besides earthquake-related trauma, medical problems emerge soon, questioning an appropriate composition of Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits. Using a descriptive cohort study design, diagnoses of patients presenting to the Belgian field hospital were prospectively registered during 4 weeks after the earthquake and compared with those recorded similarly by Médecins Sans Frontières in the same area and time span in previous and later years. Of 7000 triaged postearthquake patients, 3500 were admitted, of whom 2795 were included and analysed. In the fortnight after the earthquake, 90% suffered from injury. In the following fortnight, medical diseases emerged, particularly respiratory (23%) and digestive (14%). More than 53% developed infections within 3 weeks after the event. Médecins Sans Frontières registered 6407 patients in 2009; 6033 in 2011; and 7300 in 2012. A comparison indicates that postearthquake patients suffered significantly less from violence, but more from wounds, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological diseases. This is the first comparison of postearthquake diagnoses with baseline data. Within 2 weeks after the acute phase of an earthquake, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological problems will emerge to the prejudice of trauma. This fact should be anticipated when composing Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits to be sent to the disaster site.

  20. Disaster relief and initial response to the earthquake and tsunami in Meulaboh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, V J; Low, E; Ng, Y Y; Teo, C

    2005-10-01

    The Singapore Humanitarian Assistance Support Group deployed a team of 32 medical relief workers to Meulaboh, Indonesia to provide medical assistance for victims of the 26 December earthquake and tsunami disaster. The team was deployed at a primary healthcare clinic at an internally displaced persons' (IDP) camp and at the sole hospital's emergency and surgical departments. The team saw a total of 1841 patients, 1371 at the clinic and 446 at the hospital's emergency department, and performed surgery on 24 patients. Tsunami-related trauma cases accounted for 31.8% (142) of cases at the emergency department, 1.6% (22) of cases at the clinic, and 91.7% (22) of surgeries. This paper details the difficulties and lessons learnt by the team, including the lack of important resources for healthcare delivery. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and vector control were some of the problems faced, with the goal to provide the most effective public health for the greatest number of people given the limited resources available.

  1. Trust, but verify: social media models for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Amisha M; Bruns, Axel; Newton, Judith

    2017-07-01

    A lack of trust in the information exchanged via social media may significantly hinder decisionmaking by community members and emergency services during disasters. The need for timely information at such times, though, challenges traditional ways of establishing trust. This paper, building on a multi-year research project that combined social media data analysis and participant observation within an emergency management organisation and in-depth engagement with stakeholders across the sector, pinpoints and examines assumptions governing trust and trusting relationships in social media disaster management. It assesses three models for using social media in disaster management-information gathering, quasi-journalistic verification, and crowdsourcing-in relation to the guardianship of trust to highlight the verification process for content and source and to identify the role of power and responsibilities. The conclusions contain important implications for emergency management organisations seeking to enhance their mechanisms for incorporating user-generated information from social media sources in their disaster response efforts. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  2. Healthcare logistics in disaster planning and emergency management: A perspective.

    PubMed

    VanVactor, Jerry D

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the role of healthcare supply chain management in disaster mitigation and management. While there is an abundance of literature examining emergency management and disaster preparedness efforts across an array of industries, little information has been directed specifically toward the emergency interface, interoperability and unconventional relationships among civilian institutions and the US Department of Defense (US DoD) or supply chain operations involved therein. To address this imbalance, this paper provides US DoD healthcare supply chain managers with concepts related to communicating and planning more effectively. It is worth remembering, however, that all disasters are local - under the auspice of tiered response involving federal agencies, the principal responsibility for responding to domestic disasters and emergencies rests with the lowest level of government equipped and able to deal with the incident effectively. As such, the findings are equally applicable to institutions outside the military. It also bears repeating that every crisis is unique: there is no such thing as a uniform response for every incident. The role of the US DoD in emergency preparedness and disaster planning is changing and will continue to do so as the need for roles in support of a larger effort also continues to change.

  3. Seismic Disaster Mitigation in Urban Area by using Building Vibration Observation of Weak Earthquake Ground Motion: an Approach of the IT Kyoshin Seismometer for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Ito, T.

    2010-12-01

    There are a lot of buildings which is not experienced severe earthquakes in urban area. In Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, it was presumed that 80 percent or more of the person was dead immediately after the earthquake by building collapse. Also in Haiti, a lot of buildings deprived of the life of persons. In order to prevent the earthquake damage of urban area, it is the most effective to make the building earthquake-proof. However, there are still a lot of buildings not made earthquake-proof in Japan though 15 years passed since Kobe Earthquake. In order to promote making of the building earthquake-proof, various approaches such as visualization of seismic hazard, education of disaster prevention and legal system for promotion are needed. We have developed the IT Kyoshin(strong motion) Seismometer for Building which is the observation system of the usual weak earthquake ground motion by installing a lot of acceleration sensors in building, and have been setting it up in some buildings of the University of Tokyo. We have also developed the visualization tool that can reproduce the building vibration during earthquake from the observed data. By this tool, we can successfully show where is more shaking in the building or what is the feature of building vibration easily. Such information contributes to not only promotion of making building earthquake-proof but also promotion of disaster prevention action such as fixation of bookshelf, making the safety area in building, etc. In addition, we proposed a concrete technique of the health investigation of buildings by using weak earthquake ground motion. Because there are 20 to 30 felt earthquakes in year in Tokyo area, it is possible to observe these building vibrations by using weak earthquake ground motions. In addition, we have developed the high sensitive ITK sensor which can observe from the microtremor to the felt earthquake in the place without the felt earthquake either.

  4. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Earthquakes Earthquakes An earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, ... by the breaking and shifting of underground rock. Earthquakes can cause buildings to collapse and cause heavy ...

  5. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2 Yoshiyuki KANEDA Nagoya University Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Haluk OZENER Boğaziçi University, Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ozener, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred near the Marmara Sea. The Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities. To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. This project is composed of four research groups. The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS project.

  6. Analysing news media coverage of the 2015 Nepal earthquake using a community capitals lens: implications for disaster resilience.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Subas P

    2018-04-01

    South Asia is one of the regions of the world most vulnerable to natural disasters. Although news media analyses of disasters have been conducted frequently in various settings globally, there is little research on populous South Asia. This paper begins to fill this gap by evaluating local and foreign news media coverage of the earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015. It broadens the examination of news media coverage of disaster response beyond traditional framing theory, utilising community capitals (built, cultural, financial, human, natural, political, and social) lens to perform a thematic content analysis of 405 news items. Overall, financial and natural capital received the most and the least emphasis respectively. Statistically significant differences between local and foreign news media were detected vis-à-vis built, financial, and political capital. The paper concludes with a discussion of the social utility of news media analysis using the community capitals framework to inform disaster resilience. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  7. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    jet fuel, to complex and hard-to-deploy weapons such as biologic and chemical agents’ (3). The purpose of this article is to review recent experience ...1994 Pope Air Force Base (AFB) aircraft crash from an anaesthesiology perspective (14). Those authors noted critical shortages of laryngoscopes...responses of nearby hospitals have been described (18–20). In addition, Yurt and colleagues reviewed their experi - ence with casualties from that disaster who

  8. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  9. Opportunities for corruption across Flood Disaster Management (FDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, R. Mohd; Latip, E.; Zawawi, E. M. Ahmad; Ismail, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Flood is one of the major disasters in the world. Despite flood resulted in loss of life and damaged properties, it naturally imparts people to assist the victims that affected by the disaster. Malaysia has experienced many serious flooding events and proper flood disaster management need to be developed and adopted occasionally. Flood Disaster Management (FDM) seemed to be not working effectively especially during the Kelantan prodigious flood in December 2014. There were negative perceptions among victims and Malaysian citizens regarding the disaster management and government authorities in relation to corrupt practices. The FDM can be divided into four phases (i.e., prevention, preparedness, response and recovery) which undoubtedly corruption is perceived to exists in every phase. The aim of this study is to identify opportunities of corruption across FDM phases. The study presents a case study of Kelantan using the quantitative research approach which utilises questionnaire with government and private agencies. Further to that, this paper proved that opportunities for corruption may occur at every phase, undoubtedly response and recovery phase especially activities involving fund and donation are riskier. The findings are hoped to assist in developing an improved FDM in term of increased transparency.

  10. Mass casualty incidents and disasters in Nigeria: The need for better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Ehiawaguan, I P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss principles involved in disaster management, disasters in Nigeria, examine the current level of preparedness in the country and make recommendations for improvement. An overview of various disaster events in the country coupled with review of the literature. Fatality figures for disaster in Nigeria are high. There is need for a strong political will from government at all levels regarding disaster management in order to mitigate its occurrence and impact.

  11. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  12. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes. PMID:27999820

  13. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  14. Participatory evaluation of disaster resilience performance with urban stakeholders: An implementation case study before and after the 2015 Nepal Ghorka earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, B.; Anhorn, J.; Burton, C.

    2016-12-01

    Approaches that make resilience tangible and operational for decision makers have to deal effectively with the degree of impact and change required through different strategic actions in addressing agreed-upon resilience goals. A Resilience Performance Scorecard (RPS) has been designed to enable local stakeholders in identifying existing strengths and weaknesses through providing information on key performance targets along six dimensions of urban resilience both at the city and sub-city district level of geography. The purpose in the development of the Scorecard approach is to build a tool that can provide information on the overall resilience performance and capture the key functional and organizational areas for urban resilience with local government officials. The Resilience Performance Scorecard (RPS) was developed jointly by the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the South Asia Institute (SAI) at Heidelberg University, the and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation. It was initially implemented with the Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan Municipality in Nepal one year before the 25 April 7.8 magnitude Gorkha earthquake event as a self-evaluation tool through a fully participatory process with local stakeholders. In a follow-up participatory assessment and implementation of the RPS one month after the earthquake, the results of the participatory resilience investigation demonstrate areas where action towards resilience should be prioritized and reflect the change in perception of resilience among the stakeholders in the face of a large damaging event.

  15. Community-Based Disaster Management: A Lesson Learned From Community Emergency Response Management in Banyumas, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, A. Y.; Sariffuddin, S.

    2018-02-01

    This article aimed to review community-based disaster management in terms of its independent coordination and disaster management. Community resilience was tested during disaster emergency. While panic, the community is required to be viable and able to evacuate, manage logistic, collect data on damage and the victim, and coordinate with outsiders independently. The community in Gununglurah Village, Banyumas Regency which was hit by a landslide in 2015 provides a lesson learned about community based disaster management. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology with in-depth interview with 23 informants from the community, donor institution, village officers, and government officers. Through traditional and informal methods, the community implemented disaster management that was categorized into 3 mechanisms that were social, functional, and sequential mechanism. These mechanisms controlled different portion in which social mechanism holds the most important role in disaster management, then functional mechanism and sequential mechanism. Various community activities in the village equipped the community with organizational experience to manage logistic, human resource and other coordination. In 2007, in fact, there was vulnerability risk assessment done by the local government, which recommended efforts to be done by the community to reduce the disaster risk, yet it was not implemented. It was interesting to note that in spite of the independent disaster management there was a scientific assessment neglected. Based on this research, a new discussion on how to synchronize the endogenous knowledge with scientific modern knowledge was opened.

  16. Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

    2010-12-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the

  17. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  18. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2006-08-15

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a 'bottom-up' manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  19. Use of external fixators for damage-control orthopaedics in natural disasters like the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Awais, Syed; Saeed, Ayesha; Ch, Asad

    2014-08-01

    In the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the great many injured with multiple fractures and open wounds provided a unique opportunity to practice damage-control orthopaedics. External fixators remain a time-tested tools for operating surgeons on such occasions. The locally manufactured, readily available Naseer-Awais (NA) external fixator filled such needs of this disaster with good outcome. This is a retrospective descriptive study of 19,700 patients that presented over seven months to the two centres established by the lead author (SMA) in Muzaffarabad and Mansehra just one night after the 2005 earthquake. A series of local and foreign orthopaedic surgeon teams operated in succession. The computerised patient data collection of 1,145 operations was retrospectively analysed. Of the 19,700 patients presenting to the SMA centres, 50% had limb injuries. Total fracture fixations were 1,145, of which 295 were external fixations: 185 were applied on the lower limb and 90 on upper limb, the majority were applied on tibia. External fixators are valuable damage-control tools in natural disasters and warfare injuries. The locally manufactured NA external fixator served the needs of the many limb injuries during the 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

  20. An original approach to fill the gap in the earthquake disaster experience - a proposal for 'the archive of the quake experience' -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Kuroda, S.; Yoshida, M.

    2015-12-01

    People without severe disaster experience infallibly forget even the extraordinary one like 3.11 as time advances. Therefore, to improve the resilient society, an ingenious attempt to keep people's memory of disaster not to fade away is necessary. Since 2011, we have been caring out earthquake disaster drills for residents of high-rise apartments, for schoolchildren, for citizens of the coastal area, etc. Using a portable earthquake simulator (1), the drill consists of three parts, the first: a short lecture explaining characteristic quakes expected for Japanese people to have in the future, the second: reliving experience of major earthquakes hit Japan since 1995, and the third: a short lecture for preparation that can be done at home and/or in an office. For the quake experience, although it is two dimensional movement, the real earthquake observation record is used to control the simulator to provide people to relive an experience of different kinds of earthquake including the long period motion of skyscrapers. Feedback of the drill is always positive because participants understand that the reliving the quake experience with proper lectures is one of the best method to communicate the past disasters to their family and to inherit them to the next generation. There are several kinds of archive for disaster as inheritance such as pictures, movies, documents, interviews, and so on. In addition to them, here we propose to construct 'the archive of the quake experience' which compiles observed data ready to relive with the simulator. We would like to show some movies of our quake drill in the presentation. Reference: (1) Kuroda, S. et al. (2012), "Development of portable earthquake simulator for enlightenment of disaster preparedness", 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2012, Vol. 12, 9412-9420.

  1. Designing new institutions for implementing integrated disaster risk management: key elements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Chennat; Okada, Norio

    2007-12-01

    The goal of integrated disaster risk management is to promote an overall improvement in the quality of safety and security in a region, city or community at disaster risk. This paper presents the case for a thorough overhaul of the institutional component of integrated disaster risk management. A review of disaster management institutions in the United States indicates significant weaknesses in their ability to contribute effectively to the implementation of integrated disaster risk management. Our analysis and findings identify eight key elements for the design of dynamic new disaster management institutions. Six specific approaches are suggested for incorporating the identified key elements in building new institutions that would have significant potential for enhancing the effective implementation of integrated disaster risk management. We have developed a possible blueprint for effective design and construction of efficient, sustainable and functional disaster management institutions.

  2. Disaster healthcare system management and crisis intervention leadership in Thailand--lessons learned from the 2004 Tsunami disaster.

    PubMed

    Peltz, Rami; Ashkenazi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Shushan, Ofer; Nakash, Guy; Leiba, Adi; Levi, Yeheskel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    Quarantelli established criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of disaster management. The objectives of this study were to analyze the response of the healthcare system to the Tsunami disaster according to the Quarantelli principles, and to validate these principles in a scenario of a disaster due to natural hazards. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Home Front Command Medical Department sent a research team to study the response of the Thai medical system to the disaster. The analysis of the disaster management was based on Quarantelli's 10 criteria for evaluating the management of community disasters. Data were collected through personal and group interviews. The three most important elements for effective disaster management were: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership. Although pre-event preparedness was for different and smaller scenarios, medical teams repeatedly reported a better performance in hospitals that recently conducted drills. In order to increase effectiveness, disaster management response should focus on: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership.

  3. Watershed management for disaster mitigation and sustainable development in Taiwan

    J. D. Cheng; H. K. Hsu; Way Jane Ho; T. C. Chen

    2000-01-01

    Heavy torrential rains during the typhoon season, steep topography, young and weak geologic formations, erodible soils and improper land uses are factors contributing to disasters associated with erosion, landslides, debris flows, and floods in Taiwan. With steady public and government support over the past 5 decades, Taiwan's watershed management program in which...

  4. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... are called upon to respond, as well as approaches you can apply to manage stress during your deployment. You can also download SAMHSA’s new Disaster Behavioral Health App and access resources specific to pre- and post-deployment (for responders, supervisors, and family members). Stress ...

  5. 75 FR 16486 - Proposed Comment Request for Review of ACF Disaster Case Management Implementation Guide; Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Request for Review of ACF Disaster Case Management Implementation Guide; Office of Human Services... in the Federal Register for comments on the ACF Disaster Case Management Implementation Guide, dated December 2009. Disaster case management is the process of organizing and providing a timely, coordinated...

  6. Risk Management and Disaster Recovery in Public Libraries in South Australia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina; Kaeding, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method: A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South…

  7. Reviewing information support during the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster : From the perspective of a hospital library that received support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, Motoko

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 caused extensive damage over a widespread area. Our hospital library, which is located in the affected area, was no exception. A large collection of books was lost, and some web content was inaccessible due to damage to the network environment. This greatly hindered our efforts to continue providing post-disaster medical information services. Information support, such as free access to databases, journals, and other online content related to the disaster areas, helped us immensely during this time. We were fortunate to have the cooperation of various medical employees and library members via social networks, such as twitter, during the process of attaining this information support.

  8. Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's χ association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles.

  9. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ke; Han, Ziqiang; Wang, Dongming

    2018-02-27

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents' DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument.

  10. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ke; Wang, Dongming

    2018-01-01

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents’ DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities, received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument. PMID:29495473

  11. The World Trade Center Attack: Lessons for disaster management

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ronald; Teperman, Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    As the largest, and one of the most eclectic, urban center in the United States, New York City felt the need to develop an Office of Emergency Management to coordinate communications and direct resources in the event of a mass disaster. Practice drills were then carried out to assess and improve disaster preparedness. The day of 11 September 2001 began with the unimaginable. As events unfolded, previous plans based on drills were found not to address the unique issues faced and new plans rapidly evolved out of necessity. Heroic actions were commonplace. Much can be learned from the events of 11 September 2001. Natural and unnatural disasters will happen again, so it is critical that these lessons be learned. Proper preparation will undoubtedly save lives and resources. PMID:11737917

  12. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  13. Earthquake warning system for Japan Railways’ bullet train; implications for disaster prevention in California

    Nakamura, Y.; Tucker, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    Today, Japanese society is well aware of the prediction of the Tokai earthquake. It is estimated by the Tokyo earthquake. It is estimated by the Tokyo muncipal government that this predicted earthquake could kill 30,000 people. (this estimate is viewed by many as conservative; other Japanese government agencies have made estimates but they have not been published.) Reduction in the number deaths from 120,000 to 30,000 between the Kanto earthquake and the predicted Tokai earthquake is due in large part to the reduction in the proportion of wooden construction (houses). 

  14. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. The politics of disaster - Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bommer, J

    1985-12-01

    The occurrence of natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, are, in themselves, beyond oar control. However, careful preparation before such events, and the correct management of the problem once it occurs, can both lead to major redaction of the suffering involved. Disaster preparation and emergency planning are both inextricably linked to politics and economics, both on a national and an international scale. Disasters themselves raise a number of issues of a political or economic nature, and die response to a natural disaster both in the short and the long term is largely determined by the political relations within a country, and between that country and the international community. This paper examines these issues by taking the examples of the earthquake of Managua, Nicaragua in 1972 and the flooding that occurred in Nicaragua in 1982. These two natural disasters occurred under different administrations in Nicaragua, and tills allows some interesting comparisons.

  16. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  17. Disaster management mobile protocols: a technology that will save lives.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hope M

    2011-01-01

    Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster education for healthcare workers at all levels in the multidisciplinary medical response to major events has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. This article describes a disaster management mobile application of systematic evidence-based practice. The application is interactive and comprises portable principles, algorithms, and emergency protocols that are agile, concise, comprehensive, and response relevant to all healthcare workers. Early recognition through clinical assessment versus laboratory and diagnostic procedures in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRNE) exposures grounded in an evidence-based skill set is especially important. During the immediate threat, the clinical diagnosis can get frustrating because CBRNE casualties can mimic everyday healthcare illnesses and initially present with nonspecific respiratory or flu-like symptoms. As there is minimal time in a catastrophic event for the medical provider to make accurate decisions, access to accurate, timely, and comprehensive information in these situations is critical. The CBRNE mobile application is intended to provide a credible source for treatment and management of numerous patients in an often intimidating environment with scarce resources and overwhelming tasks.

  18. Medical Requirements During a Natural Disaster: A Case Study on WhatsApp Chats Among Medical Personnel During the 2015 Nepal Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Basu, Moumita; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Arnab; Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Singh, Ravikant

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a log of WhatsApp messages exchanged among members of the health care group Doctors For You (DFY) while they were providing medical relief in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015. Our motivation was to identify medical resource requirements during a disaster in order to help government agencies and other responding organizations to be better prepared in any upcoming disaster. A large set of WhatsApp (WhatsApp Inc, Mountain View, CA) messages exchanged among DFY members during the Nepal earthquake was collected and analyzed to identify the medical resource requirements during different phases of relief operations. The study revealed detailed phase-wise requirements for various types of medical resources, including medicines, medical equipment, and medical personnel. The data also reflected some of the problems faced by the medical relief workers in the earthquake-affected region. The insights from this study may help not only the Nepalese government, but also authorities in other earthquake-prone regions of the world to better prepare for similar disasters in the future. Moreover, real-time analysis of such online data during a disaster would aid decision-makers in dynamically formulating resource-mapping strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:652-655).

  19. Concerns of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members about troubles at the nuclear power plant: experience from the Niigata Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, 16 July 2007, in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Kumagaya, Ken; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hirose, Yasuo

    2010-06-01

    An earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the Niigata-Chuetsu region of Japan at 10:13 on 16 July 2007. The earthquake was followed by the sustained occurrence of numerous aftershocks, delaying the reconstruction of community lifelines. The earthquake affected the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plants (NPPs), the biggest NPP site in the world. The earthquake caused damage to NPPs, resulting in a small amount of radioactive materials being released into the air and the sea. However, no significant effects were detected in the public and the environment. As medical response to this earthquake, 42 Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) were sent to hospitals and first-aid care centers at the NPP site. In order to evaluate the perceptions of the deployed DMAT personnel regarding concerns about the health effects of radiation and information about the damage to NPPs, questionnaires were sent to 40 facilities that dispatched DMATs to the earthquake area. Most of them were concerned with the effects of radiation, and adequate information about the problems at the NPPs was not communicated to them. This preliminary study suggests that communication of information is extremely important for DMAT members in the case of disasters, in particular if there exists a possibility of radiation exposure, since radiation cannot be detected by our senses. DMAT members are critical to any mass casualty incident, whether caused by humans or nature. We have learned from this earthquake that there is urgent need for an all-hazards approach, including a "combined disaster" strategy, which should be emphasized for current disaster planning and response. This is the first report on DMATs deployed to an earthquake site with damage to NPPs.

  20. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  1. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  2. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  3. Trauma, depression, and resilience of earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster survivors of Hirono, Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kukihara, Hiroko; Yamawaki, Niwako; Uchiyama, Kumi; Arai, Shoichi; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2014-07-01

    A mega-earthquake and tsunami struck the northeastern coast of Japan, and many survivors were forced to evacuate to temporary housing due to rising radiation levels. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and poor general health among survivors, to test the predictive roles of resilience on mental and physical health, and to examine the predictive sociodemographic factors on resilience. Two hundred and forty-one evacuees (men/women: 116/125) from Hirono, Fukushima participated in the study. They were asked to complete the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and a demographic questionnaire. Among all participants, 53.5% exhibited the clinically concerning symptoms of PTSD, and among them 33.2% indicated clinical PTSD symptoms. Additionally, 66.8% reported symptoms of depression, and among them 33.2% showed mildly depressive symptoms, while 19.1% and 14.5% demonstrated moderate and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Resilience was a significant buffer for depression, PTSD, and general health. Additionally, employment status, eating/exercise habits, and drinking habits predicted resilience. The results indicated that depression and PTSD are prevalent among the survivors of massive earthquakes, tsunamis, and accidents from nuclear power plants. However, the results also showed that some survivors managed to endure the traumatic events relatively well, and resilience was a significant protective factor in dealing with such events. Therefore, it is crucial to assist survivors in improving their resilience by providing job opportunities and encouraging a healthy lifestyle. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. [What is important in disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons from disaster relief missions to the Japan Self-Defense Forces Sendai Hospital and Haiti peacekeeping deployments].

    PubMed

    Tanichi, Masaaki; Tatsuki, Toshitaka; Saito, Taku; Wakizono, Tomoki; Shigemura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the core factors necessary for mental health of disaster workers according to the following experiences: 1) the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) disaster relief missions associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Haiti peacekeeping deployment associated with the Great Haiti Earthquake, 2) conformations of the peacekeeping mission units of various countries deployed to Haiti, and 3) JSDF assistance activities to the Japanese earthquake victims. We learned that the basic life needs were the major premises for maintaining the mental health of the disaster workers. Food, drinking supplies, medical supplies were particularly crucial, yet overlooked in Japanese worker settings compared with forces of other countries. Conversely, the workers tend to feel guilty (moushi wake nai) for the victims when their basic life infrastructures are better than those of the victims. The Japanese workers and disaster victims both tend to find comfort in styles based on their culture, in particular, open-air baths and music performances. When planning workers' environments in disaster settings, provision of basic infrastructure should be prioritized, yet a sense of balance based on cultural background may be useful to enhance the workers' comfort and minimize their guilt.

  5. ICT Design for Collaborative and Community Driven Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to greatly enhance our ability to develop community reliance and sustainability to support disaster management. However, developing community resilience requires the sharing of numerous resources and the development of collaborative capacity, both of which make ICT design a challenge. This paper presents a framework that integrates community based participatory research (CBPR) and participatory design (PD). We discuss how the framework provides bounding to support community driven ICT design and evaluation.

  6. Towards "DRONE-BORNE" Disaster Management: Future Application Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzi, Tullio Joseph; Chandra, Madhu; Isnard, Jean; Camara, Daniel; Sebastien, Olivier; Harivelo, Fanilo

    2016-06-01

    Information plays a key role in crisis management and relief efforts for natural disaster scenarios. Given their flight properties, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) provide new and interesting perspectives on the data gathering for disaster management. A new generation of UAVs may help to improve situational awareness and information assessment. Among the advantages UAVs may bring to the disaster management field, we can highlight the gain in terms of time and human resources, as they can free rescue teams from time-consuming data collection tasks and assist research operations with more insightful and precise guidance thanks to advanced sensing capabilities. However, in order to be useful, UAVs need to overcome two main challenges. The first one is to achieve a sufficient autonomy level, both in terms of navigation and interpretation of the data sensed. The second major challenge relates to the reliability of the UAV, with respect to accidental (safety) or malicious (security) risks. This paper first discusses the potential of UAV in assisting in different humanitarian relief scenarios, as well as possible issues in such situations. Based on recent experiments, we discuss the inherent advantages of autonomous flight operations, both lone flights and formation flights. The question of autonomy is then addressed and a secure embedded architecture and its specific hardware capabilities is sketched out. We finally present a typical use case based on the new detection and observation abilities that UAVs can bring to rescue teams. Although this approach still has limits that have to be addressed, technically speaking as well as operationally speaking, it seems to be a very promising one to enhance disaster management efforts activities.

  7. Application of knowledge management and the intelligence continuum for medical emergencies and disaster scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2006-01-01

    The world has recently witnessed several large scale natural disasters. These include the Asian tsunami which devastated many of the countries around the rim of the Indian Ocean in December 2004, extensive flooding in many parts of Europe in August 2005, hurricane katrina (September 2005), the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in many regions of Asia and Canada in 2003 and the Pakistan earthquake (towards the end of 2005). Such emergency and disaster situations (E&DS) serve to underscore the utter chaos that ensues in the aftermath of such events, the many casualties and lives lost not to mention the devastation and destruction that is left behind. One recurring theme that is apparent in all these situations is that, irrespective of the warnings of imminent threats, countries have not been prepared and ready to exhibit effective and efficient crisis management. This paper examines the application of the tools, techniques and processes of the knowledge economy to develop a prescriptive model that will support superior decision making in E&DS, thereby enabling effective and efficient crisis management.

  8. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-01

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  9. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-15

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  10. Holistic Approach to Disaster Management for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2006-01-01

    Disasters are becoming the key concern of many nations. The term disaster usually meant for natural calamities. There of course may be a human hand behind each of the disasters, whether its' impact is small or large. Disasters can be categorized into natural and man made. In the case of natural disasters there may be some natural indicators to…

  11. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta.

  12. Upstream Disaster Management to Support People Experiencing Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L

    2015-08-18

    The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.

  13. [Implementation of telemedicine services in the earthquake disaster relief: the best medical experts provide direct medical service to the affected people].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-shi; Chai, Jia-ke

    2013-05-01

    To sum up the experience and significance of the remote medical consultation system used by the PLA General Hospital in 4/20 Sichuan Lushan earthquake medical rescue in 2013. After the Lushan earthquake in April 20, 2013, the expert medical rescue team of the PLA General Hospital immediately took the wireless portable telemedicine system to the converge hospital which had received many wounds in earthquake and had been connected with other hospitals, medical rescue teams and rescue ambulances to open the remote medical consultation system for disaster services including intensive care, emergency treatment, orthopedics, cerebral surgery, hepatobiliary surgery, obstetrics, gynecology and other related professional remote assistance services. The experts put forward the diagnosis and treatment for victims and had a benign interaction between the experts in disaster site and rear experts, as a result improved the ability of treatment of the disaster expert medical team. The PLA General Hospital treated more than 110 patients by remote medical consultation system in the Lushan earthquake and achieved real-time HD consultation and on-site operation guide. The using of remote medical consultation system achieved the connection between multimedia communication system and medical information system of the hospital and the interconnection of video, audio, data and medical services among each united hospitals, which can provide the significant experience of using remote medical consultation system in our disaster medical rescue activities.

  14. Enhancing Saarc Disaster Management: A Comparative Study With Asean Coordinating Centre For Humanitarian Assistance On Disaster Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    countries are collaborating in the field of disaster management.40 Similarly, the military leaders in Myanmar were obligated to accept international...Assessment Team (ERAT), arranged by the ASEAN Secretariat in coordination with the ACDM and the government of Myanmar .42 b. Basis for Regional...in Myanmar : Towards a Regional Initiative?” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 30, no. 3 (2008), 370

  15. Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health After the 2015 Nepal Earthquakes: An Investigation of the Long-term Gendered Impacts of Disasters.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Natural disasters in resource-poor countries have differential effects on socially disadvantaged groups such as women. In addition to the acute reproductive health needs of women during the immediate response phase of a disaster, research suggests that maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) may continue to be seriously impacted for numerous months, even years, after the event. Methods This ethnographic field research investigates the impacts of the 2015 Nepal earthquakes on mothers and children under five on the 6-month anniversary of the earthquakes. Results Though families were not channeling household funds away from health care expenses for pregnant and lactating women and children under five, the findings suggest that a delayed response by the Nepali government in administering funds for rebuilding combined with an ongoing fuel crisis were negatively impacting families' abilities to provide adequate shelter, warmth, cooking gas, and transportation for mothers and young children. This study highlights the importance of understanding the impacts of specific social and political contexts on intra-household family finances as they relate to MNCH, not just variables related to the disaster itself. Discussion Future research and policies on MNCH during the long-term recovery period after a natural disaster such as the 2015 Nepal earthquakes therefore should take into account the social and political context as well as institute multiple periodic assessments of MNCH in the first few years following the disaster.

  16. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE CITIES INTENSIVELY REPORTED BY TV NEWS DURING THE EMERGENCY PERIOD ON THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE DISASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Eriko; Numada, Muneyoshi; Meguro, Kimiro

    In the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, we could observe concentration of news on damage and disaster response activity of specific municipalities and the high emphasis on the nuclear power plant accident and so on. The concentration of TV news caused the concentration of support such as releaf goods and donations to the specific area. This problem was repeated from the past disaster. The purpose of this research is to analyze the cities where was repeatedly reported by TV news during the emergency period on the 2011 off the pacific coast of tohoku earthquake disaster. This research defined the ratio of reported-city to show the comparison of the level of repeatedly reported cities. The results shows the big difference of reported times among the cities with same number of casualities.

  18. Facebook, quality of life, and mental health outcomes in post-disaster urban environments: the l'aquila earthquake experience.

    PubMed

    Masedu, Francesco; Mazza, Monica; Di Giovanni, Chiara; Calvarese, Anna; Tiberti, Sergio; Sconci, Vittorio; Valenti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An understudied area of interest in post-disaster public health is individuals' use of social networks as a potential determinant of quality of life (QOL) and mental health outcomes. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out to examine whether continual use of online social networking (Facebook) in an adult population following a massive earthquake was correlated with prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and QOL outcomes. Participants were a sample of 890 adults aged 25-54 who had been exposed to the L'Aquila earthquake of 2009. Definition of "user" required a daily connection to the Facebook online social network for more than 1 h per day from at least 2 years. Depression and PTSD were assessed using the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health. QOL outcomes were measured using the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate the prevalence odds ratios (POR) for social network use and other covariates. Two hundred and twenty one of 423 (52.2%) men, and 195 of 383 (50.9%) women, had been using Facebook as social network for at least 2 years prior to our assessment. Social network use correlated with both depression and PTSD, after adjusting for gender. A halved risk of depression was found in users vs. non-users (POR 0.50 ± 0.16). Similarly, a halved risk of PTSD in users vs. non-users (POR 0.47 ± 0.14) was found. Both men and women using online social networks had significantly higher QOL scores in the psychological and social domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Social network use among adults 25-54 years old has a positive impact on mental health and QOL outcomes in the years following a disaster. The use of social networks may be an important tool for coping with the mental health outcomes of disruptive natural disasters, helping to maintain, if not improve, QOL in terms of social relationships and psychological distress.

  19. The HayWired earthquake scenario—We can outsmart disaster

    Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Wein, Anne M.; Cox, Dale A.; Porter, Keith A.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; LaPointe, Drew

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired earthquake scenario, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), anticipates the impacts of a hypothetical magnitude-7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault. The fault is along the east side of California’s San Francisco Bay and is among the most active and dangerous in the United States, because it runs through a densely urbanized and interconnected region. One way to learn about a large earthquake without experiencing it is to conduct a scientifically realistic scenario. The USGS and its partners in the HayWired Coalition and the HayWired Campaign are working to energize residents and businesses to engage in ongoing and new efforts to prepare the region for such a future earthquake.

  20. Information technology and public health management of disasters--a model for South Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Dolly

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of information technology (IT) in disaster management and public health management of disasters. Effective health response to disasters will depend on three important lines of action: (1) disaster preparedness; (2) emergency relief; and (3) management of disasters. This is facilitated by the presence of modern communication and space technology, especially the Internet and remote sensing satellites. This has made the use of databases, knowledge bases, geographic information systems (GIS), management information systems (MIS), information transfer, and online connectivity possible in the area of disaster management and medicine. This paper suggests a conceptual model called, "The Model for Public Health Management of Disasters for South Asia". This Model visualizes the use of IT in the public health management of disasters by setting up the Health and Disaster Information Network and Internet Community Centers, which will facilitate cooperation among all those in the areas of disaster management and emergency medicine. The suggested infrastructure would benefit the governments, non-government organizations, and institutions working in the areas of disaster and emergency medicine, professionals, the community, and all others associated with disaster management and emergency medicine. The creation of such an infrastructure will enable the rapid transfer of information, data, knowledge, and online connectivity from top officials to the grassroots organizations, and also among these countries regionally. This Model may be debated, modified, and tested further in the field to suit the national and local conditions. It is hoped that this exercise will result in a viable and practical model for use in public health management of disasters by South Asian countries.

  1. Deep venous thrombosis among disaster shelter inhabitants following the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Hanzawa, K; Ueda, S; Yambe, T

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of data collected during subject screening following Japan's March 2011 earthquake and tsunami was performed. We aimed to determine the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among screened subjects and to identify risk factors associated with the development of DVT as independent variables. Calf ultrasonography was undertaken in 269 subjects living in 21 shelters in Miyagi prefecture during the one-month period immediately following the March 2011 disaster. Information regarding the health and risk factors of subjects was collected by questionnaire and assessment of physical signs. Of the 269 evacuees screened, 65 (24%) met the criteria for calf DVT. We found lower limb trauma, reduced frequency of urination and sleeping in a vehicle to be independent positive predictors of DVT. Evacuees had an increased risk of developing DVT, associated with tsunami-related lower limb injury, immobility and dehydration.

  2. Spatial big data for disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, R.; Jayapratha, K.; Ayeshabanu, S.; Chemmalar Selvi, G.

    2017-11-01

    Big data is an idea of informational collections that depicts huge measure of information and complex that conventional information preparing application program is lacking to manage them. Presently, big data is a widely known domain used in research, academic, and industries. It is utilized to store substantial measure of information in a solitary brought together one. Challenges integrate capture, allocation, analysis, information precise, visualization, distribution, interchange, delegation, inquiring, updating and information protection. In this digital world, to put away the information and recovering the data is enormous errand for the huge organizations and some time information ought to be misfortune due to circulated information putting away. For this issue the organization individuals are chosen to actualize the huge information to put away every one of the information identified with the organization they are put away in one enormous database that is known as large information. Remote sensor is a science getting data used to distinguish the items or break down the range from a separation. It is anything but difficult to discover the question effortlessly with the sensor. It makes geographic data from satellite and sensor information so in this paper dissect what are the structures are utilized for remote sensor in huge information and how the engineering is vary from each other and how they are identify with our investigations. This paper depicts how the calamity happens and figuring consequence of informational collection. And applied a seismic informational collection to compute the tremor calamity in view of classification and clustering strategy. The classical data mining algorithms for classification used are k-nearest, naive bayes and decision table and clustering used are hierarchical, make density based and simple k_means using XLMINER and WEKA tool. This paper also helps to predicts the spatial dataset by applying the XLMINER AND WEKA tool and

  3. Monitoring of Engineering Buildings Behaviour Within the Disaster Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku Topal, G.; Gülal, E.

    2017-11-01

    The Disaster management aims to prevent events that result in disaster or to reduce their losses. Monitoring of engineering buildings, identification of unusual movements and taking the necessary precautions are very crucial for determination of the disaster risk so possible prevention could be taken to reduce big loss. Improving technology, increasing population due to increased construction and these areas largest economy lead to offer damage detection strategies. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is the most effective of these strategies. SHM research is very important to maintain all this structuring safely. The purpose of structural monitoring is determining in advance of possible accidents and taking necessary precaution. In this paper, determining the behaviour of construction using Global Positioning System (GPS) is investigated. For this purpose shaking table tests were performed. Shaking table was moved at different amplitude and frequency aiming to determine these movement with a GPS measuring system. The obtained data were evaluated by analysis of time series and Fast Fourier Transformation techniques and the frequency and amplitude values are calculated. By examining the results of the tests made, it will be determined whether the GPS measurement method can accurately detect the movements of the engineering structures.

  4. e-Science on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation by EUAsiaGrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Eric; Lin, Simon; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Chao, Li; Huang, Bor-Shoh; Liang, Wen-Tzong

    2010-05-01

    Although earthquake is not predictable at this moment, with the aid of accurate seismic wave propagation analysis, we could simulate the potential hazards at all distances from possible fault sources by understanding the source rupture process during large earthquakes. With the integration of strong ground-motion sensor network, earthquake data center and seismic wave propagation analysis over gLite e-Science Infrastructure, we could explore much better knowledge on the impact and vulnerability of potential earthquake hazards. On the other hand, this application also demonstrated the e-Science way to investigate unknown earth structure. Regional integration of earthquake sensor networks could aid in fast event reporting and accurate event data collection. Federation of earthquake data center entails consolidation and sharing of seismology and geology knowledge. Capability building of seismic wave propagation analysis implies the predictability of potential hazard impacts. With gLite infrastructure and EUAsiaGrid collaboration framework, earth scientists from Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippine, Thailand are working together to alleviate potential seismic threats by making use of Grid technologies and also to support seismology researches by e-Science. A cross continental e-infrastructure, based on EGEE and EUAsiaGrid, is established for seismic wave forward simulation and risk estimation. Both the computing challenge on seismic wave analysis among 5 European and Asian partners, and the data challenge for data center federation had been exercised and verified. Seismogram-on-Demand service is also developed for the automatic generation of seismogram on any sensor point to a specific epicenter. To ease the access to all the services based on users workflow and retain the maximal flexibility, a Seismology Science Gateway integating data, computation, workflow, services and user communities would be implemented based on typical use cases. In the future, extension of the

  5. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  6. Training of disaster managers at a masters degree level: from emergency care to managerial control.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Campbell; Joffe, Anthony Lyle; Naidoo, Shan

    2006-01-01

    The world has faced huge disasters over the last few decades and concerns have been expressed by nearly all international agencies involved that there is a scarcity of managerial skills to deal with the mitigation and management of disasters. Disaster risks are also on the increase throughout Africa and Southern Africa because of changes in the development process, settlement patterns and conflicts in the region. Emergency physicians are but one important resource in dealing with disasters. The need for a comprehensive multisectoral approach to disasters and more importantly to deal with its mitigation is becoming increasingly evident, especially in developing countries. Hence, the need for specially trained professionals in disaster management. In an effort to improve national, regional and continental capacity, and in support of the South African Disaster Management Act, the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, has developed a Master of Public Health degree in Disaster Management. The MPH is aimed at preparing professionals from health and allied fields to play leadership roles in the management, improvement and evaluation of health and the health-care system. Emergency physicians have an important role to play in the development of disaster medicine and disaster management programmes and it is important that they engage in this activity, collaborating with colleagues of various other disciplines as appropriate. The following paper outlines the background to the programme and the current programme.

  7. A review of flood disaster management in India using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Trivedi, R.

    On going account of the geographical position, climate and geological setting, India from time immemo rial, has been hit by natural disaster, occasionally with fury. There is hardly a year when some part of the country or other does not face the specter of either drought or flood due to either the failure or the abundance of monsoons in vulnerable areas respectively. OF the total annual rainfall, 75% is received during 4 months of monsoon (June to September) and, as a result, almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period. The flood hazard is compounded by sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains. While the area liable to floods is more than 40 million hectares. The average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares. Due to the erratic behavior of the monsoons, low and medium rainfall regions constituting 68% of the country's total area are rendered vulnerable to periodical droughts. India has a long coastline of 8041kms.On an average, 5 to 6 tropical cyclones from in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea every year; 2 to 3 of them are being very severe. The Himalayan Mountain considered being the world's youngest fold belt in the east and the Chaman fault in the west, constitute one of the most seismically active region in the world. Earthquake, land sliders and avalanches are not uncommon. On an average, these natural disasters take to a heavy toll of human and animal lives, affect few million hectares of crop area and have damaged millions of houses annually during the last decade alone. In the context of the perpetual risk emanating from the recurring natural calamities, the country needs to develop an effective preparedness to manage the impact of natural disaster. The emergence of India as an advance country in the arena of remote sensing with its own satellite in orbit supplemented by the Indian Metrological department in relatively accurate prediction of

  8. Healthcare IT system in the midst of and after Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster : Grand design for reconstruction of Tohoku-region healthcare IT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    In this article, we described what was really going in the disaster medical care at the Great East Japan Earthquake, mainly in Ishinomaki and Kesen-numa areas. As for exchange tools of the disaster information, in contrast to the breakdown of fixed-line and mobile phone, MCA radio system, satellite mobiles and internet, especially SNS, were greatly helpful. Learned from the disaster experiences, we are making the grand design for “disaster-robust” regional healthcare IT systems, which are composed of (1) cloud center storing whole-prefecture medical records, (2) SS-MIX based regional healthcare information systems of “the second medical care zones”, (3) ASP/SaaS typed electronic medical record system for all clinics located at Pacific coastal areas, and (4) wireless communication environment supporting comprehensive care of elderly for daily living activities.

  9. [Contribution of the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases to the patient management in the Great East Japan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masumitsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, produced a devastating tsunami that destroyed many towns and villages near the coast in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures. Miyagi Prefecture was the area most severely devastated by the tsunami, with extensive loss of life and property; hundreds of thousands of people lost their houses and were forced to move to evacuation areas. In the days and weeks following devastating natural disasters, the threat of infectious disease outbreak is high. Rapid diagnostic tests can be performed at or near the site of patient care and the tests were very useful in this disaster, because they enabled us to manage patients appropriately in the settings where medical resources were limited. Here we report actual cases where the rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases were useful in the patient management.

  10. Intensive care in a field hospital in an urban disaster area: lessons from the August 1999 earthquake in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Pinchas; Rosen, Boaz; Carasso, Shemy; Sorkine, Patrick; Wolf, Yoram; Benedek, Paul; Martinovich, Giora

    2003-05-01

    To describe our experience with the implementation of intensive care in the setting of a field hospital, deployed to the site of a major urban disaster. Description of our experience during mission to Turkey; conclusions regarding implementation of intensive care at disaster sites. Military Field Hospital at Adapazari in Turkey. Civilian patients admitted for care at the field hospital. None. On August 17, 1999 a major earthquake occurred in western Turkey, causing approximately 16,000 fatalities and leaving >44,000 injured. Approximately 66,000 buildings were severely damaged or destroyed. A medical unit of the Israeli Defense Forces Medical Corps, consisting of 23 physicians, 13 nurses, nine paramedics, 13 medics, laboratory and roentgen technicians, pharmacists, and associated support personnel, were sent to Adapazari in Turkey. The field hospital treated approximately 1,200 patients over a period of 2 wks, 70 surgical operations were performed, 20 babies were delivered, and a variety of medical, surgical, orthopedic, and pediatric/neonatal care was provided. The 12-bed intensive care unit operated by the unit, was staffed by three physicians and eight nursing/paramedic personnel. Patient mix was: a total of 63 patients, among them five with major trauma, 20 with acute cardiac disease, 15 patients with various acute medical conditions, and 11 surgical and postoperative patients. Three patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated (one cardiogenic pulmonary edema and two major trauma). The intensive care unit provided the following functions to the field hospital: care of the critically ill and injured, preparation for and implementation of transportation of such patients, pre- and postoperative care for major surgical procedures, expertise, and equipment for the care of very ill patients throughout the field hospital. In suitable circumstances, an intensive care capability should be an integral part of medical expeditions to major disasters.

  11. Managing Debris after a Natural Disaster: Evaluation of the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report and Appendices In an effort to provide a scientific basis to expand available options to better manage natural disaster debris in the future, EPA evaluated the combustion of both vegetative debris and construction and demolition (C&D) debris in an air curtain burner (ACB). ACBs can be mobilized to where they’re needed as a potential means of reducing the waste volume while minimizing potentially harmful environmental impacts. These tests were conducted in June 2008 by EPA/ORD at the Old Paris Road Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

  12. Temporary disaster debris management site identification using binomial cluster analysis and GIS.

    PubMed

    Grzeda, Stanislaw; Mazzuchi, Thomas A; Sarkani, Shahram

    2014-04-01

    An essential component of disaster planning and preparation is the identification and selection of temporary disaster debris management sites (DMS). However, since DMS identification is a complex process involving numerous variable constraints, many regional, county and municipal jurisdictions initiate this process during the post-disaster response and recovery phases, typically a period of severely stressed resources. Hence, a pre-disaster approach in identifying the most likely sites based on the number of locational constraints would significantly contribute to disaster debris management planning. As disasters vary in their nature, location and extent, an effective approach must facilitate scalability, flexibility and adaptability to variable local requirements, while also being generalisable to other regions and geographical extents. This study demonstrates the use of binomial cluster analysis in potential DMS identification in a case study conducted in Hamilton County, Indiana. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  13. Modeling insurer-homeowner interactions in managing natural disaster risk.

    PubMed

    Kesete, Yohannes; Peng, Jiazhen; Gao, Yang; Shan, Xiaojun; Davidson, Rachel A; Nozick, Linda K; Kruse, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The current system for managing natural disaster risk in the United States is problematic for both homeowners and insurers. Homeowners are often uninsured or underinsured against natural disaster losses, and typically do not invest in retrofits that can reduce losses. Insurers often do not want to insure against these losses, which are some of their biggest exposures and can cause an undesirably high chance of insolvency. There is a need to design an improved system that acknowledges the different perspectives of the stakeholders. In this article, we introduce a new modeling framework to help understand and manage the insurer's role in catastrophe risk management. The framework includes a new game-theoretic optimization model of insurer decisions that interacts with a utility-based homeowner decision model and is integrated with a regional catastrophe loss estimation model. Reinsurer and government roles are represented as bounds on the insurer-insured interactions. We demonstrate the model for a full-scale case study for hurricane risk to residential buildings in eastern North Carolina; present the results from the perspectives of all stakeholders-primary insurers, homeowners (insured and uninsured), and reinsurers; and examine the effect of key parameters on the results. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Effect of medical institution change on gestational duration after the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Goto, Aya; Fujimori, Keiya

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between medical institution change for perinatal care and gestational duration after the Great East Japan Earthquake using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey. The data of pregnant women who experienced the earthquake in Fukushima prefecture and participated in the Pregnancy and Birth Survey as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey were analyzed. The primary and secondary outcomes of this study were gestational duration and preterm birth, respectively. The main study factor was prenatal checkup institution (only one institution, changed institution due to self-referral, changed institution due to medical indication, and went to parents' home for childbirth). Self-referral was considered as indicative of relocation after the disaster. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of earthquake on each outcome. A total of 5593 (60.2%) participants experienced the earthquake between the 4th and 37th weeks of their gestational period. After controlling for variables, pregnant women who changed their perinatal checkup institution due to medical indication were significantly associated with shorter gestational duration (β = -10.6, P < 0.001) and preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-12.5) compared with women who visited only one institution. Self-referral, however, was not significantly associated with the outcomes. According to prenatal checkup status, our results suggest that the effect on gestational duration of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was not significant. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  16. Organisational learning and self-adaptation in dynamic disaster environments.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Sitki; Kapucu, Naim

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the problems associated with inter-organisational learning and adaptation in the dynamic environments that characterise disasters. The research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate whether organisational learning took place during and in the time in between five disaster response operations in Turkey. The availability of information and its exchange and distribution within and among organisational actors determine whether self-adaptation happens in the course of a disaster response operation. Organisational flexibility supported by an appropriate information infrastructure creates conditions conducive to essential interaction and permits the flow of information. The study found that no significant organisational learning occurred within Turkish disaster management following the earthquakes in Erzincan (1992), Dinar (1995) and Ceyhan (1998). By contrast, the 'symmetry-breaking' Marmara earthquake of 1999 initiated a 'double loop' learning process that led to change in the organisational, technical and cultural aspects of Turkish disaster management, as revealed by the Duzce earthquake response operations.

  17. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-05-15

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  18. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Tsuboya, Toru; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. PMID:27026337

  19. Women’s Role in Disaster Management and Implications for National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-11

    management policies, plans and decision making processes,” available at http://www.unisdr.org/we/ inform /publications/1037. Beijing Agenda for Global...1 WOMEN’S ROLE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL SECURITY By Jessica Ear Introduction Disasters are increasing in...frequency and intensity. For those lacking control and access to services and resources such as education and information , disaster risks are even

  20. Development of real time monitor system displaying seismic waveform data observed at seafloor seismic network, DONET, for disaster management information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, H.; Takaesu, M.; Sueki, K.; Takahashi, N.; Sonoda, A.; Miura, S.; Tsuboi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mega-thrust earthquakes are anticipated to occur in the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan. In the source areas, we have deployed seafloor seismic network, DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis), in 2010 in order to monitor seismicity, crustal deformations, and tsunamis. DONET system consists of totally 20 stations, which is composed of six kinds of sensors, including strong-motion seismometers and quartz pressure gauges. Those stations are densely distributed with an average spatial interval of 15-20 km and cover near the trench axis to coastal areas. Observed data are transferred to a land station through a fiber-optical cable and then to JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) data management center through a private network in real time. After 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, each local government close to Nankai Trough try to plan disaster prevention scheme. JAMSTEC will disseminate DONET data combined with research accomplishment so that they will be widely recognized as important earthquake information. In order to open DONET data observed for research to local government, we have developed a web application system, REIS (Real-time Earthquake Information System). REIS is providing seismic waveform data to some local governments close to Nankai Trough as a pilot study. As soon as operation of DONET is ready, REIS will start full-scale operation. REIS can display seismic waveform data of DONET in real-time, users can select strong motion and pressure data, and configure the options of trace view arrangement, time scale, and amplitude. In addition to real-time monitoring, REIS can display past seismic waveform data and show earthquake epicenters on the map. In this presentation, we briefly introduce DONET system and then show our web application system. We also discuss our future plans for further developments of REIS.

  1. Proposal for a community-based disaster management curriculum for medical school undergraduates in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bajow, Nidaa; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ageely, Hussein; Bani, Ibrahim; Della Corte, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Health professional preparedness is a key element of disaster response; overall there is a need for increased disaster medicine training worldwide. The objective of this study was to design and develop a curriculum in community-based disaster medicine for Saudi Arabian medical undergraduates. A structured five-step approach was used to develop a curriculum. Expert stakeholders from the Saudi Arabian and international disaster medicine communities were surveyed to determine objectives and content. Learning strategies were carefully considered to maximize participation and retention. Particular attention was paid to equipping learners with the teaching skills required to promote disaster preparedness in their local communities. The course consists of 2 weeks of classroom activities followed by 8 weeks of e-learning structured within five domains of disaster medicine. The curriculum introduces core principles in emergency medicine, public health, and disaster management. Simulations, experiential activities, case studies, and role-playing activities are all used to promote higher levels of cognitive engagement. Special content addresses the adult-learning process, and students design their own community-based seminars in disaster preparedness. The curriculum is designed to promote learning in disaster medicine. Given the paucity of disaster medicine educators in the region, student graduates of this program would be able to improve disaster preparedness in Saudi Arabia by launching their own community-based disaster preparedness initiatives. The program could also be adapted for use throughout the Middle East.

  2. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  3. Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake, 2015.

    PubMed

    Asokan, G V; Vanitha, A

    2017-03-01

    Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal's economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Historically, outbreaks of infectious diseases, including zoonoses, were largely associated with the aftereffects of the earthquakes. It has been documented that zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this communication was to examine the infectious disease outbreaks after earthquakes around the world and explore the risk assessment of the zoonoses threats reported in Nepal and highlight adopting One Health. Our summaries on reported zoonoses in Nepal have shown that parasitic zoonoses were predominant, but other infectious disease outbreaks can occur. The fragile public health infrastructure and inadequately trained public health personnel can accelerate the transmission of infections, mostly zoonoses, in the post impact phase of the earthquake in Nepal. Therefore, we believe that with the support of aid agencies, veterinarians and health professionals can team up to resolve the crisis under One Health. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crowdsourcing for Natural Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Crisis Mapping the 2010 Haitian Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feighery, Annie

    2014-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, causing catastrophic damages that resulted in at least 300,000 dead, 300,000 serious injuries, and 1.8 million homeless. The destruction was so complete that roads were no longer visible. While buildings, roads, power, and other infrastructure have taken years to restore, mobile phone…

  5. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a triple disaster affecting the mental health of the country.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Legal analysis of citizen lawsuit toward management of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprihadi, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    The Asian Disaster Reduction Center informed that on 27 May 2006 at 5:54 AM Local time or 26 May 2006 at 10:54:00 PM UTC, an M6.3 earthquake has struck the very highly populated region of Yogyakarta. The death estimated between 5,775 and 6,234 and the number of injured was between 46,000 and 53,000. Invitation letters were sent to Indonesia Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) and to 18 government institutions for attending the session at the Yogyakarta Court on 4 December 2006. Such case was a lawsuit proposed by 46 citizens and registered as number 73/PDT.G/ 2006/PN-Yk and the researcher attended court-session on behalf of the BMKG. Research is conducted to provide legal analysis of citizen lawsuit toward management of the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Data was collected by examining the process of court sessions and mediation between Parties involved which then analysed using the relevant articles of Indonesian Civil Procedural Law. Legal analysis proposed by the researcher indicates that State Court (Pengadilan Negeri) held an `absolute competence' because such case shall not be settled by State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara), however Yogyakarta District Court didn't hold a `relative competence' because such case shall be settled by the Central Jakarta District Court. Such case was not continued due to successful mediation between the two Parties. The 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake alerts BMKG as the earthquake information provider to work properly in accordance with the standard operating procedure to avoid citizen lawsuit that might be proposed in the near future.

  7. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  8. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  9. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. Methods We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case – an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Results and conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post- earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters. PMID:26090999

  10. A critical analysis of the South African Disaster Management Act and Policy Framework.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, Dewald

    2014-10-01

    The promulgation of the South African Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002 and the National Disaster Management Policy Framework of 2005 placed South Africa at the international forefront by integrating disaster risk reduction into all spheres of government through a decentralised approach. Yet, good policy and legislation do not necessarily translate into good practice. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Act and Policy Framework. Using qualitative research methods, it analyses the attitudes and perceptions of senior public officials on all levels of government, the private sector and academia. The study finds that one of the weakest aspects of the Act and Framework is the absence of clear guidance to local municipalities. The placement of the disaster risk management function on all tiers of government remains problematic, funding is inadequate and overall knowledge and capacities for disaster risk reduction are insufficient. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  12. Disaster recovery plan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area and southern California are especially vulnerable to natural and man-made disasters, : particularly earthquakes. In a major disaster, the existing transportation infrastructure is likely to incur extensive and : severe dama...

  13. Using exercises to identify Veterans Health Administration priorities for disaster response: findings from the New Madrid Earthquake training exercise.

    PubMed

    Gin, June L; Chan, Edward W; Brewster, Pete; Mitchell, Michael N; Ricci, Karen A; Afable, Melissa K; Dobalian, Aram

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers are often charged with prioritizing the relative importance of key issues and tasks associated with disaster response. However, little work has been done to identify specific ways that the decision-making process can be improved. This exercise was conducted with 220 employees of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, who were asked to assign priority rankings to a list of possible options of the most important issues to address after a hypothetical disaster scenario impacting a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We found that groups that were assigned to represent perspectives farther from the impacted site had less agreement in their identification of the top priorities than those assigned to the impacted facility. These findings suggest that greater geographic and administrative proximity to the impacted site may generate greater clarity and certainty about priority setting. Given the complex structure of many organizations, and the multiple levels of group decision making and coordination likely to be needed during disasters, research to better understand training needs with respect to decision making is essential to improve preparedness. Relatively simple modifications to exercises, as outlined here, could provide valuable information to better understand emergency management decision making across multiple organizational levels.

  14. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  15. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  16. The prominent role of plastic surgery in the Wenchuan earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlin; Ding, Wei; Chen, Aimin; Jiang, Hua

    2010-10-01

    : On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 on Richter scale struck Sichuan Province of China and destroyed Wenchuan County. Two days later, a field hospital from the Second Military Medical University (Shanghai, China) arrived at Anxian County near the epicenter as a reinforcement hospital before rehabilitation of the local medical facilities. Surgical services in the field hospital were supplied by general, orthopedic, plastic, anesthetic, obstetrical surgeons, and two physicians. The plastic surgeons were responsible for assessment of all soft tissue injuries at the hospital and patient needs for plastic surgery services in a crisis intervention field hospital. : Information was gathered regarding soft tissue injuries throughout the activities of the hospital. In addition, patient charts, operation reports, and entry and evacuation logs were reviewed for all patients who were admitted and treated in the field hospital. : Of 1,013 patients who were treated in the field hospital in Wenchuan; 102 (10.07%) sought aid for soft tissue injuries, all of which were earthquake related. Twenty-one percent of the operations performed in the hospital were concerned with the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and 15% of the hospital beds were reserved for plastic surgery patients. : Plastic surgery services at a field hospital play a prominent and irreplaceable role in rescuing casualties in formidable conditions especially in a serious earthquake situation.

  17. Social Media in Crisis Management and Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, André; Lucas, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Today, modern sensors or sensor networks provide good quality measurements for the observation of large-scale emergencies as a result of natural disasters. Mostly however, only at certain points in their respective locations and for a very limited number of measurement parameters (e.g. seismograph) and not over the entire course of a disaster event. The proliferation of different social media application (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.), yields the possibility to use the resulting data as a free and fast supplement or complement to traditional monitoring techniques. In particular, these new channels can serve for rapid detection, for information gathering for emergency protection and for information dissemination. Thus, each user of these networks represents a so-called virtual sensor ('social sensor'), whose eyewitness account can be important for understanding the situation on the ground. The advantages of these social sensors are the high mobility, the versatility of the parameters that can be captured (text, images, videos, etc.) as well as the rapid spread of information. Due to the subjective characteristics however, the data often show different quality and quantity. Against this background, it is essential for an application in crisis management to reasonably (pre-)process the data from social media. Hence, fully-automated processes are used which adequately filter and structure the enormous amount of information and associate it with an event, respectively, a geographic location. This is done through statistical monitoring of the volume of messages (Twitter) in different geographic regions of the world. In combination with a frequency analysis with respect to disaster-relevant terms (in 43 languages), thematic as well as spatio-temporal clustering, an initial assessment regarding the severity and extent of the detected event, its classification and (spatio-temporal) localization can be achieved. This detection in real time (2-5 minutes) thus allows

  18. Disaster recovery plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciT

    Adams, D.E.

    The BMS production implementation will be complete by October 1, 1998 and the server environment will be comprised of two types of platforms. The PassPort Supply and the PeopleSoft Financials will reside on LNIX servers and the PeopleSoft Human Resources and Payroll will reside on Microsoft NT servers. Because of the wide scope and the requirements of the COTS products to run in various environments backup and recovery responsibilities are divided between two groups in Technical Operations. The Central Computer Systems Management group provides support for the LTNIX/NT Backup Data Center, and the Network Infrastructure Systems group provides support formore » the NT Application Server Backup outside the Data Center. The disaster recovery process is dependent on a good backup and recovery process. Information and integrated system data for determining the disaster recovery process is identified from the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Risk Assessment Plan, Contingency Plan, and Backup and Recovery Plan, and Backup Form for HANDI 2000 BMS.« less

  19. Contingency Contracting in Support of Conus Disasters: A Case Study of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, 2005 Hurricane Katrina and 2012 Hurricane Sandy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Northridge earthquake response. The City of Los Angeles and the State of California required contracts to address recycling of demolition materials to the...materials directly recycled and material removed from the site on the enclosed recycling log found within this Contract. Documentation includes...related to recycling disaster debris:  “Incentive payment: The City will pay tipping fees using the existing authorization letter; however, only source

  20. Assessment of disaster preparedness among emergency departments in Italian hospitals: a cautious warning for disaster risk reduction and management capacity.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Matteo; Borrelli, Francesco; Cattani, Jonathan; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Burkle, Frederick M Jr; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2016-08-15

    Since the 1990s, Italian hospitals are required to comply with emergency disaster plans known as Emergency Plan for Massive Influx of Casualties. While various studies reveal that hospitals overall suffer from an insufficient preparedness level, the aim of this study was to better determine the preparedness level of Emergency Departments of Italian hospitals by assessing the knowledge-base of emergency physicians regarding basic disaster planning and procedures. A prospective observational study utilized a convenience sample of Italian Emergency Departments identified from the Italian Ministry of Health website. Anonymous telephone interviews were conducted of medical consultants in charge at the time in the respective Emergency Departments, and were structured in 3 parts: (1) general data and demographics, (2) the current disaster plan and (3) protocols and actions of the disaster plan. Eighty-five Emergency Departments met inclusion criteria, and 69 (81 %) agreed to undergo the interview. Only 45 % of participants declared to know what an Emergency Plan for Massive Influx of Casualties is, 41 % believed to know who has the authority to activate the plan, 38 % knew who is in charge of intra-hospital operations. In Part 3 physicians revealed a worrisome inconsistency in critical content knowledge of their answers. Results demonstrate a poor knowledge-base of basic hospital disaster planning concepts by Italian Emergency Department physicians-on-duty. These findings should alert authorities to enhance staff disaster preparedness education, training and follow-up to ensure that these plans are known to all who have responsibility for disaster risk reduction and management capacity.

  1. Effects of CPAP treatment interruption due to disasters: patients with sleep-disordered breathing in the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami area.

    PubMed

    Mito, Fumitaka; Nishijima, Tsuguo; Sakurai, Shigeru; Kizawa, Tetsuya; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Takahashi, Susumu; Suwabe, Akira; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake caused major disruptions in the provision of health care, including that for patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) device. This study investigated the ability of SDB patients to continue using the nCPAP device in the weeks immediately following the earthquake, whether inability to use the nCPAP device led to symptom relapse, and measures that should be taken to prevent disruptions in nCPAP therapy during future disasters. Hypothesis If nCPAP devices cannot be used during disasters, SDB patients' health will be affected negatively. Within 14 days of the disaster, 1,047 SDB patients completed a questionnaire that collected data regarding ability to use, duration of inability to use, and reasons for inability to use the nCPAP device; symptom relapse while unable to use the nCPAP device; ability to use the nCPAP device use at evacuation sites; and recommendations for improvement of the nCPAP device. Of the 1,047 patients, 966 (92.3%) had been unable to use the nCPAP device in the days immediately following the earthquake. The most common reason for inability to use the nCPAP device was power failure, followed by anxiety about sleeping at night due to fear of aftershocks, involvement in disaster-relief activities, loss of the nasal CPAP device, and fear of being unable to wake up in case of an emergency. Among the 966 patients, 242 (25.1%) had experienced relapse of symptoms, the most common of which was excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), followed by insomnia, headache, irritability, and chest pain. Developing strategies for the continuation of nCPAP therapy during disasters is important for providing healthy sleeping environments for SDB patients in emergency situations.

  2. Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2009-03-01

    The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty.

  3. The Role of Applied Epidemiology Methods in the Disaster Management Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Michael; Perrotta, Dennis; Wolkin, Amy F.; Schnall, Amy H.; Podgornik, Michelle N.; Cruz, Miguel A.; Horney, Jennifer A.; Zane, David; Roisman, Rachel; Greenspan, Joel R.; Thoroughman, Doug; Anderson, Henry A.; Wells, Eden V.; Simms, Erin F.

    2014-01-01

    Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders. We present a framework consisting of rapid needs assessments, health surveillance, tracking and registries, and epidemiological investigations, including risk factor and health outcome studies and evaluation of interventions, which can be practiced throughout the cycle. Applying each method can result in actionable information for planners and decision-makers responsible for preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster epidemiology, once integrated into the disaster management cycle, can provide the evidence base to inform and enhance response capability within the public health infrastructure. PMID:25211748

  4. Development and Evaluation of Disaster Information Management System Using Digital Pens and Tabletop User Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Kazue; Satou, Kenji; Kawana, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomohiro

    Most traditional disaster information systems are necessary to post expert staff with high computer literacy to operate the system quickly and correctly in the tense situation when a disaster occurs. However, in the current disaster response system of local governments, it is not easy for local governments to post such expert staff because they are struggling with staff cuts due to administrative and fiscal reform. In this research, we propose a disaster information management system that can be easily operated, even under the disorderly conditions of a disaster, by municipal personnel in charge of disaster management. This system achieves usability enabling easy input of damage information, even by local government staff with no expertise, by using a digital pen and tabletop user interface. Evaluation was conducted by prospective users using a prototype, and the evaluation results are satisfactory with regard to the function and operationality of the proposed system.

  5. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Provides for Disaster Management, Measurement of Soil Moisture, and Measurement of Earth-Surface Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A GEO-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) could provide daily coverage of basically all of North and South America with very good temporal coverage within the mapped area. This affords a key capability to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, and vegetation mapping. The fine temporal sampling makes this system particularly useful for disaster management of flooding, hurricanes, and earthquakes. By using a fairly long wavelength, changing water boundaries caused by storms or flooding could be monitored in near real-time. This coverage would also provide revolutionary capabilities in the field of radar interferometry, including the capability to study the interferometric signature immediately before and after an earthquake, thus allowing unprecedented studies of Earth-surface dynamics. Preeruptive volcano dynamics could be studied as well as pre-seismic deformation, one of the most controversial and elusive aspects of earthquakes. Interferometric correlation would similarly allow near real-time mapping of surface changes caused by volcanic eruptions, mud slides, or fires. Finally, a GEO SAR provides an optimum configuration for soil moisture measurement that requires a high temporal sampling rate (1-2 days) with a moderate spatial resolution (1 km or better). From a technological point of view, the largest challenges involved in developing a geosynchronous SAR capability relate to the very large slant range distance from the radar to the mapped area. This leads to requirements for large power or alternatively very large antenna, the ability to steer the mapping area to the left and right of the satellite, and control of the elevation and azimuth angles. The weight of this system is estimated to be 2750 kg and it would require 20 kW of DC-power. Such a system would provide up to a 600 km ground swath in a strip-mapping mode and 4000 km dual-sided mapping in a scan-SAR mode.

  6. Environmental and economic evaluation of pre-disaster plans for disaster waste management: Case study of Minami-Ise, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Wakabayashi, Yohei; Tsai, Peii; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Although it is important that disaster waste be demolished and removed as soon as possible after a natural disaster, it is also important that its treatment is environmentally friendly and economic. Local municipalities do not conduct environmental and economic feasibility studies of pre-disaster waste management; nevertheless, pre-disaster waste management is extremely important to promote treatment of waste after natural disasters. One of the reasons that they cannot conduct such evaluations is that the methods and inventory data required for the environmental and economic evaluation does not exist. In this study, we created the inventory data needed for evaluation and constructed evaluation methods using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) methodologies for future natural disasters. We selected the Japanese town of Minami-Ise for the related case study. Firstly, we estimated that the potential disaster waste generation derived from dwellings would be approximately 554,000t. Based on this result, the land area required for all the temporary storage sites for storing the disaster waste was approximately 55ha. Although the public domain and private land area in this case study is sufficient, several sites would be necessary to transport waste to other sites with enough space because local space is scarce. Next, we created inventory data of each process such as waste transportation, operation of the temporary storage sites, and waste treatment. We evaluated the environmental burden and cost for scenarios in which the disaster waste derived from specified kinds of home appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and TV sets) was transported, stored and recycled. In the scenario, CO 2 , SO x , NO X and PM emissions and total cost were 142t, 7kg, 257kg, 38kg and 1772 thousand USD, respectively. We also focused on SO x emission as a regional pollution source because transportation and operation of the temporary storage sites generates

  7. Earthquake Hazard Analysis Methods: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, A. M.; Fakhrurrozi, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of natural disasters that have significantly impacted on risks and damage is an earthquake. World countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia are countries located on the active movement of continental plates with more frequent earthquake occurrence compared to other countries. Several methods of earthquake hazard analysis have been done, for example by analyzing seismic zone and earthquake hazard micro-zonation, by using Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (N-DSHA) method, and by using Remote Sensing. In its application, it is necessary to review the effectiveness of each technique in advance. Considering the efficiency of time and the accuracy of data, remote sensing is used as a reference to the assess earthquake hazard accurately and quickly as it only takes a limited time required in the right decision-making shortly after the disaster. Exposed areas and possibly vulnerable areas due to earthquake hazards can be easily analyzed using remote sensing. Technological developments in remote sensing such as GeoEye-1 provide added value and excellence in the use of remote sensing as one of the methods in the assessment of earthquake risk and damage. Furthermore, the use of this technique is expected to be considered in designing policies for disaster management in particular and can reduce the risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Indonesia.

  8. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  9. FEMA's Earthquake Incident Journal: A Web-Based Data Integration and Decision Support Tool for Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.; Pitts, R.

    2017-12-01

    For emergency managers, government officials, and others who must respond to rapidly changing natural disasters, timely access to detailed information related to affected terrain, population and infrastructure is critical for planning, response and recovery operations. Accessing, analyzing and disseminating such disparate information in near real-time are critical decision support components. However, finding a way to handle a variety of informative yet complex datasets poses a challenge when preparing for and responding to disasters. Here, we discuss the implementation of a web-based data integration and decision support tool for earthquakes developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a solution to some of these challenges. While earthquakes are among the most well- monitored and measured of natural hazards, the spatially broad impacts of shaking, ground deformation, landslides, liquefaction, and even tsunamis, are extremely difficult to quantify without accelerated access to data, modeling, and analytics. This web-based application, deemed the "Earthquake Incident Journal", provides real-time access to authoritative and event-specific data from external (e.g. US Geological Survey, NASA, state and local governments, etc.) and internal (FEMA) data sources. The journal includes a GIS-based model for exposure analytics, allowing FEMA to assess the severity of an event, estimate impacts to structures and population in near real-time, and then apply planning factors to exposure estimates to answer questions such as: What geographic areas are impacted? Will federal support be needed? What resources are needed to support survivors? And which infrastructure elements or essential facilities are threatened? This presentation reviews the development of the Earthquake Incident Journal, detailing the data integration solutions, the methodology behind the GIS-based automated exposure model, and the planning factors as well as other analytical advances that

  10. Anomalous winter-snow-amplified earthquake-induced disaster of the 2015 Langtang avalanche in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Koji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Izumi, Takeki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Sadakane, Ayako; Sunako, Sojiro; Nishimura, Kouichi; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Shea, Joseph M.; Kayastha, Rijan B.; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Breashears, David F.; Yagi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Akiko

    2017-05-01

    Coseismic avalanches and rockfalls, as well as their simultaneous air blast and muddy flow, which were induced by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, destroyed the village of Langtang. In order to reveal volume and structure of the deposit covering the village, as well as sequence of the multiple events, we conducted an intensive in situ observation in October 2015. Multitemporal digital elevation models created from photographs taken by helicopter and unmanned aerial vehicles reveal that the deposit volumes of the primary and succeeding events were 6.81 ± 1.54 × 106 and 0.84 ± 0.92 × 106 m3, respectively. Visual investigations of the deposit and witness statements of villagers suggest that the primary event was an avalanche composed mostly of snow, while the collapsed glacier ice could not be dominant source for the total mass. Succeeding events were multiple rockfalls which may have been triggered by aftershocks. From the initial deposit volume and the area of the upper catchment, we estimate an average snow depth of 1.82 ± 0.46 m in the source area. This is consistent with anomalously large snow depths (1.28-1.52 m) observed at a neighboring glacier (4800-5100 m a.s.l.), which accumulated over the course of four major snowfall events between October 2014 and the earthquake on 25 April 2015. Considering long-term observational data, probability density functions, and elevation gradients of precipitation, we conclude that this anomalous winter snow was an extreme event with a return interval of at least 100 years. The anomalous winter snowfall may have amplified the disastrous effects induced by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal.

  11. Management of limb fractures in a teaching hospital: comparison between Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Tu, Chong-qi; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wen-li; Yi, Min; Song, Yue-ming; Huang, Fu-guo; Yang, Tian-fu; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the medical records of patients with limb fractures as well as rescue strategy in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes so as to provide references for post-earthquake rescue. We retrospectively investigated 944 patients sustaining limb fractures, including 891 in Wenchuan earthquake and 53 in Yushu earthquake, who were admitted to West China Hospital (WCH) of Sichuan University. In Wenchuan earthquake, WCH met its three peaks of limb fracture patients influx, on post-earthquake day (PED) 2, 8 and 14 respectively. Between PED 3-14, 585 patients were transferred from WCH to other hospitals outside the Sichuan Province. In Yushu earthquake, the maximum influx of limb fracture patients happened on PED 3, and no one was shifted to other hospitals. Both in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, most limb fractures were caused by blunt strike and crush/burying. In Wenchuan earthquake, there were 396 (396/942, 42.0%) open limb fractures, including 28 Gustilo I, 201 Gustilo II and 167 Gustilo III injuries. But in Yushu earthquake, the incidence of open limb fracture was much lower (6/61, 9.8%). The percent of patients with acute complications in Wenchuan earthquake (167/891, 18.7%) was much higher than that in Yushu earthquake (5/53, 3.8%). In Wenchuan earthquake rescue, 1 018 surgeries were done, composed of debridement in 376, internal fixation in 283, external fixation in 119, and vacuum sealing drainage in 117, etc. While among the 64 surgeries in Yushu earthquake rescue, the internal fixation for limb fracture was mostly adopted. All patients received proper treatment and survived except one who died due to multiple organs failure in Wenchuan earthquake. Provision of suitable and sufficient medical care in a catastrophe can only be achieved by construction of sophisticated national disaster medical system, prediction of the injury types and number of injuries, and confirmation of participating hospitals?exact role. Based on the valuable rescue experiences

  12. NASA SensorWeb and OGC Standards for Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2010-01-01

    I. Goal: Enable user to cost-effectively find and create customized data products to help manage disasters; a) On-demand; b) Low cost and non-specialized tools such as Google Earth and browsers; c) Access via open network but with sufficient security. II. Use standards to interface various sensors and resultant data: a) Wrap sensors in Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards; b) Wrap data processing algorithms and servers with OGC standards c) Use standardized workflows to orchestrate and script the creation of these data; products. III. Target Web 2.0 mass market: a) Make it simple and easy to use; b) Leverage new capabilities and tools that are emerging; c) Improve speed and responsiveness.

  13. CubeSat constellations for disaster management in remote areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santilli, Giancarlo; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Cappelletti, Chantal; Battistini, Simone; Gessini, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, CubeSats have considerably extended their range of possible applications, from a low cost means to train students and young researchers in space related activities up to possible complementary solutions to larger missions. Increasingly popular, whereas CubeSats are still not a solution for all types of missions, they offer the possibility of performing ambitious scientific experiments. Especially worth considering is the possibility of performing Distributed Space Missions, in which CubeSat systems can be used to increase observation sampling rates and resolutions, as well as to perform tasks that a single satellite is unable to handle. The cost of access to space for traditional Earth Observation (EO) missions is still quite high. Efficient architecture design would allow reducing mission costs by employing CubeSat systems, while maintaining a level of performance that, for some applications, could be close to that provided by larger platforms, and decreasing the time needed to design and deploy a fully functional constellation. For these reasons many countries, including developing nations, agencies and organizations are looking to CubeSat platforms to access space cheaply with, potentially, tens of remote sensing satellites. During disaster management, real-time, fast and continuous information broadcast is a fundamental requirement. In this sense, a constellation of small satellites can considerably decrease the revisit time (defined as the time elapsed between two consecutive observations of the same point on Earth by a satellite) over remote areas, by increasing the number of spacecraft properly distributed in orbit. This allows collecting as much data as possible for the use by Disaster Management Centers. This paper describes the characteristics of a constellation of CubeSats built to enable access over the most remote regions of Brazil, supporting an integrated system for mitigating environmental disasters in an attempt to prevent the

  14. The role local initiatives in community based disaster risk management in Kemijen, Semarang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.

    2017-06-01

    Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.

  15. Rumination in posttraumatic stress and growth after a natural disaster: a model from northern Chile 2014 earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Leal-Soto, Francisco; Carmona-Halty, Marcos; Ferrer-Urbina, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic experiences, such as natural disasters, produce multiple and serious impacts on people. Despite the traditional focus on negative consequences, in many cases there are also positive consequences, such as posttraumatic growth. Tedeschi and Calhoun proposed a model of posttraumatic growth that emphasizes the role of rumination after the basic beliefs breakdown due to the occurrence of a traumatic experience. Method A total of 238 volunteers affected by two major earthquakes and tsunami alerts in northern Chile on April 1 and 2, 2014, responded to an online survey measuring subjective severity, basic beliefs change, social share of emotion, rumination, posttraumatic stress, and posttraumatic growth. Results Path analyses reveal that posttraumatic stress goes through a negative change in basic beliefs, intrusive rumination, and deliberated rumination, meanwhile posttraumatic growth is only achieved directly from a positive change in basic beliefs and deliberated rumination. Discussion The model is consistent with the empirical model obtained in Chilean people affected by the earthquake and tsunami that occurred on 27 February, 2010, but it is slightly different and in a form that is more consistent with Tedeschi and Calhoun’s theoretical model. Both models remark on the role of deliberated rumination in posttraumatic growth and failure to progress from intrusive to deliberated rumination in posttraumatic stress, but the proposed one is more parsimonious and assumes subjective severity as an antecedent to basic belief changes. These conclusions must be considered in light of limitations that a cross-sectional design and the correlational nature of the statistical analysis carried out impose. Highlights of the article Role of subjective severity, change of basic beliefs, social sharing of emotion, and rumination on posttraumatic stress and growth were modeled from responses of people affected by the April 1–2, 2014, northern Chilean earthquakes

  16. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; P<.01). No difference was observed in overall PDD rates between DBHs and general hospitals (GHs); however, when analysis was limited to cases with an in-hospital cause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; P<.05). The most common causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at

  17. Pediatric issues in disaster management, Part 1: the emergency medical system and surge capacity.

    PubMed

    Mace, Sharon E; Sharieff, Ghazala; Bern, Andrew; Benjamin, Lee; Burbulys, Dave; Johnson, Ramon; Schreiber, Merritt

    2010-01-01

    Although children and infants are likely to be victims in a disaster and are more vulnerable in a disaster than adults, disaster planning and management has often overlooked the specific needs of pediatric patients. The authors discuss key components of disaster planning and management for pediatric patients, including emergency medical services, hospital/facility issues, evacuation centers, family separation/reunification, children with special healthcare needs (SHCNs), mental health issues, and overcrowding/surge capacity. Specific policy recommendations and an appendix with detailed practical information and algorithms are included. The first part of this three-part series on pediatric issues in disaster management addresses the emergency medical system from the field to the hospital and surge capacity including the impact of crowding. The second part addresses the appropriate setup and functioning of evacuation centers and family separation and reunification. The third part deals with special patient populations: children with SHCNs and mental health issues.

  18. The politics of risk in the Philippines: comparing state and NGO perceptions of disaster management.

    PubMed

    Bankoff, Greg; Hilhorst, Dorothea

    2009-10-01

    It is now generally appreciated that what constitutes vulnerability to one person is not necessarily perceived as such by the next. Different actors 'see' disasters as different types of events and as a result they prepare for, manage and record them in very different ways. This paper explores what different perceptions of vulnerability mean in terms of the understanding and practices of two significant sets of actors and stakeholders involved in disaster preparedness and management in the Philippines: the state and NGOs. Approaches to disaster are not just a function of people's perceptions of disaster risk but also of their understanding of the prevailing social order and social relations. Despite a shared vocabulary-which increasingly presents disasters as processes rather than events, takes a proactive rather than a reactive approach, and favours the inclusion of stakeholders rather than solely relying on technocratic management-different realities continue to make for different responses.

  19. Wind disasters: A comprehensive review of current management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marchigiani, Raffaele; Gordy, Stephanie; Cipolla, James; Adams, Raeanna C; Evans, David C; Stehly, Christy; Galwankar, Sagar; Russell, Sarah; Marco, Alan P; Kman, Nicholas; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A; Papadimos, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Wind disasters are responsible for tremendous physical destruction, injury, loss of life and economic damage. In this review, we discuss disaster preparedness and effective medical response to wind disasters. The epidemiology of disease and injury patterns observed in the early and late phases of wind disasters are reviewed. The authors highlight the importance of advance planning and adequate preparation as well as prompt and well-organized response to potential damage involving healthcare infrastructure and the associated consequences to the medical response system. Ways to minimize both the extent of infrastructure damage and its effects on the healthcare system are discussed, focusing on lessons learned from recent major wind disasters around the globe. Finally, aspects of healthcare delivery in disaster zones are reviewed. PMID:23961458

  20. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Objective This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Design A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. Results The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. Conclusions One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level). PMID:25215910

  1. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level).

  2. Disaster Victim Identification: quality management from an odontology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lake, A W; James, H; Berketa, J W

    2012-06-01

    The desired outcome of the victim identification component of a mass fatality event is correct identification of deceased persons in a timely manner allowing legal and social closure for relatives of the victims. Quality Management across all aspects of the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) structure facilitates this process. Quality Management in forensic odontology is the understanding and implementation of a methodology that ensures collection, collation and preservation of the maximum amount of available dental data and the appropriate interpretation of that data to achieve outcomes to a standard expected by the DVI instructing authority, impacted parties and the forensic odontology specialist community. Managerial pre-event planning responsibility, via an odontology coordinator, includes setting a chain of command, developing and reviewing standard operating procedures (SOP), ensuring use of current scientific methodologies and staff training. During a DVI managerial responsibility includes tailoring SOP to the specific situation, ensuring member accreditation, encouraging inter-disciplinary cooperation and ensuring security of odontology data and work site. Individual responsibilities include the ability to work within a team, accept peer review, and share individual members' skill sets to achieve the best outcome. These responsibilities also include adherence to chain of command and the SOP, maintenance of currency of knowledge and recognition of professional boundaries of expertise. This article highlights issues of Quality Management pertaining particularly to forensic odontology but can also be extrapolated to all DVI actions.

  3. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    Introduction In 2015, the authors reported the results of a preliminary investigation of preventable disaster deaths (PDDs) at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). This initial survey considered only disaster base hospitals (DBHs) and hospitals that had experienced at least 20 patient deaths in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); therefore, hospitals that experienced fewer than 20 patient deaths were not investigated. This was an additional study to the previous survey to better reflect PDD at hospitals across the entire prefecture. Of the 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, the 14 DBHs and 82 non-DBHs that agreed to participate were included in an on-site survey. A database was created based on the medical records of 1,243 patient deaths that occurred between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, followed by determination of their status as PDDs. A total of 125 cases of PDD were identified among the patients surveyed. The rate of PDD was significantly higher at coastal hospitals than inland hospitals (17.3% versus 6.3%; P<.001). Preventable disaster deaths in non-DBHs were most numerous in facilities with few general beds, especially among patients hospitalized before the disaster in hospitals with fewer than 100 beds. Categorized by area, the most frequent causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters in coastal areas; and were delayed medical intervention and disrupted lifelines in inland areas. Categorized by hospital function, the most frequent causes were: delayed medical intervention, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters, and insufficient medical resources at DBHs; while those at non-DBHs were disrupted lifelines, insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, and lack of capacity for transport within the area. Preventable disaster death at medical

  4. Earthquake disaster mitigation of Lembang Fault West Java with electromagnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widodo

    2015-04-01

    The Lembang fault is located around eight kilometers from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The existence of this fault runs through densely populated settlement and tourism area. It is an active fault structure with increasing seismic activity where the 28 August 2011 earthquake occurred. The seismic response at the site is strongly influenced by local geological conditions. The ambient noise measurements from the western part of this fault give strong implication for a complex 3-D tectonic setting. Hence, near surface Electromagnetic (EM) measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault of the research area. Hence, near surface EM measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault and the top of the basement structure of the research area. The Transientelectromagnetic (TEM) measurements are carried out along three profiles, which include 35 TEM soundings. The results indicate that TEM data give detailed conductivity distribution of fault structure in the study area.

  5. Preparing for disasters: education and management strategies explored.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Danita; Chilton, Jenifer; Connor, Della; Deal, Belinda; Fountain, Rebecca; Hensarling, Janice; Klotz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, the focus of nursing changed from home and field to high-tech clinics and hospitals. Nursing in the absence of technology due to man-made or natural disasters almost disappeared from the curriculum of many nursing schools. Numerous disaster events and threats in the early 21st century caused educators and practitioners to increase the emphasis on disaster nursing and those principles that guide the nurse's practice in response to disasters. This article chronicles tools used by nurse educators to integrate disaster nursing into the didactic and clinical experiences of baccalaureate nursing students. We represent two nursing schools about 90 miles apart that collaborated to provide students with practical application of disaster nursing concepts. Part 1: An educational journey toward disaster nursing competencies: A curriculum in action provides an overview of the curricular tools used to insure adequate coverage of disaster nursing concepts across the curriculum. Part 2: Collaborative learning in Community Health Nursing for emergency preparedness relates the steps taken to plan, implement, and evaluate two different collaborative disaster simulation events. In this manuscript we have attempted transparency so that others can learn from our successes and our failures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Communication in Post-disaster Research Coordination: Communicating the research moratorium after the 22 February 2011 Mw 6 Christchurch Earthquake in New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaven, S.

    2015-12-01

    Disasters stimulate research activity by creating comparatively rare post-disaster data, while also increasing the urgency of agency demand for scientific evidence. In the wake of the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake disaster, New Zealand, post-disaster research activity was coordinated by a national Natural Hazards Research Platform, in collaboration with response agencies. The focus was on research support for responding agencies, with an emphasis on creating high quality scientific outcomes. This coordinated research effort did not include independent research activity, which escalated steeply in the weeks after the event. The risks this increased research pressure posed to response operations and impacted populations informed the declaration of a moratorium on research not deemed relevant to the needs of response agencies. This presentation summarizes communication issues that made it difficult to disseminate the moratorium, and to establish the relevance of this decision where it might have been most effective in diminishing these risks: within national and international natural hazard and disaster research communities, other national research communities, across responding agencies and organisations, and among impacted organizations and communities.

  7. Disaster planning: transportation resources and considerations for managing a burn disaster.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Hubble, Michael W; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    A disaster scenario with a significant number of burn-injured patients creates a tremendous challenge for disaster planners. Directing the transport of patients to the most appropriate receiving facility as soon as reasonably possible remains the aim. This review focused on both the overall process as well as an analysis of one specific state (as an example). This included the capability and limitations of the intrastate and interstate resources should a burn disaster occur. Although the results for one state may be interesting, it is the process that is essential for those involved in burn disaster planning. An overview of the quantity and quality of available ambulances and how to access these resources is provided. Ground-based ambulances have an array of capacities and levels of services ranging from basic life support to advanced (paramedic) services and include ambulance buses. This review also included private and hospital-based specialty care ambulances and aeromedical services. Finally, the review identified military or federal resources that may be an option as well. There are various local, state, and federal resources that can be called upon to meet the transportation needs of these critically injured patients. Yet, there are barriers to access and limitations to their response. It is just as important to know both availability and capability as it is to know how to access these resources. A disaster is not the time to realize these hurdles.

  8. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  9. Low Latency DESDynI Data Products for Disaster Response, Resource Management and Other Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.; Lou, Yunling

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor technology targeted at the L-band SAR instrument onboard the planned DESDynI mission to enable formation of SAR images onboard opening possibilities for near-real-time data products to augment full data streams. Several image processing and/or interpretation techniques are being explored as possible direct-broadcast products for use by agencies in need of low-latency data, responsible for disaster mitigation and assessment, resource management, agricultural development, shipping, etc. Data collected through UAVSAR (L-band) serves as surrogate to the future DESDynI instrument. We have explored surface water extent as a tool for flooding response, and disturbance images on polarimetric backscatter of repeat pass imagery potentially useful for structural collapse (earthquake), mud/land/debris-slides etc. We have also explored building vegetation and snow/ice classifiers, via support vector machines utilizing quad-pol backscatter, cross-pol phase, and a number of derivatives (radar vegetation index, dielectric estimates, etc.). We share our qualitative and quantitative results thus far.

  10. Reviewing the economic efficiency of disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    There is a lot of rhetoric suggesting that disaster risk management (DRM) pays, yet surprisingly little in the way of hard facts. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one major tool that can provide quantitative information about the prioritization of disaster risk management (DRM) (and climate adaptation) based on economic principles. Yet, on a global scale, there has been surprisingly little robust evidence on the economic efficiency and benefits of risk management measures. This review shows that for the limited evidence reported the economic case for DRM across a range of hazards is strong and that the benefits of investing in DRM outweigh the costs of doing so, on average, by about four times the cost in terms of avoided and reduced losses. Most studies using a CBA approach focus on structural DRM and most information has been made available on physical flood prevention. There have been some limited studies on preparedness and risk financing. The global evidence base is limited and estimates appear not very solid, and overall, in line with the conclusion of the recent IPCC SREX report, there is limited evidence and medium agreement across the literature. Some of the factors behind the limited robustness are inherent to CBA more widely: these challenges comprise the inability to price intangibles, evaluating strategies rather than single projects, difficulties in assessing softer rather than infrastructure-related options, choices regarding a proper discount rate, lack of accounting for the distribution of benefits and costs and difficulties with assessing nonmarket values such as those related to health, the environment, or public goods. Although techniques exist to address some of these challenges, they are not very likely to easily go away. Other challenges associated specifically with DRM, such as the need and difficulty to undertake risk -based analysis can be overcome, and there have been manuals and reports providing a way forward. In an age of austerity, cost

  11. Are Women in Turkey Both Risks and Resources in Disaster Management?

    PubMed Central

    Işık, Özden; Özer, Naşide; Sayın, Nurdan; Mishal, Afet; Gündoğdu, Oğuz; Özçep, Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    From a global perspective, the universality of gender-related societal issues is particularly significant. Although gender inequality is considered a sociological problem, the large number of female victims in disasters warrants an assessment of disaster management sciences. In this article, related concepts are discussed based on their relevance sociologically and in disaster management to develop a common terminology and examine this complex topic, which is rooted in different social profiles and anthropological heterogeneity throughout the world. A brief history is discussed, and significant examples are provided from different disasters in Turkey to illustrate why a woman-oriented approach should be adopted when evaluating concepts of gender inequality. Observations of disasters have shown that it is important to apply international standards (humanitarian charter and minimum disaster response standards), especially during periods of response and rehabilitation. Relevant factors related to gender should be included in these standards, such as women’s health and hygiene, which will be discussed in more detail. A woman-based approach is designed in relation to two aspects: risks and resources. Thus, gender-sensitive methods of mitigating and preventing disasters are provided. The main purpose of the article is to contribute to the development of a universal culture that prioritizes gender in disaster management. PMID:26016435

  12. The German emergency and disaster medicine and management system-history and present.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Norman; Domres, Bernd Dieter

    2018-04-01

    As well for optimized emergency management in individual cases as for optimized mass medicine in disaster management, the principle of the medical doctors approaching the patient directly and timely, even close to the site of the incident, is a long-standing marker for quality of care and patient survival in Germany. Professional rescue and emergency forces, including medical services, are the "Golden Standard" of emergency management systems. Regulative laws, proper organization of resources, equipment, training and adequate delivery of medical measures are key factors in systematic approaches to manage emergencies and disasters alike and thus save lives. During disasters command, communication, coordination and cooperation are essential to cope with extreme situations, even more so in a globalized world. In this article, we describe the major historical milestones, the current state of the German system in emergency and disaster management and its integration into the broader European approach. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  14. Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management.

    PubMed

    Alexander, David E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the actual and potential use of social media in emergency, disaster and crisis situations. This is a field that has generated intense interest. It is characterised by a burgeoning but small and very recent literature. In the emergencies field, social media (blogs, messaging, sites such as Facebook, wikis and so on) are used in seven different ways: listening to public debate, monitoring situations, extending emergency response and management, crowd-sourcing and collaborative development, creating social cohesion, furthering causes (including charitable donation) and enhancing research. Appreciation of the positive side of social media is balanced by their potential for negative developments, such as disseminating rumours, undermining authority and promoting terrorist acts. This leads to an examination of the ethics of social media usage in crisis situations. Despite some clearly identifiable risks, for example regarding the violation of privacy, it appears that public consensus on ethics will tend to override unscrupulous attempts to subvert the media. Moreover, social media are a robust means of exposing corruption and malpractice. In synthesis, the widespread adoption and use of social media by members of the public throughout the world heralds a new age in which it is imperative that emergency managers adapt their working practices to the challenge and potential of this development. At the same time, they must heed the ethical warnings and ensure that social media are not abused or misused when crises and emergencies occur.

  15. Principles of disaster management. Lesson 7: Management leadership styles and methods.

    PubMed

    Cuny, F C

    2000-01-01

    This lesson explores the use of different management leadership styles and methods that are applied to disaster management situations. Leadership and command are differentiated. Mechanisms that can be used to influence others developed include: 1) coercion; 2) reward; 3) position; 4) knowledge; and 5) admiration. Factors that affect leadership include: 1) individual characteristics; 2) competence; 3) experience; 4) self-confidence; 5) judgment; 6) decision-making; and 8) style. Experience and understanding the task are important factors for leadership. Four styles of leadership are developed: 1) directive; 2) supportive; 3) participative; and 4) achievement oriented. Application of each of these styles is discussed. The styles are discussed further as they relate to the various stages of a disaster. The effects of interpersonal relationships and the effects of the environment are stressed. Lastly, leadership does not just happen because a person is appointed as a manager--it must be earned.

  16. Management of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims.

    PubMed

    Chen, Enqiang; Deng, Linyu; Liu, Zigui; Zhu, Xia; Chen, Xuebing; Tang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    Gas gangrene is an emergency condition, which usually develops after injuries or surgery. This study was designed to investigate clinical characteristics, appropriate therapy, and effective control of nosocomial cross-infection of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims. Data on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of confirmed, suspected, or highly suspected gas gangrene were collected. Sixty-seven (2.41%) cases of suspected gas gangrene were found, in which 32 cases were highly suspected of gas gangrene and 5 cases were confirmed by culture of Clostridium perfringens. Thereof, injury sites were mainly located on the limbs, and typical indications, including crepitation, severe localized pain, swelling, wound discoloration, dark red or black necrotic muscle, foul smell as well as different degrees of systemic toxic performance were common among them. After hospitalization, all patients were isolated and had surgery quickly to remove dead, damaged or infected tissue. The wounds were also exposed for drainage and washed or padded with 3% liquid hydrogen peroxide for disinfection before all diagnostic test results were available. Additionally, high doses of antibiotics (mainly penicillin) were given for the prevention of infection, and supportive therapy was applied for corresponding symptoms control. Among those cases, no fatality was reported. In summary, in post-disaster emergency relief, the diagnosis of gas gangrene should be primarily based on clinical manifestations; while patient isolation, wound debridement and disinfection, as well as antibiotics treatment, is the main measures for proper treatment and control of nosocomial infection for gas gangrene.

  17. Earthquake disaster mitigation of Lembang Fault West Java with electromagnetic method

    SciT

    Widodo, E-mail: widodo@gf.itb.ac.id

    The Lembang fault is located around eight kilometers from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. The existence of this fault runs through densely populated settlement and tourism area. It is an active fault structure with increasing seismic activity where the 28 August 2011 earthquake occurred. The seismic response at the site is strongly influenced by local geological conditions. The ambient noise measurements from the western part of this fault give strong implication for a complex 3-D tectonic setting. Hence, near surface Electromagnetic (EM) measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault of the research area. Hence,more » near surface EM measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault and the top of the basement structure of the research area. The Transientelectromagnetic (TEM) measurements are carried out along three profiles, which include 35 TEM soundings. The results indicate that TEM data give detailed conductivity distribution of fault structure in the study area.« less

  18. Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

  19. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  20. The investigation of the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Dursun, Recep; Karadas, Sevdegul; Asirdizer, Mahmut

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents. In this study, we evaluated 245 patients of occupational accidents who were admitted to emergency services of Van city hospitals in the 1-year periods including pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. We determined that there was a 63.4% (P < 0.05) increase in work-related accidents in the post-earthquake period compared to the pre-earthquake period. Also, injuries due to occupational accidents increased 211% (P < 0.05) in the construction industry, the rate of injuries due to falls from height increased 168% (P < 0.05), and the rate of traumas to the head and upper limbs increased 200% (P < 0.05) and 130% (P < 0.05), respectively, in the post-earthquake period compared to the pre-earthquake period. We determined that the ignoring of measures for occupational health and safety by employers and employees during conducted rapid construction activities and post-earthquake restoration works in order to remove the effects of the earthquake increased the number of work accidents. In this study, the impact of disasters such as earthquakes on the accidents at work was evaluated as we have not seen in literature. This study emphasizes that governments should make regulations and process relating to the post-disaster business before the emergence of disaster by taking into account factors that may increase their work-related accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Disaster management as part of curriculum for undergraduate and postgraduate courses: The Symbiosis model

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    From times immemorial disasters in some form or the other have been regularly visiting humankind and humans have been trying to manage these upheavals. Noah's arch is the first such endeavor. The United Nations declared 1990-1999 as International Decade for Disaster Reduction. The Indian Government passed the Disaster Management Act 2005. As a consequence of the Act, the National Disaster Management Authority was setup. All states were given the guide lines for disaster risk reduction. The objective of this article is to get a clearer picture of what various states, educational authorities and international bodies have done and what Symbiosis International University (SIU) has done so far. Inputs from various States of the Indian Union and neighboring countries were studied. The moot question that figured all the time was “Is there a conscious effort to include Disaster Management in the curricula of various courses at the college and university level” and what are the achievements. It was seen that the Central Board for Secondary Education with support from the Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Human Resource Development and United Nations Development Project have incorporated DM, as part of its frontline curriculum. Most of the Universities in the disaster prone states have enunciated policies for including DM in the curriculum, but palpable results are still awaited. In the SIU, DM has been incorporated in the curriculum and is mandatory for all undergraduate and postgraduate courses. PMID:22412285

  2. Disaster management as part of curriculum for undergraduate and postgraduate courses: The Symbiosis model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    From times immemorial disasters in some form or the other have been regularly visiting humankind and humans have been trying to manage these upheavals. Noah's arch is the first such endeavor. The United Nations declared 1990-1999 as International Decade for Disaster Reduction. The Indian Government passed the Disaster Management Act 2005. As a consequence of the Act, the National Disaster Management Authority was setup. All states were given the guide lines for disaster risk reduction. The objective of this article is to get a clearer picture of what various states, educational authorities and international bodies have done and what Symbiosis International University (SIU) has done so far. Inputs from various States of the Indian Union and neighboring countries were studied. The moot question that figured all the time was "Is there a conscious effort to include Disaster Management in the curricula of various courses at the college and university level" and what are the achievements. It was seen that the Central Board for Secondary Education with support from the Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Human Resource Development and United Nations Development Project have incorporated DM, as part of its frontline curriculum. Most of the Universities in the disaster prone states have enunciated policies for including DM in the curriculum, but palpable results are still awaited. In the SIU, DM has been incorporated in the curriculum and is mandatory for all undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

  3. Improved Response to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking Population Movements with Mobile Phone Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial Study in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna; Garfield, Richard; von Schreeb, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Background Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM) cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel) to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak. Methods and Findings Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards. An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards), present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow) corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data. Conclusions Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with potentially high

  4. Education in Disaster Management and Emergencies: Defining a New European Course.

    PubMed

    Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Ashkenazi, Michael; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Friedl, Tom; von Armin, Gotz; Lupesco, Olivera; Kaptan, Kubilay; Arculeo, Chris; Hreckovski, Boris; Komadina, Radko; Fisher, Philipp; Voigt, Stefan; James, James; Gursky, Elin

    2015-06-01

    Unremitting natural disasters, deliberate threats, pandemics, and humanitarian suffering resulting from conflict situations necessitate swift and effective response paradigms. The European Union's (EU) increasing visibility as a disaster response enterprise suggests the need not only for financial contribution but also for instituting a coherent disaster response approach and management structure. The DITAC (Disaster Training Curriculum) project identified deficiencies in current responder training approaches and analyzed the characteristics and content required for a new, standardized European course in disaster management and emergencies. Over 35 experts from within and outside the EU representing various organizations and specialties involved in disaster management composed the DITAC Consortium. These experts were also organized into 5 specifically tasked working groups. Extensive literature reviews were conducted to identify requirements and deficiencies and to craft a new training concept based on research trends and lessons learned. A pilot course and program dissemination plan was also developed. The lack of standardization was repeatedly highlighted as a serious deficiency in current disaster training methods, along with gaps in the command, control, and communication levels. A blended and competency-based teaching approach using exercises combined with lectures was recommended to improve intercultural and interdisciplinary integration. The goal of a European disaster management course should be to standardize and enhance intercultural and inter-agency performance across the disaster management cycle. A set of minimal standards and evaluation metrics can be achieved through consensus, education, and training in different units. The core of the training initiative will be a unit that presents a realistic situation "scenario-based training."

  5. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    SciT

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method ofmore » calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.« less

  6. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  7. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

  8. New fiber laser for lidar developments in disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, C.; Augere, B.; Canat, G.; Cezard, N.; Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.; Fleury, D.; Goular, D.; Lombard, L.; Planchat, C.; Renard, W.; Valla, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in fiber technology has enabled new laser designs along with all fiber lidar architectures. Their asset is to avoid free-space optics, sparing lengthy alignment procedures and yielding compact setups that are well adapted for field operations and on board applications thanks to their intrinsic vibration-resistant architectures. We present results in remote sensing for disaster management recently achieved with fiber laser systems. Field trials of a 3-paths lidar vibrometer for the remote study of modal parameters of buildings has shown that application-related constraints were fulfilled and that the obtained results are consistent with simultaneous in situ seismic sensors measurements. Remote multi-gas detection can be obtained using broadband infrared spectroscopy. Results obtained on methane concentration measurement using an infrared supercontinuum fiber laser and analysis in the 3-4 μm band are reported. For gas flux retrieval, air velocity measurement is also required. Long range scanning all-fiber wind lidars are now available thanks to innovative laser architectures. High peak power highly coherent pulses can be extracted from Er3+:Yb3+ and Tm3+ active fibers using methods described in the paper. The additional laser power provides increased coherent lidar capability in range and scanning of large areas but also better system resistance to adverse weather conditions. Wind sensing at ranges beyond 10 km have been achieved and on-going tests of a scanning system dedicated to airport safety is reported.

  9. Disaster management among pediatric surgeons: preparedness, training and involvement.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Nikunj K; Behar, Solomon; Nager, Alan L; Dorey, Fred; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary events in the United States (eg, September 2001, school shootings), Europe (eg, Madrid train bombings), and the Middle East have raised awareness of mass casualty events and the need for a capable disaster response. Recent natural disasters have highlighted the poor preparation and infrastructure in place to respond to mass casualty events. In response, public health policy makers and emergency planners developed plans and prepared emergency response systems. Emergency response providers include first responders, a subset of emergency professionals, including firemen, law enforcement, paramedics, who respond to the incident scene and first receivers, a set of healthcare workers who receive the disaster victims at hospital facilities. The role of pediatric surgeons in mass casualty emergency response plans remains undefined. The authors hypothesize that pediatric surgeons' training and experience will predict their willingness and ability to be activated first receivers. The objective of our study was to determine the baseline experience, preparedness, willingness, and availability of pediatric surgeons to participate as activated first receivers. After institutional review board approval, the authors conducted an anonymous online survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in 2007. The authors explored four domains in this survey: (1) demographics, (2) disaster experience and perceived preparedness, (3) attitudes regarding responsibility and willingness to participate in a disaster response, and (4) availability to participate in a disaster response. The authors performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine significance. Finally, the authors conducted a logistic regression to determine whether experience or preparedness factors affected the respondent's availability or willingness to respond to a disaster as a first receiver The authors sent 725 invitations and received 265 (36.6 percent) completed surveys. Overall, the

  10. Integrating emerging earth science technologies into disaster risk management: an enterprise architecture approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster risk management has grown to rely on earth observations, multi-source data analysis, numerical modeling, and interagency information sharing. The practice and outcomes of disaster risk management will likely undergo further change as several emerging earth science technologies come of age: mobile devices; location-based services; ubiquitous sensors; drones; small satellites; satellite direct readout; Big Data analytics; cloud computing; Web services for predictive modeling, semantic reconciliation, and collaboration; and many others. Integrating these new technologies well requires developing and adapting them to meet current needs; but also rethinking current practice to draw on new capabilities to reach additional objectives. This requires a holistic view of the disaster risk management enterprise and of the analytical or operational capabilities afforded by these technologies. One helpful tool for this assessment, the GEOSS Architecture for the Use of Remote Sensing Products in Disaster Management and Risk Assessment (Evans & Moe, 2013), considers all phases of the disaster risk management lifecycle for a comprehensive set of natural hazard types, and outlines common clusters of activities and their use of information and computation resources. We are using these architectural views, together with insights from current practice, to highlight effective, interrelated roles for emerging earth science technologies in disaster risk management. These roles may be helpful in creating roadmaps for research and development investment at national and international levels.

  11. Challenges of Managing Animals in Disasters in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Sebastian E.; Linnabary, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This article describes common challenges to managing animals in disasters in the US, summarizes how some of these challenges are being met and makes recommendations on how to overcome others. Many predictable adverse situations affecting animals and their owners can be prevented when communities develop a comprehensive emergency management strategy that integrates animal care into planning, preparedness, mitigation, and recovery activities, as well as response. Abstract Common to many of the repeated issues surrounding animals in disasters in the U.S. is a pre-existing weak animal health infrastructure that is under constant pressure resulting from pet overpopulation. Unless this root cause is addressed, communities remain vulnerable to similar issues with animals they and others have faced in past disasters. In the US the plight of animals in disasters is frequently viewed primarily as a response issue and frequently handled by groups that are not integrated with the affected community’s emergency management. In contrast, animals, their owners, and communities would greatly benefit from integrating animal issues into an overall emergency management strategy for the community. There is no other factor contributing as much to human evacuation failure in disasters that is under the control of emergency management when a threat is imminent as pet ownership. Emergency managers can take advantage of the bond people have with their animals to instill appropriate behavior amongst pet owners in disasters. PMID:26479228

  12. Who Was Concerned about Radiation, Food Safety, and Natural Disasters after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Catastrophe? A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. Methods The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Results Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35–2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38–2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39–2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33–1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20–1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12–1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58–2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07–1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25–5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08–2.06 about food safety). Conclusions Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively. PMID:25181292

  13. A regional, market oriented governance for disaster management: A new planning approach.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Erwin A; Hakim, Simon; Meehan, Brian

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a regional competitive governance and management of response and recovery from disasters. It presents problems experienced in major disasters, analyzes the failures, and suggests how a competitive system that relies on private and volunteer regional leaders, personnel, and capital can improve preparation, response and recovery efforts over the existing government system. A Public Choice approach is adopted to explain why government often fails, and how regional governance may be socially more efficient than the existing federal- state-local funded and managed disaster system. The paper suggests that the federal role might change from both funding and supplying aid in disasters to merely funding disaster recovery efforts. When a disaster occurs, available businesses and government resources in the region can be utilized under a competitive system. These resources could replace existing federal and state inventories and emergency personnel. An independent regionally controlled and managed council, which also develops its own financial resources, and local volunteer leaders are key for success. The paper suggests a new planning method that utilizes the statistical Factor Analysis methodology to derive an efficient organizational and functional model to confront disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    PubMed

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  15. The disaster at Japan's Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami, and the resulting spread of radioisotope contamination.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011 eastern Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and an enormous tsunami, over 13 m in height, which together killed over 20,500 people and resulted in the evacuation of over 320,000 people from the devastated areas. This paper describes the damage sustained by the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant during this unpredicted major natural disaster and the events that happened in the months after this accident. The events occurring at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, the actions taken to minimize the effects of the damage to the plant and to protect the public, and the points at which the responses proved to be inadequate all offer lessons that will be of value to those planning for and responding to future natural disasters and accidents in Japan and around the world.

  16. Hospital Staff Shortage after the 2011 Triple Disaster in Fukushima, Japan-An Earthquake, Tsunamis, and Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Case of the Soso District.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Iwamoto, Shuichi; Ogata, Shinichi; Morita, Tomohiro; Hori, Arinobu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kikuchi, Antoku; Watanabe, Zenjiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kumakawa, Hiromi; Kuma, Yoshinobu; Kumakura, Tetsuo; Inomata, Yoshimitsu; Kami, Masahiro; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Fukushima was struck by a triple disaster: an earthquake, tsunamis, and a nuclear accident. In the aftermath, there was much fear among hospital staff members about radiation exposure and many staff members failed to report to work. One objective is to measure this shortage in hospital staff and another is to compare the difference in recovery by hospital types and by categories of hospital staff. The monthly records of the number of staff members from May 2011 to September 2012 were extracted anonymously from the records of 7 local hospitals in the Soso district in Fukushima. Change in the number of staff was analyzed. Staff shortages at hospitals reached a maximum within one month after the disaster (47% reported to work). The shortage of clerks was the most severe (38% reported to work), followed by nurses (48% reported to work). The shortages remained even 18 months after the disaster. After a disaster in which the damage to hospital functions surpasses the structural damage, massive support of human resources in the acute phase and a smaller volume of support in the mid-term phase appear to be required, particularly for non-medical staff.

  17. Psychological effects of disaster relief activities on Japan ground self-defense force personnel following the 2011 great east Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kosuke; Nagamine, Masanori; Shigemura, Jun; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Shimizu, Kunio; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    Disaster relief workers are potentially exposed to severe stressors on the job, resulting in a variety of psychological responses. This study aims to clarify the psychological effects of disaster relief activities on Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) personnel following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 606 JGSDF personnel one month after completing the disaster relief mission. Posttraumatic stress responses and general psychological distress were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the K10 scales. Associations between outcome variables and independent variables (age, gender, military rank, length of deployment, and exposure to dead bodies) were measured with univariate analyses and subsequent multiple logistic regression analyses. The mean (± SD) IES-R score was 6.2 (± 8.1), and the mean K10 score was 12.8 (± 4.4). In the univariate analyses, exposure to dead bodies and age were identified as significant factors for IES-R and K10 scores, (p < 0.01). However, the multiple logistic regression analyses did not reveal any significant factors although body handlers' exposure approached significance for IES-R. The subjects reported very low psychological responses despite the severe nature of their disaster relief activities. Several factors may account for the low levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic symptoms observed in this study.

  18. Hospital Staff Shortage after the 2011 Triple Disaster in Fukushima, Japan-An Earthquake, Tsunamis, and Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Case of the Soso District

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Iwamoto, Shuichi; Ogata, Shinichi; Morita, Tomohiro; Hori, Arinobu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kikuchi, Antoku; Watanabe, Zenjiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kumakawa, Hiromi; Kuma, Yoshinobu; Kumakura, Tetsuo; Inomata, Yoshimitsu; Kami, Masahiro; Shineha, Ryuzaburo; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, Fukushima was struck by a triple disaster: an earthquake, tsunamis, and a nuclear accident. In the aftermath, there was much fear among hospital staff members about radiation exposure and many staff members failed to report to work. Objectives One objective is to measure this shortage in hospital staff and another is to compare the difference in recovery by hospital types and by categories of hospital staff. Design The monthly records of the number of staff members from May 2011 to September 2012 were extracted anonymously from the records of 7 local hospitals in the Soso district in Fukushima. Change in the number of staff was analyzed. Results Staff shortages at hospitals reached a maximum within one month after the disaster (47% reported to work). The shortage of clerks was the most severe (38% reported to work), followed by nurses (48% reported to work). The shortages remained even 18 months after the disaster. Conclusion After a disaster in which the damage to hospital functions surpasses the structural damage, massive support of human resources in the acute phase and a smaller volume of support in the mid-term phase appear to be required, particularly for non-medical staff. PMID:27788170

  19. Social capital and cognitive decline in the aftermath of a natural disaster: a natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Kondo, Katsunori; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We examined prospectively whether social capital mitigates the adverse effects of natural disaster on cognitive decline. The baseline for our study was established seven months before the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter (59.0% response rate). Approximately two and a half years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as incidence of cognitive disability (82.1% follow-up rate). Our primary outcome was cognitive disability (measured on an 8-level scale) assessed by in-home assessment. The experience of housing damage was associated with risk of cognitive impairment (coefficient = 0.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.06). Factor analysis of our analytic sample (n = 3,566) established two sub-scales of social capital: a cognitive dimension (perceptions of community social cohesion) and a structural dimension (informal socializing and social participation). Fixed effects regression showed that informal socializing and social participation buffered the risk of cognitive decline resulting from housing damage. Informal socializing and social participation may prevent cognitive impairment following natural disaster. National Institutes of Health (R01AG042463-04), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  20. [Current organization of disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Julien, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The concept of disaster medicine, derivedfrom medical management of casualties caused by terrorist attacks or earthquakes, began to be taught in medical school in 1982. It adapts military intervention tactics to civilian practices, and differentiates major disasters (in which preformed teams are sent to the scene) from disasters with limited effects (predefined plans form the backbone of the rescue organization). Management of blast and crush syndromes, triage, care of numerous burn victims, on-site amputation, necrotomy, medicopsychological support, mass decontamination, and rescue management are some of the aspects with which physicians should be familiar. Predefined intervention teams and ad hoc materials have been created to provide autonomous logistic support. Regulations, ethical aspects and managerial methods still need to be refined, and research and teaching must be given a new impetus.

  1. Surgical Management of Musculoskeletal Injuries after 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Hussaini, Mustafa; Singh, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    We report our experience of handling 80 major musculoskeletal injuries in a brief span of three days immediately after the major earthquake of Nepal in April 2015. Planning, proper utilization of resources, and prioritizing the patients for surgical intervention is highlighted. The value of damage control by orthopaedics in these disasters is discussed. Timely and appropriate surgical treatment by a skilled orthopaedic team not only can save these injured limbs but also the lives of the victims of a major disaster. PMID:26430580

  2. Earthquake Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

  3. Risk and Disaster Management: From Planning and Expertise to Smart, Intelligent, and Adaptive Systems.

    PubMed

    Benis, Arriel; Notea, Amos; Barkan, Refael

    2018-01-01

    "Disaster" means some surprising and misfortunate event. Its definition is broad and relates to complex environments. Medical Informatics approaches, methodologies and systems are used as a part of Disaster and Emergency Management systems. At the Holon Institute of Technology - HIT, Israel, in 2016 a National R&D Center: AFRAN was established to study the disaster's reduction aspects. The Center's designation is to investigate and produce new approaches, methodologies and to offer recommendations in the fields of disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery and to disseminate disaster's knowledge. Adjoint to the Center a "Smart, Intelligent, and Adaptive Systems" laboratory (SIAS) was established with the goal to study the applications of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Risk and Disaster Management (RDM). In this paper, we are redefining the concept of Disaster, pointing-out how ICT, AI, in the Big Data era, are central players in the RDM game. In addition we show the merit of the Center and lab combination to the benefit of the performed research projects.

  4. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes have claimed approximately 8 million lives over the last 2,000 years (Dunbar, Lockridge and others, 1992) and fatality rates are likely to continue to rise with increased population and urbanizations of global settlements especially in developing countries. More than 75% of earthquake-related human casualties are caused by the collapse of buildings or structures (Coburn and Spence, 2002). It is disheartening to note that large fractions of the world's population still reside in informal, poorly-constructed & non-engineered dwellings which have high susceptibility to collapse during earthquakes. Moreover, with increasing urbanization half of world's population now lives in urban areas (United Nations, 2001), and half of these urban centers are located in earthquake-prone regions (Bilham, 2004). The poor performance of most building stocks during earthquakes remains a primary societal concern. However, despite this dark history and bleaker future trends, there are no comprehensive global building inventories of sufficient quality and coverage to adequately address and characterize future earthquake losses. Such an inventory is vital both for earthquake loss mitigation and for earthquake disaster response purposes. While the latter purpose is the motivation of this work, we hope that the global building inventory database described herein will find widespread use for other mitigation efforts as well. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), (Wald, Earle and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential casualties associated with earthquake ground shaking for any region of the world. The casualty estimation is based primarily on (1) rapid estimation of the ground shaking hazard, (2) aggregating the population exposure within different building types, and (3) estimating the casualties from the collapse of vulnerable buildings. Thus, the

  5. Recording and Evaluating the Role of Volunteers Regarding Natural Hazards Prevention and Disaster Management in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance, particularly for major catastrophes. In Northern Europe, volunteers are the main group that responds even in regular low impact incidents. On the other hand, in Southern Europe, state professionals hold the primary role. This is partly cultural, but it is also defined by the different types of hazards involved. For example, Southern Europe suffers from earthquakes and wildfires that can cause severe and widespread damage. This implies that there is a need for highly trained and skilled personnel, not only for efficiency purposes, but also in order to avoid casualties among the operating staff. However, the need of volunteers' involvement is well recognised both for prevention measures (mainly regarding forest fires) and for disaster management purposes particularly during major catastrophes whereas the professional personnel are outsourced. Moreover, the economic crisis stretches the public sector, decreasing the capability and resources of the state mechanism. The latter increases the need for the volunteers' active participation, which is also regarded as cost effective. Greece has a short tradition regarding volunteers and their official involvement with natural hazards. This is also due to the fact that civil protection has a short history in Greece, since it was established in 1995, whereas its legal framework was only shaped in 2002. The act 3013/2002 introduces officially the role of volunteers within the legal framework. In particular, the act N3013/2002 offers a detailed description of the role of voluntary organizations within the civil protection system, the interagency cooperation, and the financial instruments through which the various bodies secure their funding along with the establishment of an inventory from the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. However, several provisions described in the 2002 Act have not been applied yet. For instance voluntary organizations are not

  6. Collaboration Between Academia and Practice: Interprofessional Crises Leadership and Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Cheryl; Farra, Sharon; Mainous, Rosalie; Baute, Rebecca; Gneuhs, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    An innovative interprofessional disaster preparedness program was designed and implemented through an academic-practice partnership between a large midwestern children's hospital and a community-based state university. This course was part of a constellation of courses developed in response to Presidential Directive (HSPD) 8, a mandate to standardize disaster response training that was issued after the inefficiencies following Hurricane Katrina. A hybrid immersive and didactic approach was used to train senior leadership and frontline clinicians. Included were simulated experiences at the National Center for Medical Readiness, a workshop, and online modules. The program that focused on crisis leadership and disaster management was developed and implemented to serve patient-centered organizations.

  7. Group counseling: A silver lining in the psychological management of disaster trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Nidhi; Yadav, Ravinder; Singh, Nirender Pal

    2010-01-01

    Management of disaster effects, physical or psychological, has been the subject of considerable research. Though physical rehabilitation of the victims of any disaster, whether natural or man-made, receives immediate attention, the management of psychological trauma often remains a challenge for the disaster management machinery, in general, and mental health professionals, in particular. The magnitude of population affected, on the one hand, and lack of sufficient mental health professionals, on the other hand, often hinders the psychological rehabilitation of a cross section of the affected population. We attempt to present an overview of the literature to bring home the understanding of correlates of psychological effects in the mass disaster affected population in this article. It dwells on the efficacy of group counseling as the most appropriate paradigm of primary prevention to check the onset of severe psychological disorders. The article also presents an overview of two case studies: tsunami disaster (Nagapatanam, Tamil Nadu, India) and victims of bomb blast (Dhimajee, Assam, India) to highlight the silver lining in the psychological management of disaster traumas. It is proposed that group counseling can prove to be a most important mental rehabilitation program to further strengthen the efficacy of individual therapeutic interventions. PMID:21829322

  8. Emergency managers as change agents: recognizing the value of management, leadership, and strategic management in the disaster profession.

    PubMed

    Urby, Heriberto; McEntire, David A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the influence of management theory, some principles of leadership, four strategic management considerations, that are applied to emergency management, allow emergency managers to transform their followers, organizations, and communities at large. The authors argue that in the past there has been little recognition of the value, or application, of these three areas of emphasis in the disaster profession. Using more of these principles, emergency managers may transform into transformational change agents who make a difference in their followers' lives, who themselves transform other people and improve emergency management.

  9. Governance of Local Disaster Management Committees in line with SOD in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiquee, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Due to its geographical location Bangladesh has always been prone to natural disasters such as tropical cyclones, floods, droughts, tidal surges, tornadoes, river-bank erosion and many more. The study was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Both open-ended and close-ended questions were asked. Questionnaire, KII and district gathering consultation tools were used to collect information from respondents in both the government organizations and NGOs. A total of 51 Disaster Management Committees (DMCs) in five districts that were vulnerable to flood, river-bank erosion, drought and cyclone were taken as sample to analyze the current situation of the disaster management committee. The study was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Surprisingly, the study has found that only 38.9% DMC members are informed about Disaster Management Act and 36.76% are aware about their roles and responsibilities in the Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD). Although the selected districts are extremely prone to disasters and District Disaster Management Committees (DDMCs), Upazila Disaster Management Committees (UzDMCs) and Union Disaster Management Committees (UDMCs) are holding regular meetings as per the SOD to mitigate the problems. The scenario has been found that the committees are the pillars of exchanging and coordinating the different departments to act collaboratively. 43.80% of DMCs have Risk Reduction Action Plan (RRAP) according to the Risk Reduction Action Plan. It was found that 23.3% of DMCs have developed volunteer groups and 26% of DMCs have arranged community awareness building programs. The study has also found that 34% of Union Parishads have incorporated Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into their Annual Development Plan (ADP). It is alarming that even though Bangladesh is one of the prime victims of climate change, encountering severe and frequent disasters like Sidr, Aila and Mahasen, 66% of the sample Union Parishads did not

  10. 78 FR 14740 - Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) Program-Deadline Extensions and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2013-0004] RIN 1660-AA78 Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG..., DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: FEMA proposes to revise its Fire Management Assistance Grant...-2340, or (email) [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Fire Management...

  11. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  12. The Chennai floods of 2015: urgent need for ethical disaster management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.

  13. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  14. Disaster relief volunteerism: Evaluating cities' planning for the usage and management of spontaneous volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jason David; Wood, Zachary David

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide.

  15. Understanding and managing disaster evacuation on a transportation network.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Parlak, Ayse I; Zhou, Qian; Miller, John S; Fontaine, Michael D; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L; Thekdi, Shital A

    2013-01-01

    Uncertain population behaviors in a regional emergency could potentially harm the performance of the region's transportation system and subsequent evacuation effort. The integration of behavioral survey data with travel demand modeling enables an assessment of transportation system performance and the identification of operational and public health countermeasures. This paper analyzes transportation system demand and system performance for emergency management in three disaster scenarios. A two-step methodology first estimates the number of trips evacuating the region, thereby capturing behavioral aspects in a scientifically defensible manner based on survey results, and second, assigns these trips to a regional highway network, using geographic information systems software, thereby making the methodology transferable to other locations. Performance measures are generated for each scenario including maps of volume-to-capacity ratios, geographic contours of evacuation time from the center of the region, and link-specific metrics such as weighted average speed and traffic volume. The methods are demonstrated on a 600 segment transportation network in Washington, DC (USA) and are applied to three scenarios involving attacks from radiological dispersion devices (e.g., dirty bombs). The results suggests that: (1) a single detonation would degrade transportation system performance two to three times more than that which occurs during a typical weekday afternoon peak hour, (2) volume on several critical arterials within the network would exceed capacity in the represented scenarios, and (3) resulting travel times to reach intended destinations imply that un-aided evacuation is impractical. These results assist decisions made by two categories of emergency responders: (1) transportation managers who provide traveler information and who make operational adjustments to improve the network (e.g., signal retiming) and (2) public health officials who maintain shelters, food and

  16. Social isolation and cancer management after the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Saji, Shigehira; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Tsukada, Manabu; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer patients may present with patient delay or experience provider delay—2 factors which can lead to a late-stage diagnosis and poor prognosis. Mass disasters drastically change social structures, and have the potential to contribute to these delays. However, there is little information available on patient and provider delay related to cancer after disasters. In March 2011, an earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear accident struck Fukushima, Japan. In July 2014, a 59 year-old Japanese widow, living alone, presented to our hospital with a lump and pain in her right breast, which had originally appeared in April 2011 and continuously deteriorated for 3 years and 3 months. She was diagnosed with stage IIIB right breast cancer. Detailed history revealed that she was exposed to social isolation in the aftermath of the disasters due to evacuation of her friends and daughter. Although she regularly saw her general practitioner, she did not disclose her breast symptoms for 1 year and 5 months, at which time she was falsely diagnosed with intercostal neuralgia. She did not seek further medical attention for the breast symptoms for another 1 year and 10 months, despite multiple clinic visits for unrelated reasons. The present disasters, particularly the nuclear disaster, seem to have led to the social isolation of local residents, reducing their opportunities to discuss health concerns with others and seek subsequent medical attention. This case highlights that social isolation may contribute to patient and provider delay in breast cancer patients, as accentuated in this disaster setting. PMID:27368025

  17. Need for continual education about disaster medicine for health professionals in China--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Li, Jing; Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Weidong; Pan, Futang; Miao, Shujun

    2011-02-09

    Disaster Medicine training is not included in medical education curriculum in China, even though the country has suffered various disasters annually. We intended to assess the need for continual education regarding disaster management for health professionals in China. A survey was conducted among 324 health professionals who participated in the response to the Wenchuan earthquake medical relief and public health assessment in October, 2008. The most of participants (67.3%) received informal disaster medicine training, and only a few (12.7%) participated in disaster drills. Most of the participants wanted to get continual education about disaster medicine training (89.8%), but prefer on-line training course for the flexibility of time scheduling and travel through China. The need for continual disaster medicine training is high; health professionals should be equipped with knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  18. Impact of natural disaster combined with nuclear power plant accidents on local medical services: a case study of Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuko; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Hayashi, Kaoru; Takano, Michiko; Nagano, Mayumi; Onoda, Katsuko; Yoshida, Toshiharu; Takada, Akemi; Hanai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Shunji; Shimada, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Syuichi; Monma, Kazuo; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the impacts of nuclear plant accidents on neighboring medical centers, we investigated the operations of our hospital within the first 10 days of the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Data were extracted from medical records and hospital administrative records covering 11 to 20 March 2011. Factual information on the disaster was obtained from public access media. A total of 622 outpatients and 241 inpatients were treated. Outpatients included 43 injured, 6 with cardiopulmonary arrest, and 573 with chronic diseases. Among the 241 inpatients, 5 died, 137 were discharged, and the other 99 were transferred to other hospitals. No communication methods or medical or food supplies were available for 4 days after the earthquake. Hospital directors allowed employees to leave the hospital on day 4. All 39 temporary workers were evacuated immediately, and 71 of 239 full-time employees remained. These employees handled extra tasks besides patient care and patient transfer to other hospitals. Committed effective doses indicating the magnitude of health risks due to an intake of radioactive cesium into the human body were found to be minimal according to internal radiation exposure screening carried out from July to August 2011. After the disaster, hospitals located within the evacuation zone of a 30-km radius of the nuclear power plant were isolated. Maintenance of the health care system in such an event becomes difficult.

  19. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    PubMed Central

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems. PMID:27873783

  20. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management.

    PubMed

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-08-19

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE-SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters - standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space - is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  1. Material Specters: International Conflicts, Disaster Management, and Educational Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Marianna Papastephanou discusses three books--Michalinos Zembylas's "The Politics of Trauma in Education"; Sigal Ben-Porath's "Citizenship Under Fire: Democratic Education in Times of Conflict"; and Kenneth Saltman's "Capitalizing on Disaster: Taking and Breaking Public Schools"--from the perspective of the material causality of…

  2. Assistive Technology and Older Adults in Disasters: Implications for Emergency Management.

    PubMed

    McSweeney-Feld, Mary Helen

    2017-02-01

    This article identifies concepts, trends, and policy gaps in the availability and service delivery of assistive technology utilized by older adults in disasters, as well as implications for emergency management planning and shelter administration. Definitions of types of assistive technology, as well as views of older adults using technology as at-risk individuals for emergency management service provision, are provided. An overview of peer-reviewed articles and gray literature is conducted, focusing on publications from 2001 to the present in the United States. Analytical frameworks used by emergency management organizations as well as regulations such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and recent court decisions on emergency shelter accessibility in disasters are reviewed. Research on the use of assistive technology by older adults during disasters is a neglected issue. The current and potential benefits of defining standards for provision and use of assistive technology for older adults during disasters has received limited recognition in emergency management planning. Older adults with disabilities utilize assistive technology to maintain their independence and dignity, and communities as well as emergency services managers need to become more aware of the needs and preferences of these older adults in their planning processes and drills as well as in service delivery during actual events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:135-139).

  3. Oral health-related quality of life and related factors among residents in a disaster area of the Great East Japan Earthquake and giant tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Mitsuo; Aizawa, Fumie; Matsui, Miki; Yokoyama, Yukari; Abe, Akiko; Minami, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ruriko; Miura, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira

    2015-09-15

    Oral health is one of the most important issues for disaster survivors. The aim of this study was to determine post-disaster distribution of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and related factors in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Questionnaires to assess OHRQoL, psychological distress, disaster-related experiences, and current systemic-health and economic conditions were sent to survivors over 18 years of age living in Otsuchi, one of the most severely damaged municipalities. OHRQoL and psychological distress were assessed using the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), Japanese version, respectively. Among 11,411 residents, 1,987 returned the questionnaire (response rate, 17.4%) and received an oral examination to determine number of present teeth, dental caries status, and tooth-mobility grade, and to assess periodontal health using the Community Periodontal Index. Relationships between GOHAI and related factors were examined by nonparametric bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses using GOHAI cutoff points at the 25(th) and 50(th) national standard percentiles. GOHAI scores were significantly lower in the 50-69-age group compared with other age groups in this study and compared with the national standard score. In bivariate analyses, all factors assessed in this study (i.e., sex, age, evacuation from home, interruption of dental treatment, lost or fractured dentures, self-rated systemic health, serious psychological distress (SPD), economic status, number of teeth, having decayed teeth, CPI code, and tooth mobility) were significantly associated with OHRQoL. Subsequent multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that participants of upper-middle age, who had received dental treatment before the disaster, who had lost or fractured dentures, and who had clinical oral health problems were likely to show low levels of OHRQoL. In addition, perceived

  4. Role of Mass Media in the Disaster Preparedness and Sustainable Development of Society

    SciT

    Seid-Aliyeva, Dinara E.

    2006-03-23

    Better understanding of the causes and effects of large earthquakes can assists in mitigation of damage and loss of lives as a result of destructive natural events. Well-informed and educated population living in geological hazard-prone regions can reduce catastrophic consequences of natural disasters and guaranty the sustainable development of healthy society. A development of information service for disaster management is of importance in reduction of the disaster's consequences.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Emergency Response Operations: Haiti Earthquake in January 2010 and Pakistan’s Flood in 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Earthquake, Pakistan, Flood, Emergency Response Operations, International Community, HA/DR, United Nations , FRC, NDMA , ICT 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Registration Authority NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDMA National Disaster and Management Authority NDMC National Disaster Management...complicates relief efforts. 6 NDMA Pakistan, “Pakistan Floods-Summary of Damages,” No Author. Accessed 24

  6. Impact of the Japan earthquake disaster with massive Tsunami on emergency coronary intervention and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomonori; Nakajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Nishiyama, Osamu; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Endo, Hiroshi; Sakai, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Morino, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate reperfusion rate, therapeutic time course and in-hospital mortality pre- and post-Japan earthquake disaster, comparing patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated in the inland area or the Tsunami-stricken area of Iwate prefecture. Subjects were 386 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to the four percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers in Iwate prefecture in 2010 and 2011. Patients were divided into two groups: those treated in the inland or Tsunami-stricken area. We compared clinical characteristics, time course and in-hospital mortality in both years in the two groups. PCI was performed in 310 patients (80.3%). Door-to-balloon (D2B) time in the Tsunami-stricken area in 2011 was significantly shorter than in 2010 in patients treated with PCI. However, the rate of PCI performed in the Tsunami-stricken area in March-April 2011 was significantly lower than that in March-April 2010 (41.2% vs 85.7%; p=0.03). In-hospital mortality increased three-fold from 7.1% in March-April 2010 to 23.5% in March-April 2011 in the Tsunami-stricken area. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in March-April 2011 in the Tsunami-stricken area was significantly higher than the control SMR (SMR 4.72: 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-12.6: p=0.007). The rate of PCI decreased and in-hospital mortality increased immediately after the Japan earthquake disaster in the Tsunami-stricken area. Disorder in hospitals and in the distribution systems after the disaster impacted the clinical care and outcome of STEMI patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  7. [Factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Shunichi; Ohno, Takashi; Kodaka, Akira; Okuyama, Junko; Honda, Nami; Inoue, Takao; Sato, Yuki; Miyajima, Maki; Tomita, Hiroaki; Denda, Kenzou; Matsuoka, Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with the psychological impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on high school students 1 year and 4 months after the disaster, and clarify support needs of the students. In the outreach program for students of three high schools in coastal areas of southern Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 1,973 students were surveyed after obtaining informed consent for participation. Questionnaires included: the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-J), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Impact of Event Scale-revised (IES-R), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10). All scores were compared using SPSS 20.0 J between school grades, locations of the schools, and extent of damage due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Our analysis showed a significant positive correlation between school grades and the level of anxiety. PTSR scores, but not anxiety nor depressive scores, of students whose lives have suffered extensive damage were significantly higher than those of students who have not. Students of high schools which have suffered extensive damage and use temporary buildings showed significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety, and significantly lower resilience, compared to students of high schools which were not damaged. Although previous findings demonstrated that younger children have a higher risk of being influenced by disasters, symptoms related to PTSR and depression were found frequently in the high school students as well. Among the high school students, our analysis showed a positive correlation between the level of anxiety and school grades, probably because the disaster has affected an influential and pivotal point in their lives.

  8. Forty Days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Field Research Investigating Community Engagement and Traumatic Stress Screening in a Post-Disaster Community Mental Health Training

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Peter W.; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L.; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed. PMID:23977819

  9. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  10. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Establishment and growth, 2008–2010 1

    PubMed Central

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) established the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of involvement in providing health information for disaster management. Aware of this legacy and moved by the catastrophic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM was urged to “ensure continuous access to health information and effective use of libraries and librarians when disasters occur”. In response to this charge, NLM has undertaken substantial efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper documents the history, goals, initiatives, accomplishments and future plans of the Center. PMID:25324584

  11. Stressors of Korean Disaster Relief Team Members during the Nepal Earthquake Dispatch: a Consensual Qualitative Research Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangeui; Lee, So Hee; Park, Taejin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2017-03-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences. Stress tended to stem from several factors: difficulties related to cooperation with new team members, the frightening disaster experience, and the aftermath of the disaster. Other stressors included conflict with the control tower, diverse problems at the disaster relief work site, and environmental factors. The most common reason that members participated in KDRT work despite all the stressors and difficulties was pride about the kind of work it involved. Many subjects in this study suffered from various stresses after the relief work, but they had no other choice than to attempt to forget about their experiences over time. It is recommended that the mental health of disaster relief workers will improve through the further development of effective treatment and surveillance programs in the future.

  12. Stressors of Korean Disaster Relief Team Members during the Nepal Earthquake Dispatch: a Consensual Qualitative Research Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences. Stress tended to stem from several factors: difficulties related to cooperation with new team members, the frightening disaster experience, and the aftermath of the disaster. Other stressors included conflict with the control tower, diverse problems at the disaster relief work site, and environmental factors. The most common reason that members participated in KDRT work despite all the stressors and difficulties was pride about the kind of work it involved. Many subjects in this study suffered from various stresses after the relief work, but they had no other choice than to attempt to forget about their experiences over time. It is recommended that the mental health of disaster relief workers will improve through the further development of effective treatment and surveillance programs in the future. PMID:28145656

  13. Reaching the global community during disasters: findings from a content analysis of the organizational use of Twitter after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ellenberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites provide virtual environments in which individuals and organizations exchange real-time information on a multitude of topics, including health promotion and disease prevention. The January 2010 earthquake in Haiti has been posited as a turning point in the way in which organizations use social media, such as Twitter, for crisis communication. The purpose of this content analysis was to explore whether organizations' use of Twitter changed after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. A team of 13 coders analyzed all English-language tweets (N = 2,616) during the 3 months before and post earthquake from 6 leading organizations in the Haiti disaster relief efforts. Study findings indicate that the ways in which organizations used Twitter changed over time. Chi-square analyses demonstrated that organizations decreased in their use of certain strategies to disseminate information through Twitter, such as the use of links. Organizations did not change in their use of techniques to involve users (e.g., retweet, call to action), with the exception of using tweets as a fundraising mechanism. Study findings highlight missed opportunities among organizations to maximize Twitter in order to encourage more interactive and immediate communication with the global community.

  14. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  15. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  16. In Search of Perfect Foresight? Policy Bias, Management of Unknowns, and What Has Changed in Science Policy Since the Tohoku Disaster.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Junko; Komendantova, Nadejda

    2017-02-01

    The failure to foresee the catastrophic earthquakes, tsunamis, and nuclear accident of 2011 has been perceived by many in Japan as a fundamental shortcoming of modern disaster risk science. Hampered by a variety of cognitive and institutional biases, the conventional disaster risk management planning based on the "known risks" led to the cascading failures of the interlinked disaster risk management (DRM) apparatus. This realization led to a major rethinking in the use of science for policy and the incorporations of lessons learned in the country's new DRM policy. This study reviews publicly available documents on expert committee discussions and scientific articles to identify what continuities and changes have been made in the use of scientific knowledge in Japanese risk management. In general, the prior influence of cognitive bias (e.g., overreliance on documented hazard risks) has been largely recognized, and increased attention is now being paid to the incorporation of less documented but known risks. This has led to upward adjustments in estimated damages from future risks and recognition of the need for further strengthening of DRM policy. At the same time, there remains significant continuity in the way scientific knowledge is perceived to provide sufficient and justifiable grounds for the development and implementation of DRM policy. The emphasis on "evidence-based policy" in earthquake and tsunami risk reduction measures continues, despite the critical reflections of a group of scientists who advocate for a major rethinking of the country's science-policy institution respecting the limitations of the current state science. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Education in Disaster Management: What Do We Offer and What Do We Need? Proposing a New Global Program.

    PubMed

    Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Lupesco, Olivera; Friedl, Tom; Arnim, Gotz; Kaptan, Kubilay; Djalali, Ahmadreza R; Foletti, Marco; Ingrasia, Pier Luigi; Ashkenazi, Michael; Arculeo, Chris; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Komadina, Radko; Voigt, Stefan; Carlström, Eric; James, James

    2016-12-01

    Although there is a significant willingness to respond to disasters, a review of post-event reports following incidents shows troubling repeated patterns with poorly integrated response activities and response managers inadequately trained for the requirements of disasters. This calls for a new overall approach in disaster management. An in-depth review of the education and training opportunities available to responders and disaster managers has been undertaken, as well as an extensive review of the educational competencies and their parent domains identified by subject matter experts as necessary for competent performance. Seven domains of competency and competencies that should be mastered by disaster mangers were identified. This set of domains and individual competencies was utilized to define a new and evolving curriculum. In order to evaluate and assess the mastery of each competency, objectives were more widely defined as activities under specific topics, as the measurable elements of the curriculum, for each managerial level. This program enables interagency cooperation and collaboration and could be used to increase and improve decision-makers' understanding of disaster managers' capabilities; at the strategic/tactical level to promote the knowledge and capability of the disaster managers themselves; and as continuing education or further career development for disaster managers at the operational level. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:854-873).

  18. Potential role of remote sensing in disaster relief management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Baseline or predisaster data which would be useful to decision making in the immediate postdisaster period were suggested for the six areas of public health concern along with guidelines for organizing these data. Potential sources of these data are identified. In order to fully assess the impact of a disaster on an area, information about its predisaster status must be known. Aerial photography is one way of acquiring and recording such data.

  19. International Collaboration in Satellite Observations for Disaster Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  20. Stren