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Sample records for earthquake hypocenter locations

  1. Precise hypocenter locations of midcrustal low-frequency earthquakes beneath Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Nakamichi, H.; Ukawa, M.; Sakai, S.

    2004-01-01

    Midcrustal low-frequency earthquakes (MLFs) have been observed at seismic stations around Mt. Fuji, Japan. In September - December 2000 and April - May 2001, abnormally high numbers of MLFs occurred. We located hypocenters for the 80 MLFs during 1998-2003 by using the hypoDD earthquake location program (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). The MLF hypocenters define an ellipsoidal volume some 5 km in diameter ranging from 11 to 16 km in focal depth. This volume is centered 3 km northeast of the summit and its long axis is directed NW-SE. The direction of the axis coincides with the major axis of tectonic compression around Mt. Fuji. The center of the MLF epicenters gradually migrated upward and 2-3 km from southeast to northwest during 1998-2001. We interpret that the hypocentral migration of MLFs reflects magma movement associated with a NW-SE oriented dike beneath Mt. Fuji. Copyright ?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.

  2. Hypocenter for the 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake

    Archuleta, Ralph J.

    1982-01-01

    Using P-and S-wave arrival times with the laterally varying P-wave velocity structure derived from analysis of a refraction survey of the Imperial Valley, a hypocenter is ascertained for the October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley earthquake: Latitude 32° 39.50′N, Longitude 115° 19.80′W, Depth 8.0 km, Time 23:16:54.40 GMT.

  3. Seismicity, faulting, and structure of the Koyna-Warna seismic region, Western India from local earthquake tomography and hypocenter locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Madan M.; Kumar, Sanjay; Catchings, R. D.; Suman, K.; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sen, M. K.

    2014-08-01

    Although seismicity near Koyna Reservoir (India) has persisted for ~50 years and includes the largest induced earthquake (M 6.3) reported worldwide, the seismotectonic framework of the area is not well understood. We recorded ~1800 earthquakes from 6 January 2010 to 28 May 2010 and located a subset of 343 of the highest-quality earthquakes using the tomoDD code of Zhang and Thurber (2003) to better understand the framework. We also inverted first arrivals for 3-D Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio tomography models of the upper 12 km of the crust. Epicenters for the recorded earthquakes are located south of the Koyna River, including a high-density cluster that coincides with a shallow depth (<1.5 km) zone of relatively high Vp and low Vs (also high Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios) near Warna Reservoir. This anomalous zone, which extends near vertically to at least 8 km depth and laterally northward at least 15 km, is likely a water-saturated zone of faults under high pore pressures. Because many of the earthquakes occur on the periphery of the fault zone, rather than near its center, the observed seismicity-velocity correlations are consistent with the concept that many of the earthquakes nucleate in fractures adjacent to the main fault zone due to high pore pressure. We interpret our velocity images as showing a series of northwest trending faults locally near the central part of Warna Reservoir and a major northward trending fault zone north of Warna Reservoir.

  4. Seismicity, faulting, and structure of the Koyna-Warna seismic region, Western India from local earthquake tomography and hypocenter locations

    Dixit, Madan M.; Kumar, Sanjay; Catchings, Rufus D.; Suman, K.; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sen, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Although seismicity near Koyna Reservoir (India) has persisted for ~50 years and includes the largest induced earthquake (M 6.3) reported worldwide, the seismotectonic framework of the area is not well understood. We recorded ~1800 earthquakes from 6 January 2010 to 28 May 2010 and located a subset of 343 of the highest-quality earthquakes using the tomoDD code of Zhang and Thurber (2003) to better understand the framework. We also inverted first arrivals for 3-D Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio tomography models of the upper 12 km of the crust. Epicenters for the recorded earthquakes are located south of the Koyna River, including a high-density cluster that coincides with a shallow depth (<1.5 km) zone of relatively high Vp and low Vs (also high Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios) near Warna Reservoir. This anomalous zone, which extends near vertically to at least 8 km depth and laterally northward at least 15 km, is likely a water-saturated zone of faults under high pore pressures. Because many of the earthquakes occur on the periphery of the fault zone, rather than near its center, the observed seismicity-velocity correlations are consistent with the concept that many of the earthquakes nucleate in fractures adjacent to the main fault zone due to high pore pressure. We interpret our velocity images as showing a series of northwest trending faults locally near the central part of Warna Reservoir and a major northward trending fault zone north of Warna Reservoir.

  5. Revision of earthquake hypocenter locations in GEOFON bulletin data using global source-specific station terms technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshiri, N.; Saul, J.; Heimann, S.; Tilmann, F. J.; Dahm, T.

    2015-12-01

    The use of a 1D velocity model for seismic event location is often associated with significant travel-time residuals. Particularly for regional stations in subduction zones, where the velocity structure strongly deviates from the assumed 1D model, residuals of up to ±10 seconds are observed even for clear arrivals, which leads to strongly biased locations. In fact, due to mostly regional travel-time anomalies, arrival times at regional stations do not match the location obtained with teleseismic picks, and vice versa. If the earthquake is weak and only recorded regionally, or if fast locations based on regional stations are needed, the location may be far off the corresponding teleseismic location. In this case, implementation of travel-time corrections may leads to a reduction of the travel-time residuals at regional stations and, in consequence, significantly improve the relative location accuracy. Here, we have extended the source-specific station terms (SSST) technique to regional and teleseismic distances and adopted the algorithm for probabilistic, non-linear, global-search earthquake location. The method has been applied to specific test regions using P and pP phases from the GEOFON bulletin data for all available station networks. By using this method, a set of timing corrections has been calculated for each station varying as a function of source position. In this way, an attempt is made to correct for the systematic errors, introduced by limitations and inaccuracies in the assumed velocity structure, without solving for a new earth model itself. In this presentation, we draw on examples of the application of this global SSST technique to relocate earthquakes from the Tonga-Fiji subduction zone and from the Chilean margin. Our results have been showing a considerable decrease of the root-mean-square (RMS) residual in earthquake location final catalogs, a major reduction of the median absolute deviation (MAD) of the travel

  6. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    SciT

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora, E-mail: rexha.vry@gmail.com; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment.more » We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.« less

  7. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    SciT

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths ofmore » 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.« less

  8. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

  9. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Redoubt Volcano and Mt. Spurr, Alaska: October 12, 1989 - December 31, 1990

    Power, John A.; March, Gail D.; Lahr, John C.; Jolly, Arthur D.; Cruse, Gina R.

    1993-01-01

    Following a 23 year period of quiescence, Redoubt Volcano erupted between December 14,1989 and April 21,1990. The eruption was accompanied by thousands of earthquakes (Alaska Volcano Observatory Staff, 1990). Throughout the eruption sequence, data from the PC/AT system provided the primary means of determining earthquake hypocenters. This report catalogs the earthquake hypocenters and magnitudes calculated from data collected between October 12, 1989 and December 31, 1990 on the PC/AT acquisition system, provides station locations, statistics, and calibrations, and outlines which stations were recorded and used in triggering the PC/AT system.

  10. The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carannante, Simona; Argnani, Andrea; Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Lovati, Sara; Moretti, Milena; Cattaneo, Marco; Augliera, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This study presents new geological and seismological data that are used to assess the seismic hazard of a sector of the Po Plain (northern Italy), a large alluvial basin hit by two strong earthquakes on May 20 (MW 6.1) and May 29 (MW 6.0), 2012. The proposed interpretation is based on high-quality relocation of 5369 earthquakes ('Emilia sequence') and a dense grid of seismic profiles and exploration wells. The analyzed seismicity was recorded by 44 seismic stations, and initially used to calibrate new one-dimensional and three-dimensional local Vp and Vs velocity models for the area. Considering these new models, the initial sparse hypocenters were then relocated in absolute mode and adjusted using the double-difference relative location algorithm. These data define a seismicity that is elongated in the W-NW to E-SE directions. The aftershocks of the May 20 mainshock appear to be distributed on a rupture surface that dips ~ 45° SSW, and the surface projection indicates an area ~ 10 km wide and 23 km long. The aftershocks of the May 29 mainshock followed a steep rupture surface that is well constrained within the investigated volume, whereby the surface projection of the blind source indicates an area ~ 6 km wide and 33 km long. Multichannel seismic profiles highlight the presence of relevant lateral variations in the structural style of the Ferrara folds that developed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. There is also evidence of a Mesozoic extensional fault system in the Ferrara arc, with faults that in places have been seismically reactivated. These geological and seismological observations suggest that the 2012 Emilia earthquakes were related to ruptures along blind fault surfaces that are not part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene structural system, but are instead related to a deeper system that is itself closely related to re-activation of a Mesozoic extensional fault system.

  11. Comment on "The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, Northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2016-10-01

    Carannante et al. (2015) proposed an original seismotectonic interpretation of the Ferrara arc in the Po Plain (Italy) based on an accurate hypocenter relocation of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence and on structural analyses of sub-surface data. They contend that the causative faults of the 2012 sequence do not belong to the fold-and-thrusts system comprising the Ferrara Arc but in fact are located in the underlying basement. In our view this interpretation does not agree with observations, including: 1) the structural interpretation of the seismic reflection lines, that contrasts with some of the available data, e.g. the stratigraphy inferred from deep wells; 2) the seismotectonic setting, that is based exclusively on the correlation between inferred structural features and the location of late aftershocks; and 3) the inconsistency of the proposed seismogenic sources with the elevation changes caused by the sequence. All these points compromise the Carannante et al.'s interpretation and, as a consequence, previously proposed seismotectonic models are still valid.

  12. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2012

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Haney, Matthew M.; Parker, Tom; Searcy, Cheryl; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2012, the Alaska Volcano Observatory located 4,787 earthquakes, of which 4,211 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by a seismograph network. There was significant seismic activity at Iliamna, Kanaga, and Little Sitkin volcanoes in 2012. Instrumentation highlights for this year include the implementation of the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System hardware and software in February 2012 and the continuation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work in the summer of 2012. The operational highlight was the removal of Mount Wrangell from the list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes hypocenters, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2012 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  13. Micro-earthquake signal analysis and hypocenter determination around Lokon volcano complex

    SciT

    Firmansyah, Rizky, E-mail: rizkyfirmansyah@hotmail.com; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Kristianto, E-mail: kris@vsi.esdm.go.id

    Mount Lokon is one of five active volcanoes which is located in the North Sulawesi region. Since June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) for this mountain. The Mount Lokon volcano erupted on July 4{sup th}, 2011 and still continuously erupted until August 28{sup th}, 2011. Due to its high seismic activity, this study is focused to analysis of micro-earthquake signal and determine the micro-earthquake hypocenter location around the complex area of Lokon-Empung Volcano before eruption phase in 2011 (time periods of January, 2009 up to March, 2010). Determination ofmore » the hypocenter location was conducted with Geiger Adaptive Damping (GAD) method. We used initial model from previous study in Volcan de Colima, Mexico. The reason behind the model selection was based on the same characteristics that shared between Mount Lokon and Colima including andesitic stratovolcano and small-plinian explosions volcanian types. In this study, a picking events was limited to the volcano-tectonics of A and B types, hybrid, long-period that has a clear signal onset, and local tectonic with different maximum S – P time are not more than three seconds. As a result, we observed the micro-earthquakes occurred in the area north-west of Mount Lokon region.« less

  14. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  15. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  16. hypoDD-A Program to Compute Double-Difference Hypocenter Locations

    Waldhauser, Felix

    2001-01-01

    HypoDD is a Fortran computer program package for relocating earthquakes with the double-difference algorithm of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). This document provides a brief introduction into how to run and use the programs ph2dt and hypoDD to compute double-difference (DD) hypocenter locations. It gives a short overview of the DD technique, discusses the data preprocessing using ph2dt, and leads through the earthquake relocation process using hypoDD. The appendices include the reference manuals for the two programs and a short description of auxiliary programs and example data. Some minor subroutines are presently in the c language, and future releases will be in c. Earthquake location algorithms are usually based on some form of Geiger’s method, the linearization of the travel time equation in a first order Taylor series that relates the difference between the observed and predicted travel time to unknown adjustments in the hypocentral coordinates through the partial derivatives of travel time with respect to the unknowns. Earthquakes can be located individually with this algorithm, or jointly when other unknowns link together the solutions to indivdual earthquakes, such as station corrections in the joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method, or the earth model in seismic tomography. The DD technique (described in detail in Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) takes advantage of the fact that if the hypocentral separation between two earthquakes is small compared to the event-station distance and the scale length of velocity heterogeneity, then the ray paths between the source region and a common station are similar along almost the entire ray path (Fréchet, 1985; Got et al., 1994). In this case, the difference in travel times for two events observed at one station can be attributed to the spatial offset between the events with high accuracy. DD equations are built by differencing Geiger’s equation for earthquake location. In this way, the residual between

  17. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2004

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Prejean, Stephanie; Sanchez, John J.; Sanches, Rebecca; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2005-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2004.These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Mount Peulik, Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Over the past year, formal monitoring of Okmok, Tanaga and Gareloi were announced following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at each volcanic center. The seismicity at Mount Peulik was still being studied at the end of 2004 and has yet to be added to the list of monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. AVO located 6928 earthquakes in 2004.Monitoring highlights in 2004 include: (1) an earthquake swarm at Westdahl Peak in January; (2) an increase in seismicity at Mount Spurr starting in February continuing through the end of the year into 2005; (4) low-level tremor, and low-frequency events related to intermittent ash and steam emissions at Mount Veniaminof between April and October; (4) low-level tremor at Shishaldin Volcano between April and

  18. Relationship between pressure, density of induced earthquake hypocenters, and permeability in the 2011 Paralana EGS stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffault, J.; Dempsey, D. E.; Karra, S.; Archer, R.

    2016-12-01

    To create an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS), high pressure injection is undertaken to reactivate pre-existing fractures and enhance their permeability. During the 2011 Paralana-2 EGS stimulation in South Australia, both injectivity, the ratio of the injection rate to wellhead pressure, and seismicity were recorded. An increase in injectivity indicates that permeability has been enhanced, although it does not constrain the location or magnitude of the change. Induced earthquakes, a spatiotemporal dataset, can confine the range of possible scenarios for permeability evolution. We consider a model in which the number of hypocenters recorded per unit of area of the injection plane (the hypocenter density) is proportional to fluid pressure increase. Then an inverse modelling approach is employed to recover the permeability enhancement distribution that is consistent with both the recorded changes in injectivity and seismicity. Our forward model is radial Darcy-flow with permeability a prescribed function of time and distance, i.e., k(r,t). Initially, we identify a range of permeability evolution scenarios that reproduce the observed injectivity increase with time. Thus, injectivity observations on their own are insufficient to constrain k(r,t). Then, we calibrate k(r,t) for a close match between the modelled pressure distribution and that inferred from the hypocenter density observations using a simple proportionality constant. The resulting permeability model is the one most likely to approximate permeability evolution during the Paralana stimulation.

  19. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2005

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005.The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two volcanoes within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island volcanoes and Little Sitkin Volcano. Seismicity at these volcanoes was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin Volcano, formal monitoring of these volcanoes began in 2005. AVO located 9,012 earthquakes in 2005.Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine Volcano starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga Volcano in October and November.This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a

  20. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2003

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003.The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  1. IRIS Earthquake Browser with Integration to the GEON IDV for 3-D Visualization of Hypocenters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weertman, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new generation of web based earthquake query tool - the IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB). The IEB combines the DMC's large set of earthquake catalogs (provided by USGS/NEIC, ISC and the ANF) with the popular Google Maps web interface. With the IEB you can quickly and easily find earthquakes in any region of the globe. Using Google's detailed satellite images, earthquakes can be easily co-located with natural geographic features such as volcanoes as well as man made features such as commercial mines. A set of controls allow earthquakes to be filtered by time, magnitude, and depth range as well as catalog name, contributor name and magnitude type. Displayed events can be easily exported in NetCDF format into the GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) where hypocenters may be visualized in three dimensions. Looking "under the hood", the IEB is based on AJAX technology and utilizes REST style web services hosted at the IRIS DMC. The IEB is part of a broader effort at the DMC aimed at making our data holdings available via web services. The IEB is useful both educationally and as a research tool.

  2. Stress drop estimates and hypocenter relocations of induced earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Gu, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the physical differences between induced and naturally occurring earthquakes using a sequence of events potentially induced by hydraulic fracturing near Fox Creek, Alberta. We perform precise estimations of static stress drop to determine if the range of values is low compared to values estimated for naturally occurring events, as has been suggested by previous studies. Starting with the Natural Resources Canada earthquake catalog and using waveform data from regional networks, we use a spectral ratio method to calculate the static stress drop values of a group of relocated earthquakes occurring in close proximity to hydraulic fracturing wells from December 2013 to June 2015. The spectral ratio method allows us to precisely constrain the corner frequencies of the amplitude spectra by eliminating the path and site effects of co-located event pairs. Our estimated stress drop values range from 0.1 - 149 MPa over the full range of observed magnitudes, Mw 1.5-4, which are on the high side of the typical reported range of tectonic events, but consistent with other regional studies [Zhang et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016]. , Stress drops values range from 11 to 93 MPa and appear to be scale invariant over the magnitude range Mw 3 - 4, and are less well constrained at lower magnitudes due to noise and bandwidth limitations. We observe no correlation between event stress drop and hypocenter depth or distance from the wells. Relocated hypocenters cluster around corresponding injection wells and form fine-scale lineations, suggesting the presence and orientation of fault planes. We conclude that neither the range of stress drops nor their scaling with respect to magnitude can be used to conclusively discriminate induced and tectonic earthquakes, as stress drop values may be greatly affected by the regional setting. Instead, the double-difference relocations may be a more reliable indicator of induced seismicity.

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.

    2001-01-01

    swarm at Akutan volcano in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof Volcano in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna volcano between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm located at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin Volcano in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna Volcano, and several of the Katmai volcanoes) experienced high rates of located earthquakes.This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake locations; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station locations, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    , hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake location quality; (2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (4) station parameters and velocity models used for earthquake locations; (5) a summary of daily station usage throughout the catalog period; and (6) all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations presented in this report.

  5. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2002

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2003-01-01

    an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2002.The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four volcanoes in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Great Sitkin Volcano, and Kanaga Volcano (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin Volcano in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok Volcano, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO located 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored volcanoes.This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a

  6. Earthquake cluster activity beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan: Migration of hypocenters and low stress drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Yukutake, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake cluster activity was observed beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan with a depth of 20 km in the end of January, 2012. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) determined hypocenters of 76 earthquakes with M > 2 in the area within 50 hours. Five of them had magnitudes greater than 4 and the largest one was 5.4. Four out of the five earthquakes had the reverse-type focal mechanisms with the P axis in the NW-SE direction. First we relocated hypocenters of the activity following the method of Yukutake et al. (2012). We estimated relative arrival times of P and S waves by calculating the coefficients of the cross correlation and relocated hypocenters with the double-difference relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). We found that the cluster activity showed a migration from the first earthquake of the activity. The parabolic migration speed was consistent with the migration speed of the deep tremor sources (Ide et al., 2010) for which the fluid activity would play an important role. We then analyzed stress drops of 17 earthquakes with M > 3.5 that occurred from January, 2000 to June, 2012 in the area of the cluster activity. We calculated empirical Green's functions from waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.0 to 3.2 and estimated stress drops of the earthquakes assuming that the source spectra can be expressed as the omega-squared model. We found that earthquakes of the cluster activity had smaller stress drops by an order of magnitude than the values of earthquakes that occurred in the same area before the cluster activity. These results suggest that the fluid played an important role for the earthquake cluster activity. That is, the fluid increased the pore pressure, decreased the effective normal stress and triggered the cluster activity. The difference of the rupture speed and the change of the rigidity might also be candidates that account for our results. They, however, can hardly explain the results quantitatively. Fig

  7. The use of subsurface thermal data, isotopic tracers and earthquake hypocenter locations to unravel deep regional flow systems within the crystalline basement beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Pepin, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico hosts a number of low-temperature geothermal systems as well as the 19 km deep Socorro Magma Body. The presence of a mantle helium anomaly measured at San Acacia spring (3He/4He = 0.295 RA) and in an adjacent shallow well (50m < ; 0.8 RA) overlying the Socorro Magma Body at the southern terminus of the Albuquerque Basin suggests that deeply sourced fluids mix with the sedimentary basin groundwater flow system. Temperatures recorded at the base of the San Acacia well is elevated (29 oC). Published estimates of uplift rates and heat flow suggest that the magma body was emplaced about 1-3 ka and reflects a long-lived (several Ma) magmatic system. Further south near the southern terminus of the Engle Basin, much warmer temperatures (42 oC) occur at shallow depths within the spa district in the town of Truth or Consequences at shallow depths also suggesting deep-fluid circulation. 14C constrained apparent groundwater residence times in the spa district range between 6-10 ka. We have developed two 6-19 km deep crustal-scale, cross-sectional models that simulate subsurface fluid flow, heat and isotope (3He/4He) transport as well as groundwater residence times along the Rio Grande rift. The North-South oriented model of the Albuquerque Basin incorporates a high-permeability conduit 100 m wide having hydrologic properties differing from surrounding crystalline basement units. We use these models to constrain the crustal permeability structure and fluid circulation patterns beneath the Albuquerque and Engle Basins. Model results are compared to measurements of groundwater temperatures, residence times (14C), and 3He/4He data. We also use the distribution of earthquake hypocenters to constrain likely fault-crystalline basement hydraulic interactions in the seismogenic crust above the Socorro Magma Body. For the case of the southern Albuquerque Basin, conduit permeability associated with the Indian Hill conduit/fault zone must range between

  8. Earthquake effect on volcano and the geological structure in central java using tomography travel time method and relocation hypocenter by grid search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharsono; Nurdian, S. W.; Palupi, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Relocating hypocenter is a way to improve the velocity model of the subsurface. One of the method is Grid Search. To perform the distribution of the velocity in subsurface by tomography method, it is used the result of relocating hypocenter to be a reference for subsurface analysis in volcanic and major structural patterns, such as in Central Java. The main data of this study is the earthquake data recorded from 1952 to 2012 with the P wave number is 9162, the number of events is 2426 were recorded by 30 stations located in the vicinity of Central Java. Grid search method has some advantages they are: it can relocate the hypocenter more accurate because this method is dividing space lattice model into blocks, and each grid block can only be occupied by one point hypocenter. Tomography technique is done by travel time data that has had relocated with inversion pseudo bending method. Grid search relocated method show that the hypocenter's depth is shallower than before and the direction is to the south, the hypocenter distribution is modeled into the subduction zone between the continent of Eurasia with the Indo-Australian with an average angle of 14 °. The tomography results show the low velocity value is contained under volcanoes with value of -8% to -10%, then the pattern of the main fault structure in Central Java can be description by the results of tomography at high velocity that is from 8% to 10% with the direction is northwest and northeast-southwest.

  9. Faulting type classification of small earthquakes using a template approach and their hypocenter relocation along the Japan and Kuril trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, W.; Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    trench, many interplate earthquakes occurred as aftershocks of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (M8.0). To verify the validity of the results and to examine the detail of the focal mechanism distribution, we relocated hypocenters by tomoFDD code (Zhang and Thurber. 2006) using a 3D velocity structure. Most of interplate-type earthquakes were located near the plate boundary except in the near trench-region, suggesting the correctness of mechanism and earthquake location. The hypocenters of normal faulting events that occurred after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake off Miyagi were relocated within 20km from the surface of the Pacific plate. This result suggests the normal faulting event in the incoming Pacific plate occurred in a shallower part of the plate as suggested from OBS data analyses. Normal faulting earthquakes off Miyagi occurred not only in the outer trench region but also above the plate boundary near the coast. The focal mechanism classification method developed in the present study using waveform cross-correlations increases the number of classified earthquakes that show the temporal changes in the interplate coupling and stress field around the plate boundary.

  10. Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes: Centroid Bias of the Conditional Hypocenter Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity is known to strongly influence ground motions. We describe how rupture directivity can be forecast in terms of the "conditional hypocenter distribution" or CHD, defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of moment release (fault slip). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution, in which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. For rupture models in which the rupture velocity and rise time depend only on the local slip, the CHD completely specifies the distribution of the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. This parameter, which is zero for a bilateral rupture and unity for a unilateral rupture, can be estimated from finite-source models or by the direct inversion of seismograms (McGuire et al., 2002). We compile D-values from published studies of 65 large earthquakes and show that these data are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD advocated by McGuire et al. (2002). Instead, the data indicate a "centroid biased" CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD. In other words, the observed directivities appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by this simple model. We discuss the implications of these results for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities. We also explore their PSHA implications by modifying the CyberShake simulation-based hazard model for the Los Angeles region, which assumed a uniform CHD (Graves et al., 2011).

  11. Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the stress shadow of NE Japan: Detailed fault structure and hypocenter migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the distribution and migration of hypocenters of an earthquake swarm that occurred in Sendai-Okura (NE Japan) 15 days after the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, despite the decrease in shear stress due to the static stress change. Hypocenters of 2476 events listed in the JMA catalogue were relocated based on the JMA unified catalogue data in conjunction with data obtained by waveform cross correlation. Hypocenter relocation was successful in delineating several thin planar structures, although the original hypocenters presented a cloud-like distribution. The hypocenters of this swarm event migrated along several planes from deeper to shallower levels rather than diffusing three-dimensionally. One of the nodal planes of the focal mechanisms was nearly parallel to the planar structure of the hypocenters, supporting the idea that each earthquake occurred by causing slip on parts of the same plane. The overall migration velocity of the hypocenters could be explained by the fluid diffusion model with a typical value of hydraulic diffusivity (0.15 m2/s); however, the occurrence of some burst-like activity with much higher migration velocity suggests the possibility that aseismic slip also contributed to triggering the earthquakes. We suggest that the 2011 Sendai-Okura earthquake swarm was generated as follows. (1) The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake caused WNW-ESE extension in the focal region of the swarm, which accordingly reduced shear stress on the fault planes. However, the WNW-ESE extension allowed fluids to move upward from the S-wave reflectors in the mid-crust immediately beneath the focal region. (2) The fluids rising from the mid-crust intruded into several existing planes, which reduced their frictional strengths and caused the observed earthquake swarm. (3) The fluids, and accordingly, the hypocenters of the triggered earthquakes, migrated upward along the fault planes. It is possible that the fluids also triggered aseismic slip, which caused

  12. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2011

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  13. Correlation between hypocenter depth, antecedent precipitation and earthquake-induced landslide spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Eisuke

    2017-04-01

    Since Keefer published the paper on earthquake magnitude and affected area, maximum epicentral/fault distance of induced landslide distribution in 1984, showing the envelope of plots, a lot of studies on this topic have been conducted. It has been generally supposed that landslides have been triggered by shallow quakes and more landslides are likely to occur with heavy rainfalls immediately before the quake. In order to confirm this, we have collected 22 case records of earthquake-induced landslide distribution in Japan and examined the effect of hypocenter depth and antecedent precipitation. Earthquake magnitude by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) of the cases are from 4.5 to 9.0. Analysis on hycpocenter depth showed the deeper quake cause wider distribution. Antecedent precipitation was evaluated using the Soil Water Index (SWI), which was developed by JMA for issuing landslide alert. We could not find meaningful correlation between SWI and the earthquake-induced landslide distribution. Additionally, we found that smaller minimum size of collected landslides results in wider distribution especially between 1,000 to 100,000 m2.

  14. Anatomy of a subduction zone - seismicity structure of the northern Chilean forearc from >100,000 double-difference relocated earthquake hypocenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    We present a catalog of >100k well-located earthquake hypocenters for the northern Chilean forearc region, between the latitudes of 18.5°S and 24°S. The detected events cover the timespan 2007-2014 and were extracted from the IPOC permanent station network dataset. Previously published earthquake catalogs for the region contain significantly fewer earthquakes. Using this new, high-resolution set of hypocenters, we can outline the slab structure in unprecedented detail, allowing e.g. the determination of along-strike changes in slab dip angle or the resolution of structures inside the zone of intermediate-depth seismicity. For the compilation of the catalog, we relied on an automated multi-step process for event detection, association and phase picking. Thus retrieved earthquake hypocenters were then relocated in a 2.5D velocity model for the Northern Chile forearc region with a probabilistic approach that also allows the determination of uncertainties. In a final step, double-difference re-location incorporating cross-correlation lag times was performed, which sharpened event clusters through relative location. We estimate that the completeness magnitude of the catalog is around 3. The majority of all >100k earthquakes are located at intermediate depths (between 80 and 140 km) inside the subducted slab. This area of pervasive activity extends along the entire strike of the investigated area, but shows a clear offset at 21°S, which may hint at a slab tear at this location. Events of comparable hypocentral depths to the south of this offset are located further east than the ones to the north of it. Further updip, a triple seismic zone at depths between 40 and around 80 km is visible, which grades into the highly active event cluster at intermediate depths: below the plate interface, which is clearly delineated by seismic activity, a second parallel band of hypocenters only about 5 km below likely corresponds to earthquakes occurring within the oceanic crust or

  15. Improvements of the offshore earthquake locations in the Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsu, Hsin-Chih

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014 the Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system has been operated and been used to issue warnings to schools. In 2015 the system started to provide warnings to the public in Taiwan via television and the cell phone. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 28 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. The eBEAR system in average can provide more warning time than the current EEW system (3.2 s and 5.5 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively). However, offshore earthquakes were usually located poorly because only P-wave arrivals were used in the eBEAR system. Additionally, in the early stage of the earthquake early warning system, only fewer stations are available. The poor station coverage may be a reason to answer why offshore earthquakes are difficult to locate accurately. In the Geiger's inversion procedure of earthquake location, we need to put an initial hypocenter and origin time into the location program. For the initial hypocenter, we defined some test locations on the offshore area instead of using the average of locations from triggered stations. We performed 20 programs concurrently running the Geiger's method with different pre-defined initial position to locate earthquakes. We assume that if the program with the pre-defined initial position is close to the true earthquake location, during the iteration procedure of the Geiger's method the processing time of this program should be less than others. The results show that using pre-defined locations for trial-hypocenter in the inversion procedure is able to improve the accurate of offshore earthquakes. Especially for EEW system, in the initial stage of the EEW system, only use 3 or 5 stations to locate earthquakes may lead to bad results because of poor station coverage. In this study, the pre-defined trial-locations provide a feasible way to improve the estimations of

  16. Observing Triggered Earthquakes Across Iran with Calibrated Earthquake Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasozen, E.; Bergman, E.; Ghods, A.; Nissen, E.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate earthquake triggering phenomena in Iran by analyzing patterns of aftershock activity around mapped surface ruptures. Iran has an intense level of seismicity (> 40,000 events listed in the ISC Bulletin since 1960) due to it accommodating a significant portion of the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. There are nearly thirty mapped surface ruptures associated with earthquakes of M 6-7.5, mostly in eastern and northwestern Iran, offering a rich potential to study the kinematics of earthquake nucleation, rupture propagation, and subsequent triggering. However, catalog earthquake locations are subject to up to 50 km of location bias from the combination of unknown Earth structure and unbalanced station coverage, making it challenging to assess both the rupture directivity of larger events and the spatial patterns of their aftershocks. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new two-tiered multiple-event relocation approach to obtain hypocentral parameters that are minimally biased and have realistic uncertainties. In the first stage, locations of small clusters of well-recorded earthquakes at local spatial scales (100s of events across 100 km length scales) are calibrated either by using near-source arrival times or independent location constraints (e.g. local aftershock studies, InSAR solutions), using an implementation of the Hypocentroidal Decomposition relocation technique called MLOC. Epicentral uncertainties are typically less than 5 km. Then, these events are used as prior constraints in the code BayesLoc, a Bayesian relocation technique that can handle larger datasets, to yield region-wide calibrated hypocenters (1000s of events over 1000 km length scales). With locations and errors both calibrated, the pattern of aftershock activity can reveal the type of the earthquake triggering: dynamic stress changes promote an increase in the seismicity rate in the direction of unilateral propagation, whereas static stress changes should

  17. Relocation of the 2010-2013 near the north coast of Papua earthquake sequence using Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) method

    SciT

    Salomo, Dimas, E-mail: dimas.salomo@gmail.com; Daryono,; Subakti, Hendri

    The accuracy of earthquake hypocenter position is necessary to analyze the tectonic conditions. This study aims to: (1) relocate the mainshock and aftershocks of the large earthquakes in Papua region i.e. June 16, 2010, April 21, 2012 and April 06, 2013 earthquake (2) determine the true fault plane, (3) estimate the area of the fracture, and (4) analyze the advantages and disadvantages of relocation with MJHD method in benefits for tectonic studies. This study used Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) method. Using P arrival phase data reported by the BMKG and openly available from website repogempa.bmkg.go.id, we relocated the mainshockmore » of this large significant earthquake and its aftershocks. Then we identified the prefered fault planes from the candidate fault planes provided by the global CMT catalogue. The position of earthquakes was successfully relocated. The earthquakes mostly were clustered around the mainshock. Earthquakes that not clustered around mainshock are considered to be different mechanism from the mainshock. Relocation results indicate that the mainshock fault plane of June 16, 2010 earthquake is a field with strike 332o, dip 80o and −172o slip, the mainshock fault plane of April 21, 2012 earthquake is a field with strike 82o, dip 84o and 2o slip, the mainshock fault plane of April 06, 2013 earthquake is a field with strike 339o, dip 56o and −137o slip. Fault plane area estimated by cross section graphical method is an area of 2816.0 km2 (June 16, 2010), 906.2 km2 (April 21, 2012) and 1984.3 km2 (April 06, 2013). MJHD method has the advantage that it can calculate a lot of earthquakes simultaneously and has a station correction to account for lateral heterogeneity of the earth. This method successfully provides significant changes to improve the position of the depth of earthquakes that most of the hypocenter depth manually specified as a fixed depth (± 10 km). But this method cannot be sure that the hypocenters derived

  18. Precise hypocenter distribution and earthquake generating and stress in and around the upper-plane seismic belt in the subducting Pacific slab beneath NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Uchida, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    1. Introduction We found an intraslab seismic belt (upper-plane seismic belt) in the upper plane of the double seismic zone within the Pacific slab, running interface at depths of 70-100km beneath the forearc area. The location of the deeper limits of this belt appears to correspond to one of the facies boundaries (from jadeite lawsonite blueschist to lawsonite amphibole eclogite) in the oceanic crust [Kita et al., 2006, GRL]. In this study, we precisely relocated intraslab earthquakes by using travel time differences calculated by the waveform cross-spectrum analysis to obtain more detailed distribution of the upper plane-seismic belt within the Pacific slab beneath NE Japan. We also discuss the stress field in the slab by examining focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. 2. Data and Method We relocated events at depths of 50-00 km for the period from March 2003 to November 2006 from the JMA earthquake catalog. We applied the double-difference hypocenter location method (DDLM) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) to the arrival time data of the events. We use relative earthquake arrival times determined both by the waveform cross-spectrum analysis and by the catalog-picking data. We also determine focal mechanisms using the P wave polarity. 3. Spatial distribution of relocated hypocenters In the upper portion of the slab crust, seismicity is very active and distributed relatively homogeneously at depths of about 70-100km parallel to the volcanic front, where the upper-plane seismic belt has been found. In the lower portion of slab crust and/or the uppermost portion of the slab mantle, seismicity is spatially very limited to some small areas (each size is about 20 x 20km) at depths around 65km. Two of them correspond to the aftershock area of the 2003 Miyagi (M7.1) intraslab earthquake and that of the 1987 Iwaizumi (M6.6) intraslab earthquake, respectively. Based on the dehydration embrittelment hypothesis, the difference of the spatial distribution of the seismicity in

  19. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciT

    Sabtaji, Agung, E-mail: sabtaji.agung@gmail.com, E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Region V, Jayapura 1572; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as inputmore » for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.« less

  20. Fault structure and kinematics of the Long Valley Caldera region, California, revealed by high-accuracy earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanism stress inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean, Stephanie; Ellsworth, William; Zoback, Mark; Waldhauser, Felix

    2002-12-01

    We have determined high-resolution hypocenters for 45,000+ earthquakes that occurred between 1980 and 2000 in the Long Valley caldera area using a double-difference earthquake location algorithm and routinely determined arrival times. The locations reveal numerous discrete fault planes in the southern caldera and adjacent Sierra Nevada block (SNB). Intracaldera faults include a series of east/west-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults beneath the caldera's south moat and a series of more northerly striking strike-slip/normal faults beneath the caldera's resurgent dome. Seismicity in the SNB south of the caldera is confined to a crustal block bounded on the west by an east-dipping oblique normal fault and on the east by the Hilton Creek fault. Two NE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults are responsible for most seismicity within this block. To understand better the stresses driving seismicity, we performed stress inversions using focal mechanisms with 50 or more first motions. This analysis reveals that the least principal stress direction systematically rotates across the studied region, from NE to SW in the caldera's south moat to WNW-ESE in Round Valley, 25 km to the SE. Because WNW-ESE extension is characteristic of the western boundary of the Basin and Range province, caldera area stresses appear to be locally perturbed. This stress perturbation does not seem to result from magma chamber inflation but may be related to the significant (˜20 km) left step in the locus of extension along the Sierra Nevada/Basin and Range province boundary. This implies that regional-scale tectonic processes are driving seismic deformation in the Long Valley caldera.

  1. Fault structure and kinematics of the Long Valley Caldera region, California, revealed by high-accuracy earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanism stress inversions

    Prejean, Stephanie; Ellsworth, William L.; Zoback, Mark; Waldhauser, Felix

    2002-01-01

    We have determined high-resolution hypocenters for 45,000+ earthquakes that occurred between 1980 and 2000 in the Long Valley caldera area using a double-difference earthquake location algorithm and routinely determined arrival times. The locations reveal numerous discrete fault planes in the southern caldera and adjacent Sierra Nevada block (SNB). Intracaldera faults include a series of east/west-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults beneath the caldera's south moat and a series of more northerly striking strike-slip/normal faults beneath the caldera's resurgent dome. Seismicity in the SNB south of the caldera is confined to a crustal block bounded on the west by an east-dipping oblique normal fault and on the east by the Hilton Creek fault. Two NE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults are responsible for most seismicity within this block. To understand better the stresses driving seismicity, we performed stress inversions using focal mechanisms with 50 or more first motions. This analysis reveals that the least principal stress direction systematically rotates across the studied region, from NE to SW in the caldera's south moat to WNW-ESE in Round Valley, 25 km to the SE. Because WNW-ESE extension is characteristic of the western boundary of the Basin and Range province, caldera area stresses appear to be locally perturbed. This stress perturbation does not seem to result from magma chamber inflation but may be related to the significant (???20 km) left step in the locus of extension along the Sierra Nevada/Basin and Range province boundary. This implies that regional-scale tectonic processes are driving seismic deformation in the Long Valley caldera.

  2. Comparing methods for Earthquake Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Bodin, Thomas; Sylvander, Matthieu; Parroucau, Pierre; Manchuel, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    There are plenty of methods available for locating small magnitude point source earthquakes. However, it is known that these different approaches produce different results. For each approach, results also depend on a number of parameters which can be separated into two main branches: (1) parameters related to observations (number and distribution of for example) and (2) parameters related to the inversion process (velocity model, weighting parameters, initial location etc.). Currently, the results obtained from most of the location methods do not systematically include quantitative uncertainties. The effect of the selected parameters on location uncertainties is also poorly known. Understanding the importance of these different parameters and their effect on uncertainties is clearly required to better constrained knowledge on fault geometry, seismotectonic processes and at the end to improve seismic hazard assessment. In this work, realized in the frame of the SINAPS@ research program (http://www.institut-seism.fr/projets/sinaps/), we analyse the effect of different parameters on earthquakes location (e.g. type of phase, max. hypocentral separation etc.). We compare several codes available (Hypo71, HypoDD, NonLinLoc etc.) and determine their strengths and weaknesses in different cases by means of synthetic tests. The work, performed for the moment on synthetic data, is planned to be applied, in a second step, on data collected by the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory (OMP).

  3. Seismicity Pattern and Fault Structure in the Central Himalaya Seismic Gap Using Precise Earthquake Hypocenters and their Source Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Rai, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The devastation brought on by the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 2015, reconditioned people to the high earthquake risk along the Himalayan arc. It is therefore imperative to learn from the Gorkha earthquake, and gain a better understanding of the state of stress in this fault regime, in order to identify areas that could produce the next devastating earthquake. Here, we focus on what is known as the "central Himalaya seismic gap". It is located in Uttarakhand, India, west of Nepal, where a large (> Mw 7.0) earthquake has not occurred for over the past 200 years [Rajendran, C.P., & Rajendran, K., 2005]. This 500 - 800 km long along-strike seismic gap has been poorly studied, mainly due to the lack of modern and dense instrumentation. It is especially concerning since it surrounds densely populated cities, such as New Delhi. In this study, we analyze a rich seismic dataset from a dense network consisting of 50 broadband stations, that operated between 2005 and 2012. We use the STA/LTA filter technique to detect earthquake phases, and the latest tools contributed to the Antelope software environment, to develop a large and robust earthquake catalog containing thousands of precise hypocentral locations, magnitudes, and focal mechanisms. By refining those locations in HypoDD [Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000] to form a tighter cluster of events using relative relocation, we can potentially illustrate fault structures in this region with high resolution. Additionally, using ZMAP [Weimer, S., 2001], we perform a variety of statistical analyses to understand the variability and nature of seismicity occurring in the region. Generating a large and consistent earthquake catalog not only brings to light the physical processes controlling the earthquake cycle in an Himalayan seismogenic zone, it also illustrates how stresses are building up along the décollment and the faults that stem from it. With this new catalog, we aim to reveal fault structure, study

  4. The Augustine magmatic system as revealed by seismic tomography and relocated earthquake hypocenters from 1994 through 2009

    Syracuse, E.M.; Thurber, C.H.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We incorporate 14 years of earthquake data from the Alaska Volcano Observatory with data from a 1975 controlled-source seismic experiment to obtain the three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structure and the first high-precision earthquake locations at Augustine Volcano to be calculated in a fully three-dimensional velocity model. Velocity tomography shows two main features beneath Augustine: a narrow, high-velocity column beneath the summit, extending from ???2 km depth to the surface, and elevated velocities on the south flank. Our relocation results allow a thorough analysis of the spatio-temoral patterns of seismicity and the relationship to the magmatic and eruptive activity. Background seismicity is centered beneath the summit at an average depth of 0.6 km above sea level. In the weeks leading to the January 2006 eruption of Augustine, seismicity focused on a NW-SE line along the trend of an inflating dike. A series of drumbeat earthquakes occurred in the early weeks of the eruption, indicating further magma transport through the same dike system. During the six months following the onset of the eruption, the otherwise quiescent region 1 to 5 km below sea level centered beneath the summit became seismically active with two groups of earthquakes, differentiated by frequency content. The deep longer-period earthquakes occurred during the eruption and are interpreted as resulting from the movement of magma toward the summit, and the post-eruptive shorter-period earthquakes may be due to the relaxation of an emptied magma tube. The seismicity subsequently returned to its normal background rates and patterns. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Precise Hypocenter Determination around Palu Koro Fault: a Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzy Ismullah, M. Muhammad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono

    2017-04-01

    Sulawesi area is located in complex tectonic pattern. High seismicity activity in the middle of Sulawesi is related to Palu Koro fault (PKF). In this study, we determined precise hypocenter around PKF by applying double-difference method. We attempt to investigate of the seismicity rate, geometry of the fault and distribution of focus depth around PKF. We first re-pick P-and S-wave arrival time of the PKF events to determine the initial hypocenter location using Hypoellipse method through updated 1-D seismic velocity. Later on, we relocated the earthquake event using double-difference method. Our preliminary results show the distribution of relocated events are located around PKF and have smaller residual time than the initial location. We will enhance the hypocenter location through updating of arrival time by applying waveform cross correlation method as input for double-difference relocation.

  6. Reply to the "Comment on "The May 1 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015" by Bonini L., et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argnani, Andrea; Carannante, Simona; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; D'Alema, Ezio

    2016-12-01

    In their comments Bonini et al. argue that our seismotectonic interpretation of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence does not agree with observations, and follow three lines of arguments to support their statement. These concern the structural interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, the relationship between seismogenic sources and seismicity patterns, and the fit of inferred fault geometry to InSAR observations. These lines of arguments are mostly repeating what has been previously presented by the same authors, and none of them, as discussed in detail in our reply, presents a strong case against our structural interpretation, that, we are convinced, does not conflict with the available data. The two adjacent rupture surfaces outlined by accurately relocated aftershocks are an indication of the presence of two different active fault planes. Interpretation of seismic profiles supports seismological observation and indicates the occurrence of relevant along-strike changes in structural style. These pieces of information have been integrated to build a new seismotectonic interpretation for the area of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. Analysis of geodetic data from the area of the Emilia earthquakes has produced very different models of the fault planes; unlike what has been stated by Bonini et al., who see a difficult fit to InSAR data for the fault planes we have identified, the most recent results are consistent with our interpretation that see a steep fault in the upper 8-10 km under the Mirandola anticline. We point out that the geological structures in the subsurface of the Ferrara Arc do change along strike, and the attempt of Bonini et al. to explain both the May 20 and May 29 sequences using a single cross section is not appropriate.

  7. A Double-difference Earthquake location algorithm: Method and application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California

    Waldhauser, F.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an efficient method to determine high-resolution hypocenter locations over large distances. The location method incorporates ordinary absolute travel-time measurements and/or cross-correlation P-and S-wave differential travel-time measurements. Residuals between observed and theoretical travel-time differences (or double-differences) are minimized for pairs of earthquakes at each station while linking together all observed event-station pairs. A least-squares solution is found by iteratively adjusting the vector difference between hypocentral pairs. The double-difference algorithm minimizes errors due to unmodeled velocity structure without the use of station corrections. Because catalog and cross-correlation data are combined into one system of equations, interevent distances within multiplets are determined to the accuracy of the cross-correlation data, while the relative locations between multiplets and uncorrelated events are simultaneously determined to the accuracy of the absolute travel-time data. Statistical resampling methods are used to estimate data accuracy and location errors. Uncertainties in double-difference locations are improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to catalog locations. The algorithm is tested, and its performance is demonstrated on two clusters of earthquakes located on the northern Hayward fault, California. There it colapses the diffuse catalog locations into sharp images of seismicity and reveals horizontal lineations of hypocenter that define the narrow regions on the fault where stress is released by brittle failure.

  8. Earthquake location in transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Aihua; Ding, Zhifeng

    2009-04-01

    The conventional intersection method for earthquake location in isotropic media is developed in the case of transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI media). The hypocenter is determined using its loci, which are calculated through a minimum travel time tree algorithm for ray tracing in TTI media. There are no restrictions on the structural complexity of the model or on the anisotropy strength of the medium. The location method is validated by its application to determine the hypocenter and origin time of an event in a complex TTI structure, in accordance with four hypotheses or study cases: (a) accurate model and arrival times, (b) perturbed model with randomly variable elastic parameter, (c) noisy arrival time data, and (d) incomplete set of observations from the seismic stations. Furthermore, several numerical tests demonstrate that the orientation of the symmetry axis has a significant effect on the hypocenter location when the seismic anisotropy is not very weak. Moreover, if the hypocentral determination is based on an isotropic reference model while the real medium is anisotropic, the resultant location errors can be considerable even though the anisotropy strength does not exceed 6.10%.

  9. Precisely locating the Klamath Falls, Oregon, earthquakes

    Qamar, A.; Meagher, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present preliminary results of a close-in, instrumental study of the Klamath Falls earthquake sequence, carried as a cooperative effort by scientists from the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) and universities in Washington, Orgeon, and California. In addition to obtaining much mroe accurate earthquake locations, this study has improved our understanding of the relationship between seismicity and mapped faults in the region. 

  10. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters for Augustine, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Mount Spurr volcanoes, Alaska: January 1, 1991 - December 31, 1993

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Power, John A.; Stihler, Scott D.; Rao, Lalitha N.; Davidson, Gail; Paskievitch, John F.; Estes, Steve; Lahr, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The 1992 eruptions at Mount Spurr's Crater Peak vent provided the highlight of the catalog period. The crisis included three sub-plinian eruptions, which occurred on June 27, August 18, and September 16-17, 1992. The three eruptions punctuated a complex seismic sequence which included volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, tremor, and both deep and shallow long period (LP) earthquakes. The seismic sequence began on August 18, 1991, with a small swarm of volcano-tectonic events beneath Crater Peak, and spread throughout the volcanic complex by November of the same year. Elevated levels of seismicity persisted at Mount Spurr beyond the catalog time period.

  11. Optimizing correlation techniques for improved earthquake location

    Schaff, D.P.; Bokelmann, G.H.R.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Zanzerkia, E.; Waldhauser, F.; Beroza, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Earthquake location using relative arrival time measurements can lead to dramatically reduced location errors and a view of fault-zone processes with unprecedented detail. There are two principal reasons why this approach reduces location errors. The first is that the use of differenced arrival times to solve for the vector separation of earthquakes removes from the earthquake location problem much of the error due to unmodeled velocity structure. The second reason, on which we focus in this article, is that waveform cross correlation can substantially reduce measurement error. While cross correlation has long been used to determine relative arrival times with subsample precision, we extend correlation measurements to less similar waveforms, and we introduce a general quantitative means to assess when correlation data provide an improvement over catalog phase picks. We apply the technique to local earthquake data from the Calaveras Fault in northern California. Tests for an example streak of 243 earthquakes demonstrate that relative arrival times with normalized cross correlation coefficients as low as ???70%, interevent separation distances as large as to 2 km, and magnitudes up to 3.5 as recorded on the Northern California Seismic Network are more precise than relative arrival times determined from catalog phase data. Also discussed are improvements made to the correlation technique itself. We find that for large time offsets, our implementation of time-domain cross correlation is often more robust and that it recovers more observations than the cross spectral approach. Longer time windows give better results than shorter ones. Finally, we explain how thresholds and empirical weighting functions may be derived to optimize the location procedure for any given region of interest, taking advantage of the respective strengths of diverse correlation and catalog phase data on different length scales.

  12. Earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms in central Oklahoma reveal a complex system of reactivated subsurface strike-slip faulting

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.; Bergman, Eric A.; Earle, Paul S.; Holland, Austin F.; Baldwin, Randy W.; Gassner, A.

    2015-01-01

    The sharp increase in seismicity over a broad region of central Oklahoma has raised concern regarding the source of the activity and its potential hazard to local communities and energy industry infrastructure. Since early 2010, numerous organizations have deployed temporary portable seismic stations in central Oklahoma in order to record the evolving seismicity. In this study, we apply a multiple-event relocation method to produce a catalog of 3,639 central Oklahoma earthquakes from late 2009 through 2014. RMT source parameters were determined for 195 of the largest and best-recorded earthquakes. Combining RMT results with relocated seismicity enabled us to determine the length, depth and style-of-faulting occurring on reactivated subsurface fault systems. Results show that the majority of earthquakes occur on near vertical, optimally oriented (NE-SW and NW-SE), strike-slip faults in the shallow crystalline basement. These are necessary first order observations required to assess the potential hazards of individual faults in Oklahoma.

  13. Re-evaluation Of The Shallow Seismicity On Mt Etna Applying Probabilistic Earthquake Location Algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuve, T.; Mostaccio, A.; Langer, H. K.; di Grazia, G.

    2005-12-01

    A recent research project carried out together with the Italian Civil Protection concerns the study of amplitude decay laws in various areas on the Italian territory, including Mt Etna. A particular feature of seismic activity is the presence of moderate magnitude earthquakes causing frequently considerable damage in the epicentre areas. These earthquakes are supposed to occur at rather shallow depth, no more than 5 km. Given the geological context, however, these shallow earthquakes would origin in rather weak sedimentary material. In this study we check the reliability of standard earthquake location, in particular with respect to the calculated focal depth, using standard location methods as well as more advanced approaches such as the NONLINLOC software proposed by Lomax et al. (2000) using it with its various options (i.e., Grid Search, Metropolis-Gibbs and Oct-Tree) and 3D velocity model (Cocina et al., 2005). All three options of NONLINLOC gave comparable results with respect to hypocenter locations and quality. Compared to standard locations we note a significant improve of location quality and, in particular a considerable difference of focal depths (in the order of 1.5 - 2 km). However, we cannot find a clear bias towards greater or lower depth. Further analyses concern the assessment of the stability of locations. For this purpose we carry out various Monte Carlo experiments perturbing travel time reading randomly. Further investigations are devoted to possible biases which may arise from the use of an unsuitable velocity model.

  14. A Kinesthetic Demonstration for Locating Earthquake Epicenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyantash, J.; Sperber, S.

    2005-12-01

    During Spring 2005, an inquiry-based curriculum for plate tectonics was developed for implementation in sixth-grade classrooms within the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Two cohorts of LAUSD teachers received training and orientation to the plate tectonics unit during one week workshops in July 2005. However, during the training workshops, it was observed that there was considerable confusion among the teachers as to how the traditional "textbook" explanation of the time lag between P and S waves on a seismogram could possibly be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake. One of the State of California science content standards for sixth grade students is that they understand how the epicenters of earthquakes are determined, so it was critical that the teachers themselves grasped the concept. In response to the adult learner difficulties, the classroom explanation of earthquake epicenter location was supplemented with an outdoor kinesthetic activity. Based upon the experience of the kinesthetic model, it was found that the hands-on model greatly cemented the teachers' understanding of the underlying theory. This paper details the steps of the kinesthetic demonstration for earthquake epicenter identification, as well as offering extended options for its classroom implementation.

  15. A strong correlation between induced peak dynamic Coulomb stress change from the 1992 M7.3 Landers, California, earthquake and the hypocenter of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, Debi

    2003-01-01

    The 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake may have played a role in triggering the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake as suggested by their close spatial (˜20 km) proximity. Current investigations of triggering by static stress changes produce differing conclusions when small variations in parameter values are employed. Here I test the hypothesis that large-amplitude dynamic stress changes, induced by the Landers rupture, acted to promote the Hector Mine earthquake. I use a flat layer reflectivity method to model the Landers earthquake displacement seismograms. By requiring agreement between the model seismograms and data, I can constrain the Landers main shock parameters and velocity model. A similar reflectivity method is used to compute the evolution of stress changes. I find a strong positive correlation between the Hector Mine hypocenter and regions of large (>4 MPa) dynamic Coulomb stress changes (peak Δσf(t)) induced by the Landers main shock. A positive correlation is also found with large dynamic normal and shear stress changes. Uncertainties in peak Δσf(t) (1.3 MPa) are only 28% of the median value (4.6 MPa) determined from an extensive set (160) of model parameters. Therefore the correlation with dynamic stresses is robust to a range of Hector Mine main shock parameters, as well as to variations in the friction and Skempton's coefficients used in the calculations. These results imply dynamic stress changes may be an important part of earthquake trigging, such that large-amplitude stress changes alter the properties of an existing fault in a way that promotes fault failure.

  16. Near-real time 3D probabilistic earthquakes locations at Mt. Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Mostaccio, A.; Patane', D.; Tuve', T.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic procedure for locating earthquake in quasi-real time must provide a good estimation of earthquakes location within a few seconds after the event is first detected and is strongly needed for seismic warning system. The reliability of an automatic location algorithm is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases, network geometry, and velocity model uncertainties. On Mt. Etna, the seismic network is managed by INGV and the quasi-real time earthquakes locations are performed by using an automatic-picking algorithm based on short-term-average to long-term-average ratios (STA/LTA) calculated from an approximate squared envelope function of the seismogram, which furnish a list of P-wave arrival times, and the location algorithm Hypoellipse, with a 1D velocity model. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the performances of a different automatic procedure to improve the quasi-real time earthquakes locations. In fact, as the automatic data processing may be affected by outliers (wrong picks), the use of a traditional earthquake location techniques based on a least-square misfit function (L2-norm) often yield unstable and unreliable solutions. Moreover, on Mt. Etna, the 1D model is often unable to represent the complex structure of the volcano (in particular the strong lateral heterogeneities), whereas the increasing accuracy in the 3D velocity models at Mt. Etna during recent years allows their use today in routine earthquake locations. Therefore, we selected, as reference locations, all the events occurred on Mt. Etna in the last year (2011) which was automatically detected and located by means of the Hypoellipse code. By using this dataset (more than 300 events), we applied a nonlinear probabilistic earthquake location algorithm using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) likelihood function, (Font et al., 2004; Lomax, 2005) which is much more robust in the presence of outliers in the data. Successively, by using a probabilistic

  17. Revised Earthquake Catalog and Relocated Hypocenters Near Fluid Injection Wells and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edel, S.; Bilek, S. L.; Garcia, K.

    2014-12-01

    Induced seismicity is a class of crustal earthquakes resulting from human activities such as surface and underground mining, impoundment of reservoirs, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground cavities. Within the Permian basin in southeastern New Mexico lies an active area of oil and gas production, as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic nuclear waste repository located just east of Carlsbad, NM. Small magnitude earthquakes have been recognized in the area for many years, recorded by a network of short period vertical component seismometers operated by New Mexico Tech. However, for robust comparisons between the seismicity patterns and the injection well locations and rates, improved locations and a more complete catalog over time are necessary. We present results of earthquake relocations for this area by using data from the 3-component broadband EarthScope Flexible Array SIEDCAR experiment that operated in the area between 2008-2011. Relocated event locations tighten into a small cluster of ~38 km2, approximately 10 km from the nearest injection wells. The majority of events occurred at 10-12 km depth, given depth residuals of 1.7-3.6 km. We also present a newly developed more complete catalog of events from this area by using a waveform cross-correlation algorithm and the relocated events as templates. This allows us to detect smaller magnitude events that were previously undetected with the short period network data. The updated earthquake catalog is compared with geologic maps and cross sections to identify possible fault locations. The catalog is also compared with available well data on fluid injection and production. Our preliminary results suggest no obvious connection between seismic moment release, fluid injection, or production given the available monthly industry data. We do see evidence in the geologic and well data of previously unidentified faults in the area.

  18. DETERMINATION OF ELASTIC WAVE VELOCITY AND RELATIVE HYPOCENTER LOCATIONS USING REFRACTED WAVES. II. APPLICATION TO THE HAICHENG, CHINA, AFTERSHOCK SEQUENCE.

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ma, Xiufang

    1985-01-01

    The authors located the aftershocks of the February 4, 1975 Haicheng, China, aftershock sequence using an arrival time difference (ATD) simultaneous inversion method for determining the near-source (in situ) velocity and the location of the aftershocks with respect to a master event. The aftershocks define a diffuse zone, 70 km multiplied by 25 km, trending west-northwest, perpendicular to the major structural trend of the region. The main shock and most of the large aftershocks have strike-slip fault plane solutions. The preferred fault plane strikes west-northwest, and the inferred sense of motion is left-lateral. The entire Haicheng earthauake sequence appears to have been the response of an intensely faulted range boundary to a primarily east-west crustal compression and/or north-south extension.

  19. Fault structure and mechanics of the Hayward Fault, California from double-difference earthquake locations

    Waldhauser, F.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between small-magnitude seismicity and large-scale crustal faulting along the Hayward Fault, California, is investigated using a double-difference (DD) earthquake location algorithm. We used the DD method to determine high-resolution hypocenter locations of the seismicity that occurred between 1967 and 1998. The DD technique incorporates catalog travel time data and relative P and S wave arrival time measurements from waveform cross correlation to solve for the hypocentral separation between events. The relocated seismicity reveals a narrow, near-vertical fault zone at most locations. This zone follows the Hayward Fault along its northern half and then diverges from it to the east near San Leandro, forming the Mission trend. The relocated seismicity is consistent with the idea that slip from the Calaveras Fault is transferred over the Mission trend onto the northern Hayward Fault. The Mission trend is not clearly associated with any mapped active fault as it continues to the south and joins the Calaveras Fault at Calaveras Reservoir. In some locations, discrete structures adjacent to the main trace are seen, features that were previously hidden in the uncertainty of the network locations. The fine structure of the seismicity suggest that the fault surface on the northern Hayward Fault is curved or that the events occur on several substructures. Near San Leandro, where the more westerly striking trend of the Mission seismicity intersects with the surface trace of the (aseismic) southern Hayward Fault, the seismicity remains diffuse after relocation, with strong variation in focal mechanisms between adjacent events indicating a highly fractured zone of deformation. The seismicity is highly organized in space, especially on the northern Hayward Fault, where it forms horizontal, slip-parallel streaks of hypocenters of only a few tens of meters width, bounded by areas almost absent of seismic activity. During the interval from 1984 to 1998, when digital

  20. Seismicity in 2010 and major earthquakes recorded and located in Costa Rica from 1983 until 2012, by the local OVSICORI-UNA seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronnie, Q.; Segura, J.; Burgoa, B.; Jimenez, W.; McNally, K. C.

    2013-05-01

    This work is the result of the analysis of existing information in the earthquake database of the Observatorio Sismológico y Vulcanológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), and seeks disclosure of basic seismological information recorded and processed in 2010. In this year there was a transition between the software used to record, store and locate earthquakes. During the first three months of 2010, we used Earthworm (http://folkworm.ceri.memphis.edu/ew-doc), SEISAN (Haskov y Ottemoller, 1999) and Hypocenter (Lienert y Haskov, 1995) to capture, store and locate the earthquakes, respectively; in April 2010, ANTELOPE (http://www.brtt.com/software.html) start to be used for recording and storing and GENLOC (Fan at al, 2006) and LOCSAT (Bratt and Bache 1988), to locate earthquakes. GENLOC was used for local events and LOCSAT for regional and distant earthquakes. The local earthquakes were located using the 1D velocity model of Quintero and Kissling (2001) and for regional and distant earthquakes IASPEI91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) was used. All the events for 2010 and shown in this work were rechecked by the authors. We located 3903 earthquakes in and around Costa Rica and 746 regional and distant seismic events were recorded (see Figure 1). In this work we also give a summary of major earthquakes recorded and located by OVSICORI-UNA network between 1983 and 2012. Seismicity recorded by OVSICORI-UNA network in 2010

  1. Hypocenter Determination Using a Non-Linear Method for Events in West Java, Indonesia: A Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalia, Shindy; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ash Shiddiqi, Hasbi; Supendi, Pepen; Wandono

    2017-04-01

    West Java, part of the Sunda Arc, has relatively high seismicity due to subduction activity and faulting. The first step of tomography study in order to infer the geometry of the structure beneath West Java is to conduct precise earthquake hypocenter determination. In this study, we used earthquake waveform data taken from the regional Meteorological, Climatological, Geophysical Agency (BMKG) network from South Sumatra to central Java. We have repicked P and S arrival times from about 800 events in the period from April 2009 to December 2015. We selected the events which have azimuthal gap < 210° and phase more than 8. The non-linear method employed in this study used the oct-tree sampling algorithm from NonLinLoc program to determine the earthquake hypocenters. The hypocenter location results give better clustering earthquakes which are correlated well with geological structure in the study region. We also compared our results with BMKG catalog data and found that the average hypocenter location difference is about 12 km in latitude direction, 9.5 km in longitude direction, and the average focal depth difference is about 19.5 km. For future studies, we will conduct tomographic imaging to invert 3-D seismic velocity structure beneath the western part of Java.

  2. Automatic Hypocenter Determination Method in JMA Catalog and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaribuchi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The number of detectable earthquakes around Japan has increased by developing the high-sensitivity seismic observation network. After the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the number of detectable earthquakes have dramatically increased due to its aftershocks and induced earthquakes. This enormous number of earthquakes caused inability of manually determination of all the hypocenters. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which produces the earthquake catalog in Japan, has developed a new automatic hypocenter determination method and started its operation from April 1, 2016. This method (named PF method; Phase combination Forward search method) can determine the hypocenters of earthquakes that occur simultaneously by searching for the optimal combination of P- and S-wave arrival times and the maximum amplitudes using a Bayesian estimation technique. In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, we successfully detected about 70,000 aftershocks automatically during the period from April 14 to the end of May, and this method contributed to the real-time monitoring of the seismic activity. Furthermore, this method can be also applied to the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW). Application of this method for EEW is called the IPF method and has been used as the hypocenter determination method of the EEW system in JMA from December 2016. By developing this method further, it is possible to contribute to not only speeding up the catalog production, but also improving reliability of the early warning.

  3. Joint inversion of gravity and arrival time data from Parkfield: New constraints on structure and hypocenter locations near the SAFOD drill site

    Roecker, S.; Thurber, C.; McPhee, D.

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of large datasets of both gravity and elastic wave arrival time observations available for the Parkfield, California region, we generated an image consistent with both types of data. Among a variety of strategies, the best result was obtained from a simultaneous inversion with a stability requirement that encouraged the perturbed model to remain close to a starting model consisting of a best fit to the arrival time data. The preferred model looks essentially the same as the best-fit arrival time model in areas where ray coverage is dense, with differences being greatest at shallow depths and near the edges of the model where ray paths are few. Earthquake locations change by no more than about 100 m, the general effect being migration of the seismic zone to the northeast, closer to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Convolutional neural network for earthquake detection and location

    PubMed Central

    Perol, Thibaut; Gharbi, Michaël; Denolle, Marine

    2018-01-01

    The recent evolution of induced seismicity in Central United States calls for exhaustive catalogs to improve seismic hazard assessment. Over the last decades, the volume of seismic data has increased exponentially, creating a need for efficient algorithms to reliably detect and locate earthquakes. Today’s most elaborate methods scan through the plethora of continuous seismic records, searching for repeating seismic signals. We leverage the recent advances in artificial intelligence and present ConvNetQuake, a highly scalable convolutional neural network for earthquake detection and location from a single waveform. We apply our technique to study the induced seismicity in Oklahoma, USA. We detect more than 17 times more earthquakes than previously cataloged by the Oklahoma Geological Survey. Our algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than established methods. PMID:29487899

  5. Earthquake locations determined by the Southern Alaska seismograph network for October 1971 through May 1989

    Fogleman, Kent A.; Lahr, John C.; Stephens, Christopher D.; Page, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the instrumentation and evolution of the U.S. Geological Survey’s regional seismograph network in southern Alaska, provides phase and hypocenter data for seismic events from October 1971 through May 1989, reviews the location methods used, and discusses the completeness of the catalog and the accuracy of the computed hypocenters. Included are arrival time data for explosions detonated under the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) in 1984 and 1985.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated a regional network of seismographs in southern Alaska from 1971 to the mid 1990s. The principal purpose of this network was to record seismic data to be used to precisely locate earthquakes in the seismic zones of southern Alaska, delineate seismically active faults, assess seismic risks, document potential premonitory earthquake phenomena, investigate current tectonic deformation, and study the structure and physical properties of the crust and upper mantle. A task fundamental to all of these goals was the routine cataloging of parameters for earthquakes located within and adjacent to the seismograph network.The initial network of 10 stations, 7 around Cook Inlet and 3 near Valdez, was installed in 1971. In subsequent summers additions or modifications to the network were made. By the fall of 1973, 26 stations extended from western Cook Inlet to eastern Prince William Sound, and 4 stations were located to the east between Cordova and Yakutat. A year later 20 additional stations were installed. Thirteen of these were placed along the eastern Gulf of Alaska with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program to investigate the seismicity of the outer continental shelf, a region of interest for oil exploration. Since then the region covered by the network remained relatively fixed while efforts were made to make the stations more reliable through improved electronic

  6. Magnitude and location of historical earthquakes in Japan and implications for the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake

    Bakun, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity assignments IJMA are used to derive intensity attenuation models suitable for estimating the location and an intensity magnitude Mjma for historical earthquakes in Japan. The intensity for shallow crustal earthquakes on Honshu is equal to -1.89 + 1.42MJMA - 0.00887?? h - 1.66log??h, where MJMA is the JMA magnitude, ??h = (??2 + h2)1/2, and ?? and h are epicentral distance and focal depth (km), respectively. Four earthquakes located near the Japan Trench were used to develop a subducting plate intensity attenuation model where intensity is equal to -8.33 + 2.19MJMA -0.00550??h - 1.14 log ?? h. The IJMA assignments for the MJMA7.9 great 1923 Kanto earthquake on the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface are consistent with the subducting plate model; Using the subducting plate model and 226 IJMA IV-VI assignments, the location of the intensity center is 25 km north of the epicenter, Mjma is 7.7, and MJMA is 7.3-8.0 at the 1?? confidence level. Intensity assignments and reported aftershock activity for the enigmatic 11 November 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake are consistent with an MJMA 7.2 Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate source or Philippine Sea intraslab source at about 30 km depth. If the 1855 earthquake was a Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate event, the intensity center was adjacent to and downdip of the rupture area of the great 1923 Kanto earthquake, suggesting that the 1855 and 1923 events ruptured adjoining sections of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface.

  7. Estimating earthquake location and magnitude from seismic intensity data

    Bakun, W.H.; Wentworth, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) observations for a training set of 22 California earthquakes suggests a strategy for bounding the epicentral region and moment magnitude M from MMI observations only. We define an intensity magnitude MI that is calibrated to be equal in the mean to M. MI = mean (Mi), where Mi = (MMIi + 3.29 + 0.0206 * ??i)/1.68 and ??i is the epicentral distance (km) of observation MMIi. The epicentral region is bounded by contours of rms [MI] = rms (MI - Mi) - rms0 (MI - Mi-), where rms is the root mean square, rms0 (MI - Mi) is the minimum rms over a grid of assumed epicenters, and empirical site corrections and a distance weighting function are used. Empirical contour values for bounding the epicenter location and empirical bounds for M estimated from MI appropriate for different levels of confidence and different quantities of intensity observations are tabulated. The epicentral region bounds and MI obtained for an independent test set of western California earthquakes are consistent with the instrumental epicenters and moment magnitudes of these earthquakes. The analysis strategy is particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pre-1900 earthquakes for which the only available data are a sparse set of intensity observations.

  8. HYPOELLIPSE; a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion pattern

    Lahr, John C.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides Fortran source code and program manuals for HYPOELLIPSE, a computer program for determining hypocenters and magnitudes of near regional earthquakes and the ellipsoids that enclose the 68-percent confidence volumes of the computed hypocenters. HYPOELLIPSE was developed to meet the needs of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studying crustal and sub-crustal earthquakes recorded by a sparse regional seismograph network. The program was extended to locate hypocenters of volcanic earthquakes recorded by seismographs distributed on and around the volcanic edifice, at elevations above and below the hypocenter. HYPOELLIPSE was used to locate events recorded by the USGS southern Alaska seismograph network from October 1971 to the early 1990s. Both UNIX and PC/DOS versions of the source code of the program are provided along with sample runs.

  9. Improvements to Earthquake Location with a Fuzzy Logic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökalp, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, improvements to the earthquake location method were investigated using a fuzzy logic approach proposed by Lin and Sanford (Bull Seismol Soc Am 91:82-93, 2001). The method has certain advantages compared to the inverse methods in terms of eliminating the uncertainties of arrival times and reading errors. In this study, adopting this approach, epicentral locations were determined based on the results of a fuzzy logic space concerning the uncertainties in the velocity models. To map the uncertainties in arrival times into the fuzzy logic space, a trapezoidal membership function was constructed by directly using the travel time difference between the two stations for the P- and S-arrival times instead of the P- and S-wave models to eliminate the need for obtaining information concerning the velocity structure of the study area. The results showed that this method worked most effectively when earthquakes occurred away from a network or when the arrival time data contained phase reading errors. In this study, to resolve the problems related to determining the epicentral locations of the events, a forward modeling method like the grid search technique was used by applying different logical operations (i.e., intersection, union, and their combination) with a fuzzy logic approach. The locations of the events were depended on results of fuzzy logic outputs in fuzzy logic space by searching in a gridded region. The process of location determination with the defuzzification of only the grid points with the membership value of 1 obtained by normalizing all the maximum fuzzy output values of the highest values resulted in more reliable epicentral locations for the earthquakes than the other approaches. In addition, throughout the process, the center-of-gravity method was used as a defuzzification operation.

  10. Precise relative locations for earthquakes in the northeast Pacific region

    DOE PAGES

    Cleveland, K. Michael; VanDeMark, Thomas F.; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-10-09

    We report that double-difference methods applied to cross-correlation measured Rayleigh wave time shifts are an effective tool to improve epicentroid locations and relative origin time shifts in remote regions. We apply these methods to seismicity offshore of southwestern Canada and the U.S. Pacific Northwest, occurring along the boundaries of the Pacific and Juan de Fuca (including the Explorer Plate and Gorda Block) Plates. The Blanco, Mendocino, Revere-Dellwood, Nootka, and Sovanco fracture zones host the majority of this seismicity, largely consisting of strike-slip earthquakes. The Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda spreading ridges join these fracture zones and host normal faultingmore » earthquakes. Our results show that at least the moderate-magnitude activity clusters along fault strike, supporting suggestions of large variations in seismic coupling along oceanic transform faults. Our improved relative locations corroborate earlier interpretations of the internal deformation in the Explorer and Gorda Plates. North of the Explorer Plate, improved locations support models that propose northern extension of the Revere-Dellwood fault. Relocations also support interpretations that favor multiple parallel active faults along the Blanco Transform Fault Zone. Seismicity of the western half of the Blanco appears more scattered and less collinear than the eastern half, possibly related to fault maturity. We use azimuthal variations in the Rayleigh wave cross-correlation amplitude to detect and model rupture directivity for a moderate size earthquake along the eastern Blanco Fault. Lastly, the observations constrain the seismogenic zone geometry and suggest a relatively narrow seismogenic zone width of 2 to 4 km.« less

  11. Locating Local Earthquakes Using Single 3-Component Broadband Seismological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. B.; Mitra, S.

    2015-12-01

    We devised a technique to locate local earthquakes using single 3-component broadband seismograph and analyze the factors governing the accuracy of our result. The need for devising such a technique arises in regions of sparse seismic network. In state-of-the-art location algorithms, a minimum of three station recordings are required for obtaining well resolved locations. However, the problem arises when an event is recorded by less than three stations. This may be because of the following reasons: (a) down time of stations in a sparse network; (b) geographically isolated regions with limited logistic support to setup large network; (c) regions of insufficient economy for financing multi-station network and (d) poor signal-to-noise ratio for smaller events at most stations, except the one in its closest vicinity. Our technique provides a workable solution to the above problematic scenarios. However, our methodology is strongly dependent on the velocity model of the region. Our method uses a three step processing: (a) ascertain the back-azimuth of the event from the P-wave particle motion recorded on the horizontal components; (b) estimate the hypocentral distance using the S-P time; and (c) ascertain the emergent angle from the vertical and radial components. Once this is obtained, one can ray-trace through the 1-D velocity model to estimate the hypocentral location. We test our method on synthetic data, which produces results with 99% precision. With observed data, the accuracy of our results are very encouraging. The precision of our results depend on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and choice of the right band-pass filter to isolate the P-wave signal. We used our method on minor aftershocks (3 < mb < 4) of the 2011 Sikkim earthquake using data from the Sikkim Himalayan network. Location of these events highlight the transverse strike-slip structure within the Indian plate, which was observed from source mechanism study of the mainshock and larger aftershocks.

  12. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project

    SciT

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics of Indonesia; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 180{sup 0}. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic networkmore » can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.« less

  13. NASA Spacecraft Image Shows Location of Iranian Earthquake

    2017-12-08

    On April 9, 2013 at 11:52 GMT, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit southwestern Iran's Bushehr province near the town of Kaki. Preliminary information is that several villages have been destroyed and many people have died, as reported by BBC News. This perspective view of the region was acquired Nov. 17, 2012, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The location of the earthquake's epicenter is marked with a yellow star. Vegetation is displayed in red; the vertical exaggeration of the topography is 2X. The image is centered near 28.5 degrees north latitude, 51.6 degrees east longitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on Terra. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. More information about ASTER is available at asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/. Image Credit: NASA

  14. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity

  15. Locating and Modeling Regional Earthquakes with Broadband Waveform Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Zhu, L.; Helmberger, D.

    2003-12-01

    Retrieving source parameters of small earthquakes (Mw < 4.5), including mechanism, depth, location and origin time, relies on local and regional seismic data. Although source characterization for such small events achieves a satisfactory stage in some places with a dense seismic network, such as TriNet, Southern California, a worthy revisit to the historical events in these places or an effective, real-time investigation of small events in many other places, where normally only a few local waveforms plus some short-period recordings are available, is still a problem. To address this issue, we introduce a new type of approach that estimates location, depth, origin time and fault parameters based on 3-component waveform matching in terms of separated Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves. We show that most local waveforms can be well modeled by a regionalized 1-D model plus different timing corrections for Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves at relatively long periods, i.e., 4-100 sec for Pnl, and 8-100 sec for surface waves, except for few anomalous paths involving greater structural complexity, meanwhile, these timing corrections reveal similar azimuthal patterns for well-located cluster events, despite their different focal mechanisms. Thus, we can calibrate the paths separately for Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves with the timing corrections from well-determined events widely recorded by a dense modern seismic network or a temporary PASSCAL experiment. In return, we can locate events and extract their fault parameters by waveform matching for available waveform data, which could be as less as from two stations, assuming timing corrections from the calibration. The accuracy of the obtained source parameters is subject to the error carried by the events used for the calibration. The detailed method requires a Green­_s function library constructed from a regionalized 1-D model together with necessary calibration information, and adopts a grid search strategy for both hypercenter and

  16. Investigation of Backprojection Uncertainties With M6 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate possible biasing effects of inaccurate timing corrections on teleseismic P wave backprojection imaging of large earthquake ruptures. These errors occur because empirically estimated time shifts based on aligning P wave first arrivals are exact only at the hypocenter and provide approximate corrections for other parts of the rupture. Using the Japan subduction zone as a test region, we analyze 46 M6-M7 earthquakes over a 10 year period, including many aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, performing waveform cross correlation of their initial P wave arrivals to obtain hypocenter timing corrections to global seismic stations. We then compare backprojection images for each earthquake using its own timing corrections with those obtained using the time corrections from other earthquakes. This provides a measure of how well subevents can be resolved with backprojection of a large rupture as a function of distance from the hypocenter. Our results show that backprojection is generally very robust and that the median subevent location error is about 25 km across the entire study region (˜700 km). The backprojection coherence loss and location errors do not noticeably converge to zero even when the event pairs are very close (<20 km). This indicates that most of the timing differences are due to 3-D structure close to each of the hypocenter regions, which limits the effectiveness of attempts to refine backprojection images using aftershock calibration, at least in this region.

  17. Epistemic uncertainty in the location and magnitude of earthquakes in Italy from Macroseismic data

    Bakun, W.H.; Gomez, Capera A.; Stucchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Three independent techniques (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997; Boxer from Gasperini et al., 1999; and Macroseismic Estimation of Earthquake Parameters [MEEP; see Data and Resources section, deliverable D3] from R.M.W. Musson and M.J. Jimenez) have been proposed for estimating an earthquake location and magnitude from intensity data alone. The locations and magnitudes obtained for a given set of intensity data are almost always different, and no one technique is consistently best at matching instrumental locations and magnitudes of recent well-recorded earthquakes in Italy. Rather than attempting to select one of the three solutions as best, we use all three techniques to estimate the location and the magnitude and the epistemic uncertainties among them. The estimates are calculated using bootstrap resampled data sets with Monte Carlo sampling of a decision tree. The decision-tree branch weights are based on goodness-of-fit measures of location and magnitude for recent earthquakes. The location estimates are based on the spatial distribution of locations calculated from the bootstrap resampled data. The preferred source location is the locus of the maximum bootstrap location spatial density. The location uncertainty is obtained from contours of the bootstrap spatial density: 68% of the bootstrap locations are within the 68% confidence region, and so on. For large earthquakes, our preferred location is not associated with the epicenter but with a location on the extended rupture surface. For small earthquakes, the epicenters are generally consistent with the location uncertainties inferred from the intensity data if an epicenter inaccuracy of 2-3 km is allowed. The preferred magnitude is the median of the distribution of bootstrap magnitudes. As with location uncertainties, the uncertainties in magnitude are obtained from the distribution of bootstrap magnitudes: the bounds of the 68% uncertainty range enclose 68% of the bootstrap magnitudes, and so on. The instrumental

  18. Controls of repeating earthquakes' location from a- and b- values imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. H.; Kawamura, M.

    2017-12-01

    The locations where creeping and locked fault areas abut have commonly found to be delineated by the foci of small repeating earthquakes (REs). REs not only represent the finer structure of high creep-rate location, they also function as fault slip-rate indicators. Knowledge of the expected location of REs therefore, is crucial for fault deformation monitoring and assessment of earthquake potential. However, a precise description of factors determining REs locations is lacking. To explore where earthquakes tend to recur, we statistically investigated repeating earthquake catalogs and background seismicity from different regions including six fault segments in California and Taiwan. We show that the location of repeating earthquakes can be mapped using the spatial distribution of the seismic a- and b-values obtained from the background seismicity. Molchan's error diagram statistically confirmed that repeating earthquakes occur within areas with high a-values (2.8-3.8) and high b-values (0.9-1.1) on both strike-slip and thrust fault segments. However, no significant association held true for fault segments with more complicated geometry or for wider areas with a complex fault network. The productivity of small earthquakes responsible for high a- and b-values may thus be the most important factor controlling the location of repeating earthquakes. We hypothesize that, given that the deformation conditions within a fault zone are suitable for a planar fault plane, the location of repeating earthquakes can be best described by a-value 3 and b-value 1. This feature of a- and b-values may be useful for foresee the location of REs for measuring creep rate at depth. Further investigation of REs-rich areas may allow testing of this hypothesis.

  19. Some characteristics of the complex El Mayor-Cucapah, MW7.2, April 4, 2010, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake, from well-located aftershock data from local and regional networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frez, J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Acosta, J.; Munguia, L.; Carlos, J.; García, R.

    2015-12-01

    Aftershocks from the El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC), MW7.2, April 4, 2010, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake, were recorded over two months by a 31 station local array (Reftek RT130 seismographs loaned from IRIS-PASSCAL), complemented by regional data from SCSN, and CICESE. The resulting data base includes 518 aftershocks with ML ≥ 3.0, plus 181 smaller events. Reliable hypocenters were determined using HYPODD and a velocity structure determined from refraction data for a mesa located to the west of the Mexicali-Imperial Valley. Aftershock hypocenters show that the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake was a multiple event comprising two or three different ruptures of which the last one constituted the main event. The main event rupture, which extends in a roughly N45°W direction, is complex with well-defined segments having different characteristics. The main event central segment, located close to the first event epicenter is roughly vertical, the northwest segment dips ~68°NE, while the two southeast segments dip ~60°SW and ~52°SW, respectively, which agrees with results of previous studies based on teleseismic long periods and on GPS-INSAR. All main rupture aftershock hypocenters have depths above 10-11km and, except for the central segment, they delineate the edges of zones with largest coseismic displacement. The two southern segments show seismicity concentrated below 5km and 3.5km, respectively; the paucity of shallow seismicity may be caused by the thick layer of non-consolidated sediments in this region. The ruptures delineated by aftershocks in the southern regions correspond to the Indiviso fault, unidentified until the occurrence of the EMC earthquake. The first event was relocated together with the aftershocks; the epicenter lies slightly westwards of published locations, but it definitely does not lie on, or close to, the main rupture. The focal mechanism of the first event, based on first arrival polarities, is predominantly strike-slip; the focal plane

  20. Three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocenter distribution in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; Meyer, R. P.

    1988-06-01

    The Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) are dominated by a Quaternary explosive calders, about 10 km in diameter. Within the caldera are numerous later eruptive vents, the last of which formed in 1538 A.D. Well documented local elevation changes of ≈ 10 m have occurred in the caldera since Roman times. Recent inflation of the central caldera began in 1968, after over 400 years of subsidence. During this time more than 2 m of localized uplift occurred, predominantly from 1980 through 1985. Microearthquakes associated with this uplift were recorded by a portable three-component digital network deployed by the University of Wisconsin and the Vesuvius Observatory from August 1983 through May 1984. Those data have been used to obtain detailed information about the velocity structure of the caldera. A best-fit homogeneous half-space model was obtained by a systematic search for optimal residual statistics. A residual-based tomographic technique was applied to isolate a low-seismicity, anomalously-high {v p}/{v s} region in the central caldera, roughly coincident with the region of greatest uplift. Finally, P and S arrival times were used to simultaneously relocate 228 earthquakes and obtain a three-dimensional vp and vs model for the caldera. The results of this velocity study, considered along with drillhole findings, composite fault-plane solutions, and the space-time distribution of earthquakes, suggest that the {v p}/{v s} anomaly may represent an incompetent, highly fractured volume, saturated with liquid water. Hypocenter locations indicate a zone of concentrated seismicity north of the point of highest measured uplift. An inward-dipping elliptical hypocenter pattern suggests a ring fault.

  1. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: Earthquake locations and source parameters

    Ruppert, N.A.; Prejean, S.; Hansen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: earthquake locations and source parameters

    Ruppert, Natalia G.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field.

  3. Assessing the location and magnitude of the 20 October 1870 Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake

    Ebel, John E.; Dupuy, Megan; Bakun, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake of 20 October 1870 caused damage to several towns in Quebec and was felt throughout much of southeastern Canada and along the U.S. Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Maryland. Site‐specific damage and felt reports from Canadian and U.S. cities and towns were used in analyses of the location and magnitude of the earthquake. The macroseismic center of the earthquake was very close to Baie‐St‐Paul, where the greatest damage was reported, and the intensity magnitude MI was found to be 5.8, with a 95% probability range of 5.5–6.0. After corrections for epicentral‐distance differences are applied, the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) data for the 1870 earthquake and for the moment magnitude M 6.2 Charlevoix earthquake of 1925 at common sites show that on average, the MMI readings are about 0.8 intensity units smaller for the 1870 earthquake than for the 1925 earthquake, suggesting that the 1870 earthquake was MI 5.7. A similar comparison of the MMI data for the 1870 earthquake with the corresponding data for the M 5.9 1988 Saguenay event suggests that the 1870 earthquake was MI 6.0. These analyses all suggest that the magnitude of the 1870 Charlevoix earthquake is between MI 5.5 and MI 6.0, with a best estimate of MI 5.8.

  4. The effect of shear wall location in resisting earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J.; Manggala, J.; Sitorus, T.

    2018-02-01

    Shear wall is one of lateral resisting structure which is used commonly. Shear wall gives high stiffness to the structure so as the structure will be stable. Applying shear wall can effectively reduce the displacement and story-drift of the structure. This will reduce the destruction comes from lateral loads such as an earthquake. Earlier studies showed that shear wall gives different performance based on its position in structures. In this paper, seismic analysis has been performed using response spectrum method for different Model of structures; they are the open frame, the shear wall at core symmetrically, the shear wall at periphery symmetrically, and the shear wall at periphery asymmetrically. The results are observed by comparing the displacement and story-drift. Based on the analysis, the placement of shear wall at the core of structure symmetrically gives the best performance to reduce the displacement and story-drift. It can reduce the displacement up to 61.16% (X-dir) and 70.60% (Y-dir). The placement of shear wall at periphery symmetrically will reduce the displacement up to 53.85% (X-dir) and 47.87% (Y-dir) while the placement of shear wall at periphery asymmetrically reducing the displacement up to 59.42% (X-dir) and 66.99% (Y-dir).

  5. Intensity, magnitude, location and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    Szeliga, Walter; Hough, Susan; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earthquakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental- with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earthquakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  6. Intensity, magnitude, location, and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    Szeliga, W.; Hough, S.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earth-quakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental-with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earth-quakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly

  7. Locations and magnitudes of historical earthquakes in the Sierra of Ecuador (1587-1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauval, Céline; Yepes, Hugo; Bakun, William H.; Egred, José; Alvarado, Alexandra; Singaucho, Juan-Carlos

    2010-06-01

    The whole territory of Ecuador is exposed to seismic hazard. Great earthquakes can occur in the subduction zone (e.g. Esmeraldas, 1906, Mw 8.8), whereas lower magnitude but shallower and potentially more destructive earthquakes can occur in the highlands. This study focuses on the historical crustal earthquakes of the Andean Cordillera. Several large cities are located in the Interandean Valley, among them Quito, the capital (~2.5 millions inhabitants). A total population of ~6 millions inhabitants currently live in the highlands, raising the seismic risk. At present, precise instrumental data for the Ecuadorian territory is not available for periods earlier than 1990 (beginning date of the revised instrumental Ecuadorian seismic catalogue); therefore historical data are of utmost importance for assessing seismic hazard. In this study, the Bakun & Wentworth method is applied in order to determine magnitudes, locations, and associated uncertainties for historical earthquakes of the Sierra over the period 1587-1976. An intensity-magnitude equation is derived from the four most reliable instrumental earthquakes (Mw between 5.3 and 7.1). Intensity data available per historical earthquake vary between 10 (Quito, 1587, Intensity >=VI) and 117 (Riobamba, 1797, Intensity >=III). The bootstrap resampling technique is coupled to the B&W method for deriving geographical confidence contours for the intensity centre depending on the data set of each earthquake, as well as confidence intervals for the magnitude. The extension of the area delineating the intensity centre location at the 67 per cent confidence level (+/-1σ) depends on the amount of intensity data, on their internal coherence, on the number of intensity degrees available, and on their spatial distribution. Special attention is dedicated to the few earthquakes described by intensities reaching IX, X and XI degrees. Twenty-five events are studied, and nineteen new epicentral locations are obtained, yielding

  8. Locations and magnitudes of historical earthquakes in the Sierra of Ecuador (1587–1996)

    Beauval, Celine; Yepes, Hugo; Bakun, William H.; Egred, Jose; Alvarado, Alexandra; Singaucho, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The whole territory of Ecuador is exposed to seismic hazard. Great earthquakes can occur in the subduction zone (e.g. Esmeraldas, 1906, Mw8.8), whereas lower magnitude but shallower and potentially more destructive earthquakes can occur in the highlands. This study focuses on the historical crustal earthquakes of the Andean Cordillera. Several large cities are located in the Interandean Valley, among them Quito, the capital (∼2.5 millions inhabitants). A total population of ∼6 millions inhabitants currently live in the highlands, raising the seismic risk. At present, precise instrumental data for the Ecuadorian territory is not available for periods earlier than 1990 (beginning date of the revised instrumental Ecuadorian seismic catalogue); therefore historical data are of utmost importance for assessing seismic hazard. In this study, the Bakun & Wentworth method is applied in order to determine magnitudes, locations, and associated uncertainties for historical earthquakes of the Sierra over the period 1587–1976. An intensity-magnitude equation is derived from the four most reliable instrumental earthquakes (Mwbetween 5.3 and 7.1). Intensity data available per historical earthquake vary between 10 (Quito, 1587, Intensity ≥VI) and 117 (Riobamba, 1797, Intensity ≥III). The bootstrap resampling technique is coupled to the B&W method for deriving geographical confidence contours for the intensity centre depending on the data set of each earthquake, as well as confidence intervals for the magnitude. The extension of the area delineating the intensity centre location at the 67 per cent confidence level (±1σ) depends on the amount of intensity data, on their internal coherence, on the number of intensity degrees available, and on their spatial distribution. Special attention is dedicated to the few earthquakes described by intensities reaching IX, X and XI degrees. Twenty-five events are studied, and nineteen new epicentral locations are obtained, yielding

  9. Foreshocks and aftershocks locations of the 2014 Pisagua, N. Chile earthquake: history of a megathrust earthquake nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuenzalida Velasco, Amaya; Rietbrock, Andreas; Tavera, Hernando; Ryder, Isabelle; Ruiz, Sergio; Thomas, Reece; De Angelis, Silvio; Bondoux, Francis

    2015-04-01

    The April 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake occurred in the Northern Chile seismic gap: a region of the South American subduction zone lying between Arica city and the Mejillones Peninsula. It is believed that this part of the subduction zone has not experienced a large earthquake since 1877. Thanks to the identification of this seismic gap, the north of Chile was well instrumented before the Pisagua earthquake, including the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network and the Chilean local network installed by the Centro Sismologico Nacional (CSN). These instruments were able to record the full foreshock and aftershock sequences, allowing a unique opportunity to study the nucleation process of large megathrust earthquakes. To improve azimuthal coverage of the Pisagua seismic sequence, after the earthquake, in collaboration with the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) we installed a temporary seismic network in south of Peru. The network comprised 12 short-period stations located in the coastal area between Moquegua and Tacna and they were operative from 1st May 2014. We also installed three stations on the slopes of the Ticsiani volcano to monitor any possible change in volcanic activity following the Pisagua earthquake. In this work we analysed the continuous seismic data recorded by CSN and IPOC networks from 1 March to 30 June to obtain the catalogue of the sequence, including foreshocks and aftershocks. Using an automatic algorithm based in STA/LTA we obtained the picks for P and S waves. Association in time and space defined the events and computed an initial location using Hypo71 and the 1D local velocity model. More than 11,000 events were identified with this method for the whole period, but we selected the best resolved events that include more than 7 observed arrivals with at least 2 S picks of them, to relocate these events using NonLinLoc software. For the main events of the sequence we carefully estimate event locations and we obtained

  10. The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake aftershock sequence, event catalog and locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, A.; Benz, H.; Brown, L.; Russo, R. M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The aftershock sequence of the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010 is one of the most well-recorded aftershock sequences from a great megathrust earthquake. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of geophysicists from Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States coordinated resources to capture aftershocks and other seismic signals associated with this significant earthquake. In total, 91 broadband, 48 short period, and 25 accelerometers stations were deployed above the rupture zone of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. In order to integrate these data into a unified catalog, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center develop procedures to use their real-time seismic monitoring system (Bulletin Hydra) to detect, associate, location and compute earthquake source parameters from these stations. As a first step in the process, the USGS has built a seismic catalog of all M3.5 or larger earthquakes for the time period of the main aftershock deployment from March 2010-October 2010. The catalog includes earthquake locations, magnitudes (Ml, Mb, Mb_BB, Ms, Ms_BB, Ms_VX, Mc), associated phase readings and regional moment tensor solutions for most of the M4 or larger events. Also included in the catalog are teleseismic phases and amplitude measures and body-wave MT and CMT solutions for the larger events, typically M5.5 and larger. Tuning of automated detection and association parameters should allow a complete catalog of events to approximately M2.5 or larger for that dataset of more than 164 stations. We characterize the aftershock sequence in terms of magnitude, frequency, and location over time. Using the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. In addition, phase data from candidate ground truth events and modeling of surface waves can be used to calibrate the

  11. Three-dimensional Probabilistic Earthquake Location Applied to 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaccio, A.; Tuve', T.; Zuccarello, L.; Patane', D.; Saccorotti, G.; D'Agostino, M.

    2005-12-01

    Recorded seismicity for the Mt. Etna volcano, occurred during the 2002-2003 eruption, has been relocated using a probabilistic, non-linear, earthquake location approach. We used the software package NonLinLoc (Lomax et al., 2000) adopting the 3D velocity model obtained by Cocina et al., 2005. We applied our data through different algorithms: (1) via a grid-search; (2) via a Metropolis-Gibbs; and (3) via an Oct-tree. The Oct-Tree algorithm gives efficient, faster and accurate mapping of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the earthquake location problem. More than 300 seismic events were analyzed in order to compare non-linear location results with the ones obtained by using traditional, linearized earthquake location algorithm such as Hypoellipse, and a 3D linearized inversion (Thurber, 1983). Moreover, we compare 38 focal mechanisms, chosen following stricta criteria selection, with the ones obtained by the 3D and 1D results. Although the presented approach is more of a traditional relocation application, probabilistic earthquake location could be used in routinely survey.

  12. eqMAXEL: A new automatic earthquake location algorithm implementation for Earthworm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, S.; Friberg, P. A.; Sheen, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    A common problem with automated earthquake location systems for a local to regional scale seismic network is false triggering and false locations inside the network caused by larger regional to teleseismic distance earthquakes. This false location issue also presents a problem for earthquake early warning systems where societal impacts of false alarms can be very expensive. Towards solving this issue, Sheen et al. (2016) implemented a robust maximum-likelihood earthquake location algorithm known as MAXEL. It was shown with both synthetics and real-data for a small number of arrivals, that large regional events were easily identifiable through metrics in the MAXEL algorithm. In the summer of 2017, we collaboratively implemented the MAXEL algorithm into a fully functional Earthworm module and tested it in regions of the USA where false detections and alarming are observed. We show robust improvement in the ability of the Earthworm system to filter out regional and teleseismic events that would have falsely located inside the network using the traditional Earthworm hypoinverse solution. We also explore using different grid sizes in the implementation of the MAXEL algorithm, which was originally designed with South Korea as the target network size.

  13. Regional intensity attenuation models for France and the estimation of magnitude and location of historical earthquakes

    Bakun, W.H.; Scotti, O.

    2006-01-01

    Intensity assignments for 33 calibration earthquakes were used to develop intensity attenuation models for the Alps, Armorican, Provence, Pyrenees and Rhine regions of France. Intensity decreases with ?? most rapidly in the French Alps, Provence and Pyrenees regions, and least rapidly in the Armorican and Rhine regions. The comparable Armorican and Rhine region attenuation models are aggregated into a French stable continental region model and the comparable Provence and Pyrenees region models are aggregated into a Southern France model. We analyse MSK intensity assignments using the technique of Bakun & Wentworth, which provides an objective method for estimating epicentral location and intensity magnitude MI. MI for the 1356 October 18 earthquake in the French stable continental region is 6.6 for a location near Basle, Switzerland, and moment magnitude M is 5.9-7.2 at the 95 per cent (??2??) confidence level. MI for the 1909 June 11 Trevaresse (Lambesc) earthquake near Marseilles in the Southern France region is 5.5, and M is 4.9-6.0 at the 95 per cent confidence level. Bootstrap resampling techniques are used to calculate objective, reproducible 67 per cent and 95 per cent confidence regions for the locations of historical earthquakes. These confidence regions for location provide an attractive alternative to the macroseismic epicentre and qualitative location uncertainties used heretofore. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  14. ConvNetQuake: Convolutional Neural Network for Earthquake Detection and Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denolle, M.; Perol, T.; Gharbi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, the volume of seismic data has increased exponentially, creating a need for efficient algorithms to reliably detect and locate earthquakes. Today's most elaborate methods scan through the plethora of continuous seismic records, searching for repeating seismic signals. In this work, we leverage the recent advances in artificial intelligence and present ConvNetQuake, a highly scalable convolutional neural network for probabilistic earthquake detection and location from single stations. We apply our technique to study two years of induced seismicity in Oklahoma (USA). We detect 20 times more earthquakes than previously cataloged by the Oklahoma Geological Survey. Our algorithm detection performances are at least one order of magnitude faster than other established methods.

  15. Hypocenter relocation along the Sunda arc in Indonesia, using a 3D seismic velocity model

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Shiddiqi, Hasbi A.; Widiyantoro, Sri; Thurber, Clifford H.; Pesicek, Jeremy D.; Zhang, Haijiang; Wiyono, Samsul H.; Ramadhan, Mohamad; Wandano,; Irsyam, Mahsyur

    2018-01-01

    The tectonics of the Sunda arc region is characterized by the junction of the Eurasian and Indo‐Australian tectonic plates, causing complex dynamics to take place. High‐seismicity rates in the Indonesian region occur due to the interaction between these tectonic plates. The availability of a denser network of seismometers after the earthquakes of Mw">Mw 9.1 in 2004 and  Mw">Mw 8.6 in 2005 supports various seismic studies, one of which regards the precise relocation of the hypocenters. In this study, hypocenter relocation was performed using a teleseismic double‐difference (DD) relocation method (teletomoDD) combining arrival times of P and S waves from stations at local, regional, and teleseismic distances. The catalog data were taken from the Agency of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG) of Indonesia, and the International Seismological Centre (ISC) for the time period of April 2009 to May 2015. The 3D seismic‐wave velocity model with a grid size 1°×1°">1°×1° was used in the travel‐time calculations. Relocation results show a reduction in travel‐time residuals compared with the initial locations. The relocation results better illuminate subducted slabs and active faults in the region such as the Mentawai back thrust and the outer rise in the subduction zone south of Java. Focal mechanisms from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog are analyzed in conjunction with the relocation results, and our synthesis of the results provides further insight into seismogenesis in the region.

  16. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Earthquakes Earthquakes An earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, ... by the breaking and shifting of underground rock. Earthquakes can cause buildings to collapse and cause heavy ...

  17. Co-located ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-07-01

    Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, to generate so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs). In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (geomagnetic field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., et al. (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., et al. (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.

  18. Earthquake in Hindu Kush Region, Afghanistan

    2015-10-27

    On Oct. 26, 2015, NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of northeastern Afghanistan where a magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck the Hindu Kush region. The earthquake's epicenter was at a depth of 130 miles (210 kilometers), on a probable shallowly dipping thrust fault. At this location, the Indian subcontinent moves northward and collides with Eurasia, subducting under the Asian continent, and raising the highest mountains in the world. This type of earthquake is common in the area: a similar earthquake occurred 13 years ago about 12 miles (20 kilometers) away. This perspective image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, looking southwest, shows the hypocenter with a star. The image was acquired July 8, 2015, and is located near 36.4 degrees north, 70.7 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20035

  19. Local observations of the onset of a large earthquake: 28 June 1992 Landers, California

    Abercrombie, Richael; Mori, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The Landers earthquake (MW 7.3) of 28 June 1992 had a very emergent onset. The first large amplitude arrivals are delayed by about 3 sec with respect to the origin time, and are preceded by smaller-scale slip. Other large earthquakes have been observed to have similar emergent onsets, but the Landers event is one of the first to be well recorded on nearby stations. We used these recordings to investigate the spatial relationship between the hypocenter and the onset of the large energy release, and to determine the slip function of the 3-sec nucleation process. Relative location of the onset of the large energy release with respect to the initial hypocenter indicates its source was between 1 and 4 km north of the hypocenter and delayed by approximately 2.5 sec. Three-station array analysis of the P wave shows that the large amplitude onset arrives with a faster apparent velocity compared to the first arrivals, indicating that the large amplitude source was several kilometers deeper than the initial onset. An ML 2.8 foreshock, located close to the hypocenter, was used as an empirical Green's function to correct for path and site effects from the first 3 sec of the mainshock seismogram. The resultant deconvolution produced a slip function that showed two subevents preceding the main energy release, an MW4.4 followed by an MW 5.6. These subevents do not appear anomalous in comparison to simple moderate-sized earthquakes, suggesting that they were normal events which just triggered or grew into a much larger earthquake. If small and moderate-sized earthquakes commonly “detonate” much larger events, this implies that the dynamic stresses during earthquake rupture are at least as important as long-term static stresses in causing earthquakes, and the prospects of reliable earthquake prediction from premonitory phenomena are not improved.

  20. A phase coherence approach to identifying co-located earthquakes and tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Ampuero, J.-P.

    2018-05-01

    We present and use a phase coherence approach to identify seismic signals that have similar path effects but different source time functions: co-located earthquakes and tremor. The method used is a phase coherence-based implementation of empirical matched field processing, modified to suit tremor analysis. It works by comparing the frequency-domain phases of waveforms generated by two sources recorded at multiple stations. We first cross-correlate the records of the two sources at a single station. If the sources are co-located, this cross-correlation eliminates the phases of the Green's function. It leaves the relative phases of the source time functions, which should be the same across all stations so long as the spatial extent of the sources are small compared with the seismic wavelength. We therefore search for cross-correlation phases that are consistent across stations as an indication of co-located sources. We also introduce a method to obtain relative locations between the two sources, based on back-projection of interstation phase coherence. We apply this technique to analyse two tremor-like signals that are thought to be composed of a number of earthquakes. First, we analyse a 20 s long seismic precursor to a M 3.9 earthquake in central Alaska. The analysis locates the precursor to within 2 km of the mainshock, and it identifies several bursts of energy—potentially foreshocks or groups of foreshocks—within the precursor. Second, we examine several minutes of volcanic tremor prior to an eruption at Redoubt Volcano. We confirm that the tremor source is located close to repeating earthquakes identified earlier in the tremor sequence. The amplitude of the tremor diminishes about 30 s before the eruption, but the phase coherence results suggest that the tremor may persist at some level through this final interval.

  1. An Improved Source-Scanning Algorithm for Locating Earthquake Clusters or Aftershock Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y.; Kao, H.; Hsu, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Source-scanning Algorithm (SSA) was originally introduced in 2004 to locate non-volcanic tremors. Its application was later expanded to the identification of earthquake rupture planes and the near-real-time detection and monitoring of landslides and mud/debris flows. In this study, we further improve SSA for the purpose of locating earthquake clusters or aftershock sequences when only a limited number of waveform observations are available. The main improvements include the application of a ground motion analyzer to separate P and S waves, the automatic determination of resolution based on the grid size and time step of the scanning process, and a modified brightness function to utilize constraints from multiple phases. Specifically, the improved SSA (named as ISSA) addresses two major issues related to locating earthquake clusters/aftershocks. The first one is the massive amount of both time and labour to locate a large number of seismic events manually. And the second one is to efficiently and correctly identify the same phase across the entire recording array when multiple events occur closely in time and space. To test the robustness of ISSA, we generate synthetic waveforms consisting of 3 separated events such that individual P and S phases arrive at different stations in different order, thus making correct phase picking nearly impossible. Using these very complicated waveforms as the input, the ISSA scans all model space for possible combination of time and location for the existence of seismic sources. The scanning results successfully associate various phases from each event at all stations, and correctly recover the input. To further demonstrate the advantage of ISSA, we apply it to the waveform data collected by a temporary OBS array for the aftershock sequence of an offshore earthquake southwest of Taiwan. The overall signal-to-noise ratio is inadequate for locating small events; and the precise arrival times of P and S phases are difficult to

  2. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  3. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  4. A PC-based computer package for automatic detection and location of earthquakes: Application to a seismic network in eastern sicity (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, Domenico; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Gresta, Stefano

    Few automated data acquisition and processing systems operate on mainframes, some run on UNIX-based workstations and others on personal computers, equipped with either DOS/WINDOWS or UNIX-derived operating systems. Several large and complex software packages for automatic and interactive analysis of seismic data have been developed in recent years (mainly for UNIX-based systems). Some of these programs use a variety of artificial intelligence techniques. The first operational version of a new software package, named PC-Seism, for analyzing seismic data from a local network is presented in Patanè et al. (1999). This package, composed of three separate modules, provides an example of a new generation of visual object-oriented programs for interactive and automatic seismic data-processing running on a personal computer. In this work, we mainly discuss the automatic procedures implemented in the ASDP (Automatic Seismic Data-Processing) module and real time application to data acquired by a seismic network running in eastern Sicily. This software uses a multi-algorithm approach and a new procedure MSA (multi-station-analysis) for signal detection, phase grouping and event identification and location. It is designed for an efficient and accurate processing of local earthquake records provided by single-site and array stations. Results from ASDP processing of two different data sets recorded at Mt. Etna volcano by a regional network are analyzed to evaluate its performance. By comparing the ASDP pickings with those revised manually, the detection and subsequently the location capabilities of this software are assessed. The first data set is composed of 330 local earthquakes recorded in the Mt. Etna erea during 1997 by the telemetry analog seismic network. The second data set comprises about 970 automatic locations of more than 2600 local events recorded at Mt. Etna during the last eruption (July 2001) at the present network. For the former data set, a comparison of the

  5. Revision of earthquake hypocentre locations in global bulletin data sets using source-specific station terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshiri, Nima; Saul, Joachim; Heimann, Sebastian; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    Global earthquake locations are often associated with very large systematic travel-time residuals even for clear arrivals, especially for regional and near-regional stations in subduction zones because of their strongly heterogeneous velocity structure. Travel-time corrections can drastically reduce travel-time residuals at regional stations and, in consequence, improve the relative location accuracy. We have extended the shrinking-box source-specific station terms technique to regional and teleseismic distances and adopted the algorithm for probabilistic, nonlinear, global-search location. We evaluated the potential of the method to compute precise relative hypocentre locations on a global scale. The method has been applied to two specific test regions using existing P- and pP-phase picks. The first data set consists of 3103 events along the Chilean margin and the second one comprises 1680 earthquakes in the Tonga-Fiji subduction zone. Pick data were obtained from the GEOFON earthquake bulletin, produced using data from all available, global station networks. A set of timing corrections varying as a function of source position was calculated for each seismic station. In this way, we could correct the systematic errors introduced into the locations by the inaccuracies in the assumed velocity structure without explicitly solving for a velocity model. Residual statistics show that the median absolute deviation of the travel-time residuals is reduced by 40-60 per cent at regional distances, where the velocity anomalies are strong. Moreover, the spread of the travel-time residuals decreased by ˜20 per cent at teleseismic distances (>28°). Furthermore, strong variations in initial residuals as a function of recording distance are smoothed out in the final residuals. The relocated catalogues exhibit less scattered locations in depth and sharper images of the seismicity associated with the subducting slabs. Comparison with a high-resolution local catalogue reveals that

  6. Investigation of Back-Projection Uncertainties with M6 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Shearer, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate possible biasing effects of inaccurate timing corrections on teleseismic P-wave back-projection imaging of large earthquake ruptures. These errors occur because empirically-estimated time shifts based on aligning P-wave first arrivals are exact only at the hypocenter and provide approximate corrections for other parts of the rupture. Using the Japan subduction zone as a test region, we analyze 46 M6-7 earthquakes over a ten-year period, including many aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, performing waveform cross-correlation of their initial P-wave arrivals to obtain hypocenter timing corrections to global seismic stations. We then compare back-projection images for each earthquake using its own timing corrections with those obtained using the time corrections for other earthquakes. This provides a measure of how well sub-events can be resolved with back-projection of a large rupture as a function of distance from the hypocenter. Our results show that back-projection is generally very robust and that sub-event location errors average about 20 km across the entire study region ( 700 km). The back-projection coherence loss and location errors do not noticeably converge to zero even when the event pairs are very close (<20 km). This indicates that most of the timing differences are due to 3D structure close to each of the hypocenter regions, which limits the effectiveness of attempts to refine back-projection images using aftershock calibration, at least in this region.

  7. Aftershocks, earthquake effects, and the location of the large 14 December 1872 earthquake near Entiat, central Washington

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Hopper, Margaret G.; Algermissen, S.T. Ted; Perkins, David M.; Brockman, Stanley R.; Arnold, Edouard P.

    2017-01-01

    Reported aftershock durations, earthquake effects, and other observations from the large 14 December 1872 earthquake in central Washington are consistent with an epicenter near Entiat, Washington. Aftershocks were reported for more than 3 months only near Entiat. Modal intensity data described in this article are consistent with an Entiat area epicenter, where the largest modified Mercalli intensities, VIII, were assigned between Lake Chelan and Wenatchee. Although ground failures and water effects were widespread, there is a concentration of these features along the Columbia River and its tributaries in the Entiat area. Assuming linear ray paths, misfits from 23 reports of the directions of horizontal shaking have a local minima at Entiat, assuming the reports are describing surface waves, but the region having comparable misfit is large. Broadband seismograms recorded for comparable ray paths provide insight into the reasons why possible S–P times estimated from felt reports at two locations are several seconds too small to be consistent with an Entiat area epicenter.

  8. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  9. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  10. Probablilistic evaluation of earthquake detection and location capability for Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia

    SciT

    Mauk, F.J.; Christensen, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    Probabilistic estimations of earthquake detection and location capabilities for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia are presented in this document. The algorithm used in these epicentrality and minimum-magnitude estimations is a version of the program NETWORTH by Wirth, Blandford, and Husted (DARPA Order No. 2551, 1978) which was modified for local array evaluation at the University of Michigan Seismological Observatory. Estimations of earthquake detection capability for the years 1970 and 1980 are presented in four regional minimum m/sub b/ magnitude contour maps. Regional 90% confidence error ellipsoids are included for m/sub b/ magnitude events from 2.0more » through 5.0 at 0.5 m/sub b/ unit increments. The close agreement between these predicted epicentral 90% confidence estimates and the calculated error ellipses associated with actual earthquakes within the studied region suggest that these error determinations can be used to estimate the reliability of epicenter location. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  11. Outward-dipping ring-fault structure at rabaul caldera as shown by earthquake locations.

    PubMed

    Mori, J; McKee, C

    1987-01-09

    The locations of a large number of earthquakes recorded at Rabaul caldera in Papua New Guinea from late 1983 to mid-1985 have produced a picture of this active caldera's structural boundary. The earthquake epicenters form an elliptical annulus about 10 kilometers long by 4 kilometers wide, centered in the southern part of the Rabaul volcanic complex. A set of events with well-constrained depth determinations shows a ring-fault structure that extends from the surface to a depth of about 4 kilometers and slopes steeply outward from the center of the caldera. This is the first geophysical data set that clearly outlines the orientation of an active caldera's bounding faults. This orientation, however, conflicts with the configuration of many other calderas and is not in keeping with currently preferred models of caldera formation.

  12. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  13. Robust method to detect and locate local earthquakes by means of amplitude measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Brückl, Ewald

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present a robust new method to detect and locate medium and low magnitude local earthquakes. This method is based on an empirical model of the ground motion obtained from amplitude data of earthquakes in the area of interest, which were located using traditional methods. The first step of our method is the computation of maximum resultant ground velocities in sliding time windows covering the whole period of interest. In the second step, these maximum resultant ground velocities are back-projected to every point of a grid covering the whole area of interest while applying the empirical amplitude - distance relations. We refer to these back-projected ground velocities as pseudo-magnitudes. The number of operating seismic stations in the local network equals the number of pseudo-magnitudes at each grid-point. Our method introduces the new idea of selecting the minimum pseudo-magnitude at each grid-point for further analysis instead of searching for a minimum of the L2 or L1 norm. In case no detectable earthquake occurred, the spatial distribution of the minimum pseudo-magnitudes constrains the magnitude of weak earthquakes hidden in the ambient noise. In the case of a detectable local earthquake, the spatial distribution of the minimum pseudo-magnitudes shows a significant maximum at the grid-point nearest to the actual epicenter. The application of our method is restricted to the area confined by the convex hull of the seismic station network. Additionally, one must ensure that there are no dead traces involved in the processing. Compared to methods based on L2 and even L1 norms, our new method is almost wholly insensitive to outliers (data from locally disturbed seismic stations). A further advantage is the fast determination of the epicenter and magnitude of a seismic event located within a seismic network. This is possible due to the method of obtaining and storing a back-projected matrix, independent of the registered amplitude, for each seismic

  14. A Bayesian Approach to Real-Time Earthquake Phase Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H.; Johnson, C. E.; Earle, P. S.; Patton, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time location of seismic events requires a robust and extremely efficient means of associating and identifying seismic phases with hypothetical sources. An association algorithm converts a series of phase arrival times into a catalog of earthquake hypocenters. The classical approach based on time-space stacking of the locus of possible hypocenters for each phase arrival using the principal of acoustic reciprocity has been in use now for many years. One of the most significant problems that has emerged over time with this approach is related to the extreme variations in seismic station density throughout the global seismic network. To address this problem we have developed a novel, Bayesian association algorithm, which looks at the association problem as a dynamically evolving complex system of "many to many relationships". While the end result must be an array of one to many relations (one earthquake, many phases), during the association process the situation is quite different. Both the evolving possible hypocenters and the relationships between phases and all nascent hypocenters is many to many (many earthquakes, many phases). The computational framework we are using to address this is a responsive, NoSQL graph database where the earthquake-phase associations are represented as intersecting Bayesian Learning Networks. The approach directly addresses the network inhomogeneity issue while at the same time allowing the inclusion of other kinds of data (e.g., seismic beams, station noise characteristics, priors on estimated location of the seismic source) by representing the locus of intersecting hypothetical loci for a given datum as joint probability density functions.

  15. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas–Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m3/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  16. Introducing the Japan Unified HIgh-Resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T. E.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the tectonic processes, seismogenic zones, and active fault evaluations, the precise location of earthquake hypocenters is necessary. Routinely determined hypocenters typically have uncertainties that can make seismically active areas appear more diffuse. These uncertainties influence the interpretation of what are active faults. Objective of this Japan Unified HIgh-resolution Relocated Catalog for Earthquakes (JUICE) project is to create a high-resolution earthquake relocated catalog for all of Japan. To initiate the project, we relocate hypocenters around Kanto-Tokai region. The network geometry, available phases, arrival-time reading accuracy, and knowledge of crustal structure control the accuracy of absolute hypocenter locations (Pavlis, 1986; Gomberg et al., 1990). We take advantage of having an excellent network operated by NIED Hi-net team. We use the high-quality data from this network for events from 2001 to the present. To initiate the JUICE project, we utilize more than 5,500,000 and 5,300,000 P and S phase arrival-time readings (catalog data) and waveforms for about 120,000 events between M0 and M6.5 from 2001 through 2012 in the Kanto and Tokai region. To reduce uncertainties, we apply the double-difference algorithm (hypoDD) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) to the data. To obtain the travel time differences for the pairs of earthquakes, we cross correlate the seismograms at the stations, which produces another data set -- cross-correlation data. In addition to the catalog phase data, we add 800,000 and 1,000,000 of P and S phase cross-correlations that are used to relocate hypocenters. We use Hi-net routine velocity structure (Ukawa et al., 1984) to estimate theoretical differential travel times. The newly relocated hypocenters show tighter clusters and lineaments compared to the routinely generated hypocenters. Figure 1 (a) shows the hypocenters in the Shizuoka region before relocation and (b) shows the hypocenters after relocation

  17. ISC-GEM: Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009), II. Location and seismicity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondár, I.; Engdahl, E. Robert; Villaseñor, A.; Harris, James; Storchak, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present the final results of a two-year project sponsored by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation. The ISC-GEM global catalogue consists of some 19 thousand instrumentally recorded, moderate to large earthquakes, spanning 110 years of seismicity. We relocated all events in the catalogue using a two-tier approach. The EHB location methodology (Engdahl et al., 1998) was applied first to obtain improved hypocentres with special focus on the depth determination. The locations were further refined in the next step by fixing the depths to those from the EHB analysis and applying the new International Seismological Centre (ISC) location algorithm (Bondár and Storchak, 2011) that reduces location bias by accounting for correlated travel-time prediction error structure. To facilitate the relocation effort, some one million seismic P and S wave arrival-time data were added to the ISC database for the period between 1904 and 1970, either from original station bulletins in the ISC archive or by digitizing the scanned images of the International Seismological Summary (ISS) bulletin (Villaseñor and Engdahl, 2005, 2007). Although no substantial amount of new phase data were acquired for the modern period (1964-2009), the number of phases used in the location has still increased by three millions, owing to fact that both the EHB and ISC locators use most well-recorded ak135 (Kennett et al., 1995) phases in the location. We show that the relocation effort yielded substantially improved locations, especially in the first half of the 20th century; we demonstrate significant improvements in focal depth estimates in subduction zones and other seismically active regions; and we show that the ISC-GEM catalogue provides an improved view of 110 years of global seismicity of the Earth. The ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue represents the final product of one of the ten global components in the GEM program, and is available to researchers at the ISC (http://www.isc.ac.uk).

  18. Fine-scale structure of the San Andreas fault zone and location of the SAFOD target earthquakes

    Thurber, C.; Roecker, S.; Zhang, H.; Baher, S.; Ellsworth, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from the tomographic analysis of seismic data from the Parkfield area using three different inversion codes. The models provide a consistent view of the complex velocity structure in the vicinity of the San Andreas, including a sharp velocity contrast across the fault. We use the inversion results to assess our confidence in the absolute location accuracy of a potential target earthquake. We derive two types of accuracy estimates, one based on a consideration of the location differences from the three inversion methods, and the other based on the absolute location accuracy of "virtual earthquakes." Location differences are on the order of 100-200 m horizontally and up to 500 m vertically. Bounds on the absolute location errors based on the "virtual earthquake" relocations are ??? 50 m horizontally and vertically. The average of our locations places the target event epicenter within about 100 m of the SAF surface trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. The effect of S-wave arrival times on the accuracy of hypocenter estimation

    Gomberg, J.S.; Shedlock, K.M.; Roecker, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the theoretical basis behind some of the widely accepted "rules of thumb' for obtaining accurate hypocenter estimates that pertain to the use of S phases and illustrate, in a variety of ways, why and when these "rules' are applicable. Most methods used to determine earthquake hypocenters are based on iterative, linearized, least-squares algorithms. We examine the influence of S-phase arrival time data on such algorithms by using the program HYPOINVERSE with synthetic datasets. We conclude that a correctly timed S phase recorded within about 1.4 focal depth's distance from the epicenter can be a powerful constraint on focal depth. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even a single incorrectly timed S phase can result in depth estimates and associated measures of uncertainty that are significantly incorrect. -from Authors

  20. Disease and injury trends among evacuees in a shelter located at the epicenter of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sato, Takushi; Yoneda, Toru; Kishida, Yoshiomi; Yamamoto, Sumie; Sakai, Taro; Sashiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shuko; Orui, Hayato; Kato, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Taro; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Maki; Hayashi, Hideki; Suganami, Shigeru

    2017-06-16

    Two huge earthquakes struck Kumamoto, Japan, in April 2016, forcing residents to evacuate. Few studies have reported early-phase disease and injury trends among evacuees following major inland earthquakes. We evaluated the trends among evacuees who visited a medical clinic in a shelter located at the epicenter of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes. The clinic opened on April 15, the day after the foreshock, and closed 3 weeks later. We reviewed medical charts related to 929 outpatient visits and conducted descriptive analyses. The evacuees experienced mild injuries and common diseases. The types of diseases changed weekly. Elderly people needed medical support for longer than other age groups. Future earthquakes may be inevitable, but establishing arrangements for medical needs or making precautions for infectious diseases in shelters could reduce the effects of earthquake-related health problems.

  1. Estimating the Locations of Past and Future Large Earthquake Ruptures using Recent M4 and Greater Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, J.; Chambers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Although most aftershock activity dies away within months or a few years of a mainshock, there is evidence that aftershocks still occur decades or even centuries after mainshocks, particularly in areas of low background seismicity such as stable continental regions. There also is evidence of long-lasting aftershock sequences in California. New work to study the occurrences of recent M≥4 in California shows that these events occur preferentially at the edges of past major ruptures, with the effect lessening with decreasing magnitude below M4. Prior to several California mainshocks, the M≥4 seismicity was uniformly spread along the future fault ruptures without concentrations at the fault ends. On these faults, the rates of the M≥4 earthquakes prior to the mainshocks were much greater than the rates of the recent M≥4 earthquakes. These results suggest that the spatial patterns and rates of M≥4 earthquakes may help identify which faults are most prone to rupturing in the near future. Using this idea, speculation on which faults in California may be the next ones to experience major earthquakes is presented. Some Japanese earthquakes were also tested for the patterns of M≥4 earthquake seen in California. The 2000 Mw6.6 Western Tottori earthquake shows a premonitory pattern similar to the patterns seen in California, and there have not been any M≥4 earthquakes in the fault vicinity since 2010. The 1995 Mw6.9 Kobe earthquake had little M≥4 seismicity in the years prior to the mainshock, and the M≥4 seismicity since 2000 has been scattered along the fault rupture. Both the 2016 M7.3 Kumamoto, Kyushu earthquake and the 2016 Mw6.2 Central Tottori earthquake had some M≥4 earthquakes along the fault in the two decades before the mainshocks. The results of these analyses suggest that the locations of recent M≥4 earthquakes may be useful for determining the spatial extents of past earthquake ruptures and also may help indicate which faults may have strong

  2. The 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano (Eritrea): Earthquake Locations from a Temporary Broadband Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlyn, J.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J.; Wright, T.; Neuberg, J.; Kibreab, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Goitom, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nabro volcano dominates the central part of the Nabro Volcanic Range (NVR), which trends SSW-NNE covering a stretch of 110 km from the SEE margin of the Afar depression to the Red Sea. Regionally, the NVR sits within the Afar triangle, the triple junction of the Somalian, Arabian and African plates. On 12th June 2011 Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10, 000 years. In response, a network of 8 seismometers, were located around the active vent. The seismic signals detected by this array and those arriving at a regional seismic station (located to the north-west) were processed to provide accurate earthquake locations for the period August-October. Transects of the volcano were used to create cross sections to aid the interpretation. Typically, the majority of the seismic events are located at the active vent and on the flanks of Nabro, with fewer events dispersed around the surrounding area. However, there appears to be a smaller hub of events to the south-west of Nabro beneath the neighbouring Mallahle volcanic caldera (located on the Ethiopian side of the international border). This may imply some form of co-dependent relationship within the plumbing of the magma system beneath both calderas.

  3. Seismic Observations Indicating That the 2015 Ogasawara (Bonin) Earthquake Ruptured Beneath the 660 km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuge, Keiko

    2017-11-01

    The termination of deep earthquakes at a depth of 700 km is a key feature for understanding the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes. The 680 km deep 30 May 2015, Ogasawara (Bonin) earthquake (Mw 7.9) and its aftershocks were recorded by seismic stations at distances from 7° to 19°. Synthetic seismograms indicate that the P waveforms depend on whether the earthquake is located above or below the 660 km discontinuity. In this study, I show that broadband recordings indicate that the 2015 earthquake may have occurred below the 660 km velocity discontinuity. Recordings of the P wave from the strongest aftershock lack evidence for wave triplication expected when a subhorizontal discontinuity underlies the hypocenter. Theoretical waveforms computed with a 660 km discontinuity above the aftershock and mainshock match the observed waveforms more accurately. These observations may indicate earthquake ruptures due to mantle minerals other than olivine or strong deformation of the 660 km phase transition.

  4. Hypocenter relocation using a fast grid search method and a 3-D seismic velocity model for the Sumatra region

    SciT

    Nugroho, Hendro; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2013-09-09

    Determination of earthquake hypocenter in Indonesia conducted by the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) has still used a 1-D seismic velocity model. In this research, we have applied a Fast Grid Search (FGM) method and a 3-D velocity model resulting from tomographic imaging to relocate earthquakes in the Sumatran region. The data were taken from the MCGA data catalog from 2009 to 2011 comprising of subduction zone and on land fault earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 Mw. Our preliminary results show some significant changes in the depths of the relocated earthquakes which are in general deeper than themore » depths of hypocenters from the MCGA data catalog. The residual times resulting from the relocation process are smaller than those prior to the relocation. Encouraged by these results, we will continue to conduct hypocenter relocation for all events from the MCGA data catalog periodically in order to produce a new data catalog with good quality. We hope that the new data catalog will be useful for further studies.« less

  5. Scaling of seismic memory with earthquake size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel; Podobnik, Boris; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-07-01

    It has been observed that discrete earthquake events possess memory, i.e., that events occurring in a particular location are dependent on the history of that location. We conduct an analysis to see whether continuous real-time data also display a similar memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity. We analyze the seismic wave form database recorded by 64 stations in Japan, including the 2011 “Great East Japan Earthquake,” one of the five most powerful earthquakes ever recorded, which resulted in a tsunami and devastating nuclear accidents. We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find that the wave form sign series show power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show power-law correlations. We find size dependence in earthquake autocorrelations: as the earthquake size increases, both of these correlation behaviors strengthen. We also find that the DFA scaling exponent α has no dependence on the earthquake hypocenter depth or epicentral distance.

  6. Aftershock locations and rupture characteristics of the 2006 May 27, Yogyakarta-Indonesia earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, M.; Ando, M.; Kimata, F.; Tadokoro, K.; Nakamichi, H.; Muto, D.; Okuda, T.; Hasanuddin, A.; Mipi A., K.; Setyadji, B.; Andreas, H.; Gamal, M.; Arif, R.

    2006-12-01

    A strong earthquake (M6.3) rocked the Bantul district, south of Yogyakarta Special Province (DIY) on the morningof May 27, 2006. We installed a temporary array of 6 seismographs to record aftershocks of the earthquake. The area of aftershocks, which may be interpreted as mainshock ruptured area has dimensions of about 25 km length and 20 km width, in the N48E direction. At depth the seismicity mainly concentrated between 5 to 15 km. The distribution of aftershock does not appear to come very close to the surface. There is no obvious surface evidence of causative fault in this area, though we find many crack and fissures that seem to have produced by the strong ground motion. We used the orientation and size of the fault determined from our aftershock results to carry out an inversion of teleseismic data for the slip distribution. We used broad- band seismograms of the IRIS network with epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees. We assume a single fault plane, strike 48 degree and dip 80 degree, which is inferred from the aftershock distribution. The total seismic moment is 0.369 x 10(19) Nm with maximum slip 0.4 meters. The asperity is located about 5 km away southwest of USGS estimated epicenter. Although the distances from the seismic source to heavily damaged areas Bantul and Klaten are 10 to 50 km, soft sedimentary soil likely to have generated very damaging motions within the area.

  7. Characterizing the structural maturity of fault zones using high-resolution earthquake locations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, C.; Waldhauser, F.; Scholz, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    We use high-resolution earthquake locations to characterize the three-dimensional structure of active faults in California and how it evolves with fault structural maturity. We investigate the distribution of aftershocks of several recent large earthquakes that occurred on immature faults (i.e., slow moving and small cumulative displacement), such as the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers and 1999 (Mw7.1) Hector Mine events, and earthquakes that occurred on mature faults, such as the 1984 (Mw6.2) Morgan Hill and 2004 (Mw6.0) Parkfield events. Unlike previous studies which typically estimated the width of fault zones from the distribution of earthquakes perpendicular to the surface fault trace, we resolve fault zone widths with respect to the 3D fault surface estimated from principal component analysis of local seismicity. We find that the zone of brittle deformation around the fault core is narrower along mature faults compared to immature faults. We observe a rapid fall off of the number of events at a distance range of 70 - 100 m from the main fault surface of mature faults (140-200 m fault zone width), and 200-300 m from the fault surface of immature faults (400-600 m fault zone width). These observations are in good agreement with fault zone widths estimated from guided waves trapped in low velocity damage zones. The total width of the active zone of deformation surrounding the main fault plane reach 1.2 km and 2-4 km for mature and immature faults, respectively. The wider zone of deformation presumably reflects the increased heterogeneity in the stress field along complex and discontinuous faults strands that make up immature faults. In contrast, narrower deformation zones tend to align with well-defined fault planes of mature faults where most of the deformation is concentrated. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that surface fault traces become smoother, and thus fault zones simpler, as cumulative fault slip increases.

  8. Improvement of Earthquake Epicentral Locations Using T-Phases: Testing by Comparison With Surface Wave Relative Event Locations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    deployment of 51 ocean -bottom seismometers (OBS) on the seafloor spanning 800 km across the East Pacific Rise provides a unique opportunity to test the...aftershock sequence of earthquakes at the northern end of the Easter microplate . In addition, for the larger earthquakes, we can compare relative... ocean -bottom seismometers OBJECTIVES The objectives of this research are To explore the synergy between hydroacoustic and seismic techniques

  9. Earthquake classification, location, and error analysis in a volcanic environment: implications for the magmatic system of the 1989-1990 eruptions at redoubt volcano, Alaska

    Lahr, J.C.; Chouet, B.A.; Stephens, C.D.; Power, J.A.; Page, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the precise locations of seismic events associated with the 1989-1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano posed a number of problems, including poorly known crustal velocities, a sparse station distribution, and an abundance of events with emergent phase onsets. In addition, the high relief of the volcano could not be incorporated into the hypoellipse earthquake location algorithm. This algorithm was modified to allow hypocenters to be located above the elevation of the seismic stations. The velocity model was calibrated on the basis of a posteruptive seismic survey, in which four chemical explosions were recorded by eight stations of the permanent network supplemented with 20 temporary seismographs deployed on and around the volcanic edifice. The model consists of a stack of homogeneous horizontal layers; setting the top of the model at the summit allows events to be located anywhere within the volcanic edifice. Detailed analysis of hypocentral errors shows that the long-period (LP) events constituting the vigorous 23-hour swarm that preceded the initial eruption on December 14 could have originated from a point 1.4 km below the crater floor. A similar analysis of LP events in the swarm preceding the major eruption on January 2 shows they also could have originated from a point, the location of which is shifted 0.8 km northwest and 0.7 km deeper than the source of the initial swarm. We suggest this shift in LP activity reflects a northward jump in the pathway for magmatic gases caused by the sealing of the initial pathway by magma extrusion during the last half of December. Volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes did not occur until after the initial 23-hour-long swarm. They began slowly just below the LP source and their rate of occurrence increased after the eruption of 01:52 AST on December 15, when they shifted to depths of 6 to 10 km. After January 2 the VT activity migrated gradually northward; this migration suggests northward propagating withdrawal of

  10. Improved phase arrival estimate and location for local earthquakes in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, E. A.; Rowe, C. A.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korean Meteorological Agency (KMA) regularly report local (distance < ~1200 km) seismicity recorded with their networks; we obtain preliminary event location estimates as well as waveform data, but no phase arrivals are reported, so the data are not immediately useful for earthquake location. Our goal is to identify seismic events that are sufficiently well-located to provide accurate seismic travel-time information for events within the KIGAM and KMA networks, and also recorded by some regional stations. Toward that end, we are using a combination of manual phase identification and arrival-time picking, with waveform cross-correlation, to cluster events that have occurred in close proximity to one another, which allows for improved phase identification by comparing the highly correlating waveforms. We cross-correlate the known events with one another on 5 seismic stations and cluster events that correlate above a correlation coefficient threshold of 0.7, which reveals few clusters containing few events each. The small number of repeating events suggests that the online catalogs have had mining and quarry blasts removed before publication, as these can contribute significantly to repeating seismic sources in relatively aseismic regions such as South Korea. The dispersed source locations in our catalog, however, are ideal for seismic velocity modeling by providing superior sampling through the dense seismic station arrangement, which produces favorable event-to-station ray path coverage. Following careful manual phase picking on 104 events chosen to provide adequate ray coverage, we re-locate the events to obtain improved source coordinates. The re-located events are used with Thurber's Simul2000 pseudo-bending local tomography code to estimate the crustal structure on the Korean Peninsula, which is an important contribution to ongoing calibration for events of interest in the region.

  11. The January 2014 Northern Cuba Earthquake Sequence - Unusual Location and Unexpected Source Mechanism Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunmiller, J.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    On 9 January 2014, a magnitude Mw=5.1 earthquake occurred along the Bahamas-Cuba suture at the northern coast of Cuba revealing a surprising seismic hazard source for both Cuba and southern Florida where it was widely felt. Due to its location, the event and its aftershocks (M>3.5) were recorded only at far distances (300+ km) resulting in high-detection thresholds, low location accuracy, and limited source parameter resolution. We use three-component regional seismic data to study the sequence. High-pass filtered seismograms at the closest site in southern Florida are similar in character suggesting a relatively tight event cluster and revealing additional, smaller aftershocks not included in the ANSS or ISC catalogs. Aligning on the P arrival and low-pass filtering (T>10 s) uncovers a surprise polarity flip of the large amplitude surface waves on vertical seismograms for some aftershocks relative to the main shock. We performed regional moment tensor inversions of the main shock and its largest aftershocks using complete three-component seismograms from stations distributed throughout the region to confirm the mechanism changes. Consistent with the GCMT solution, we find an E-W trending normal faulting mechanism for the main event and for one immediate aftershock. Two aftershocks indicate E-W trending reverse faulting with essentially flipped P- and T-axes relative to the normal faulting events (and the same B-axes). Within uncertainties, depths of the two event families are indistinguishable and indicate shallow faulting (<10 km). One intriguing possible interpretation is that both families ruptured the same fault with reverse mechanisms compensating for overshooting. However, activity could also be spatially separated either vertically (with reverse mechanisms possibly below extension) or laterally. The shallow source depth and the 200-km long uplifted chain of islands indicate that larger, shallow and thus potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes could occur just

  12. Relocation of micro-earthquakes in the Yeongdeok offshore area, Korea using local and Ocean bottom seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, M.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. C.; Lin, P. P.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.; Jang, J. P.; Kuo, B. Y.; Liao, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity in the East Sea of Korea has been relatively high during the last four decades of instrumental earthquake observation period. Yeongdeok offshore area is probably the most seismically active area in the East Sea. This study analyzes seismic signals to detect micro-earthquakes and determine their precise earthquake hypocenters in the Yeoungdeok offshore area using data recorded by the Korea National Seismic Network (KNSN) and a temporary ocean bottom seismographic network (OBSN-PNU) operated by Korea Meteorological Administration and Pusan National University, respectively. Continuous waveform data recorded at four seismic stations in the study area of KNSN between January 2007 and July 2016 are inspected to detect any repeating earthquakes by applying a waveform cross-correlation detector. More than 1,600 events are triggered. Events outside the study area or in poor waveform quality are removed from further analysis. Approximately 500 earthquakes are selected, most of which have gone unreported because their magnitudes are lower than the detection threshold of the routine earthquake monitoring. Events in the study area are also under bad azimuthal coverage because all stations are located on land and thus biased to the west. OBSN-PNU comprised three ocean bottom seismometers and operated to observe micro-earthquakes in the study area between February and August 2016. The same technique applied to the KNSN data has been applied to the OBSN-PNU data to detect micro-earthquakes. Precise earthquake hypocenters are determined using phase arrival times and waveform similarities. Resultant hypocenters are clustered to form a few lineaments. They are compared to the local geological and geophysical features to understand micro-earthquake activity in the area.

  13. Preliminary earthquake locations in the Kenai Peninsula recorded by the MOOS Array and their relationship to structure in the 1964 great earthquake zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Abers, G. A.; Christensen, D. H.; Kim, Y.; Calkins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes in subduction zones are mostly generated at the interface between the subducting and overlying plates. In 2006-2009, the MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction) seismic array was deployed around the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, consisting of 34 broadband seismometers recording for 1-3 years. This region spans the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust that ruptured in the 1964 Mw 9.2 great earthquake, the second largest recorded earthquake, and ongoing seismicity is abundant. Here, we report an initial analysis of seismicity recorded by MOOS, in the context of preliminary imaging. There were 16,462 events detected in one year from initial STA/LTA signal detections and subsequent event associations from the MOOS Array. We manually reviewed them to eliminate distant earthquakes and noise, leaving 11,879 local earthquakes. To refine this catalog, an adaptive auto-regressive onset estimation algorithm was applied, doubling the original dataset and producing 20,659 P picks and 22,999 S picks for one month (September 2007). Inspection shows that this approach lead to almost negligible false alarms and many more events than hand picking. Within the well-sampled part of the array, roughly 200 km by 300 km, we locate 250% more earthquakes for one month than the permanent network catalog, or 10 earthquakes per day on this patch of the megathrust. Although the preliminary locations of earthquakes still show some scatter, we can see a concentration of events in a ~20-km-wide belt, part of which can be interpreted as seismogenic thrust zone. In conjunction with the seismicity study, we are imaging the plate interface with receiver functions. The main seismicity zone corresponds to the top of a low-velocity layer imaged in receiver functions, nominally attributed to the top of the downgoing plate. As we refine velocity models and apply relative relocation algorithms, we expect to improve the precision of the locations substantially. When combined with image

  14. Efficient Location Uncertainty Treatment for Probabilistic Modelling of Portfolio Loss from Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingraber, Christoph; Käser, Martin; Allmann, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic risk analysis (PSRA) is a well-established method for modelling loss from earthquake events. In the insurance industry, it is widely employed for probabilistic modelling of loss to a distributed portfolio. In this context, precise exposure locations are often unknown, which results in considerable loss uncertainty. The treatment of exposure uncertainty has already been identified as an area where PSRA would benefit from increased research attention. However, so far, epistemic location uncertainty has not been in the focus of a large amount of research. We propose a new framework for efficient treatment of location uncertainty. To demonstrate the usefulness of this novel method, a large number of synthetic portfolios resembling real-world portfolios is systematically analyzed. We investigate the effect of portfolio characteristics such as value distribution, portfolio size, or proportion of risk items with unknown coordinates on loss variability. Several sampling criteria to increase the computational efficiency of the framework are proposed and put into the wider context of well-established Monte-Carlo variance reduction techniques. The performance of each of the proposed criteria is analyzed.

  15. The 2000 Nemuro-Hanto-Oki earthquake, off eastern Hokkaido, Japan, and the high intraslab seismic activity in the southwestern Kuril Trench

    Takahashi, H.; Hirata, K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 Nemuro-Hanto-Oki earthquake (Mw6.8) occurred in the southwestern part of the Kuril Trench. The hypocenter was located close to the aftershock region of the great 1994 Kuril earthquake (Mw8.3), named "the 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake" by the Japan Meteorological Agency, for which the fault plane is still in debate. Analysis of the 2000 event provides a clue to resolve the fault plane issue for the 1994 event. The hypocenters of the 2000 main shock and aftershocks are determined using arrival times from a combination of nearby inland and submarine seismic networks with an improved azimuthal coverage. They clearly show that the 2000 event was an intraslab event occurring on a shallow-dipping fault plane between 55 and 65 km in depth. The well-focused aftershock distribution of the 2000 event, the relative location of the 1994 event with respect to the 2000 event, and the similarity between their focal mechanisms strongly suggest that the faulting of the great 1994 earthquake also occurred on a shallow-dipping fault plane in the subducting slab. The recent hypocenter distribution around the 1994 aftershock region also supports this result. Large intraslab earthquakes occuring to the southeast of Hokkaido may occur due to a strong coupling on the plate boundary, which generates relatively large stress field within the subducting Pacific plate.

  16. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  17. Improvements of the Ray-Tracing Based Method Calculating Hypocentral Loci for Earthquake Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Hypocentral loci are very useful to reliable and visual earthquake location. However, they can hardly be analytically expressed when the velocity model is complex. One of methods numerically calculating them is based on a minimum traveltime tree algorithm for tracing rays: a focal locus is represented in terms of ray paths in its residual field from the minimum point (namely initial point) to low residual points (referred as reference points of the focal locus). The method has no restrictions on the complexity of the velocity model but still lacks the ability of correctly dealing with multi-segment loci. Additionally, it is rather laborious to set calculation parameters for obtaining loci with satisfying completeness and fineness. In this study, we improve the ray-tracing based numerical method to overcome its advantages. (1) Reference points of a hypocentral locus are selected from nodes of the model cells that it goes through, by means of a so-called peeling method. (2) The calculation domain of a hypocentral locus is defined as such a low residual area that its connected regions each include one segment of the locus and hence all the focal locus segments are respectively calculated with the minimum traveltime tree algorithm for tracing rays by repeatedly assigning the minimum residual reference point among those that have not been traced as an initial point. (3) Short ray paths without branching are removed to make the calculated locus finer. Numerical tests show that the improved method becomes capable of efficiently calculating complete and fine hypocentral loci of earthquakes in a complex model.

  18. Joint probabilistic determination of earthquake location and velocity structure: application to local and regional events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucler, E.; Haugmard, M.; Mocquet, A.

    2016-12-01

    The most widely used inversion schemes to locate earthquakes are based on iterative linearized least-squares algorithms and using an a priori knowledge of the propagation medium. When a small amount of observations is available for moderate events for instance, these methods may lead to large trade-offs between outputs and both the velocity model and the initial set of hypocentral parameters. We present a joint structure-source determination approach using Bayesian inferences. Monte-Carlo continuous samplings, using Markov chains, generate models within a broad range of parameters, distributed according to the unknown posterior distributions. The non-linear exploration of both the seismic structure (velocity and thickness) and the source parameters relies on a fast forward problem using 1-D travel time computations. The a posteriori covariances between parameters (hypocentre depth, origin time and seismic structure among others) are computed and explicitly documented. This method manages to decrease the influence of the surrounding seismic network geometry (sparse and/or azimuthally inhomogeneous) and a too constrained velocity structure by inferring realistic distributions on hypocentral parameters. Our algorithm is successfully used to accurately locate events of the Armorican Massif (western France), which is characterized by moderate and apparently diffuse local seismicity.

  19. Source Complexity of an Injection Induced Event: The 2016 Mw 5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Comino, J. A.; Cesca, S.

    2018-05-01

    Complex rupture processes are occasionally resolved for weak earthquakes and can reveal a dominant direction of the rupture propagation and the presence and geometry of main slip patches. Finding and characterizing such properties could be important for understanding the nucleation and growth of induced earthquakes. One of the largest earthquakes linked to wastewater injection, the 2016 Mw 5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquake, is analyzed using empirical Green's function techniques to reveal its source complexity. Two subevents are clearly identified and located using a new approach based on relative hypocenter-centroid location. The first subevent has a magnitude of Mw 5.0 and shows the main rupture propagated toward the NE, in the direction of higher pore pressure perturbations due to wastewater injection. The second subevent appears as an early aftershock with lower magnitude, Mw 4.7. It is located SW of the mainshock in a region of increased Coulomb stress, where most aftershocks relocated.

  20. Active accommodation of plate convergence in Southern Iran: Earthquake locations, triggered aseismic slip, and regional strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, William D.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-01

    We present a catalog of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) constraints on deformation that occurred during earthquake sequences in southern Iran between 1992 and 2011, and explore the implications on the accommodation of large-scale continental convergence between Saudi Arabia and Eurasia within the Zagros Mountains. The Zagros Mountains, a salt-laden fold-and-thrust belt involving ~10 km of sedimentary rocks overlying Precambrian basement rocks, have formed as a result of ongoing continental collision since 10-20 Ma that is currently occurring at a rate of ~3 cm/yr. We first demonstrate that there is a biased misfit in earthquake locations in global catalogs that likely results from neglect of 3-D velocity structure. Previous work involving two M ~ 6 earthquakes with well-recorded aftershocks has shown that the deformation observed with InSAR may represent triggered slip on faults much shallower than the primary earthquake, which likely occurred within the basement rocks (>10 km depth). We explore the hypothesis that most of the deformation observed with InSAR spanning earthquake sequences is also due to shallow, triggered slip above a deeper earthquake, effectively doubling the moment release for each event. We quantify the effects that this extra moment release would have on the discrepancy between seismically and geodetically constrained moment rates in the region, finding that even with the extra triggered fault slip, significant aseismic deformation during the interseismic period is necessary to fully explain the convergence between Eurasia and Saudi Arabia.

  1. User's guide to HYPOINVERSE-2000, a Fortran program to solve for earthquake locations and magnitudes

    Klein, Fred W.

    2002-01-01

    Hypoinverse is a computer program that processes files of seismic station data for an earthquake (like p wave arrival times and seismogram amplitudes and durations) into earthquake locations and magnitudes. It is one of a long line of similar USGS programs including HYPOLAYR (Eaton, 1969), HYPO71 (Lee and Lahr, 1972), and HYPOELLIPSE (Lahr, 1980). If you are new to Hypoinverse, you may want to start by glancing at the section “SOME SIMPLE COMMAND SEQUENCES” to get a feel of some simpler sessions. This document is essentially an advanced user’s guide, and reading it sequentially will probably plow the reader into more detail than he/she needs. Every user must have a crust model, station list and phase data input files, and glancing at these sections is a good place to begin. The program has many options because it has grown over the years to meet the needs of one the largest seismic networks in the world, but small networks with just a few stations do use the program and can ignore most of the options and commands. History and availability. Hypoinverse was originally written for the Eclipse minicomputer in 1978 (Klein, 1978). A revised version for VAX and Pro-350 computers (Klein, 1985) was later expanded to include multiple crustal models and other capabilities (Klein, 1989). This current report documents the expanded Y2000 version and it supercedes the earlier documents. It serves as a detailed user's guide to the current version running on unix and VAX-alpha computers, and to the version supplied with the Earthworm earthquake digitizing system. Fortran-77 source code (Sun and VAX compatible) and copies of this documentation is available via anonymous ftp from computers in Menlo Park. At present, the computer is swave.wr.usgs.gov and the directory is /ftp/pub/outgoing/klein/hyp2000. If you are running Hypoinverse on one of the Menlo Park EHZ or NCSN unix computers, the executable currently is ~klein/hyp2000/hyp2000. New features. The Y2000 version of

  2. The initial subevent of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake: Is earthquake size predictable?

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the initial subevent (ISE) of the M?? 6.7, 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake in order to discriminate between two end-member rupture initiation models: the 'preslip' and 'cascade' models. Final earthquake size may be predictable from an ISE's seismic signature in the preslip model but not in the cascade model. In the cascade model ISEs are simply small earthquakes that can be described as purely dynamic ruptures. In this model a large earthquake is triggered by smaller earthquakes; there is no size scaling between triggering and triggered events and a variety of stress transfer mechanisms are possible. Alternatively, in the preslip model, a large earthquake nucleates as an aseismically slipping patch in which the patch dimension grows and scales with the earthquake's ultimate size; the byproduct of this loading process is the ISE. In this model, the duration of the ISE signal scales with the ultimate size of the earthquake, suggesting that nucleation and earthquake size are determined by a more predictable, measurable, and organized process. To distinguish between these two end-member models we use short period seismograms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. We address questions regarding the similarity in hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms of the ISE and the mainshock. We also compare the ISE's waveform characteristics to those of small earthquakes and to the beginnings of earthquakes with a range of magnitudes. We find that the focal mechanisms of the ISE and mainshock are indistinguishable, and both events may have nucleated on and ruptured the same fault plane. These results satisfy the requirements for both models and thus do not discriminate between them. However, further tests show the ISE's waveform characteristics are similar to those of typical small earthquakes in the vicinity and more importantly, do not scale with the mainshock magnitude. These results are more consistent with the cascade model.

  3. Double seismic zone for deep earthquakes in the izu-bonin subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, T; Furukawa, Y

    1994-02-25

    A double seismic zone for deep earthquakes was found in the Izu-Bonin region. An analysis of SP-converted phases confirms that the deep seismic zone consists of two layers separated by approximately 20 kilometers. Numerical modeling of the thermal structure implies that the hypocenters are located along isotherms of 500 degrees to 550 degrees C, which is consistent with the hypothesis that deep earthquakes result from the phase transition of metastable olivine to a high-pressure phase in the subducting slab.

  4. Pre-Earthquake Unipolar Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Transient ultralow frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) emissions have been reported to occur before earthquakes [1,2]. They suggest powerful transient electric currents flowing deep in the crust [3,4]. Prior to the M=5.4 Alum Rock earthquake of Oct. 21, 2007 in California a QuakeFinder triaxial search-coil magnetometer located about 2 km from the epicenter recorded unusual unipolar pulses with the approximate shape of a half-cycle of a sine wave, reaching amplitudes up to 30 nT. The number of these unipolar pulses increased as the day of the earthquake approached. These pulses clearly originated around the hypocenter. The same pulses have since been recorded prior to several medium to moderate earthquakes in Peru, where they have been used to triangulate the location of the impending earthquakes [5]. To understand the mechanism of the unipolar pulses, we first have to address the question how single current pulses can be generated deep in the Earth's crust. Key to this question appears to be the break-up of peroxy defects in the rocks in the hypocenter as a result of the increase in tectonic stresses prior to an earthquake. We investigate the mechanism of the unipolar pulses by coupling the drift-diffusion model of semiconductor theory to Maxwell's equations, thereby producing a model describing the rock volume that generates the pulses in terms of electromagnetism and semiconductor physics. The system of equations is then solved numerically to explore the electromagnetic radiation associated with drift-diffusion currents of electron-hole pairs. [1] Sharma, A. K., P. A. V., and R. N. Haridas (2011), Investigation of ULF magnetic anomaly before moderate earthquakes, Exploration Geophysics 43, 36-46. [2] Hayakawa, M., Y. Hobara, K. Ohta, and K. Hattori (2011), The ultra-low-frequency magnetic disturbances associated with earthquakes, Earthquake Science, 24, 523-534. [3] Bortnik, J., T. E. Bleier, C. Dunson, and F. Freund (2010), Estimating the seismotelluric current

  5. AIC-based diffraction stacking for local earthquake locations at the Sumatran Fault (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Muksin, Umar; Weber, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a new workflow for the localization of seismic events which is based on a diffraction stacking approach. In order to address the effects from complex source radiation patterns, we suggest to compute diffraction stacking from a characteristic function (CF) instead of stacking the original waveform data. A new CF, which is called in the following mAIC (modified from Akaike Information Criterion) is proposed. We demonstrate that both P- and S-wave onsets can be detected accurately. To avoid cross-talk between P and S waves due to inaccurate velocity models, we separate the P and S waves from the mAIC function by making use of polarization attributes. Then, the final image function is represented by the largest eigenvalue as a result of the covariance analysis between P- and S-image functions. Results from synthetic experiments show that the proposed diffraction stacking provides reliable results. The workflow of the diffraction stacking method was finally applied to local earthquake data from Sumatra, Indonesia. Recordings from a temporary network of 42 stations deployed for nine months around the Tarutung pull-apart basin were analysed. The seismic event locations resulting from the diffraction stacking method align along a segment of the Sumatran Fault. A more complex distribution of seismicity is imaged within and around the Tarutung basin. Two lineaments striking N-S were found in the centre of the Tarutung basin which support independent results from structural geology.

  6. High-resolution earthquake relocation in the Fort Worth and Permian Basins using regional seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogwari, P.; DeShon, H. R.; Hornbach, M.

    2017-12-01

    Post-2008 earthquake rate increases in the Central United States have been associated with large-scale subsurface disposal of waste-fluids from oil and gas operations. The beginning of various earthquake sequences in Fort Worth and Permian basins have occurred in the absence of seismic stations at local distances to record and accurately locate hypocenters. Most typically, the initial earthquakes have been located using regional seismic network stations (>100km epicentral distance) and using global 1D velocity models, which usually results in large location uncertainty, especially in depth, does not resolve magnitude <2.5 events, and does not constrain the geometry of the activated fault(s). Here, we present a method to better resolve earthquake occurrence and location using matched filters and regional relative location when local data becomes available. We use the local distance data for high-resolution earthquake location, identifying earthquake templates and accurate source-station raypath velocities for the Pg and Lg phases at regional stations. A matched-filter analysis is then applied to seismograms recorded at US network stations and at adopted TA stations that record the earthquakes before and during the local network deployment period. Positive detections are declared based on manual review of associated with P and S arrivals on local stations. We apply hierarchical clustering to distinguish earthquakes that are both spatially clustered and spatially separated. Finally, we conduct relative earthquake and earthquake cluster location using regional station differential times. Initial analysis applied to the 2008-2009 DFW airport sequence in north Texas results in time continuous imaging of epicenters extending into 2014. Seventeen earthquakes in the USGS earthquake catalog scattered across a 10km2 area near DFW airport are relocated onto a single fault using these approaches. These techniques will also be applied toward imaging recent earthquakes in the

  7. The 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake: A test of the stress shadow hypothesis?

    Harris, R.A.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    We test the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions by examining the relationship between two large earthquakes that occurred in the Mojave Desert of southern California, the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. We want to determine if the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake occurred at a location where the Coulomb stress was increased (earthquake advance, stress trigger) or decreased (earthquake delay, stress shadow) by the previous large earthquake. Using four models of the Landers rupture and a range of possible hypocentral planes for the Hector Mine earthquake, we discover that most scenarios yield a Landers-induced relaxation (stress shadow) on the Hector Mine hypocentral plane. Although this result would seem to weigh against the stress shadow hypothesis, the results become considerably more uncertain when the effects of a nearby Landers aftershock, the 1992 ML 5.4 Pisgah earthquake, are taken into account. We calculate the combined static Coulomb stress changes due to the Landers and Pisgah earthquakes to range from -0.3 to +0.3 MPa (- 3 to +3 bars) at the possible Hector Mine hypocenters, depending on choice of rupture model and hypocenter. These varied results imply that the Hector Mine earthquake does not provide a good test of the stress shadow hypothesis for large earthquake interactions. We use a simple approach, that of static dislocations in an elastic half-space, yet we still obtain a wide range of both negative and positive Coulomb stress changes. Our findings serve as a caution that more complex models purporting to explain the triggering or shadowing relationship between the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes need to also consider the parametric and geometric uncertainties raised here.

  8. Aftershock Distribution of the Mw=7.8 April 16, 2016 Pedernales Ecuador Subduction Earthquake: Constraints from 3D Earthquake Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Y.; Agurto-Detzel, H.; Alvarado, A. P.; Regnier, M. M.; Rolandone, F.; Charvis, P.; Mothes, P. A.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jarrin, P.; Ambrois, D.; Maron, C.; Deschamps, A.; Cheze, J.; Peix, F., Sr.; Ruiz, M. C.; Gabriela, P.; Acero, W.; Singaucho, J. C.; Viracucha, C.; Vasconez, F.; De Barros, L.; Mercerat, D.; Courboulex, F.; Galve, A.; Godano, M.; Monfret, T.; Ramos, C.; Martin, X.; Rietbrock, A.; Beck, S. L.; Metlzer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mw7.8 Pedernales earthquake is associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. The mainshock caused many casualties and widespread damage across the Manabi province. The 150 km-long coseismic rupture area extends beneath the coastline, near 25 km depth. The rupture propagated southward and involved the successive rupture of two discrete asperities, with a maximum slip ( 5 m) on the southern patch. The rupture area is consistent with the highly locked regions observed on interseismic coupling models, overlaps the 7.2 Mw rupture zone, and terminates near where the 1906 Mw 8.8 megathrust earthquake rupture zone is estimated to have ended. Two neighboring highly coupled patches remain locked: (A) south and updip of the coseismic rupture zone and (B) north and downdip. In this study, we are working on the earthquake locations of the first month of aftershocks and compare the seismicity distribution to the interseismic coupling, the rupture area and to early afterslip. We use continuous seismic traces recorded on the permanent network partly installed in the framework of the collaboration between l'Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France) and the Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN), Quito, Ecuador. Detections are conducted using Seiscomp in play-back mode and arrival-times are manually picked. To improve earthquake locations, we use the MAXi technique and a heterogeneous a priori P-wave velocity model that approximates the large velocity variations of the Ecuadorian subduction system. Aftershocks align along 3 to 4 main clusters that strike perpendicularly to the trench, and mostly updip of the co-seismic rupture. Seismicity develops over portions of plate interface that are known to be strongly locked or almost uncoupled. The seismicity pattern is similar to the one observed during a decade of observation during the interseismic period with swarms such as the Galera alignment, Jama and Cabo

  9. Absolute earthquake locations using 3-D versus 1-D velocity models below a local seismic network: example from the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theunissen, T.; Chevrot, S.; Sylvander, M.; Monteiller, V.; Calvet, M.; Villaseñor, A.; Benahmed, S.; Pauchet, H.; Grimaud, F.

    2018-03-01

    Local seismic networks are usually designed so that earthquakes are located inside them (primary azimuthal gap <<180°) and close to the seismic stations (0-100 km). With these local or near-regional networks (0°-5°), many seismological observatories still routinely locate earthquakes using 1-D velocity models. Moving towards 3-D location algorithms requires robust 3-D velocity models. This work takes advantage of seismic monitoring spanning more than 30 yr in the Pyrenean region. We investigate the influence of a well-designed 3-D model with station corrections including basins structure and the geometry of the Mohorovicic discontinuity on earthquake locations. In the most favourable cases (GAP < 180° and distance to the first station lower than 15 km), results using 1-D velocity models are very similar to 3-D results. The horizontal accuracy in the 1-D case can be higher than in the 3-D case if lateral variations in the structure are not properly resolved. Depth is systematically better resolved in the 3-D model even on the boundaries of the seismic network (GAP > 180° and distance to the first station higher than 15 km). Errors on velocity models and accuracy of absolute earthquake locations are assessed based on a reference data set made of active seismic, quarry blasts and passive temporary experiments. Solutions and uncertainties are estimated using the probabilistic approach of the NonLinLoc (NLLoc) software based on Equal Differential Time. Some updates have been added to NLLoc to better focus on the final solution (outlier exclusion, multiscale grid search, S-phases weighting). Errors in the probabilistic approach are defined to take into account errors on velocity models and on arrival times. The seismicity in the final 3-D catalogue is located with a horizontal uncertainty of about 2.0 ± 1.9 km and a vertical uncertainty of about 3.0 ± 2.0 km.

  10. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  11. Improving automatic earthquake locations in subduction zones: a case study for GEOFON catalog of Tonga-Fiji region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooshiri, Nima; Heimann, Sebastian; Saul, Joachim; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    Automatic earthquake locations are sometimes associated with very large residuals up to 10 s even for clear arrivals, especially for regional stations in subduction zones because of their strongly heterogeneous velocity structure associated. Although these residuals are most likely not related to measurement errors but unmodelled velocity heterogeneity, these stations are usually removed from or down-weighted in the location procedure. While this is possible for large events, it may not be useful if the earthquake is weak. In this case, implementation of travel-time station corrections may significantly improve the automatic locations. Here, the shrinking box source-specific station term method (SSST) [Lin and Shearer, 2005] has been applied to improve relative location accuracy of 1678 events that occurred in the Tonga subduction zone between 2010 and mid-2014. Picks were obtained from the GEOFON earthquake bulletin for all available station networks. We calculated a set of timing corrections for each station which vary as a function of source position. A separate time correction was computed for each source-receiver path at the given station by smoothing the residual field over nearby events. We begin with a very large smoothing radius essentially encompassing the whole event set and iterate by progressively shrinking the smoothing radius. In this way, we attempted to correct for the systematic errors, that are introduced into the locations by the inaccuracies in the assumed velocity structure, without solving for a new velocity model itself. One of the advantages of the SSST technique is that the event location part of the calculation is separate from the station term calculation and can be performed using any single event location method. In this study, we applied a non-linear, probabilistic, global-search earthquake location method using the software package NonLinLoc [Lomax et al., 2000]. The non-linear location algorithm implemented in NonLinLoc is less

  12. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    SciT

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya; Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya

    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquakemore » locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.« less

  13. Development a heuristic method to locate and allocate the medical centers to minimize the earthquake relief operation time.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadi, Hossein; Saadi Mesgari, Mohammad; Molaei, Damoon; Aghamohammadi, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Location-allocation is a combinatorial optimization problem, and is defined as Non deterministic Polynomial Hard (NP) hard optimization. Therefore, solution of such a problem should be shifted from exact to heuristic or Meta heuristic due to the complexity of the problem. Locating medical centers and allocating injuries of an earthquake to them has high importance in earthquake disaster management so that developing a proper method will reduce the time of relief operation and will consequently decrease the number of fatalities. This paper presents the development of a heuristic method based on two nested genetic algorithms to optimize this location allocation problem by using the abilities of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the proposed method, outer genetic algorithm is applied to the location part of the problem and inner genetic algorithm is used to optimize the resource allocation. The final outcome of implemented method includes the spatial location of new required medical centers. The method also calculates that how many of the injuries at each demanding point should be taken to any of the existing and new medical centers as well. The results of proposed method showed high performance of designed structure to solve a capacitated location-allocation problem that may arise in a disaster situation when injured people has to be taken to medical centers in a reasonable time.

  14. Earthquake Triggering in the September 2017 Mexican Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Gombert, B.; Duputel, Z.; Huang, M. H.; Liang, C.; Bekaert, D. P.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Mexico was struck by four earthquakes with Mw > 6 and numerous smaller earthquakes in September 2017, starting with the 8 September Mw 8.2 Tehuantepec earthquake beneath the Gulf of Tehuantepec offshore Chiapas and Oaxaca. We study whether this M8.2 earthquake triggered the three subsequent large M>6 quakes in southern Mexico to improve understanding of earthquake interactions and time-dependent risk. All four large earthquakes were extensional despite the the subduction of the Cocos plate. The traditional definition of aftershocks: likely an aftershock if it occurs within two rupture lengths of the main shock soon afterwards. Two Mw 6.1 earthquakes, one half an hour after the M8.2 beneath the Tehuantepec gulf and one on 23 September near Ixtepec in Oaxaca, both fit as traditional aftershocks, within 200 km of the main rupture. The 19 September Mw 7.1 Puebla earthquake was 600 km away from the M8.2 shock, outside the standard aftershock zone. Geodetic measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and time-series analysis of GPS station data constrain finite fault total slip models for the M8.2, M7.1, and M6.1 Ixtepec earthquakes. The early M6.1 aftershock was too close in time and space to the M8.2 to measure with InSAR or GPS. We analyzed InSAR data from Copernicus Sentinel-1A and -1B satellites and JAXA ALOS-2 satellite. Our preliminary geodetic slip model for the M8.2 quake shows significant slip extended > 150 km NW from the hypocenter, longer than slip in the v1 finite-fault model (FFM) from teleseismic waveforms posted by G. Hayes at USGS NEIC. Our slip model for the M7.1 earthquake is similar to the v2 NEIC FFM. Interferograms for the M6.1 Ixtepec quake confirm the shallow depth in the upper-plate crust and show centroid is about 30 km SW of the NEIC epicenter, a significant NEIC location bias, but consistent with cluster relocations (E. Bergman, pers. comm.) and with Mexican SSN location. Coulomb static stress

  15. Tsunami simulations of the 1867 Virgin Island earthquake: Constraints on epicenter location and fault parameters

    Barkan, Roy; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-01-01

    The 18 November 1867 Virgin Island earthquake and the tsunami that closely followed caused considerable loss of life and damage in several places in the northeast Caribbean region. The earthquake was likely a manifestation of the complex tectonic deformation of the Anegada Passage, which cuts across the Antilles island arc between the Virgin Islands and the Lesser Antilles. In this article, we attempt to characterize the 1867 earthquake with respect to fault orientation, rake, dip, fault dimensions, and first tsunami wave propagating phase, using tsunami simulations that employ high-resolution multibeam bathymetry. In addition, we present new geophysical and geological observations from the region of the suggested earthquake source. Results of our tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source to be along the northern wall of the Virgin Islands basin, as suggested by Reid and Taber (1920), or on the carbonate platform north of the basin, and not in the Virgin Islands basin, as commonly assumed. The numerical simulations suggest the 1867 fault was striking 120°–135° and had a mixed normal and left-lateral motion. First propagating wave phase analysis suggests a fault striking 300°–315° is also possible. The best-fitting rupture length was found to be relatively small (50 km), probably indicating the earthquake had a moment magnitude of ∼7.2. Detailed multibeam echo sounder surveys of the Anegada Passage bathymetry between St. Croix and St. Thomas reveal a scarp, which cuts the northern wall of the Virgin Islands basin. High-resolution seismic profiles further indicate it to be a reasonable fault candidate. However, the fault orientation and the orientation of other subparallel faults in the area are more compatible with right-lateral motion. For the other possible source region, no clear disruption in the bathymetry or seismic profiles was found on the carbonate platform north of the basin.

  16. Geodetic constraints on afterslip characteristics following the March 9, 2011, Sanriku-oki earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke; Ohzono, Mako; Ito, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Masaaki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nakajima, Junichi; Osada, Yukihito; Suzuki, Kensuke; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Tachibana, Kenji; Demachi, Tomotsugu; Miura, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    A magnitude 7.3 foreshock occurred at the subducting Pacific plate interface on March 9, 2011, 51 h before the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan. We propose a coseismic and postseismic afterslip model of the magnitude 7.3 event based on a global positioning system network and ocean bottom pressure gauge sites. The estimated coseismic slip and afterslip areas show complementary spatial distributions; the afterslip distribution is located up-dip of the coseismic slip for the foreshock and northward of hypocenter of the Tohoku earthquake. The slip amount for the afterslip is roughly consistent with that determined by repeating earthquake analysis carried out in a previous study. The estimated moment release for the afterslip reached magnitude 6.8, even within a short time period of 51h. A volumetric strainmeter time series also suggests that this event advanced with a rapid decay time constant compared with other typical large earthquakes.

  17. Spatial Distribution of earthquakes off the coast of Fukushima Two Years after the M9 Earthquake: the Southern Area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2014-12-01

    Huge earthquakes cause vastly stress field change around the rupture zones, and many aftershocks and other related geophysical phenomenon such as geodetic movements have been observed. It is important to figure out the time-spacious distribution during the relaxation process for understanding the giant earthquake cycle. In this study, we pick up the southern rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). The seismicity rate keeps still high compared with that before the 2011 earthquake. Many studies using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) have been doing since soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in order to obtain aftershock activity precisely. Here we show one of the studies at off the coast of Fukushima which is located on the southern part of the rupture area caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We deployed 4 broadband type OBSs (BBOBSs) and 12 short-period type OBSs (SOBS) in August 2012. Other 4 BBOBSs attached with absolute pressure gauges and 20 SOBSs were added in November 2012. We recovered 36 OBSs including 8 BBOBSs in November 2013. We selected 1,000 events in the vicinity of the OBS network based on a hypocenter catalog published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and extracted the data after time corrections caused by each internal clock. Each P and S wave arrival times, P wave polarity and maximum amplitude were picked manually on a computer display. We assumed one dimensional velocity structure based on the result from an active source experiment across our network, and applied time corrections every station for removing ambiguity of the assumed structure. Then we adopted a maximum-likelihood estimation technique and calculated the hypocenters. The results show that intensive activity near the Japan Trench can be seen, while there was a quiet seismic zone between the trench zone and landward high activity zone.

  18. Japan unified hIgh-resolution relocated catalog for earthquakes (JUICE): Crustal seismicity beneath the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Tomoko E.; Takeda, Tetsuya; Matsubara, Makoto; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We have generated a high-resolution catalog called the ;Japan Unified hIgh-resolution relocated Catalog for Earthquakes; (JUICE), which can be used to evaluate the geometry and seismogenic depth of active faults in Japan. We relocated > 1.1 million hypocenters from the NIED Hi-net catalog for events which occurred between January 2001 and December 2012, to a depth of 40 km. We apply a relative hypocenter determination method to the data in each grid square, in which entire Japan is divided into 1257 grid squares to parallelize the relocation procedure. We used a double-difference method, incorporating cross-correlating differential times as well as catalog differential times. This allows us to resolve, in detail, a seismicity distribution for the entire Japanese Islands. We estimated location uncertainty by a statistical resampling method, using Jackknife samples, and show that the uncertainty can be within 0.37 km in the horizontal and 0.85 km in the vertical direction with a 90% confidence interval for areas with good station coverage. Our seismogenic depth estimate agrees with the lower limit of the hypocenter distribution for a recent earthquake on the Kamishiro fault (2014, Mj 6.7), which suggests that the new catalog should be useful for estimating the size of future earthquakes for inland active faults.

  19. Extreme Magnitude Earthquakes and their Economical Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.

    2011-12-01

    The frequency of occurrence of extreme magnitude earthquakes varies from tens to thousands of years, depending on the considered seismotectonic region of the world. However, the human and economic losses when their hypocenters are located in the neighborhood of heavily populated and/or industrialized regions, can be very large, as recently observed for the 1985 Mw 8.01 Michoacan, Mexico and the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes. Herewith, a methodology is proposed in order to estimate the probability of exceedance of: the intensities of extreme magnitude earthquakes, PEI and of their direct economical consequences PEDEC. The PEI are obtained by using supercomputing facilities to generate samples of the 3D propagation of extreme earthquake plausible scenarios, and enlarge those samples by Monte Carlo simulation. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. An example of the application of the methodology due to the potential occurrence of extreme Mw 8.5 subduction earthquakes on Mexico City is presented.

  20. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  1. Earthquakes of Garhwal Himalaya region of NW Himalaya, India: A study of relocated earthquakes and their seismogenic source and stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, A. P.; Paul, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the continent-continent collision 55 Ma, the Himalaya has accommodated 2000 km of convergence along its arc. The strain energy is being accumulated at a rate of 37-44 mm/yr and releases at time as earthquakes. The Garhwal Himalaya is located at the western side of a Seismic Gap, where a great earthquake is overdue atleast since 200 years. This seismic gap (Central Seismic Gap: CSG) with 52% probability for a future great earthquake is located between the rupture zones of two significant/great earthquakes, viz. the 1905 Kangra earthquake of M 7.8 and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of M 8.0; and the most recent one, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake of M 7.8 is in the eastern side of this seismic gap (CSG). The Garhwal Himalaya is one of the ideal locations of the Himalaya where all the major Himalayan structures and the Himalayan Seimsicity Belt (HSB) can ably be described and studied. In the present study, we are presenting the spatio-temporal analysis of the relocated local micro-moderate earthquakes, recorded by a seismicity monitoring network, which is operational since, 2007. The earthquake locations are relocated using the HypoDD (double difference hypocenter method for earthquake relocations) program. The dataset from July, 2007- September, 2015 have been used in this study to estimate their spatio-temporal relationships, moment tensor (MT) solutions for the earthquakes of M>3.0, stress tensors and their interactions. We have also used the composite focal mechanism solutions for small earthquakes. The majority of the MT solutions show thrust type mechanism and located near the mid-crustal-ramp (MCR) structure of the detachment surface at 8-15 km depth beneath the outer lesser Himalaya and higher Himalaya regions. The prevailing stress has been identified to be compressional towards NNE-SSW, which is the direction of relative plate motion between the India and Eurasia continental plates. The low friction coefficient estimated along with the stress inversions

  2. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-01-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time–frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  3. Application of Second-Moment Source Analysis to Three Problems in Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Though earthquake forecasting models have often represented seismic sources as space-time points (usually hypocenters), a more complete hazard analysis requires the consideration of finite-source effects, such as rupture extent, orientation, directivity, and stress drop. The most compact source representation that includes these effects is the finite moment tensor (FMT), which approximates the degree-two polynomial moments of the stress glut by its projection onto the seismic (degree-zero) moment tensor. This projection yields a scalar space-time source function whose degree-one moments define the centroid moment tensor (CMT) and whose degree-two moments define the FMT. We apply this finite-source parameterization to three forecasting problems. The first is the question of hypocenter bias: can we reject the null hypothesis that the conditional probability of hypocenter location is uniformly distributed over the rupture area? This hypothesis is currently used to specify rupture sets in the "extended" earthquake forecasts that drive simulation-based hazard models, such as CyberShake. Following McGuire et al. (2002), we test the hypothesis using the distribution of FMT directivity ratios calculated from a global data set of source slip inversions. The second is the question of source identification: given an observed FMT (and its errors), can we identify it with an FMT in the complete rupture set that represents an extended fault-based rupture forecast? Solving this problem will facilitate operational earthquake forecasting, which requires the rapid updating of earthquake triggering and clustering models. Our proposed method uses the second-order uncertainties as a norm on the FMT parameter space to identify the closest member of the hypothetical rupture set and to test whether this closest member is an adequate representation of the observed event. Finally, we address the aftershock excitation problem: given a mainshock, what is the spatial distribution of aftershock

  4. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  5. Unexpected earthquake of June 25th, 2015 in Madiun, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Supendi, Pepen; Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash; Widiyantoro, Sri

    2016-05-01

    An earthquake with magnitude 4.2 struck Madiun and its vicinity on June 25, 2015. According to Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), the earthquake occurred at 10:35:29 GMT+7 and was located in 7.73° S, 111.69 ° E, with a depth of 10 km. At least 57 houses suffered from light to medium damages. We reprocessed earthquake waveform data to obtain an accurate hypocenter location. We manually picked P- and S-waves arrival times from 12 seismic stations in the eastern part of Java. Earthquake location was determined by using Hypoellipse code that employs a single event determination method. Our inversion is able to resolve the fix-depth and shows that the earthquake occurred at 10:35:27.6 GMT+7 and was located in 7.6305° S, 111.7529 ° E with 14.81 km focus depth. Our location depicts a smaller travel time residual compared to that based on the BMKG result. Focal mechanism of the earthquake was determined by using HASH code. We used first arrival polarity of 9 seismic records with azimuthal gap less than 90°, and estimated take-off angles by using assumption of homogenous medium. Our focal mechanism solution shows a strike-slip mechanism with strike direction of 163o, which may be related to a strike-fault in Klangon, an area to the east of Madiun.

  6. Magnitudes and locations of the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquakes

    Bakun, W.H.; Hopper, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    We estimate locations and moment magnitudes M and their uncertainties for the three largest events in the 1811-1812 sequence near New Madrid, Missouri, and for the 1 September 1886 event near Charleston, South Carolina. The intensity magnitude M1, our preferred estimate of M, is 7.6 for the 16 December 1811 event that occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) on the Bootheel lineament or on the Blytheville seismic zone. M1, is 7.5 for the 23 January 1812 event for a location on the New Madrid north zone of the NMSZ and 7.8 for the 7 February 1812 event that occurred on the Reelfoot blind thrust of the NMSZ. Our preferred locations for these events are located on those NMSZ segments preferred by Johnston and Schweig (1996). Our estimates of M are 0.1-0.4 M units less than those of Johnston (1996b) and 0.3-0.5 M units greater than those of Hough et al. (2000). M1 is 6.9 for the 1 September 1886 event for a location at the Summerville-Middleton Place cluster of recent small earthquakes located about 30 km northwest of Charleston.

  7. Detection and location of earthquakes along the west coast of Chile: Examining seismicity in the 2010 M 8.8 Maule and 2014 M 8.1 Iquique earthquake rupture zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniakos, R. S.; Bilek, S. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Draganov, D.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate along Chile has led to some of the largest earthquakes recorded on modern seismic instrumentation. These include the 1960 M 9.5 Valdivia, 2010 M 8.8 Maule, and 2014 M 8.1 Iquique earthquakes. Slip heterogeneity for both the 2010 and 2014 earthquakes has been noted in various studies. In order to explore both spatial variations in the continued aftershocks of the 2010 event, and also seismicity to the north along Iquique prior to the 2014 earthquake relative to the high slip regions, we are expanding the catalog of small earthquakes using template matching algorithms to find other small earthquakes in the region. We start with an earthquake catalog developed from regional and local array data; these events provide the templates used to search through waveform data from a temporary seismic array in Malargue, Argentina, located ~300 km west of the Maule region, which operated in 2012. Our template events are first identified on the array stations, and we use a 10-s window around the P-wave arrival as the template. We then use a waveform cross-correlation algorithm to compare the template with day-long seismograms from Malargue stations. The newly detected events are then located using the HYPOINVERSE2000 program. Initial results for 103 templates on 19 of the array stations show that we find 275 new events ,with an average of three new events for each template correlated. For these preliminary results, events from the Maule region appear to provide the most new detections, with an average of ten new events. We will present our locations for the detected events and we will compare them to patterns of high slip along the 2010 rupture zone of the M 8.8 Maule earthquake and the 2014 M 8.1 Iquique event.

  8. The 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Christensen, D.; Kore, K.

    2002-12-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 foreshock on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located slightly to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. Near Mentasta Lake, a village that experienced some of the worst damage in the quake, the surface rupture scar turns from the Denali fault to the adjacent Totschunda fault, which trends toward more southeasterly toward the Canadian border. Overall, the geologists found that measurable scarps indicate that the north side of the Denali fault moved to the east and vertically up relative to the south. Maximum offsets on the Denali fault were 8.8 meters at the Tok Highway cutoff, and were 2.2 meters on the Totschunda fault. The Alaska regional seismic network consists of over 250 station sites, operated by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). Over 25 sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which have in addition the strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary network with over 20 instruments following the 6.7 Nenana Mountain and the 7.9 events. Prior to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event, the automatic earthquake detection system at AEIC was locating between 15 and 30 events per day. After the event, the system had over 200-400 automatic locations per day for at least 10 days following the 7.9 event. The processing of the data is ongoing with the priority given to the larger events. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock locations along the Denali

  9. Determination of Magnitude and Location of Earthquakes With Only Five Seconds of a Three Component Broadband Sensor Signal Located Near Bogota, Colombia Using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.; Niño Vasquez, L. F., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Early warning generation for earthquakes that occur near the city of Bogotá-Colombia is extremely important. Using the information of a broadband and three component station, property of the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), called El Rosal, which is located very near the city, we developed a model based on support vector machines techniques (SVM), with a standardized polynomial kernel, using as descriptors or input data, seismic signal features, complemented by the hipocentral parameters calculated for each one of the reported events. The model was trained and evaluated by cross correlation and was used to predict, with only five seconds of signal, the magnitude and location of a seismic event. With the proposed model we calculated local magnitude with an accuracy of 0.19 units of magnitude, epicentral distance with an accuracy of about 11 k, depth with a precision of approximately 40 km and the azimuth of arrival with a precision of 45°. This research made a significant contribution for early warning generation for the country, in particular for the city of Bogotá. These models will be implemented in the future in the "Red Sismológica de la Sabana de Bogotá y sus Alrededores (RSSB)" which belongs to the Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  10. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  11. Coseismic Stress Changes of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, Earthquake and Its Implication for Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, B.; LIU, C.; Xiong, X.

    2017-12-01

    On 13 November 2016, an earthquake with moment magnitude Mw 7.8 stroke North Canterbury, New Zealand as result of shallow oblique-reverse faulting close to boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates in the South Island, collapsing buildings and resulting in significant economic losses. The distribution of early aftershocks extended about 150 km to the north-northeast of the mainshock, suggesting the potential of earthquake triggering in this complex fault system. Strong aftershocks following major earthquakes present significant challenges for locals' reconstruction and rehabilitation. The regions around the mainshock may also suffer from earthquakes triggered by the Kaikoura earthquake. Therefore, it is significantly important to outline the regions with potential aftershocks and high seismic hazard to mitigate future disasters. Moreover, this earthquake ruptured at least 13 separate faults, and provided an opportunity to test the theory of earthquake stress triggering for a complex fault system. In this study, we calculated the coseismic Coulomb Failure Stress changes (ΔCFS) caused by the Kaikoura earthquake on the hypocenters of both historical earthquakes and aftershocks of this event with focal mechanisms. Our results show that the percentage of earthquake with positive ΔCFS within the aftershocks is higher than that of historical earthquakes. It means that the Kaikoura earthquake effectively influence the seismicity in this region. The aftershocks of Mw 7.8 Kaikoura earthquake are mainly located in the regions with positive ΔCFS. The aftershock distributions can be well explained by the coseismic ΔCFS. Furthermore, earthquake-induced ΔCFS on the surrounding active faults was further discussed. The northeastern Alpine fault, the southwest part of North Canterbury Fault, parts of the Marlborough fault system and the southwest ends of the Kapiti-Manawatu faults are significantly stressed by the Kaikoura earthquake. The earthquake-induced stress

  12. Oklahoma experiences largest earthquake during ongoing regional wastewater injection hazard mitigation efforts

    Yeck, William; Hayes, Gavin; McNamara, Daniel E.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Barnhart, William; Earle, Paul; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    The 3 September 2016, Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake was the largest recorded earthquake in the state of Oklahoma. Seismic and geodetic observations of the Pawnee sequence, including precise hypocenter locations and moment tensor modeling, shows that the Pawnee earthquake occurred on a previously unknown left-lateral strike-slip basement fault that intersects the mapped right-lateral Labette fault zone. The Pawnee earthquake is part of an unprecedented increase in the earthquake rate in Oklahoma that is largely considered the result of the deep injection of waste fluids from oil and gas production. If this is, indeed, the case for the M5.8 Pawnee earthquake, then this would be the largest event to have been induced by fluid injection. Since 2015, Oklahoma has undergone wide-scale mitigation efforts primarily aimed at reducing injection volumes. Thus far in 2016, the rate of M3 and greater earthquakes has decreased as compared to 2015, while the cumulative moment—or energy released from earthquakes—has increased. This highlights the difficulty in earthquake hazard mitigation efforts given the poorly understood long-term diffusive effects of wastewater injection and their connection to seismicity.

  13. Earthquakes along the Azores-Iberia plate boundary revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlló, Josep; Matos, Catarina; Torres, Ricardo; Cruz, Jorge; Custódio, Susana

    2017-04-01

    been consigned in the resulting catalogue. Earthquakes were re-located using both a 1D velocity structure and a linear inversion procedure (Hypocenter) and using a 3D structure developed for the region and a non-linear inversion algorithm (NonLinLoc). The results are interpreted in light of the most recent knowledge of geological structures, precise earthquake locations obtained for the most recent decades, which identify belts of preferential clustering of earthquakes, focal mechanisms and gravity anomalies.

  14. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Ground Motion Response to a ML 4.3 Earthquake Using Co-Located Distributed Acoustic Sensing and Seismometer Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Herbert F.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Miller, Douglas E.; ...

    2018-03-17

    The PoroTomo research team deployed two arrays of seismic sensors in a natural laboratory at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The 1500 m (length) by 500 m (width) by 400 m (depth) volume of the laboratory overlies a geothermal reservoir. The surface Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array consisted of 8700 m of fiber-optic cable in a shallow trench, including 340 m in a well. The conventional seismometer array consisted of 238 three- component geophones. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100 meters in length and geophones were spaced atmore » approximately 60- meter intervals. Both DAS and conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 days during which a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on March 21, 2016. Its epicenter was approximately 150-km south-southeast of the laboratory. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to compare signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios in both time and frequency domains and to test relationships between DAS and geophone data. The ratios were typically within a factor of five of each other with DAS SNR often greater for P-wave but smaller for S-wave relative to geophone SNR. The SNRs measured for an earthquake can be better than for active sources, because the earthquake signal contains more low frequency energy and the noise level is also lower at those lower frequencies. Amplitudes of the sum of several DAS strain-rate waveforms matched the finite difference of two geophone waveforms reasonably well, as did the amplitudes of DAS strain waveforms with particle-velocity waveforms recorded by geophones. Similar agreement was found between DAS and geophone observations and synthetic strain seismograms. In conclusion, the combination of good SNR in the seismic frequency band, high-spatial density, large N, and highly accurate time control among individual sensors suggests that DAS arrays have potential to

  16. Using Earthquake Location and Coda Attenuation Analysis to Explore Shallow Structures Above the Socorro Magma Body, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. P.; Bilek, S. L.; Worthington, L. L.; Schmandt, B.; Aster, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Socorro Magma Body (SMB) is a thin, sill-like intrusion with a top at 19 km depth covering approximately 3400 km2 within the Rio Grande Rift. InSAR studies show crustal uplift patterns linked to SMB inflation with deformation rates of 2.5 mm/yr in the area of maximum uplift with some peripheral subsidence. Our understanding of the emplacement history and shallow structure above the SMB is limited. We use a large seismic deployment to explore seismicity and crustal attenuation in the SMB region, focusing on the area of highest observed uplift to investigate the possible existence of fluid/magma in the upper crust. We would expect to see shallower earthquakes and/or higher attenuation if high heat flow, fluid or magma is present in the upper crust. Over 800 short period vertical component geophones situated above the northern portion of the SMB were deployed for two weeks in 2015. This data is combined with other broadband and short period seismic stations to detect and locate earthquakes as well as to estimate seismic attenuation. We use phase arrivals from the full dataset to relocate a set of 33 local/regional earthquakes recorded during the deployment. We also measure amplitude decay after the S-wave arrival to estimate coda attenuation caused by scattering of seismic waves and anelastic processes. Coda attenuation is estimated using the single backscatter method described by Aki and Chouet (1975), filtering the seismograms at 6, 9 and 12 Hz center frequencies. Earthquakes occurred at 2-13 km depth during the deployment, but no spatial patterns linked with the high uplift region were observed over this short duration. Attenuation results for this deployment suggest Q ranging in values of 130 to 2000, averaging around Q of 290, comparable to Q estimates of other studies of the western US. With our dense station coverage, we explore attenuation over smaller scales, and find higher attenuation for stations in the area of maximum uplift relative to stations

  17. Ground Motion Response to a ML 4.3 Earthquake Using Co-Located Distributed Acoustic Sensing and Seismometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Herbert F.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Miller, Douglas E.; Fratta, Dante; Feigl, Kurt L.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    The PoroTomo research team deployed two arrays of seismic sensors in a natural laboratory at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The 1500 m (length) by 500 m (width) by 400 m (depth) volume of the laboratory overlies a geothermal reservoir. The surface Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array consisted of 8700 m of fiber-optic cable in a shallow trench, including 340 m in a well. The conventional seismometer array consisted of 238 three-component geophones. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100 meters in length and geophones were spaced at approximately 60-m intervals. Both DAS and conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 days during which a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on March 21, 2016. Its epicenter was approximately 150-km south-southeast of the laboratory. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to compare signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios in both time and frequency domains and to test relationships between DAS and geophone data. The ratios were typically within a factor of five of each other with DAS SNR often greater for P-wave but smaller for S-wave relative to geophone SNR. The SNRs measured for an earthquake can be better than for active sources, because the earthquake signal contains more low frequency energy and the noise level is also lower at those lower frequencies. Amplitudes of the sum of several DAS strain-rate waveforms matched the finite difference of two geophone waveforms reasonably well, as did the amplitudes of DAS strain waveforms with particle-velocity waveforms recorded by geophones. Similar agreement was found between DAS and geophone observations and synthetic strain seismograms. The combination of good SNR in the seismic frequency band, high-spatial density, large N, and highly accurate time control among individual sensors suggests that DAS arrays have potential to assume a role in earthquake

  18. Ground Motion Response to a ML 4.3 Earthquake Using Co-Located Distributed Acoustic Sensing and Seismometer Arrays

    SciT

    Wang, Herbert F.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Miller, Douglas E.

    The PoroTomo research team deployed two arrays of seismic sensors in a natural laboratory at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The 1500 m (length) by 500 m (width) by 400 m (depth) volume of the laboratory overlies a geothermal reservoir. The surface Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) array consisted of 8700 m of fiber-optic cable in a shallow trench, including 340 m in a well. The conventional seismometer array consisted of 238 three- component geophones. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100 meters in length and geophones were spaced atmore » approximately 60- meter intervals. Both DAS and conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 days during which a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on March 21, 2016. Its epicenter was approximately 150-km south-southeast of the laboratory. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to compare signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios in both time and frequency domains and to test relationships between DAS and geophone data. The ratios were typically within a factor of five of each other with DAS SNR often greater for P-wave but smaller for S-wave relative to geophone SNR. The SNRs measured for an earthquake can be better than for active sources, because the earthquake signal contains more low frequency energy and the noise level is also lower at those lower frequencies. Amplitudes of the sum of several DAS strain-rate waveforms matched the finite difference of two geophone waveforms reasonably well, as did the amplitudes of DAS strain waveforms with particle-velocity waveforms recorded by geophones. Similar agreement was found between DAS and geophone observations and synthetic strain seismograms. In conclusion, the combination of good SNR in the seismic frequency band, high-spatial density, large N, and highly accurate time control among individual sensors suggests that DAS arrays have potential to

  19. Ground motion response to an ML 4.3 earthquake using co-located distributed acoustic sensing and seismometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Herbert F.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Miller, Douglas E.; Fratta, Dante; Feigl, Kurt L.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    The PoroTomo research team deployed two arrays of seismic sensors in a natural laboratory at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The 1500 m (length) × 500 m (width) × 400 m (depth) volume of the laboratory overlies a geothermal reservoir. The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) array consisted of about 8400 m of fiber-optic cable in a shallow trench and 360 m in a well. The conventional seismometer array consisted of 238 shallowly buried three-component geophones. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100 m in length and geophones were spaced at approximately 60 m intervals. Both DAS and conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 d during which a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on 2016 March 21. Its epicentre was approximately 150 km south-southeast of the laboratory. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to compare signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in both time and frequency domains and to test relationships between DAS and geophone data. The ratios were typically within a factor of five of each other with DAS SNR often greater for P-wave but smaller for S-wave relative to geophone SNR. The SNRs measured for an earthquake can be better than for active sources because the earthquake signal contains more low-frequency energy and the noise level is also lower at those lower frequencies. Amplitudes of the sum of several DAS strain-rate waveforms matched the finite difference of two geophone waveforms reasonably well, as did the amplitudes of DAS strain waveforms with particle-velocity waveforms recorded by geophones. Similar agreement was found between DAS and geophone observations and synthetic strain seismograms. The combination of good SNR in the seismic frequency band, high-spatial density, large N and highly accurate time control among individual sensors suggests that DAS arrays have potential to assume a role in earthquake

  20. Tsunami Size Distributions at Far-Field Locations from Aggregated Earthquake Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of tsunami amplitudes at far-field tide gauge stations is explained by aggregating the probability of tsunamis derived from individual subduction zones and scaled by their seismic moment. The observed tsunami amplitude distributions of both continental (e.g., San Francisco) and island (e.g., Hilo) stations distant from subduction zones are examined. Although the observed probability distributions nominally follow a Pareto (power-law) distribution, there are significant deviations. Some stations exhibit varying degrees of tapering of the distribution at high amplitudes and, in the case of the Hilo station, there is a prominent break in slope on log-log probability plots. There are also differences in the slopes of the observed distributions among stations that can be significant. To explain these differences we first estimate seismic moment distributions of observed earthquakes for major subduction zones. Second, regression models are developed that relate the tsunami amplitude at a station to seismic moment at a subduction zone, correcting for epicentral distance. The seismic moment distribution is then transformed to a site-specific tsunami amplitude distribution using the regression model. Finally, a mixture distribution is developed, aggregating the transformed tsunami distributions from all relevant subduction zones. This mixture distribution is compared to the observed distribution to assess the performance of the method described above. This method allows us to estimate the largest tsunami that can be expected in a given time period at a station.

  1. Distribution of stress drop, stiffness, and fracture energy over earthquake rupture zones

    Fletcher, Joe B.; McGarr, A.

    2006-01-01

    Using information provided by slip models and the methodology of McGarr and Fletcher (2002), we map static stress drop, stiffness (k = ????/u, where ???? is static stress drop and u is slip), and fracture energy over the slip surface to investigate the earthquake rupture process and energy budget. For the 1994 M6.7 Northridge, 1992 M7.3 Landers, and 1995 M6.9 Kobe earthquakes, the distributions of static stress drop show strong heterogeneity, emphasizing the importance of asperities in the rupture process. Average values of static stress drop are 17, 11, and 4 Mpa for Northridge, Landers, and Kobe, respectively. These values are substantially higher than estimates based on simple crack models, suggesting that the failure process involves the rupture of asperities within the larger fault zone. Stress drop as a function of depth for the Northridge and Landers earthquakes suggests that stress drops are limited by crustal strength. For these two earthquakes, regions of high slip are surrounded by high values of stiffness. Particularly for the Northridge earthquake, the prominent patch of high slip in the central part of the fault is bordered by a ring of high stiffness and is consistent with expectations based on the failure of an asperity loaded at its edge due to exterior slip. Stiffness within an asperity is inversely related to its dimensions. Estimates of fracture energy, based on static stress drop, slip, and rupture speed, were used to investigate the nature of slip weakening at four locations near the hypocenter of the Kobe earthquake for comparison with independent results based on a dynamic model of this earthquake. One subfault updip and to the NE of the hypocenter has a fracture energy of 1.1 MJ/m2 and a slip-weakening distance, Dc, of 0.66 m. Right triangles, whose base and height are Dc and the dynamic stress drop, respectively, approximately overlie the slip-dependent stress given by Ide and Takeo (1997) for the same locations near the hypocenter. The

  2. Normal Fault Type Earthquakes Off Fukushima Region - Comparison of the 1938 Events and Recent Earthquakes -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, S.; Satake, K.

    2017-12-01

    Off Fukushima region, Mjma 7.4 (event A) and 6.9 (event B) events occurred on November 6, 1938, following the thrust fault type earthquakes of Mjma 7.5 and 7.3 on the previous day. These earthquakes were estimated as normal fault earthquakes by Abe (1977, Tectonophysics). An Mjma 7.0 earthquake occurred on July 12, 2014 near event B and an Mjma 7.4 earthquake occurred on November 22, 2016 near event A. These recent events are the only M 7 class earthquakes occurred off Fukushima since 1938. Except for the two 1938 events, normal fault earthquakes have not occurred until many aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We compared the observed tsunami and seismic waveforms of the 1938, 2014, and 2016 earthquakes to examine the normal fault earthquakes occurred off Fukushima region. It is difficult to compare the tsunami waveforms of the 1938, 2014 and 2016 events because there were only a few observations at the same station. The teleseismic body wave inversion of the 2016 earthquake yielded with the focal mechanism of strike 42°, dip 35°, and rake -94°. Other source parameters were as follows: source area 70 km x 40 km, average slip 0.2 m, maximum slip 1.2 m, seismic moment 2.2 x 1019 Nm, and Mw 6.8. A large slip area is located near the hypocenter, and it is compatible with the tsunami source area estimated from tsunami travel times. The 2016 tsunami source area is smaller than that of the 1938 event, consistent with the difference in Mw: 7.7 for event A estimated by Abe (1977) and 6.8 for the 2016 event. Although the 2014 epicenter is very close to that of event B, the teleseismic waveforms of the 2014 event are similar to those of event A and the 2016 event. While Abe (1977) assumed that the mechanism of event B was the same as event A, the initial motions at some stations are opposite, indicating that the focal mechanisms of events A and B are different and more detailed examination is needed. The normal fault type earthquake seems to occur following the

  3. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  4. Dense Array Studies of Volcano-Tectonic and Long-Period Earthquakes Beneath Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, M. E.; Hansen, S. M.; Schmandt, B.; Thomas, A.

    2017-12-01

    A 904 single-component 10-Hz geophone array deployed within 15 km of Mount St. Helens (MSH) in 2014 recorded continuously for two-weeks. Automated reverse-time imaging (RTI) was used to generate a catalog of 212 earthquakes. Among these, two distinct types of upper crustal (<8 km) earthquakes were classified. Volcano-tectonic (VT) and long-period (LP) earthquakes were identified using analysis of array spectrograms, envelope functions, and velocity waveforms. To remove analyst subjectivity, quantitative classification criteria were developed based on the ratio of power in high and low frequency bands and coda duration. Prior to the 2014 experiment, upper crustal LP earthquakes had only been reported at MSH during volcanic activity. Subarray beamforming was used to distinguish between LP earthquakes and surface generated LP signals, such as rockfall. This method confirmed 16 LP signals with horizontal velocities exceeding that of upper crustal P-wave velocities, which requires a subsurface hypocenter. LP and VT locations overlap in a cluster slightly east of the summit crater from 0-5 km below sea level. LP displacement spectra are similar to simple theoretical predictions for shear failure except that they have lower corner frequencies than VT earthquakes of similar magnitude. The results indicate a distinct non-resonant source for LP earthquakes which are located in the same source volume as some VT earthquakes (within hypocenter uncertainty of 1 km or less). To further investigate MSH microseismicity mechanisms, a 142 three-component (3-C) 5 Hz geophone array will record continuously for one month at MSH in Fall 2017 providing a unique dataset for a volcano earthquake source study. This array will help determine if LP occurrence in 2014 was transient or if it is still ongoing. Unlike the 2014 array, approximately 50 geophones will be deployed in the MSH summit crater directly over the majority of seismicity. RTI will be used to detect and locate earthquakes by

  5. Time-Reversal Location of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake Using the Vertical Component of Seismic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat, C. S.; Johnson, P.; Huang, L.; Randall, G.; Patton, H.; Montagner, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we describe Time Reversal experiments applying seismic waves recorded from the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake. The reverse seismic wavefield is created by time-reversing recorded seismograms and then injecting them from the seismograph locations into a whole entire Earth velocity model. The concept is identical to acoustic Time-Reversal Mirror laboratory experiments except the seismic data are numerically backpropagated through a velocity model (Fink, 1996; Ulrich et al, 2007). Data are backpropagated using the finite element code SPECFEM3D (Komatitsch et al, 2002), employing the velocity model s20rts (Ritsema et al, 2000). In this paper, we backpropagate only the vertical component of seismic data from about 100 broadband surface stations located worldwide (FDSN), using the period band of 23-120s. We use those only waveforms that are highly correlated with forward-propagated synthetics. The focusing quality depends upon the type of waves back- propagated; for the vertical displacement component the possible types include body waves, Rayleigh waves, or their combination. We show that Rayleigh waves, both real and artifact, dominate the reverse movie in all cases. They are created during rebroadcast of the time reverse signals, including body wave phases, because we use point-like-force sources for injection. The artifact waves, termed "ghosts" manifest as surface waves, do not correspond to real wave phases during the forward propagation. The surface ghost waves can significantly blur the focusing at the source. We find that the ghosts cannot be easily eliminated in the manner described by Tsogka&Papanicolaou (2002). It is necessary to understand how they are created in order to remove them during TRM studies, particularly when using only the body waves. For this moderate magnitude of earthquake we demonstrate the robustness of the TRM as an alternative location method despite the restriction to vertical component phases. One advantage of TRM location

  6. Fluid-faulting interactions: Fracture-mesh and fault-valve behavior in the February 2014 Mammoth Mountain, California, earthquake swarm

    Shelly, David R.; Taira, Taka’aki; Prejean, Stephanie; Hill, David P.; Dreger, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Faulting and fluid transport in the subsurface are highly coupled processes, which may manifest seismically as earthquake swarms. A swarm in February 2014 beneath densely monitored Mammoth Mountain, California, provides an opportunity to witness these interactions in high resolution. Toward this goal, we employ massive waveform-correlation-based event detection and relative relocation, which quadruples the swarm catalog to more than 6000 earthquakes and produces high-precision locations even for very small events. The swarm's main seismic zone forms a distributed fracture mesh, with individual faults activated in short earthquake bursts. The largest event of the sequence, M 3.1, apparently acted as a fault valve and was followed by a distinct wave of earthquakes propagating ~1 km westward from the updip edge of rupture, 1–2 h later. Late in the swarm, multiple small, shallower subsidiary faults activated with pronounced hypocenter migration, suggesting that a broader fluid pressure pulse propagated through the subsurface.

  7. Induced earthquake during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw7.0): Importance of real-time shake monitoring for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Ogiso, M.

    2016-12-01

    hypocenter location and magnitude. Because we want to predict ground shaking in EEW, we should more focus on monitoring of ground shaking. Experience of the induced earthquake also indicates the importance of the real-time monitor of ground shaking for making EEW more rapid and precise.

  8. Refining locations of the 2005 Mukacheve, West Ukraine, earthquakes based on similarity of their waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyp, Andriy

    2009-06-01

    Based on the results of application of correlation analysis to records of the 2005 Mukacheve group of recurrent events and their subsequent relocation relative to the reference event of 7 July 2005, a conclusion has been drawn that all the events had most likely occurred on the same rup-ture plane. Station terms have been estimated for seismic stations of the Transcarpathians, accounting for variation of seismic velocities beneath their locations as compared to the travel time tables used in the study. In methodical aspect, potentials and usefulness of correlation analysis of seismic records for a more detailed study of seismic processes, tectonics and geodynamics of the Carpathian region have been demonstrated.

  9. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https

  10. The May 29 2008 earthquake aftershock sequence within the South Iceland Seismic Zone: Fault locations and source parameters of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsdottir, B.; Parsons, M.; White, R. S.; Gudmundsson, O.; Drew, J.

    2010-12-01

    The mid-Atlantic plate boundary breaks up into a series of segments across Iceland. The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) is a complex transform zone where left-lateral E-W shear between the Reykjanes Peninsula Rift Zone and the Eastern Volcanic Zone is accommodated by bookshelf faulting along N-S lateral strike-slip faults. The SISZ is also a transient feature, migrating sideways in response to the southward propagation of the Eastern Volcanic Zone. Sequences of large earthquakes (M > 6) lasting from days to years and affecting most of the seismic zone have occurred repeatedly in historical time (last 1100 years), separated by intervals of relative quiescence lasting decades to more than a century. On May 29 2008, a Mw 6.1 earthquake struck the western part of the South Iceland Seismic Zone, followed within seconds by a slightly smaller event on a second fault ~5 km further west. Aftershocks, detected by a temporal array of 11 seismometers and three permanent Icelandic Meteorological Office stations were located using an automated Coalescence Microseismic Mapping technique. The epicenters delineate two major and several smaller N-S faults as well as an E-W zone of activity stretching further west into the Reykjanes Peninsula Rift Zone. Fault plane solutions show both right lateral and oblique strike slip mechanisms along the two major N-S faults. The aftershocks deepen from 3-5 km in the north to 8-9 km in the south, suggesting that the main faults dip southwards. The faulting is interpreted to be driven by the local stress due to transform motion between two parallel segments of the divergent plate boundary crossing Iceland.

  11. Did the Zipingpu Reservoir trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake?

    Ge, S.; Liu, M.; Lu, N.; Godt, J.W.; Luo, G.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) resulted from thrust of the Tibet Plateau on the Longmen Shan fault zone, a consequence of the Indo-Asian continental collision. Many have speculated on the role played by the Zipingpu Reservoir, impounded in 2005 near the epicenter, in triggering the earthquake. This study evaluates the stress changes in response to the impoundment of the Zipingpu Reservoir and assesses their impact on the Wenchuan earthquake. We show that the impoundment could have changed the Coulomb stress by -0.01 to 0.05 MPa at locations and depth consistent with reported hypocenter positions. This level of stress change has been shown to be significant in triggering earthquakes on critically stressed faults. Because the loading rate on the Longmen Shan fault is <0.005 MPa/yr, we thus suggest that the Zipingpu Reservoir potentially hastened the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake by tens to hundreds of years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  13. Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers

    Coughlin, Michael; Earle, Paul; Harms, Jan; Biscans, Sebastien; Buchanan, Christopher; Coughlin, Eric; Donovan, Fred; Fee, Jeremy; Gabbard, Hunter; Guy, Michelle; Mukund, Nikhil; Perry, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to ground shaking from high-magnitude teleseismic events, which can interrupt their operation in science mode and significantly reduce their duty cycle. It can take several hours for a detector to stabilize enough to return to its nominal state for scientific observations. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining stable operation even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here, we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Preliminary low latency hypocenter and magnitude information is generally available in 5 to 20 min of a significant earthquake depending on its magnitude and location. The alerts are used to estimate arrival times and ground velocities at the gravitational-wave detectors. In general, 90% of the predictions for ground-motion amplitude are within a factor of 5 of measured values. The error in both arrival time and ground-motion prediction introduced by using preliminary, rather than final, hypocenter and magnitude information is minimal. By using a machine learning algorithm, we develop a prediction model that calculates the probability that a given earthquake will prevent a detector from taking data. Our initial results indicate that by using detector control configuration changes, we could prevent interruption of operation from 40 to 100 earthquake events in a 6-month time-period.

  14. Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Michael; Earle, Paul; Harms, Jan; Biscans, Sebastien; Buchanan, Christopher; Coughlin, Eric; Donovan, Fred; Fee, Jeremy; Gabbard, Hunter; Guy, Michelle; Mukund, Nikhil; Perry, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to ground shaking from high-magnitude teleseismic events, which can interrupt their operation in science mode and significantly reduce their duty cycle. It can take several hours for a detector to stabilize enough to return to its nominal state for scientific observations. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining stable operation even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here, we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Preliminary low latency hypocenter and magnitude information is generally available in 5 to 20 min of a significant earthquake depending on its magnitude and location. The alerts are used to estimate arrival times and ground velocities at the gravitational-wave detectors. In general, 90% of the predictions for ground-motion amplitude are within a factor of 5 of measured values. The error in both arrival time and ground-motion prediction introduced by using preliminary, rather than final, hypocenter and magnitude information is minimal. By using a machine learning algorithm, we develop a prediction model that calculates the probability that a given earthquake will prevent a detector from taking data. Our initial results indicate that by using detector control configuration changes, we could prevent interruption of operation from 40 to 100 earthquake events in a 6-month time-period.

  15. Constraining Source Locations of Shallow Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes in 1-D and 3-D Velocity Models - A Case Study of the 2002 Mw=6.4 Osa Earthquake, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, I.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake source locations are generally routinely constrained using a global 1-D Earth model. However, the source location might be associated with large uncertainties. This is definitively the case for earthquakes occurring at active continental margins were thin oceanic crust subducts below thick continental crust and hence large lateral changes in crustal thickness occur as a function of distance to the deep-sea trench. Here, we conducted a case study of the 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa thrust earthquake in Costa Rica that was followed by an aftershock sequence. Initial relocations indicated that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of ocean-bottom-hydrophones and land stations 80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent Costa Rican stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocated this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach using a 1-D and two 3-D P-wave velocity models. The 3-D model was either derived from 3-D tomography based on onshore stations and a priori model based on seismic refraction data. All epicentres occurred close to the trench axis, but depth estimates vary by several tens of kilometres. Based on the epicentres and constraints from seismic reflection data the main shock occurred 25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. The source location that agreed best with the geology was based on the 3-D velocity model derived from a priori data. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interpolate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.

  16. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kusnandar, Ridwan; Puspito, Nanang T.; Sakti, Artadi Pria; Yudistira, Tedi

    2015-04-01

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method. For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.

  17. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    SciT

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method.more » For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.« less

  18. Automatic seismic waveform location using multichannel coherency migration for induced and natural earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, A.; Shi, P.; Angus, D. A.; Rost, S.; Birnie, C. E.; Yuan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Modern, large seismic datasets place a huge burden on human analysts who traditionally have been required to manually pick distinct phase arrivals in order to locate seismic events. This burden becomes insurmountable when real-time monitoring is needed, and hence automated approaches are necessary. Whilst many methods exist, noisy data often defeat them. We propose here a novel method to migrate seismic energy back to its spatial and temporal source, based on an improved imaging condition with greater tolerance to noise. The multichannel coherency migration (MCM) method sums the correlation coefficients of traces between all available station pairs, using the predicted P- and S-wave windows for any given imaging point in the target volume. Grid searching in time and space allows the point of maximum waveform coherency and event likelihood to be found. The only adjustable parameter in the method is the cross-correlation window length, but this is determined by the dominant frequency of the signal. This is in contrast with most other methods, such as the STA-LTA imaging function, which require several parameters to be adjusted and optimised for each application. Because we use the cross-correlation between stations, incoherent noise is effectively suppressed, and even temporally coherent noise which is not located within the target volume can be minimised also. We apply the MCM to synthetic tests, and real data in geological carbon storage and volcanic settings. In comparison to migrations based on waveform envelope, STA-LTA and kurtosis imaging functions, the MCM more reliably finds the true source and better suppresses noise. Synthetic tests with real noise show that the MCM remains robust up to noise-to-signal (not a typo) ratios (NSR) of about 40. Tests with incorrect velocity models further suggest that the MCM will be a useful event detection method in the future.

  19. Precursory earthquakes of the 1943 eruption of Paricutin volcano, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, I.; de la Cruz-Reyna, S.

    1990-12-01

    Paricutin volcano is a monogenetic volcano whose birth and growth were observed by modern volcanological techniques. At the time of its birth in 1943, the seismic activity in central Mexico was mainly recorded by the Wiechert seismographs at the Tacubaya seismic station in Mexico City about 320 km east of the volcano area. In this paper we aim to find any characteristics of precursory earthquakes of the monogenetic eruption. Though there are limits in the available information, such as imprecise location of hypocenters and lack of earthquake data with magnitudes under 3.0. The available data show that the first precursory earthquake occurred on January 7, 1943, with a magnitude of 4.4. Subsequently, 21 earthquakes ranging from 3.2 to 4.5 in magnitude occurred before the outbreak of the eruption on February 20. The (S - P) durations of the precursory earthquakes do not show any systematic changes within the observational errors. The hypocenters were rather shallow and did not migrate. The precursory earthquakes had a characteristic tectonic signature, which was retained through the whole period of activity. However, the spectra of the P-waves of the Paricutin earthquakes show minor differences from those of tectonic earthquakes. This fact helped in the identification of Paricutin earthquakes. Except for the first shock, the maximum earthquake magnitudes show an increasing tendency with time towards the outbreak. The total seismic energy released by the precursory earthquakes amounted to 2 × 10 19 ergs. Considering that statistically there is a threshold of cumulative seismic energy release (10 17-18ergs) by precursory earthquakes in polygenetic volcanoes erupting after long quiescence, the above cumulative energy is exceptionally large. This suggests that a monogenetic volcano may need much more energy to clear the way of magma passage to the earth surface than a polygenetic one. The magma ascent before the outbreak of Paricutin volcano is interpretable by a model

  20. 3-D Spontaneous Rupture Simulations of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Fukuyama, Eiichi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the M7.3 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake to illuminate why and how the rupture of the main shock propagated successfully by 3-D dynamic rupture simulations, assuming a complicated fault geometry estimated based on the distributions of aftershocks. The M7.3 main shock occurred along the Futagawa and Hinagu faults. A few days before, three M6-class foreshocks occurred. Their hypocenters were located along by the Hinagu and Futagawa faults and their focal mechanisms were similar to those of the main shock; therefore, an extensive stress shadow can have been generated on the fault plane of the main shock. First, we estimated the geometry of the fault planes of the three foreshocks as well as that of the main shock based on the temporal evolution of relocated aftershock hypocenters. Then, we evaluated static stress changes on the main shock fault plane due to the occurrence of the three foreshocks assuming elliptical cracks with constant stress drops on the estimated fault planes. The obtained static stress change distribution indicated that the hypocenter of the main shock is located on the region with positive Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) while ΔCFS in the shallow region above the hypocenter was negative. Therefore, these foreshocks could encourage the initiation of the main shock rupture and could hinder the rupture propagating toward the shallow region. Finally, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the main shock using the initial stress distribution, which was the sum of the static stress changes by these foreshocks and the regional stress field. Assuming a slip-weakening law with uniform friction parameters, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations by varying the friction parameters and the values of the principal stresses. We obtained feasible parameter ranges to reproduce the rupture propagation of the main shock consistent with those revealed by seismic waveform analyses. We also demonstrated that the free surface encouraged

  1. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2017-04-01

    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  2. Detailed source process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Campos, J.; Asch, G.; Favreau, P.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J.

    2008-05-01

    -waves arrivals, allowing the localization of the 2 sources. The main shock started north of the segment close to Tocopilla. The rupture propagated southward. The second source was identified to start about 20 seconds later and was located 50 km south from the hypocenter. The network configuration provides a good resolution for the inverted slip distribution in the north-south direction, but a lower resolution for the east-west extent of the slip. However, this study of the source process of this earthquake shows a complex source with at least two slip asperities of different dynamical behavior.

  3. Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3–5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.

  4. Thermal, Petrologic, and Structural Conditions for the September 2017 M=8.2 and M=7.1 intra-slab earthquakes in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Gao, X.; Rogers, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    The M=8.2 Tehuantepec and M=7.1 Puebla earthquakes of September 2017 are similar to the 1999 Oaxaca (M=7.5, Mexico), 2001 Geiyo (M=6.7, Nankai), and 2001 Nisqually (M=6.8, Cascadia) earthquakes. All these events are normal-faulting events in the 40-60 km depth range within young and warm subducting slabs. They all ruptured the mantle part of the slab. To investigate the thermal and petrologic conditions of these earthquakes, we have developed finite element thermal models in the areas of the two September events. Along the northern transect for the M=7.1 event, where the age of the incoming plate is 13.5 Ma, the slab geometry is well constrained by previous receiver function and earthquake location studies. Two available hypocenter locations of the main shock fall within or at the lower boundary of our model-predicted zone of serpentine (antigorite) stability in the slab mantle. Along the southern transect for the M=8.2 event, where the age of the incoming plate is 25.5 Ma, the slab geometry is less well known, and we have considered two published geometrical models. Several available hypocenter locations of the main shock are within or below the serpentine stability zone, depending on which slab geometry is assumed. Most of the rupture zone is shallower than the hypocenter. The model results support the following hypothesis. The two September earthquakes probably ruptured pre-existing normal faults that extended into the oceanic mantle and had been locally hydrated prior to and during the beginning phase of subduction. The earthquakes may have initiated at the dehydration boundary of antigorite or chlorite, facilitated by elevated pore fluid pressure (dehydration embrittlement). Most of the rupture was in the uppermost mantle part of the slab but may have involved parts of the slab crust. That large intra-slab earthquakes of this type tend to involve mantle rupture has been explained as due to the structural condition caused by warm-slab metamorphism (Wang et al

  5. Surface-Wave Relocation of Remote Continental Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, J. A.; Ammon, C. J.; Cleveland, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate hypocenter locations are essential for seismic event analysis. Single-event location estimation methods provide relatively imprecise results in remote regions with few nearby seismic stations. Previous work has demonstrated that improved relative epicentroid precision in oceanic environments is obtainable using surface-wave cross correlation measurements. We use intermediate-period regional and teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves to estimate relative epicentroid locations of moderately-sized seismic events in regions around Iran. Variations in faulting geometry, depth, and intermediate-period dispersion make surface-wave based event relocation challenging across this broad continental region. We compare and integrate surface-wave based relative locations with InSAR centroid location estimates. However, mapping an earthquake sequence mainshock to an InSAR fault deformation model centroid is not always a simple process, since the InSAR observations are sensitive to post-seismic deformation. We explore these ideas using earthquake sequences in western Iran. We also apply surface-wave relocation to smaller magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < M < 5.0). Inclusion of smaller-magnitude seismic events in a relocation effort requires a shift in bandwidth to shorter periods, which increases the sensitivity of relocations to surface-wave dispersion. Frequency-domain inter-event phase observations are used to understand the time-domain cross-correlation information, and to choose the appropriate band for applications using shorter periods. Over short inter-event distances, the changing group velocity does not strongly degrade the relative locations. For small-magnitude seismic events in continental regions, surface-wave relocation does not appear simple enough to allow broad routine application, but using this method to analyze individual earthquake sequences can provide valuable insight into earthquake and faulting processes.

  6. High Resolution Hypocenter Relocation for Events in Central Java, Indonesia using Double-Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D. P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Sule, R.; Luehr, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic and volcanic activities in Central Java are highly related to the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate. In the MERapi AMphibious Experiments (MERAMEX), a network consisting of 169 seismographic stations was installed onshore and offshore in central Java and recorded 282 events during the operation. In this study, we present the results of relative hypocenters relocation by using Double Difference (DD) method to image the subduction beneath the volcanic chain in central Java. The DD method is an iterative procedure using Least Square optimization to determine high-resolution hypocenter locations over large distances. This relocation method uses absolute travel-time measurements and/or cross-correlation of P- and S-wave differential travel-time measurements. The preliminary results of our study showed that the algorithm could collapse the diffused event locations obtained from previous study into a sharp image of seismicity structure and reduce the residual travel time errors significantly (7 - 60%). As a result, narrow regions of a double seismic zone which correlated with the subducting slab can be determined more accurately. The dip angle of the slab increases gradually from almost horizontal beneath offshore to very steep (65-80 degrees) beneath the northern part of central Java. The aseismic gap at depths of 140 km - 185 km is also depicted clearly. The next step of the ongoing research is to provide detailed quantitative constraints on the structures of the mantle wedge and crust beneath central Java and to show the ascending paths of fluids and partially molten materials below the volcanic arc by applying Double-Difference Tomography method (TomoDD).

  7. A source migration of low frequency earthquakes during the 2000 activity of Miyake-jima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ohminato, T.; Fujita, E.; Ida, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The volcanic activity of Miyake-jima started at 18:30 (JST) on June 26, 2000 with large ground deformation and earthquake swarms. The seismic activity started at the southern part of the island. The hypocenter distribution migrated northwestward and slipped away out of the island by early in the morning, June 27. Low frequency (LF) earthquakes with dominant frequencies of 0.2 and 0.4 Hz were first observed in the afternoon of June 27. The LF activity lasted till the first summit eruption on July 8. Earthquake Research Institute of Tokyo University and National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention deployed 3 CMG-3T and 4 STS-2 broadband seismometers in the island. More than 300 LF earthquakes are detected during the period from June 27 to July 8. Most of the LF events whose dominant frequency is 0.2Hz occurred before July 1, while LF events with dominant frequency of 0.4Hz mainly occurred after July 2. We determine hypocenters of these LF events by using the following technique. For each LF event, we assume a source location on a grid point in a homogeneous half-space. A reference station is chosen among all the stations. The cross correlation coefficients are computed between the waveform of the reference station and those of other stations. Then, the coefficients for all the stations are summed. In the same manner, summations of the coefficients are computed grid by grid. A grid point that gives the maximum value of the sum of the coefficients is regarded as the best estimate of the source location of the LF event under consideration. The result shows that hypocenters of LF events are spread over the southern to western part of the island and they migrate from south to the west day by day. Hypocenter migrations associated with volcanic activity have been often reported but usually for short period events. This is one of remarkable cases in which a migration of earthquakes with dominant frequencies as low as 0.2 and 0.4Hz are clearly

  8. Coseismic fault slip associated with the 1992 M(sub w) 6.1 Joshua Tree, California, earthquake: Implications for the Joshua Tree-Landers earthquake sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Richard A.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Rodi, William; Li, Yingping; Toksoz, M. Nafi; Hudnut, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Coseismic surface deformation associated with the M(sub w) 6.1, April 23, 1992, Joshua Tree earthquake is well represented by estimates of geodetic monument displacements at 20 locations independently derived from Global Positioning System and trilateration measurements. The rms signal to noise ratio for these inferred displacements is 1.8 with near-fault displacement estimates exceeding 40 mm. In order to determine the long-wavelength distribution of slip over the plane of rupture, a Tikhonov regularization operator is applied to these estimates which minimizes stress variability subject to purely right-lateral slip and zero surface slip constraints. The resulting slip distribution yields a geodetic moment estimate of 1.7 x 10(exp 18) N m with corresponding maximum slip around 0.8 m and compares well with independent and complementary information including seismic moment and source time function estimates and main shock and aftershock locations. From empirical Green's functions analyses, a rupture duration of 5 s is obtained which implies a rupture radius of 6-8 km. Most of the inferred slip lies to the north of the hypocenter, consistent with northward rupture propagation. Stress drop estimates are in the range of 2-4 MPa. In addition, predicted Coulomb stress increases correlate remarkably well with the distribution of aftershock hypocenters; most of the aftershocks occur in areas for which the mainshock rupture produced stress increases larger than about 0.1 MPa. In contrast, predicted stress changes are near zero at the hypocenter of the M(sub w) 7.3, June 28, 1992, Landers earthquake which nucleated about 20 km beyond the northernmost edge of the Joshua Tree rupture. Based on aftershock migrations and the predicted static stress field, we speculate that redistribution of Joshua Tree-induced stress perturbations played a role in the spatio-temporal development of the earth sequence culminating in the Landers event.

  9. The 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake fault observed by seismic data and satellite data based surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraini, Ade; Sobiesiak, Monika; Walter, Thomas R.

    2010-05-01

    The Mw 6.3 May 26, 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake caused severe damage and claimed thousands lives in the Yogyakarta Special Province and Klaten District of Central Java Province. The nearby Opak River fault was thought to be the source of this earthquake disaster. However, no significant surface movement was observed along the fault which could confirm that this fault was really the source of the earthquake. To investigate the earthquake source and to understand the earthquake mechanism, a rapid response team of the German Task Force for Earthquake, together with the Seismological Division of Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika and Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, had installed a temporary seismic network of 12 short period seismometers. More than 3000 aftershocks were recorded during the 3-month campaign. Here we present the result of several hundred processed aftershocks. We used integrated software package GIANTPitsa to pick P and S phases manually and HYPO71 to determine the hypocenters. HypoDD software was used for hypocenters relocation to obtain high precision aftershock locations. Our aftershock distribution shows a system of lineaments in southwest-northeast direction, about 10 km east to Opak River fault, at 5-18 km depth. The b-value map from the aftershocks shows that the main lineaments have relatively low b-value at the middle part which suggests this part is still under stress. We also observe several aftershock clusters cutting these lineaments in nearly perpendicular direction. To verify the interpretation of our aftershocks analysis, we will overlay it on surface feature we delineate from satellite data. Hopefully our result will give significant contribution to understand the near surface fault systems around Yogyakarta Area in order to mitigate similar earthquake hazard in the future.

  10. Sequence of deep-focus earthquakes beneath the Bonin Islands identified by the NIED nationwide dense seismic networks Hi-net and F-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    An M 6.8 ( Mw 6.5) deep-focus earthquake occurred beneath the Bonin Islands at 21:18 (JST) on June 23, 2015. Observed high-frequency (>1 Hz) seismograms across Japan, which contain several sets of P- and S-wave arrivals for the 10 min after the origin time, indicate that moderate-to-large earthquakes occurred sequentially around Japan. Snapshots of the seismic energy propagation illustrate that after one deep-focus earthquake occurred beneath the Sea of Japan, two deep-focus earthquakes occurred sequentially after the first ( Mw 6.5) event beneath the Bonin Islands in the next 4 min. The United States Geological Survey catalog includes three Bonin deep-focus earthquakes with similar hypocenter locations, but their estimated magnitudes are inconsistent with seismograms from across Japan. The maximum-amplitude patterns of the latter two earthquakes were similar to that of the first Bonin earthquake, which indicates similar locations and mechanisms. Furthermore, based on the ratios of the S-wave amplitudes to that of the first event, the magnitudes of the latter events are estimated as M 6.5 ± 0.02 and M 5.8 ± 0.02, respectively. Three magnitude-6-class earthquakes occurred sequentially within 4 min in the Pacific slab at 480 km depth, where complex heterogeneities exist within the slab.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Development of High-speed Visualization System of Hypocenter Data Using CUDA-based GPU computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Okubo, K.; Uchida, N.; Matsuzawa, T.; Kawada, N.; Takeuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, intelligent visualization of seismic information is becoming important to understand the earthquake phenomena. On the other hand, to date, the quantity of seismic data becomes enormous as a progress of high accuracy observation network; we need to treat many parameters (e.g., positional information, origin time, magnitude, etc.) to efficiently display the seismic information. Therefore, high-speed processing of data and image information is necessary to handle enormous amounts of seismic data. Recently, GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) is used as an acceleration tool for data processing and calculation in various study fields. This movement is called GPGPU (General Purpose computing on GPUs). In the last few years the performance of GPU keeps on improving rapidly. GPU computing gives us the high-performance computing environment at a lower cost than before. Moreover, use of GPU has an advantage of visualization of processed data, because GPU is originally architecture for graphics processing. In the GPU computing, the processed data is always stored in the video memory. Therefore, we can directly write drawing information to the VRAM on the video card by combining CUDA and the graphics API. In this study, we employ CUDA and OpenGL and/or DirectX to realize full-GPU implementation. This method makes it possible to write drawing information to the VRAM on the video card without PCIe bus data transfer: It enables the high-speed processing of seismic data. The present study examines the GPU computing-based high-speed visualization and the feasibility for high-speed visualization system of hypocenter data.

  12. Causative Fault of 2016 ML 5.8 Gyeongju Earthquake (SE Korea): Structural and Seismic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, S.; Cheon, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, K. H.; Son, M.

    2017-12-01

    A ML 5.8 earthquake, the largest instrumental earthquake in the Korean peninsula, occurred on 12 September 2016 in the Gyeongju-city, SE Korea, where is regarded as a stable intraplate region. The earthquake was widely felt in the southern peninsula and had a maximum MMI VIII in the epicentral region. Most of the intraplate earthquakes occur along preexisting weaknesses, but the potentially seismogenic structures are mostly not exposed at the surface. This study focuses on (1) the structural features in the neighboring area of the epicenter, (2) the distribution of earthquake hypocenter locations during the first 10 days of the aftershock sequence of the Gyeongju earthquake, and (3) the focal mechanism solution of select events to reveal the geometry and kinematics of its causative fault. The earthquake hypocenters in plan view clearly show a linear distribution of N 28°E, which extends about 7 km southwestward from the Yangsan Fault to the Deokcheon Fault. In cross-sectional views along N28°E and perpendicularly, the hypocenters at depths between 11 and 16 km clearly delineate a subsurface fault which has a rupturing size of about 3 ´ 3 km2 and a dip of 78°SE. Based on focal mechanism solutions, the fault acted as dextral strike-slip fault under ENE-WSW compressional stress that has been widely known as the major component of current stress field in and around Korean peninsula. The general trend, N 28°E, of the seismogenic fault slightly differs from the strike of the adjacent NNE-striking Yangsan Fault with an angular difference of 15°. The Yangsan fault is the most prominent dextral strike-slip fault in SE Korea, which can be traced for 170 km with a right-lateral offset of 30 km. The strike-slip movement is well-reported to have occurred during the Paleogene. At that time, probably numerous subsidiary fractures, such as Y-, R-, R'-, and T fractures, in various directions were produced along the Yangsan master fault. It is thus interpreted that a large R

  13. Deepest Depth of Seismogenic Layer Within the Crust Beneath Japanese Islands on the Japan Sea Side Using High Resolved Earthquake Catalog and Heat Flux Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, M.; Yano, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the deepest depth of seismogenic layer is important parameter for the earthquake hazard assessment because this relates to the size of earthquakes caused by the active fault. Using the indexes D90 and D95, defined as the depth above which 90% and 95 % of the whole crustal earthquakes occurred from the surface, as the lower limits of the seismogenic layer. We verified the seismogenic depth for particular earthquakes on the Japan Sea side occurred after the year of 2001. We compared with the actual main shock hypocenter depth, their aftershocks, main slip region on the fault, and depth where the temperature estimated to be 250, 300, and 450 degrees. For D90 and D95, we used two different earthquake catalogs. First, the catalog in which we relocated hypocenters for 12 years between 2001 and 2012 from the NIED Hi-net catalog (JUICE catalog, Yano et al. 2017) for high resolution hypocenter locations (Depth <40 km, M>0.0). This catalog is used to get D95 values. Second, the earthquake catalog redetermined with the 3D velocity structure (Matsubara and Obara, 2011) particularly for getting the D90 value around the costal region. In order to satisfy Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, we chose events M>1.5. We then calculated the D90 and D95 using the same method as Matsubara and Sato (2015). For depths where the temperatures are 250, 300, and 450 degrees are estimated from heat flux measured at Hi-net boreholes (Matsumoto, 2007) and other additional data Sakagawa et al. (2005). Depths are calculated using the steady-state, one-dimensional, heat conduction equation with an exponential decrease in the radioactivity heat generation introduced in Tanaka (2004). The general pattern of our results is consistent with previous studies of D90 as very deep D95 beneath the northern Hokkaido and northern Honshu and very shallow D95 along the volcanic front. We found that our D90/D95 showed the deepest boundary of hypocenter of mainshock, majority of

  14. Quantifying capability of a local seismic network in terms of locations and focal mechanism solutions of weak earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojtíková, Lucia; Kristeková, Miriam; Málek, Jiří; Sokos, Efthimios; Csicsay, Kristián; Zahradník, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Extension of permanent seismic networks is usually governed by a number of technical, economic, logistic, and other factors. Planned upgrade of the network can be justified by theoretical assessment of the network capability in terms of reliable estimation of the key earthquake parameters (e.g., location and focal mechanisms). It could be useful not only for scientific purposes but also as a concrete proof during the process of acquisition of the funding needed for upgrade and operation of the network. Moreover, the theoretical assessment can also identify the configuration where no improvement can be achieved with additional stations, establishing a tradeoff between the improvement and additional expenses. This paper presents suggestion of a combination of suitable methods and their application to the Little Carpathians local seismic network (Slovakia, Central Europe) monitoring epicentral zone important from the point of seismic hazard. Three configurations of the network are considered: 13 stations existing before 2011, 3 stations already added in 2011, and 7 new planned stations. Theoretical errors of the relative location are estimated by a new method, specifically developed in this paper. The resolvability of focal mechanisms determined by waveform inversion is analyzed by a recent approach based on 6D moment-tensor error ellipsoids. We consider potential seismic events situated anywhere in the studied region, thus enabling "mapping" of the expected errors. Results clearly demonstrate that the network extension remarkably decreases the errors, mainly in the planned 23-station configuration. The already made three-station extension of the network in 2011 allowed for a few real data examples. Free software made available by the authors enables similar application in any other existing or planned networks.

  15. Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2003-12-01

    We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of

  16. Investigation of an earthquake swarm near Trinidad, Colorado, August-October 2001

    Meremonte, Mark E.; Lahr, John C.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Dewey, James W.; Crone, Anthony J.; Overturf, Dee E.; Carver, David L.; Bice., W. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    A swarm of 12 widely felt earthquakes occurred between August 28 and September 21, 2001, in the area west of the town of Trinidad, Colorado. The earthquakes ranged in magnitude between 2.8 and 4.6, and the largest event occurred on September 5, eight days after the initial M 3.4 event. The nearest permanent seismograph station to the swarm is about 290 km away, resulting in large uncertainties in the location and depth of these events. To better locate and characterize the earthquakes in this swarm, we deployed a total of 12 portable seismographs in the area of the swarm starting on September 6. Here we report on data from this portable network that was recorded between September 7 and October 15. During this time period, we have high-quality data from 39 earthquakes. The hypocenters of these earthquakes cluster to define a 6 km long northeast-trending fault plane that dips steeply (70-80?) to the southeast. The upper bound of well-constrained hypocenters is near 3 km depth and lower bound is near 6 km depth. Preliminary fault mechanisms suggest normal faulting with movement down to the southeast. Significant historical earthquakes have occurred in the Trinidad region in 1966 and 1973. Reexamination of felt reports from these earthquakes suggest that the 1973 events may have occurred in the same area, and possibly on the same fault, as the 2001 swarm. In recent years, a large volume of excess water that is produced in conjunction with coal-bed methane gas production has been returned to the subsurface in fluid disposal wells in the area of the earthquake swarm. Because of the proximity of these disposal wells to the earthquakes, local residents and officials are concerned that the fluid disposal might have triggered the earthquakes. We have evaluated the characteristics of the seismicity using criteria proposed by Davis and Frohlich (1993) as diagnostic of seismicity induced by fluid injection. We conclude that the characteristics of the seismicity and the fluid

  17. Relative locations between shallow very low frequency earthquakes and low frequency tremors investigated based on near-filed BBOBS records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, W. C.; To, A.; Chen, W. J.; Konishi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Two types of anomalous seismic events of long duration with signals depleted in high frequencies relative to most earthquakes are recorded in a network of broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBS) deployed at shallow Nankai subduction zone (DONET1). The first type is very low frequency earthquake (VLFE) whose signals are observed both in the lower and higher frequency ranges of the 0.1 Hz microseism band, which are 0.02-0.06 Hz and 2-8 Hz. The second type is low frequency tremor (LFT), whose signals are only observed at 2-8 Hz. The waveform similarity at 2-8 Hz and concurrences of the two types of event warrant further investigations on whether they represent the same phenomenon or not. Previously, To et al., (2015) examined the relation between VLFEs and LFTs by comparing their maximum amplitude at two different frequency ranges, 2-8 Hz and 0.02-0.05 Hz. The comparison showed that the maximum amplitudes measured at the two frequency ranges correlate positively for VLFEs, that is, large magnitude VLFEs showed large amplitude in both frequency ranges. The comparison also showed that the amplitude measured at 2-8 Hz were larger for VLFEs than those of LFTs. Based on such amplitude observations, they concluded that VLFEs and LFTs are likely smaller and larger events of the same phenomenon. Here, we examined the relation between the two types of event based on their spatial distribution. Their distributions should be similar if they represent the same phenomenon. The data are broadband seismographs of 20 stations of DONET1. We detected 144 VLFEs and 775 LFTs during the intense LFT/VLFE activity period of one week in October 2015. Events are located using an envelope cross correlation method. We used the root-mean-square (RMS) amplitudes constructed from the two horizontal components, bandpass filtered at 2-­8 Hz and then smoothed by taking a moving average with a window length of 5 s. The obtained distributions of VLFEs and LFTs show similar patterns. They both

  18. Cross-correlation-based earthquake relocation and ambient noise imaging at Axial Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. J.; Waldhauser, F.; Tolstoy, M.; Wilcock, W. S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic network that was installed on Axial Seamount as part of the Ocean Observatory Initiative's Cabled Array has been streaming live data since November 2014, encompassing an eruption in April-May of 2015. The network includes two broadband and five short-period seismometers spanning the southern half of the caldera. Almost 200,000 local earthquakes were detected in the first year of operation. Earthquake locations based on phase picks delineate outward dipping ring faults inferred to have accommodated deflation and guided dike propagation during the eruption (Wilcock et al., submitted). We will present results from our current effort of computing cross-correlation-based double-difference hypocenter locations to derive a more detailed image of the structures that provide insight into the active processes leading up to, during, and after the volcano's eruption. The new high-resolution hypocenters will form the base catalog for real-time double-difference monitoring of the seismicity recorded by the Cabled Array, allowing for high-precision evaluation of variation in seismogenic properties. We will also present results of measurements of temporal velocity changes associated with the eruption using seismic noise cross-correlations. This method has the potential to reveal areas of dike injection and magma withdrawal, as well as for real-time monitoring of temporal velocity variations associated with active volcanic processes.

  19. The Effect of Ignoring Earth Curvature on Near-Regional Traveltime Tomography and Earthquake Hypocentral Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Li, Xing-wang; Wang, Di; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake hypocenter determination and traveltime tomography with local earthquake data are normally conducted using a Cartesian coordinate system and assuming a flat Earth model, but for regional and teleseismic data Earth curvature is incorporated and a spherical coordinate system employed. However, when the study region is from the local to near-regional scale (1°-4°), it is unclear what coordinate system to use and what kind of incorrect anomalies or location errors might arise when using the Cartesian coordinate frame. In this paper we investigate in a quantitative sense through two near-regional crustal models and five different inversion methods, the hypocenter errors, reflector perturbation and incorrect velocity anomalies that can arise due to the selection of the wrong coordinate system and inversion method. The simulated inversion results show that the computed traveltime errors are larger than 0.1 s when the epicentral distance exceeds 150 km, and increases linearly with increasing epicentral distance. Such predicted traveltime errors will result in different patterns of incorrect velocity anomalous structures, a perturbed Moho interface for traveltime tomography and source position which deviate for earthquake locations. The maximum magnitude of a velocity image artifact is larger than 1.0% for an epicentral distance of less than 500 km and is up to 0.9% for epicentral distances of less than 300 km. The earthquake source location error is more than 2.0 km for epicentral distances less than 500 km and is up to 1.5 km for epicentral distances less than 300 km. The Moho depth can be in error by up 1.0 km for epicentral distances of less than 500 km but is less than 0.5 km at distances below 300 km. We suggest that spherical coordinate geometry (or time correction) be used whenever there are ray paths at epicentral distances in excess of 150 km.

  20. Joint inversion of teleseismic body-waves and geodetic data for the Mw6.8 aftershock of the Balochistan earthquake with refined epicenter location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Wang, T.; Jonsson, S.; Avouac, J. P.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershocks of the 2013 Balochistan earthquake are mainly concentrated along the northeastern end of the mainshock rupture despite of much larger coseismic slip to the southwest. The largest event among them is an Mw6.8 earthquake which occurred three days after the mainshock. A kinematic slip model of the mainshock was obtained by joint inversion of the teleseismic body-waves and horizontal static deformation field derived from remote sensing optical and SAR data, which is composed of seven fault segments with gradually changing strikes and dips [Avouac et al., 2014]. The remote sensing data provide well constraints on the fault geometry and spatial distribution of slip but no timing information. Meanwhile, the initiation of the teleseismic waveform is very sensitive to fault geometry of the epicenter segment (strike and dip) and spatial slip distribution but much less sensitive to the absolute location of the epicenter. The combination of the two data sets allows a much better determination of the absolute epicenter location, which is about 25km to the southwest of the NEIC epicenter location. The well located mainshock epicenter is used to establish path calibrations for teleseismic P-waves, which are essential for relocating the Mw6.8 aftershock. Our grid search shows that the refined epicenter is located right at the northeastern end of the mainshock rupture. This is confirmed by the SAR offsets calculated from images acquired after the mainshock. The azimuth and range offsets display a discontinuity across the rupture trace of the mainshock. Teleseismic only and static only, as well as joint inversions all indicate that the aftershock ruptured an asperity with 25km along strike and range from 8km to 20km in depth. The earthquake was originated in a positive Coulomb stress change regime due to the mainshock and has complementary slip distribution to the mainshock rupture at the northeastern end, suggesting that the entire seismic generic zone in the crust was

  1. Collective properties of injection-induced earthquake sequences: 1. Model description and directivity bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, David; Suckale, Jenny

    2016-05-01

    Induced seismicity is of increasing concern for oil and gas, geothermal, and carbon sequestration operations, with several M > 5 events triggered in recent years. Modeling plays an important role in understanding the causes of this seismicity and in constraining seismic hazard. Here we study the collective properties of induced earthquake sequences and the physics underpinning them. In this first paper of a two-part series, we focus on the directivity ratio, which quantifies whether fault rupture is dominated by one (unilateral) or two (bilateral) propagating fronts. In a second paper, we focus on the spatiotemporal and magnitude-frequency distributions of induced seismicity. We develop a model that couples a fracture mechanics description of 1-D fault rupture with fractal stress heterogeneity and the evolving pore pressure distribution around an injection well that triggers earthquakes. The extent of fault rupture is calculated from the equations of motion for two tips of an expanding crack centered at the earthquake hypocenter. Under tectonic loading conditions, our model exhibits a preference for unilateral rupture and a normal distribution of hypocenter locations, two features that are consistent with seismological observations. On the other hand, catalogs of induced events when injection occurs directly onto a fault exhibit a bias toward ruptures that propagate toward the injection well. This bias is due to relatively favorable conditions for rupture that exist within the high-pressure plume. The strength of the directivity bias depends on a number of factors including the style of pressure buildup, the proximity of the fault to failure and event magnitude. For injection off a fault that triggers earthquakes, the modeled directivity bias is small and may be too weak for practical detection. For two hypothetical injection scenarios, we estimate the number of earthquake observations required to detect directivity bias.

  2. Modeling of the strong ground motion of 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake using modified semi-empirical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Sohan; Joshi, A.; Sandeep; Tomer, Monu; Kumar, Parveen; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Sharma, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    On 25th April, 2015 a hazardous earthquake of moment magnitude 7.9 occurred in Nepal. Accelerographs were used to record the Nepal earthquake which is installed in the Kumaon region in the Himalayan state of Uttrakhand. The distance of the recorded stations in the Kumaon region from the epicenter of the earthquake is about 420-515 km. Modified semi-empirical technique of modeling finite faults has been used in this paper to simulate strong earthquake at these stations. Source parameters of the Nepal aftershock have been also calculated using the Brune model in the present study which are used in the modeling of the Nepal main shock. The obtained value of the seismic moment and stress drop is 8.26 × 1025 dyn cm and 10.48 bar, respectively, for the aftershock from the Brune model .The simulated earthquake time series were compared with the observed records of the earthquake. The comparison of full waveform and its response spectra has been made to finalize the rupture parameters and its location. The rupture of the earthquake was propagated in the NE-SW direction from the hypocenter with the rupture velocity 3.0 km/s from a distance of 80 km from Kathmandu in NW direction at a depth of 12 km as per compared results.

  3. Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Hayes, Gavin P.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11th, 2011, a moment magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of northeast Honshu, Japan, generating what may well turn out to be the most costly natural disaster ever. In the hours following the event, the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center led a rapid response to characterize the earthquake in terms of its location, size, faulting source, shaking and slip distributions, and population exposure, in order to place the disaster in a framework necessary for timely humanitarian response. As part of this effort, fast finite-fault inversions using globally distributed body- and surface-wave data were used to estimate the slip distribution of the earthquake rupture. Models generated within 7 hours of the earthquake origin time indicated that the event ruptured a fault up to 300 km long, roughly centered on the earthquake hypocenter, and involved peak slips of 20 m or more. Updates since this preliminary solution improve the details of this inversion solution and thus our understanding of the rupture process. However, significant observations such as the up-dip nature of rupture propagation and the along-strike length of faulting did not significantly change, demonstrating the usefulness of rapid source characterization for understanding the first order characteristics of major earthquakes.

  4. Biological Indicators in Studies of Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, A. Ya.; Deshcherevskii, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    mismatch of coordination between the activity dynamics of one type of biological indicators) were observed in one case before the November 12, 1987, event at a hypocenter distance of 8 km from the observation point (i.e., the animals were located within the source zone). (3) Changes observed before the earthquakes do not have any specific features and correspond quite well to the variations permanently observed without any relation to the earthquakes. (4) The activity of individual specimens has specific features. This hampers the implication of the biological monitoring. (5) The conclusions made here should not be considered absolute or extrapolated over all cases of observation of the behavior of animals, because the animals were kept under experimental (laboratory) conditions and could be screened from the influence of the stimuli of some modalities.

  5. Imaging the 2017 MW 8.2 Tehuantepec intermediate-depth earthquake using Teleseismic P Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudzinski, M.; Zhang, H.; Koper, K. D.; Pankow, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The September 8, 2017 MW 8.1 Tehuantepec, Mexico earthquakes in the middle American subduction zone is one of the largest intermediate-depth earthquake ever recorded and could provide an unprecedented opportunity for understanding the mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes. While the hypocenter and centroid depths for this earthquake are shallower than typically considered for intermediate depth earthquakes, the normal faulting mechanism consistent with down-dip extension and location within the subducting plate align with properties of intermediate depth earthquakes. Back-projection of high-frequency teleseismic P-waves from two regional arrays for this earthquake shows unilateral rupture on a southeast-northwest striking fault that extends north of the Tehuantepec fracture zone (TFZ), with an average horizontal rupture speed of 3.0 km/s and total duration of 60 s. Guided by these back-projection results, 47 globally distributed low-frequency P-waves were inverted for a finite-fault model (FFM) of slip for both nodal planes. The FFM shows a slip deficit in proximity to the extension of the TFZ, as well as the minor rupture beyond the TFZ (confirmed by the synthetic tests), which indicates that the TFZ acted as a barrier for this earthquake. Analysis of waveform misfit leads to the preference of a subvertical plane as the causative fault. The FFM shows that the majority of the rupture is above the focal depth and consists of two large slip patches: the first one is near the hypocenter ( 55 km depth) and the second larger one near 30 km depth. The distribution of the two patches spatially agrees with seismicity that defines the upper and lower zones of a double Benioff zone (DBZ). It appears there was single fault rupture across the two depth zones of the DBZ. This is uncommon because a stark aseismic zone is typically observed between the upper and lower zones of the DBZ. This finding indicates that the mechanism for intraslab earthquakes must allow for

  6. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (< 15°) normal fault accommodating crustal extension and characterized by a regular occurrence of micro-earthquakes. The modular procedure combines: i) a sensitive detection algorithm optimized to declare low-magnitude events; ii) an accurate picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this

  7. Development of double-pair double difference location algorithm and its application to the regular earthquakes and non-volcanic tremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Relocating high-precision earthquakes is a central task for monitoring earthquakes and studying the structure of earth's interior. The most popular location method is the event-pair double-difference (DD) relative location method, which uses the catalog and/or more accurate waveform cross-correlation (WCC) differential times from event pairs with small inter-event separations to the common stations to reduce the effect of the velocity uncertainties outside the source region. Similarly, Zhang et al. [2010] developed a station-pair DD location method which uses the differential times from common events to pairs of stations to reduce the effect of the velocity uncertainties near the source region, to relocate the non-volcanic tremors (NVT) beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF). To utilize advantages of both DD location methods, we have proposed and developed a new double-pair DD location method to use the differential times from pairs of events to pairs of stations. The new method can remove the event origin time and station correction terms from the inversion system and cancel out the effects of the velocity uncertainties near and outside the source region simultaneously. We tested and applied the new method on the northern California regular earthquakes to validate its performance. In comparison, among three DD location methods, the new double-pair DD method can determine more accurate relative locations and the station-pair DD method can better improve the absolute locations. Thus, we further proposed a new location strategy combining station-pair and double-pair differential times to determine accurate absolute and relative locations at the same time. For NVTs, it is difficult to pick the first arrivals and derive the WCC event-pair differential times, thus the general practice is to measure station-pair envelope WCC differential times. However, station-pair tremor locations are scattered due to the low-precision relative locations. The ability that double-pair data

  8. Performance of Real-time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Wu, C.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Horiuchi et al. (2005) developed a real-time earthquake information system (REIS) using Hi-net, a densely deployed nationwide seismic network, which consists of about 800 stations operated by NIED, Japan. REIS determines hypocenter locations and earthquake magnitudes automatically within a few seconds after P waves arrive at the closest station and calculates focal mechanisms within about 15 seconds. Obtained hypocenter parameters are transferred immediately by using XML format to a computer in Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), who started the service of EEW to special users in June 2005. JMA also developed EEW using 200 stations. The results by the two systems are merged. Among all the first issued EEW reports by both systems, REIS information accounts for about 80 percent. This study examines the rapidity and credibility of REIS by analyzing the 4050 earthquakes which occurred around the Japan Islands since 2005 with magnitude larger than 3.0. REIS re-determines hypocenter parameters every one second according to the revision of waveform data. Here, we discuss only about the results by the first reports. On rapidness, our results show that about 44 percent of the first reports are issued within 5 seconds after the P waves arrives at the closest stations. Note that this 5-second time window includes time delay due to data package and transmission delay of about 2 seconds. REIS waits till two stations detect P waves for events in the network but four stations outside the network so as to get reliable solutions. For earthquakes with hypocentral distance less than 100km, 55 percent of earthquakes are warned in 5 seconds and 87 percent are warned in 10 seconds. Most of events having long time delay are small and triggered by S wave arrivals. About 80 percent of events have difference in epicenter distances less than 20km relative to JMA manually determined locations. Because of the existence of large lateral heterogeneity in seismic velocity, the difference depends

  9. 3D geometry of a plate boundary fault related to the 2016 Off-Mie earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Minato, Shohei; Kamei, Rie; Tsuru, Tetsuro; Kimura, Gaku

    2017-11-01

    We used recent seismic data and advanced techniques to investigate 3D fault geometry over the transition from the partially coupled to the fully coupled plate interface inboard of the Nankai Trough off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. We found that a gently dipping plate boundary décollement with a thick underthrust layer extends beneath the entire Kumano forearc basin. The 1 April 2016 Off-Mie earthquake (Mw6.0) and its aftershocks occurred, where the plate boundary décollement steps down close to the oceanic crust surface. This location also lies beneath the trenchward edge of an older accretionary prism (∼14 Ma) developed along the coast of the Kii peninsula. The strike of the 2016 rupture plane was similar to that of a formerly active splay fault system in the accretionary prism. Thus, the fault planes of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks were influenced by the geometry of the plate interface as well as splay faulting. The 2016 earthquake occurred within the rupture area of large interplate earthquakes such as the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw8.1), although the 2016 rupture area was much smaller than that of the 1944 event. Whereas the hypocenter of the 2016 earthquake was around the underplating sequence beneath the younger accretionary prism (∼6 Ma), the 1944 great earthquake hypocenter was close to oceanic crust surface beneath the older accretionary prism. The variation of fault geometry and lithology may influence the degree of coupling along the plate interface, and such coupling variation could hinder slip propagation toward the deeper plate interface in the 2016 event.

  10. Tremor Hypocenters Form a Narrow Zone at the Plate Interface in Two Areas of SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. In the overview by Obara [Science 2002] there are three strong sources of tectonic tremor in southwest Japan: Shikoku, Kii Pen. and Tokai. The daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site allow the identification of days when tremor in each source is active. The worst results were obtained in Shikoku, in spite of the high level of tremor activity observed there by others. This method requires a clear direct arrival of the S and P waves at the stations for coherence to be seen, so scattering and shear wave splitting are possible reasons for poor results there. Relatively wide station spacing, 19-30 km, is another possible reason. The best results were obtained in Tokai with stations STR, HRY and TYE spacing 18-19 km, and Kii Pen. with stations KRT, HYS and KAW spacing 15-22 km. In both of those areas the three station detectors see strong episodes of tremor. If detections with three stations are located by constraining them to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. Detections with four stations give S and P arrival times of high accuracy. In Tokai the hypocenters form a narrow, 2-3 km thick, zone dipping to the north, consistent with the plate interface there. In Kii Pen. the hypocenters dip to the northwest in a thin, 2-3 km thick, zone but approximately 5 km shallower than a plate interface model for this area [Yoshioka and Murakami, GJI 2007]. The overlap of tremor sources in the 12 years analyzed here suggests relative hypocentral location errors as small as 2-3 km. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  11. The Maupin, Oregon Earthquake Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunmiller, J.; Williams, M.; Trehu, A. M.; Nabelek, J.

    2008-12-01

    The area near Maupin, Oregon has experienced over 300 earthquakes since December 2006. The events, located by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN), occurred ~10 km SE of the town in central Oregon and ~50 km E-SE of Mount Hood. The temporal event pattern and lack of a distinct main shock are characteristic of an earthquake swarm with the event-size distribution indicating a low b-value similar to other non-volcanic swarms. Locations show a NW-SE trending, ~4x3 km cluster at apparent depths of 12-24 km. The largest events (Mw=3.8 and 3.9) on March 1, 2007 and July 14, 2008 occurred more than one year apart; 11 other events had a magnitude of 3 or greater. The larger events were felt locally. During the first 14 months EarthScope USArray seismic stations surrounded the swarm, providing a unique high-quality dataset. Waveform similarity at the closest USArray site G06A indicates hypocenters are much tighter than suggested by the PNSN distribution. Moment tensor inversion reveals nearly identical double- couple strike-slip mechanisms on a plane striking ~15° NW for the three largest 2007 events and the July 2008 event. The April 2008 Mw=3.3 event is rotated ~10° clockwise consistent with slight changes of G06A three-component waveforms relative to the other events. Preferred centroid depths are in the 15-20 km range. Historically, seismicity in the Pacific Northwest east of the Cascades is characterized by sporadic bursts of clustered seismicity with occasional M=6 earthquakes. The largest instrumentally recorded earthquake near Maupin (Mw=4.6) occurred 1976. An earlier swarm was observed 1987, but since then only ~2 events/yr occurred until the current swarm. In spite of recurrent seismicity, exposed surface rocks near Maupin are undeformed lava flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group and older John Day volcanics. The geologic map of Oregon shows a NW-trending dip slip fault near the epicenter area, inconsistent with moment tensor solutions. The cause for

  12. Mechanical and Statistical Evidence of Human-Caused Earthquakes - A Global Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The causality of large-scale geoengineering activities and the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitudes of up to M=8 is discussed and mechanical and statistical evidence is provided. The earthquakes were caused by artificial water reservoir impoundments, underground and open-pit mining, coastal management, hydrocarbon production and fluid injections/extractions. The presented global earthquake catalog has been recently published in the Journal of Seismology and is available for the public at www.cdklose.com. The data show evidence that geomechanical relationships exist with statistical significance between a) seismic moment magnitudes of observed earthquakes, b) anthropogenic mass shifts on the Earth's crust, and c) lateral distances of the earthquake hypocenters to the locations of the mass shifts. Research findings depend on uncertainties, in particular, of source parameter estimations of seismic events before instrumental recoding. First analyses, however, indicate that that small- to medium size earthquakes (M6) tend to be triggered. The rupture propagation of triggered events might be dominated by pre-existing tectonic stress conditions. Besides event specific evidence, large earthquakes such as China's 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake fall into a global pattern and can not be considered as outliers or simply seen as an act of god. Observations also indicate that every second seismic event tends to occur after a decade, while pore pressure diffusion seems to only play a role when injecting fluids deep underground. The chance of an earthquake to nucleate after two or 20 years near an area with a significant mass shift is 25% or 75% respectively. Moreover, causative effects of seismic activities highly depend on the tectonic stress regime in the Earth's crust in which geoengineering takes place.

  13. Location of early aftershocks of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan using seismogram envelopes as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.

    2013-12-01

    The location of early aftershocks is very important to obtain information of mainshock fault, however, it is often difficult due to the long-lasting coda wave of mainshock and successive occurrence of afterrshocks. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a method of location using seismogram envelopes as templates, and applied the method to the early aftershock sequence of the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture (Chuetsu) Earthquake (M = 6.8) in central Japan. The location method composes of three processes. The first process is the calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between a continuous (target) and template envelopes. We prepare envelopes by taking the logarithm of root-mean-squared amplitude of band-pass filtered seismograms. We perform the calculation by shifting the time window to obtain a set of cross-correlation values for each template. The second process is the event detection (selection of template) and magnitude estimate. We search for the events in descending order of cross-correlation in a time window excluding the dead times around the previously detected events. Magnitude is calculated by the amplitude ratio of target and template envelopes. The third process is the relative event location to the selected template. We applied this method to the Chuetsu earthquake, a large inland earthquake with extensive aftershock activity. The number of detected events depends on the number of templates, frequency range, and the threshold value of cross-correlation. We set the threshold as 0.5 by referring to the histogram of cross-correlation. During a period of one-hour from the mainshock, we could detect more events than the JMA catalog. The location of events is generally near the catalog location. Though we should improve the methods of relative location and magnitude estimate, we conclude that the proposed method works adequately even just after the mainshock of large inland earthquake. Acknowledgement: We thank JMA, NIED, and the University of Tokyo for

  14. Accounts of damage from historical earthquakes in the northeastern Caribbean to aid in the determination of their location and intensity magnitudes

    Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.

  15. Contribution of the Surface and Down-Hole Seismic Networks to the Location of Earthquakes at the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Site (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.; Achauer, U.

    2018-03-01

    Seismicity induced in geo-reservoirs can be a valuable observation to image fractured reservoirs, to characterize hydrological properties, or to mitigate seismic hazard. However, this requires accurate location of the seismicity, which is nowadays an important seismological task in reservoir engineering. The earthquake location (determination of the hypocentres) depends on the model used to represent the medium in which the seismic waves propagate and on the seismic monitoring network. In this work, location uncertainties and location inaccuracies are modeled to investigate the impact of several parameters on the determination of the hypocentres: the picking uncertainty, the numerical precision of picked arrival times, a velocity perturbation and the seismic network configuration. The method is applied to the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, which is located in the Upper Rhine Graben (France) and which was subject to detailed scientific investigations. We focus on a massive water injection performed in the year 2000 to enhance the productivity of the well GPK2 in the granitic basement, at approximately 5 km depth, and which induced more than 7000 earthquakes recorded by down-hole and surface seismic networks. We compare the location errors obtained from the joint or the separate use of the down-hole and surface networks. Besides the quantification of location uncertainties caused by picking uncertainties, the impact of the numerical precision of the picked arrival times as provided in a reference catalogue is investigated. The velocity model is also modified to mimic possible effects of a massive water injection and to evaluate its impact on earthquake hypocentres. It is shown that the use of the down-hole network in addition to the surface network provides smaller location uncertainties but can also lead to larger inaccuracies. Hence, location uncertainties would not be well representative of the location errors and interpretation of the seismicity

  16. Source models of M-7 class earthquakes in the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by near-field tsunami modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, T.; Hino, R.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Iinuma, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ito, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2012-12-01

    We estimated source models of small amplitude tsunami associated with M-7 class earthquakes in the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake using near-field records of tsunami recorded by ocean bottom pressure gauges (OBPs). The largest (Mw=7.3) foreshock of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, occurred on 9 Mar., two days before the mainshock. Tsunami associated with the foreshock was clearly recorded by seven OBPs, as well as coseismic vertical deformation of the seafloor. Assuming a planer fault along the plate boundary as a source, the OBP records were inverted for slip distribution. As a result, the most of the coseismic slip was found to be concentrated in the area of about 40 x 40 km in size and located to the north-west of the epicenter, suggesting downdip rupture propagation. Seismic moment of our tsunami waveform inversion is 1.4 x 10^20 Nm, equivalent to Mw 7.3. On 2011 July 10th, an earthquake of Mw 7.0 occurred near the hypocenter of the mainshock. Its relatively deep focus and strike-slip focal mechanism indicate that this earthquake was an intraslab earthquake. The earthquake was associated with small amplitude tsunami. By using the OBP records, we estimated a model of the initial sea-surface height distribution. Our tsunami inversion showed that a pair of uplift/subsiding eyeballs was required to explain the observed tsunami waveform. The spatial pattern of the seafloor deformation is consistent with the oblique strike-slip solution obtained by the seismic data analyses. The location and strike of the hinge line separating the uplift and subsidence zones correspond well to the linear distribution of the aftershock determined by using local OBS data (Obana et al., 2012).

  17. The 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska Earthquake of November 3, 2002: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kore, K. R.

    2003-04-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located ~20 km to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. The geologists mapped a ~300-km-long rupture and measured maximum offsets of 8.8 meters. The 7.9 event ruptured three different faults. The rupture began on the northeast trending Susitna Glacier Thrust fault, a splay fault south of the Denali fault. Then the rupture transferred to the Denali fault and propagated eastward for 220 km. At about 143W the rupture moved onto the adjacent southeast-trending Totschunda fault and propagated for another 55 km. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock zones along the Denali and Totschunda faults is about 380 km. The earthquakes were recorded and processed by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). The AEIC acquires and processes data from the Alaska Seismic Network, consisting of over 350 seismograph stations. Nearly 40 of these sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which also have strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary seismic network of 6 instruments following the 6.7 earthquake and an additional 20 stations following the 7.9 earthquake. Prior to the 7.9 Denali Fault event, the AEIC was locating 35 to 50 events per day. After the event, the processing load increased to over 300 events per day during the first week following the event. In this presentation, we will present and interpret the aftershock location patterns, first motion focal mechanism solutions, and regional seismic

  18. Using different ways to determine the focal depth of the 2014 Ludian Ms 6.5 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Yu, J.; Yang, J.; Cui, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As we all know, focal depth is a very important parameter. And it has remained challenging. The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an Ms6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014. The rapid report focal depth of CENC was 12km, and the result of double difference location was 15km (Wang W L, 2014) and 13.3km (Zhang G W, 2014). Because of the great damage, we have studied the focal depth of the Ludian Ms6.5 earthquake with several different methods. The first way is precise location. Due to the significant role of the velocity model in the focal depth determination, we collected the earthquake data which took place in Ludian area in the past few years. A new velocity model was recalculated with these data, which is more suitable for Ludian area. Taking the initial position of the epicenter as center, uniformly distributed stations were chose to improve the accuracy of location. The second way is by seismic phase. We used developed Pn-Pg (A reliable method for the determination of the depth of a hypocenter, Zhu Y Q, 1990) to certify the focal depth. This method aims to determine the depth of a hypocenter in the crust. It requires multiple seismic stations recording simultaneously the initial arrival waves Pg and Pn at each station. And the third way is by the nearest station. One of the main difficulties of the accurate focal depth determination is lack of stations along the direction of depth. A very close station to the epicenter can effectively control the accuracy of depth (Mori, 1999). A strong motion recording of Ludian MS6.5 earthquake was found, which instrument was set nearly perpendicular to the hypocenter. It obviously provides robust evidence. All the results show that the focal depth of Ludian Ms6.5 earthquake is about 7-8km. And we did an error analysis of the result. In the process, it was certified that the velocity model plays a very important role in focal depth calculation as well as the determination method.

  19. Probabilistic approach for earthquake scenarios in the Marmara region from dynamic rupture simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    The Marmara region (Turkey) along the North Anatolian fault is known as a high potential of large earthquakes in the next decades. For the purpose of seismic hazard/risk evaluation, kinematic and dynamic source models have been proposed (e.g. Oglesby and Mai, GJI, 2012). In general, the simulated earthquake scenarios depend on the hypothesis and cannot be verified before the expected earthquake. We then introduce a probabilistic insight to give the initial/boundary conditions to statistically analyze the simulated scenarios. We prepare different fault geometry models, tectonic loading and hypocenter locations. We keep the same framework of the simulation procedure as the dynamic rupture process of the adjacent 1999 Izmit earthquake (Aochi and Madariaga, BSSA, 2003), as the previous models were able to reproduce the seismological/geodetic aspects of the event. Irregularities in fault geometry play a significant role to control the rupture progress, and a relatively large change in geometry may work as barriers. The variety of the simulate earthquake scenarios should be useful for estimating the variety of the expected ground motion.

  20. Rupture characteristics of the three M ∼ 4.7 (1992-1994) Parkfield earthquakes

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Spudich, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    Slip on the San Andreas fault was determined for three M ∼ 4.7 earthquakes using a tomographic inverse system [Beroza and Spudich, 1988] to invert seismic source time functions (STFs) from S waves. STFs were obtained by deconvolving mainshock accelerograms by those from collocated smaller earthquakes. Accelerograms were from the U.S. Geological Survey Parkfield Small Aperture Array (UPSAR) and from a distributed array of digital accelerometer stations at Parkfield. Eight or nine STFs are used in each of the three inversions. STFs are typically symmetrical pulses with a duration of about 0.3–0.5 s. In the inversion, mainshock rise time was set to 0.05 s, and we allowed the rupture time to vary slightly from a constant rupture velocity of approximately 0.85β. Rupture for all three events, which are located in or close to the Middle Mountain preparation zone or box (MMB), quickly reaches a local maximum in slip and then propagates outward to peaks, ridges, or plateaus in the slip distribution. Slip for the October 20, 1992, event (located just inside the southern edge of the MMB) propagates from an initial spike north and updip along a curving ridge for about 2 km. The initial spike continued to grow in the November 14, 1993, event (located north of the October 20, 1992, event just beneath the hypocenter of the 1966 Parkfield earthquake), which shows little directivity, although there is a smaller patch of slip updip and to the south. In contrast, rupture for the December 20, 1994, event (located just south of the October 20, 1992, event) propagated north and slightly updip, creating a rough plateau in slip a few kilometers wide on a side. Directivity for this event also is to the north. Directivity for all three events points in the approximate direction of the 1966 hypocenter. Small pulses, which comprise a coda, are found on the STFs for several seconds after the initial impulsive event. Several tests based on the assumption that the average of all STFs

  1. Transpressional Structure in Chiayi Area, Taiwan: Insight from the 2017 ML5.1 Zhongpu Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, K. F.; Huang, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Chiayi area is located at the deformation front of active fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan, where the fault system is composed primarily of a series of north-south-trending east-dipping thrusts and also an east-west-trending strike-slip fault (Meishan Fault, MSF) with right-lateral faulting. On 24th May 2017, a ML 5.1 earthquake occurred at Zhongpu, Chiayi (namely Zhongpu earthquake), however, shows a left-lateral strike-slip faulting distinct from the known structure in the area. The distribution of the reported aftershocks is difficult to distinguish the actual fault plane. To determine the fault plane of this abnormal earthquake and investigate its structural relationships to the regional tectonics, we relocate the earthquake sequence and estimate the rupture directivity of the mainshock by using the 3-D double difference hypocenter relocation method (Lin, 2013) and the 3-D directivity moment tensor inversion method (DMT, Huang et al., 2017, submitted). The DMT results show that the rupture directivity of the Zhongpu earthquake is west- and down-ward along the east-west fault plane, which also agrees with east-west-distributed aftershocks after relocation. As a result, the Zhongpu earthquake reveals an undiscovered east-west-trending structure which is sub-parallel with the MSF but with opposite faulting direction, exhibiting a complex transpressional tectonic regime in the Chiayi area.

  2. Rupture process of the M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake: Subevents, directivity, and scaling of high-frequency ground motions

    Frankel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Displacement waveforms and high-frequency acceleration envelopes from stations at distances of 3-300 km were inverted to determine the source process of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. Fitting the initial portion of the displacement waveforms indicates that the earthquake started with an oblique thrust subevent (subevent # 1) with an east-west-striking, north-dipping nodal plane consistent with the observed surface rupture on the Susitna Glacier fault. Inversion of the remainder of the waveforms (0.02-0.5 Hz) for moment release along the Denali and Totschunda faults shows that rupture proceeded eastward on the Denali fault, with two strike-slip subevents (numbers 2 and 3) centered about 90 and 210 km east of the hypocenter. Subevent 2 was located across from the station at PS 10 (Trans-Alaska Pipeline Pump Station #10) and was very localized in space and time. Subevent 3 extended from 160 to 230 km east of the hypocenter and had the largest moment of the subevents. Based on the timing between subevent 2 and the east end of subevent 3, an average rupture velocity of 3.5 km/sec, close to the shear wave velocity at the average rupture depth, was found. However, the portion of the rupture 130-220 km east of the epicenter appears to have an effective rupture velocity of about 5.0 km/ sec, which is supershear. These two subevents correspond approximately to areas of large surface offsets observed after the earthquake. Using waveforms of the M 6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake as empirical Green's functions, the high-frequency (1-10 Hz) envelopes of the M 7.9 earthquake were inverted to determine the location of high-frequency energy release along the faults. The initial thrust subevent produced the largest high-frequency energy release per unit fault length. The high-frequency envelopes and acceleration spectra (>0.5 Hz) of the M 7.9 earthquake can be simulated by chaining together rupture zones of the M 6.7 earthquake over distances from 30 to 180 km east of the

  3. Applying time-reverse-imaging techniques to locate individual low-frequency earthquakes on the San Andreas fault near Cholame, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, T.; Harrington, R. M.; Cochran, E.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Observations of non-volcanic tremor have become ubiquitous in recent years. In spite of the abundance of observations, locating tremor remains a difficult task because of the lack of distinctive phase arrivals. Here we use time-reverse-imaging techniques that do not require identifying phase arrivals to locate individual low-frequency-earthquakes (LFEs) within tremor episodes on the San Andreas fault near Cholame, California. Time windows of 1.5-second duration containing LFEs are selected from continuously recorded waveforms of the local seismic network filtered between 1-5 Hz. We propagate the time-reversed seismic signal back through the subsurface using a staggered-grid finite-difference code. Assuming all rebroadcasted waveforms result from similar wave fields at the source origin, we search for wave field coherence in time and space to obtain the source location and origin time where the constructive interference is a maximum. We use an interpolated velocity model with a grid spacing of 100 m and a 5 ms time step to calculate the relative curl field energy amplitudes for each rebroadcasted seismogram every 50 ms for each grid point in the model. Finally, we perform a grid search for coherency in the curl field using a sliding time window, and taking the absolute value of the correlation coefficient to account for differences in radiation pattern. The highest median cross-correlation coefficient value over at a given grid point indicates the source location for the rebroadcasted event. Horizontal location errors based on the spatial extent of the highest 10% cross-correlation coefficient are on the order of 4 km, and vertical errors on the order of 3 km. Furthermore, a test of the method using earthquake data shows that the method produces an identical hypocentral location (within errors) as that obtained by standard ray-tracing methods. We also compare the event locations to a LFE catalog that locates the LFEs from stacked waveforms of repeated LFEs

  4. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of the Microseismicity Preceding the 2016 M L 6.6 Meinong Earthquake in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Hsin-Chieh

    2018-02-01

    Before the M L 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016, intermediate-term quiescence (Q i), foreshocks, and short-term quiescence (Q s) were extracted from a comprehensive earthquake catalog. In practice, these behaviors are thought to be the seismic indicators of an earthquake precursor, and their spatiotemporal characteristics may be associated with location, magnitude, and occurrence time of the following main shock. Hence, detailed examinations were carried out to derive the spatiotemporal characteristics of these meaningful seismic behaviors. First, the spatial range of the Q i that occurred for 96 days was revealed in and around the Meinong earthquake. Second, a series of foreshocks was present for 1 day, clustered at the southeastern end of the Meinong earthquake. Third, Q s was present for 3 days and was pronounced after the foreshocks. Although these behaviors were recorded difficultly because the Q i was characterized by microseismicity at the lower cut-off magnitude, between M L 1.2 and 1.6, and most of the foreshocks were comprised of earthquakes with a magnitude lower than 1.8, they carried meaningful precursory indicators preceding the Meinong earthquake. These indicators provide the information of (1) the hypocenter, which was indicated by the area including the Q i, foreshocks, and Q s; (2) the magnitude, which could be associated to the spatial range of the Q i; (3) the asperity locations, which might be related to the areas of extraordinary low seismicity; and (4) a short-term warning leading of 3 days, which could have been announced based on the occurrence of the Q s. Particularly, Q i also appeared before strong inland earthquakes so that Q i might be an anticipative phenomenon before a strong earthquake in Taiwan.

  5. A new reference global instrumental earthquake catalogue (1900-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, D.; Engdahl, B.; Bondar, I.; Storchak, D. A.; Villasenor, A.; Bormann, P.; Lee, W.; Dando, B.; Harris, J.

    2011-12-01

    For seismic hazard studies on a global and/or regional scale, accurate knowledge of the spatial distribution of seismicity, the magnitude-frequency relation and the maximum magnitudes is of fundamental importance. However, such information is normally not homogeneous (or not available) for the various seismically active regions of the Earth. To achieve the GEM objectives (www.globalquakemodel.org) of calculating and communicating earthquake risk worldwide, an improved reference global instrumental catalogue for large earthquakes spanning the entire 100+ years period of instrumental seismology is an absolute necessity. To accomplish this task, we apply the most up-to-date techniques and standard observatory practices for computing the earthquake location and magnitude. In particular, the re-location procedure benefits both from the depth determination according to Engdahl and Villaseñor (2002), and the advanced technique recently implemented at the ISC (Bondár and Storchak, 2011) to account for correlated error structure. With regard to magnitude, starting from the re-located hypocenters, the classical surface and body-wave magnitudes are determined following the new IASPEI standards and by using amplitude-period data of phases collected from historical station bulletins (up to 1970), which were not available in digital format before the beginning of this work. Finally, the catalogue will provide moment magnitude values (including uncertainty) for each seismic event via seismic moment, via surface wave magnitude or via other magnitude types using empirical relationships. References Engdahl, E.R., and A. Villaseñor (2002). Global seismicity: 1900-1999. In: International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, eds. W.H.K. Lee, H. Kanamori, J.C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger, Part A, 665-690, Academic Press, San Diego. Bondár, I., and D. Storchak (2011). Improved location procedures at the International Seismological Centre, Geophys. J. Int., doi:10.1111/j

  6. Revised seismic history of the El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco 1997 earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck A.

    2007-07-01

    In light of the July 9, 1997, Cariaco earthquake, it is clearly understood now that damage in the city of Cumaná located in northeastern Venezuela and frequently destroyed by the largest earthquakes since the first recorded event in 1530 is strongly enhanced by poor soil conditions that, in turn, are responsible for site amplification and widespread earthquake-induced effects. Therefore, most previous macroseismic studies of historical earthquakes must be revaluated because those localized high-intensity values at Cumaná surely led to the misestimation of past epicenters. Preliminary paleoseismic results, gathered at three exploratory trenches dug across the surface break of the Cariaco 1997 earthquake in 1998, allow us to associate the 1684 earthquake with this recently ruptured fault segment that extends between the towns of San Antonio del Golfo and Río Casanay (roughly between the two gulfs of Cariaco and Paria, state of Sucre). Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: (a) the 1766 event seems to have generated in a different source to the El Pilar fault because the size of the felt area suggests that it is an intermediate-depth earthquake; (b) damage to Cumaná produced by the 1797 event suggests that this was a local earthquake, perhaps equivalent to the 1929 earthquake, which ruptured for some 30 km just east of Cumaná into the Gulf of Cariaco; and (c) seismogenic association of the 1530 and 1853 earthquakes still remains unclear but it is very likely that these ruptures occurred offshore, as suggested by the rather large tsunami waves that both events have generated, placing their hypocenters west of Cumaná in the Cariaco Trough. This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time.

  7. P and S automatic picks for 3D earthquake tomography in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovisa, L.; Bragato, P.; Gentili, S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake tomography is useful to study structural and geological features of the crust. In particular, it uses P and S arrival times for reconstructing weaves velocity fields and locating earthquakes hypocenters. However, tomography needs a large effort to provide a high number of manual picks. On the other side, many automatic picking methods have been proposed, but they are usually applied to preliminary elaboration of the data (fast alert and automatic bulletin generation); they are generally considered not reliable for tomography. In this work, we present and discuss the results of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs tomographies obtained using automatic picks generated by the system TAPNEI (Gentili and Bragato 2006), applied in the NE Italy. Preliminarily, in order to estimate the error in comparison with the unknown true arrival times, an analysis on the picking quality is done. The tests have been performed using two dataset: the first is made up by 240 earthquakes automatically picked by TAPNEI; the second counts in the same earthquakes but manually picked (OGS database). The grid and the software used to perform tomography (Sim28, Michelini and Mc Evilly, 1991) are the same in the two cases. Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs fields of the two tomographies and their differences are shown on vertical sections. In addiction, the differences in earthquakes locations are studied; in particular, the quality of the accuracy of the localizations has been analyzed by estimating the distance of the hypocenter distributions with respect to the manual locations. The analysis include also a qualitative comparison with an independent tomography (Gentile et al., 2000) performed using Simulps (Evans et al, 1994) on a set of 224 earthquakes accurately selected and manually relocated. The quality of the pickings and the comparison with the tomography obtained by manual data suggest that earthquake tomography with automatic data can provide reliable results. We suggest the use of such data when a large

  8. The 2008 Wells, Nevada Earthquake Sequence: Application of Subspace Detection and Multiple Event Relocation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealy, J. L.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Bergman, E.; Barnhart, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    On February 21, 2008 at 14:16:02 (UTC), Wells, Nevada experienced a Mw 6.0 earthquake, the largest earthquake in the state within the past 50 years. Here, we re-analyze in detail the spatiotemporal variations of the foreshock and aftershock sequence and compare the distribution of seismicity to a recent slip model based on inversion of InSAR observations. A catalog of earthquakes for the time period of February 1, 2008 through August 31, 2008 was derived from a combination of arrival time picks using a kurtosis detector (primarily P arrival times), subspace detector (primarily S arrival times), associating the combined pick dataset, and applying multiple event relocation techniques using the 19 closest USArray Transportable Array stations, permanent regional seismic monitoring stations in Nevada and Utah, and temporary stations deployed for an aftershock study. We were able to detect several thousand earthquakes in the months following the mainshock as well as several foreshocks in the days leading up to the event. We reviewed the picks for the largest 986 earthquakes and relocated them using the Hypocentroidal Decomposition (HD) method. The HD technique provides both relative locations for the individual earthquakes and an absolute location for the earthquake cluster, resulting in absolute locations of the events in the cluster having minimal bias from unknown Earth structure. A subset of these "calibrated" earthquake locations that spanned the duration of the sequence and had small uncertainties in location were used as prior constraints within a second relocation effort using the entire dataset and the Bayesloc approach. Accurate locations (to within 2 km) were obtained using Bayesloc for 1,952 of the 2,157 events associated over the seven-month period of the study. The final catalog of earthquake hypocenters indicates that the aftershocks extend for about 20 km along the strike of the ruptured fault. The aftershocks occur primarily updip and along the

  9. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Possibility of the real-time dynamic strain field monitoring deduced from GNSS data: case study of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Y.; Ohzono, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kawamoto, S.; Hino, R.

    2017-12-01

    A large and destructive earthquake (Mjma 7.3) occurred on April 15, 2016 in Kumamoto region, southwestern Japan. This earthquake was accompanied approximately 32 s later by an M 6 earthquake in central Oita region, which hypocenter located 80 km northeast from the hypocenter of the mainshock of the Kumamoto earthquake. This triggered earthquake also had the many aftershocks in and around the Oita region. It is important to understand how to occur such chain-reacted earthquake sequences. We used the 1Hz dual-frequency phase and range data from GEONET in Kyushu island. The data were processed using GIPSY-OASIS (version 6.4). We adopoted kinematic PPP strategy for the coordinate estimation. The reference GPS satellite orbit and 5 s clock information were obtained using the CODE product. We also applied simple sidereal filter technique for the estimated time series. Based on the obtained 1Hz GNSS time series, we estimated the areal strain and principle strain field using the method of the Shen et al. (1996). For the assessment of the dynamic strain, firstly we calculated the averaged absolute value of areal strain field between 60-85s after the origin time of the mainshock of the Kumamoto earthquake which was used as the "reference" static strain field. Secondly, we estimated the absolute value of areal strain in each time step. Finally, we calculated the strain ratio in each time step relative to the "reference". Based on this procedure, we can extract the spatial and temporal characteristic of the dynamic strain in each time step. Extracted strain ratio clearly shows the spatial and temporal dynamic strain characteristic. When an attention is paid to a region of triggered Oita earthquake, the timing of maximum dynamic strain ratio in the epicenter just corresponds to the origin time of the triggered event. It strongly suggested that the large dynamic strain may trigger the Oita event. The epicenter of the triggered earthquake located within the geothermal region. In

  11. Local Earthquake Tomography in the Eifel Region, Middle Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, H.

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the Eifel Plume project is to verify the existence of an assumed mantle plume responsible for the Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism in the Eifel region of midwest Germany. During a large passive and semi-active seismological experiment (November 1997 - June 1998) about 160 mobil broadband and short period stations were operated in addition to about 100 permanent stations in the area of interest. The stations registered teleseismic and local events. Local events are used to obtain a threedimensional tomographic model of seismic velocities in the crust. Since local earthquake tomography requires a large set of crustal travel paths, seismograms of local events recorded from July 1998 to June 2001 by permanent stations were added to the Eifel Plume data set. In addition to travel time corrections for the teleseismic tomography of the upper mantle, the new 3D velocity model should improve the precision for location of local events. From a total of 832 local seismic events, 172 were identified as tectonic earthquakes. The other events were either quarry blasts or shallow mine-induced seismic events. The locations of 60 quarry blasts are known and for 30 of them the firing time was measured during the field experiment. Since the origin time and location of these events are known with high precision, they are used to validate inverted velocity models. Station corrections from simultaneous 1D-inversion of local earthquake traveltimes and hypocenters are in good agreement with travel time residuals calculated from teleseismic rays. A strong azimuthal dependency of travel time residuals resulting from a 1D velocity model was found for quarry blasts with hypocenters in the volcanic field in the center of the Eifel. Simultaneous 3D-inversion calculations show strong heterogeneities in the upper crust and a negative anomaly for p-wave velocities in the lower crust. The latter either could indicate a low velocity zone close to the Moho or subsidence of the Moho. We

  12. Locating low-frequency earthquakes using amplitude signals from seismograph stations: Examples from events at Montserrat, West Indies and from synthetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, A.; Jousset, P.; Neuberg, J.

    2003-04-01

    We determine locations for low-frequency earthquakes occurring prior to a collapse on June 25th, 1997 using signal amplitudes from a 7-station local seismograph network at the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, West Indies. Locations are determined by averaging the signal amplitude over the event waveform and inverting these data using an assumed amplitude decay model comprising geometrical spreading and attenuation. Resulting locations are centered beneath the active dome from 500 to 2000 m below sea level assuming body wave geometrical spreading and a quality factor of Q=22. Locations for the same events shifted systematically shallower by about 500 m assuming a surface wave geometrical spreading. Locations are consistent to results obtained using arrival time methods. The validity of the method is tested against synthetic low-frequency events constructed from a 2-D finite difference model including visco-elastic properties. Two example events are tested; one from a point source triggered in a low velocity conduit ranging between 100-1100 m below the surface, and the second triggered in a conduit located 1500-2500 m below the surface. Resulting seismograms have emergent onsets and extended codas and include the effect of conduit resonance. Employing geometrical spreading and attenuation from the finite-difference modelling, we obtain locations within the respective model conduits validating our approach.The location depths are sensitive to the assumed geometric spreading and Q model. We can distinguish between two sources separated by about 1000 meters only if we know the decay parameters.

  13. Determination of the fault plane and rupture size of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake, Bolivia, 5.2 Mw, by relative location of the aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivadeneyra-Vera, C.; Assumpção, M.; Minaya, E.; Aliaga, P.; Avila, G.

    2016-11-01

    The Central Andes of southern Bolivia is a highly seismic region with many active faults, that could generate earthquakes up to 8.9 Mw. In 2013, an earthquake of 5.2 Mw occurred in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in the sub-Andean belt, close to the Mandeyapecua fault, one of the most important reverse faults in Bolivia. Five larger aftershocks were reported by the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and 33 smaller aftershocks were recorded by the San Calixto Observatory (OSC) in the two months after the mainshock. Distances between epicenters of the events were up to 36 km, which is larger than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude. Using data from South American regional stations and the relative location technique with Rayleigh waves, the epicenters of the five larger aftershocks of the Santa Cruz series were determined in relation to the mainshock. This method enabled to achieve epicentral locations with uncertainties smaller than 1 km. Additionally, using data of three Bolivian stations (MOC, SIV and LPAZ) eight smaller aftershocks, recorded by the OSC, were relocated through correlation of P and S waves. The results show a NNW-SSE trend of epicenters and suggest an E dipping plane. The maximum distance between the aftershocks is 14 km, which is not consistent with the expected subsurface rupture length, in accordance with the magnitude of the mainshock. The events are located away from the Mandeyapecua fault and show an opposite dip, demonstrating that these events were generated by another fault in the area, that had not been well studied yet.

  14. Swarms of similar long-period earthquakes in the mantle beneath Mauna Loa Volcano

    Okubo, Paul G.; Wolfe, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of two swarms of long-period (LP) earthquakes at > 30 km depth that accompanied the geodetically observed 2002–2005 Mauna Loa intrusion. The first LP earthquake swarm in 2002 consisted of 31 events that were precursory and preceded the start of Mauna Loa inflation; the second LP swarm of two thousand events occurred from 2004–2005. The rate of LP earthquakes slowed significantly coincident with the occurrence of the December 26, 2004 Mw 9.3 Sumatra earthquake, suggesting that the seismic waves from this great earthquake may have had a dynamic triggering effect on the behavior of Mauna Loa's deep magma system. Using waveform cross correlation and double difference relocation, we find that a large number of earthquakes in each swarm are weakly similar and can be classified into two families. The relocated hypocenters for each family collapse to compact point source regions almost directly beneath the Mauna Loa intrusion. We suggest that the observed waveform characteristics are compatible with each family being associated with the resonance of a single fluid filled vertical crack of fixed geometry, with differences in waveforms between events being produced by slight variations in the trigger mechanism. If these LP earthquakes are part of the primary magma system that fed the 2002–2005 intrusion, as indicated by the spatial and temporal associations between mantle seismicity and surface deformation, then our results raise the possibility that this magma system may be quite focused at these depths as opposed to being a diffuse network. It is likely that only a few locations of Mauna Loa's deep magma system met the geometric and fluid dynamic conditions for generating LP earthquakes that were large enough to be recorded at the surface, and that much of the deep magma transfer associated with the 2002–2005 intrusion occurred aseismically.

  15. Source complexity and the physical mechanism of the 2015 Mw 7.9 Bonin Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Meng, L.; Wen, L.

    2015-12-01

    The 30 May 2015 Mw 7.9 Bonin Island earthquake is the largest instrument-recorded deep-focus earthquake in the Izu-Bonin arc. It occurred approximately 100 km deeper than the previous seismicity, in the region unlikely to be within the core of the subducting Izu-Bonin slab. The earthquake provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the unexpected occurrence of such isolated deep earthquakes. Multiple source inversion of the P, SH, pP and sSH phases and a novel fully three-dimensional back-projection of P and pP phases are applied to study the coseismic source process. The subevents locations and short-period energy radiations both show a L-shape bilateral rupture propagating initially in the SW direction then in the NW direction with an average rupture speed of 2.0 km/s. The decrease of focal depth on the NW branch suggests that the rupture is consistent with a single sub-horizontal plane inferred from the GCMT solution. The multiple source inversion further indicates slight variation of the focal strikes of the sub-events with the curvature of the subducting Izu-Bonin slab. The rupture is confined within an area of 20 km x 35 km, rather compact compared with the shallow earthquake of similar magnitude. The earthquake is of high stress drop on the order of 100 MPa and a low seismic efficiency of 0.19, indicating large frictional heat dissipation. The only aftershock is 11 km to the east of the mainshock hypocenter and 3 km away from the centroid of the first sub-event. Analysis of the regional tomography and nearby seismicity suggests that the earthquake may occur at the edge/periphery of the bending slab and is unlikely to be within the "cold" metastable olivine wedge. Our results suggest the spontaneous nucleation of the thermally induced shear instability is a possible mechanism for such isolated deep earthquakes.

  16. Crustal structure and relocated earthquakes in the Puget Lowland, Washington, from high-resolution seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wagoner, T. M.; Crosson, R. S.; Creager, K. C.; Medema, G.; Preston, L.; Symons, N. P.; Brocher, T. M.

    2002-12-01

    The availability of regional earthquake data from the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN), together with active source data from the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) seismic experiments, has allowed us to construct a new high-resolution 3-D, P wave velocity model of the crust to a depth of about 30 km in the central Puget Lowland. In our method, earthquake hypocenters and velocity model are jointly coupled in a fully nonlinear tomographic inversion. Active source data constrain the upper 10-15 km of the model, and earthquakes constrain the deepest portion of the model. A number of sedimentary basins are imaged, including the previously unrecognized Muckleshoot basin, and the previously incompletely defined Possession and Sequim basins. Various features of the shallow crust are imaged in detail and their structural transitions to the mid and lower crust are revealed. These include the Tacoma basin and fault zone, the Seattle basin and fault zone, the Seattle and Port Ludlow velocity highs, the Port Townsend basin, the Kingston Arch, and the Crescent basement, which is arched beneath the Lowland from its surface exposure in the eastern Olympics. Strong lateral velocity gradients, consistent with the existence of previously inferred faults, are observed, bounding the southern Port Townsend basin, the western edge of the Seattle basin beneath Dabob Bay, and portions of the Port Ludlow velocity high and the Tacoma basin. Significant velocity gradients are not observed across the southern Whidbey Island fault, the Lofall fault, or along most of the inferred location of the Hood Canal fault. Using improved earthquake locations resulting from our inversion, we determined focal mechanisms for a number of the best recorded earthquakes in the data set, revealing a complex pattern of deformation dominated by general arc-parallel regional tectonic compression. Most earthquakes occur in the basement rocks inferred to be the lower Tertiary Crescent

  17. Crustal structure and relocated earthquakes in the Puget Lowland, Washington, from high-resolution seismic tomography

    Van Wagoner, T. M.; Crosson, R.S.; Creager, K.C.; Medema, G.; Preston, L.; Symons, N.P.; Brocher, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of regional earthquake data from the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN), together with active source data from the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) seismic experiments, has allowed us to construct a new high-resolution 3-D, P wave velocity model of the crust to a depth of about 30 km in the central Puget Lowland. In our method, earthquake hypocenters and velocity model are jointly coupled in a fully nonlinear tomographic inversion. Active source data constrain the upper 10-15 km of the model, and earthquakes constrain the deepest portion of the model. A number of sedimentary basins are imaged, including the previously unrecognized Muckleshoot basin, and the previously incompletely defined Possession and Sequim basins. Various features of the shallow crust are imaged in detail and their structural transitions to the mid and lower crust are revealed. These include the Tacoma basin and fault zone, the Seattle basin and fault zone, the Seattle and Port Ludlow velocity highs, the Port Townsend basin, the Kingston Arch, and the Crescent basement, which is arched beneath the Lowland from its surface exposure in the eastern Olympics. Strong lateral velocity gradients, consistent with the existence of previously inferred faults, are observed, bounding the southern Port Townsend basin, the western edge of the Seattle basin beneath Dabob Bay, and portions of the Port Ludlow velocity high and the Tacoma basin. Significant velocity gradients are not observed across the southern Whidbey Island fault, the Lofall fault, or along most of the inferred location of the Hood Canal fault. Using improved earthquake locations resulting from our inversion, we determined focal mechanisms for a number of the best recorded earthquakes in the data set, revealing a complex pattern of deformation dominated by general arc-parallel regional tectonic compression. Most earthquakes occur in the basement rocks inferred to be the lower Tertiary Crescent

  18. Using a modified time-reverse imaging technique to locate low-frequency earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault near Cholame, California

    Horstmann, Tobias; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to locate low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) within tectonic tremor episodes based on time-reverse imaging techniques. The modified time-reverse imaging technique presented here is the first method that locates individual LFEs within tremor episodes within 5 km uncertainty without relying on high-amplitude P-wave arrivals and that produces similar hypocentral locations to methods that locate events by stacking hundreds of LFEs without having to assume event co-location. In contrast to classic time-reverse imaging algorithms, we implement a modification to the method that searches for phase coherence over a short time period rather than identifying the maximum amplitude of a superpositioned wavefield. The method is independent of amplitude and can help constrain event origin time. The method uses individual LFE origin times, but does not rely on a priori information on LFE templates and families.We apply the method to locate 34 individual LFEs within tremor episodes that occur between 2010 and 2011 on the San Andreas Fault, near Cholame, California. Individual LFE location accuracies range from 2.6 to 5 km horizontally and 4.8 km vertically. Other methods that have been able to locate individual LFEs with accuracy of less than 5 km have mainly used large-amplitude events where a P-phase arrival can be identified. The method described here has the potential to locate a larger number of individual low-amplitude events with only the S-phase arrival. Location accuracy is controlled by the velocity model resolution and the wavelength of the dominant energy of the signal. Location results are also dependent on the number of stations used and are negligibly correlated with other factors such as the maximum gap in azimuthal coverage, source–station distance and signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Megathrust Earthquake Swarms Contemporaneous to Slow Slip and Non-Volcanic Tremor in Southern Mexico, Detected and Analyzed through a Template Matching Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkamp, S.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.

    2012-12-01

    An outstanding question in geophysics is the degree to which the newly discovered types of slow fault slip are related to their destructive cousin - the earthquake. Here, we utilize a local network along the Oaxacan segment of the Middle American subduction zone to investigate the potential relationship between slow slip, non-volcanic tremor (NVT), and earthquakes along the subduction megathrust. We have developed a multi-station "template matching" waveform cross correlation technique which is able to detect and locate events several orders of magnitude smaller than would be possible using more traditional techniques. Also, our template matching procedure is capable of consistently locate events which occur during periods of increased background activity (e.g., during productive NVT, loud cultural noise, or after larger earthquakes) because the multi-station detector is finely tuned to events with similar hypocentral location and focal mechanism. The local network in the Oaxaca region allows us to focus on documented megathrust earthquake swarms, which we focus on because slow slip is hypothesized to be the cause for earthquake swarms in some tectonic environments. We identify a productive earthquake swarm in July 2006 (~600 similar earthquakes detected), which occurred during a week-long episode of productive tremor and slow slip. Families of events in this sequence were also active during larger and longer slow slip events, which provides a potential link between slow slip in the transition zone and earthquakes at the downdip end of the seismogenic portion of the megathrust. Because template matching techniques only detect similar signals, detected waveforms can be stacked together to produce higher signal to noise ratios or cross correlated against each other to produce precise relative phase arrival times. We are using the refined signals to look for evidence of expansion or propagation of hypocenters during these earthquake swarms, which could be used as a

  20. Aftershock distribution as a constraint on the geodetic model of coseismic slip for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake

    Bennington, Ninfa; Thurber, Clifford; Feigl, Kurt; ,

    2011-01-01

    Several studies of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake have linked the spatial distribution of the event’s aftershocks to the mainshock slip distribution on the fault. Using geodetic data, we find a model of coseismic slip for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake with the constraint that the edges of coseismic slip patches align with aftershocks. The constraint is applied by encouraging the curvature of coseismic slip in each model cell to be equal to the negative of the curvature of seismicity density. The large patch of peak slip about 15 km northwest of the 2004 hypocenter found in the curvature-constrained model is in good agreement in location and amplitude with previous geodetic studies and the majority of strong motion studies. The curvature-constrained solution shows slip primarily between aftershock “streaks” with the continuation of moderate levels of slip to the southeast. These observations are in good agreement with strong motion studies, but inconsistent with the majority of published geodetic slip models. Southeast of the 2004 hypocenter, a patch of peak slip observed in strong motion studies is absent from our curvature-constrained model, but the available GPS data do not resolve slip in this region. We conclude that the geodetic slip model constrained by the aftershock distribution fits the geodetic data quite well and that inconsistencies between models derived from seismic and geodetic data can be attributed largely to resolution issues.

  1. Mixed-Mode Slip Behavior of the Altotiberina Low-Angle Normal Fault System (Northern Apennines, Italy) through High-Resolution Earthquake Locations and Repeating Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Monachesi, Giancarlo

    2017-12-01

    We generated a 4.5-year-long (2010-2014) high-resolution earthquake catalogue, composed of 37,000 events with ML < 3.9 and MC = 0.5 completeness magnitude, to report on the seismic activity of the Altotiberina (ATF) low-angle normal fault system and to shed light on the mechanical behavior and seismic potential of this fault, which is capable of generating a M7 event. Seismicity defines the geometry of the fault system composed of the low-angle (15°-20°) ATF, extending for 50 km along strike and between 4 and 16 km at depth showing an 1.5 km thick fault zone made of multiple subparallel slipping planes, and a complex network of synthetic/antithetic higher-angle segments located in the ATF hanging wall (HW) that can be traced along strike for up to 35 km. Ninety percent of the recorded seismicity occurs along the high-angle HW faults during a series of minor, sometimes long-lasting (months) seismic sequences with multiple MW3+ mainshocks. Remaining earthquakes (ML < 2.4) are released instead along the low-angle ATF at a constant rate of 2.2 events per day. Within the ATF-related seismicity, we found 97 clusters of repeating earthquakes (RE), mostly consisting of doublets occurring during short interevent time (hours). RE are located within the geodetically recognized creeping portions of the ATF, around the main locked asperity. The rate of occurrence of RE seems quite synchronous with the ATF-HW seismic release, suggesting that creeping may guide the strain partitioning in the ATF system. The seismic moment released by the ATF seismicity accounts for 30% of the geodetic one, implying aseismic deformation. The ATF-seismicity pattern is thus consistent with a mixed-mode (seismic and aseismic) slip behavior.

  2. Earthquake Tidal Triggering Associated with the 2015 Eruption of Axial Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, W. S. D.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Tan, Y. J.; Garcia, C.; Arnulf, A. F.; Crone, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative's real time cabled observatory at Axial Seamount includes a seven station seismic network that spans the southern half of the summit caldera. The network has been in operation since late 2014 and, in conjunction with geodetic sensors on the observatory, has recorded an exceptional data set to characterize the dynamics of the caldera through the April 2015 eruption. Prior to the eruption, earthquake rates were high and double-difference locations show that the inflation of the volcano was accommodated by deformation on an outward dipping caldera ring fault. The onset of the eruption was marked by a seismic crisis on April 24 and rapid deflation of the volcano; the caldera ring fault accommodated deflation and guided a dike beneath the east rim of the caldera. The seismic crisis was followed by a steady decline in the rates of earthquakes and deflation. Numerous seafloor explosions document the timing and location of lava flows in the caldera and on the north rift of the seamount. They ceased after about a month when the volcano started to reinflate. Efforts are presently underway to improve the resolution of hypocenters both through the use of cross-correlation-based double-difference hypocenter locations (Tan et al., this meeting) and by the incorporation of three-dimensional velocity models that account for the heterogeneous structure of the volcano. One particularly interesting aspect of the seismicity is the tidal triggering. Prior to the eruption, when the volcano is critically stressed, the earthquakes show a strong tidal triggering signal with higher rates of seismicity near low tides when faults are unclamped. Earthquake rates at the lowest tides are about six times those at the highest tides. There are also noticeable temporo-spatial patterns in the earthquake swarms that occur at each low tide suggesting that the characteristics of tidal triggering may be spatial dependent. Following the eruption, only a weak tidal

  3. Initiation process of the Mw 6.2 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake on October 21, 2016: Stress transfer due to its largest foreshock of Mw 4.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    On October 21, 2016, a strike-slip earthquake with Mw 6.2 occurred in the central Tottori prefecture, Japan. It was preceded by a foreshock sequence that began with a Mw 4.1 event, the largest earthquake for the sequence, and lasted about two hours. According to the JMA catalog, the largest foreshock had a similar focal mechanism as the mainshock and was located in the immediate vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the foreshock and the initial rupture of the mainshock. We first determine the relative hypocenter distance between the foreshock and mainshock using the P-wave onsets on Hi-net station records. The initiation points of the two events are likely about 100 m apart according to the current results, but could be closer. Within the location uncertainty, they might either be coplanar or on subparallel planes. Next, we obtain the slip-history models from a kinematic inversion method using empirical Green's functions derived from other foreshocks with M 2.2 - 2.4. The Mw 4.1 foreshock and Mw 6.2 mainshock started in a similar way until approximately 0.2 s after their onsets. For the foreshock, the rapid growth stage completed by 0.2 s even though the rupture propagation continued for 0.4 - 0.5 s longer (note that 0.2 s is significantly shorter than the typical source duration of a Mw 4.1 earthquake). On the other hand, the mainshock rupture continued to grow rapidly after 0.2 s. The comparison between the relative hypocenter locations and the slip models shows that the mainshock nucleated within the area strongly effected by both static and dynamic stress changes created by the foreshock. We also find that the mainshock initially propagated away from the foreshock hypocenter. We consider that the stress transfer process is a key to understand the mainshock nucleation as well as its rupture growth process.

  4. Earthquakes and strain in subhorizontal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudzinski, Michael R.; Chen, Wang-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Using an extensive database of fault plane solutions and precise locations of hypocenters, we show that the classic patterns of downdip extension (DDE) or downdip compression (DDC) in subduction zones deteriorate when the dip of the slab is less than about 20°. This result is depth-independent, demonstrated by both intermediate-focus (depths from 70 to 300 km) and deep-focus (depths greater than 300 km) earthquakes. The absence of pattern in seismic strain in subhorizontal slabs also occurs locally over scales of about 10 km, as evident from a detailed analysis of a large (Mw 7.1) earthquake sequence beneath Fiji. Following the paradigm that a uniform strain of DDE/DDC results from sinking of the cold, dense slab as it encounters resistance from the highly viscous mantle at depth, breakdown of DDE/DDC in subhorizontal slabs reflects waning negative buoyancy ("slab pull") in the downdip direction. Our results place a constraint on the magnitude of slab pull that is required to dominate over localized sources of stress and to align seismic strain release in dipping slabs. Under the condition of a vanishing slab pull, eliminating the only obvious source of regional stress, the abundance of earthquakes in subhorizontal slabs indicates that a locally variable source of stress is both necessary and sufficient to sustain the accumulation of elastic strain required to generate intermediate- and deep-focus seismicity. Evidence is growing that the process of seismogenesis under high pressures, including localized sources of stress, is tied to the presence of petrologic anomalies.

  5. Foreshock triggering of the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique, Chile, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2016-08-01

    On April 1st, 2014, a Mw 8.2 (U.S. Geological Survey moment magnitude) earthquake occurred in the subduction zone offshore northern Chile. In the two weeks leading up to the earthquake, a sequence of foreshocks, starting with a Mw 6.7 earthquake on March 16th and including three more Mw 6.0+ events, occurred predominantly south of the April 1st mainshock epicenter and up-dip of the area of significant slip during the mainshock. Using earthquake locations and source parameters derived in a previous study (Hayes et al., 2014) and a Coulomb failure stress change analysis of these events, we assess in detail the hypothesis that the earthquakes occurred as a cascading sequence, each event successively triggering the next, ultimately triggering the rupture of the mainshock. Following the initial Mw 6.7 event, each of the three largest foreshocks (Mw 6.4, 6.2 and 6.3), as well as the hypocenter of the mainshock, occurred in a region of positive Coulomb stress change produced by the preceding events, indicating these events were brought closer to failure by the prior seismicity. In addition, we reexamine the possibility that aseismic slip occurred and what role it may have played in loading the plate boundary. Using horizontal GPS displacements from along the northern Chile coast prior to the mainshock, we find that the foreshock seismicity alone likely does not account for the observed signals. We perform a grid search for the location and magnitude of an aseismic slip patch that can account for the difference between observed signals and foreshock-related displacement, and find that a slow slip region with slip corresponding to a Mw ∼ 6.8 earthquake located coincident with or up-dip of the foreshock seismicity can best explain this discrepancy. Additionally, such a slow slip region positively loads the mainshock hypocentral area, enhancing the positive loading produced by the foreshock seismicity.

  6. Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure from Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    structure composed of opposing boreholes or trenches to mitigate seismic waves from diffracting and traveling in the vertical plane. Computational...dams, etc., pose significant risk to civilians while adding tremendous cost and recovery time to regain their functionality. Lower energy earthquakes...the most destructive are surface waves (Rayleigh, Love, shear) which can travel great distances in the far field from the earthquake hypocenter and

  7. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure and precise earthquake relocation at Great Sitkin Volcano, Alaska

    Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford H.; DeShon, Heather R.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    Waveform cross-correlation with bispectrum verification is combined with double-difference tomography to increase the precision of earthquake locations and constrain regional 3D P-wave velocity heterogeneity at Great Sitkin volcano, Alaska. From 1999 through 2005, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) recorded ∼1700 earthquakes in the vicinity of Great Sitkin, including two ML 4.3 earthquakes that are among the largest events in the AVO catalog. The majority of earthquakes occurred during 2002 and formed two temporally and spatially separate event sequences. The first sequence began on 17 March 2002 and was centered ∼20 km west of the volcano. The second sequence occurred on the southeast flank of Great Sitkin and began 28 May 2002. It was preceded by two episodes of volcanic tremor. Earthquake relocations of this activity on the southeast flank define a vertical planar feature oriented radially from the summit and in the direction of the assumed regional maximum compressive stress due to convergence along the Alaska subduction zone. This swarm may have been caused or accompanied by the emplacement of a dike. Relocations of the mainshock–aftershock sequence occurring west of Great Sitkin are consistent with rupture on a strike-slip fault. Tomographic images support the presence of a vertically dipping fault striking parallel to the direction of convergence in this region. The remaining catalog hypocenters relocate along discrete features beneath the volcano summit; here, low P-wave velocities possibly indicate the presence of magma beneath the volcano.

  8. Anomalous Streamflow and Groundwater-Level Changes Before the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan: Possible Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Chi-Yu; Chia, Yeeping

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow recorded by a stream gauge located 4 km from the epicenter of the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan showed a large and rapid anomalous increase of 124 m3/s starting 4 days before the earthquake. This increase was followed by a comparable co-seismic drop to below the background level for 8 months. In addition, groundwater-levels recorded at a well 1.5 km east of the seismogenic fault showed an anomalous rise 2 days before the earthquake, and then a unique 4-cm drop beginning 3 h before the earthquake. The anomalous streamflow increase is attributed to gravity-driven groundwater discharge into the creek through the openings of existing fractures in the steep creek banks crossed by the upstream Shueilikun fault zone, as a result of pre-earthquake crustal buckling. The continued tectonic movement and buckling, together with the downward flow of water in the crust, may have triggered the occurrence of some shallow slow-slip events in the Shueilikun and other nearby fault zones. When these events propagate down-dip to decollement, where the faults merges with the seismogenic Chelungpu fault, they may have triggered other slow-slip events propagating toward the asperity at the hypocenter and the Chelungpu fault. These events may then have caused the observed groundwater-level anomaly and helped to trigger the earthquake.

  9. Accuracy and Resolution in Micro-earthquake Tomographic Inversion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, L. J.; Ryan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Accuracy and resolution are complimentary properties necessary to interpret the results of earthquake location and tomography studies. Accuracy is the how close an answer is to the “real world”, and resolution is who small of node spacing or earthquake error ellipse one can achieve. We have modified SimulPS (Thurber, 1986) in several ways to provide a tool for evaluating accuracy and resolution of potential micro-earthquake networks. First, we provide synthetic travel times from synthetic three-dimensional geologic models and earthquake locations. We use this to calculate errors in earthquake location and velocity inversion results when we perturb these models and try to invert to obtain these models. We create as many stations as desired and can create a synthetic velocity model with any desired node spacing. We apply this study to SimulPS and TomoDD inversion studies. “Real” travel times are perturbed with noise and hypocenters are perturbed to replicate a starting location away from the “true” location, and inversion is performed by each program. We establish travel times with the pseudo-bending ray tracer and use the same ray tracer in the inversion codes. This, of course, limits our ability to test the accuracy of the ray tracer. We developed relationships for the accuracy and resolution expected as a function of the number of earthquakes and recording stations for typical tomographic inversion studies. Velocity grid spacing started at 1km, then was decreased to 500m, 100m, 50m and finally 10m to see if resolution with decent accuracy at that scale was possible. We considered accuracy to be good when we could invert a velocity model perturbed by 50% back to within 5% of the original model, and resolution to be the size of the grid spacing. We found that 100 m resolution could obtained by using 120 stations with 500 events, bu this is our current limit. The limiting factors are the size of computers needed for the large arrays in the inversion and a

  10. The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings

    Mendoza, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    1996-01-01

    We employ a finite fault inversion scheme to infer the distribution of coseismic slip for the July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake using strong ground motions recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency within 400 km of the epicenter and vertical P waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network at teleseismic distances. The assumed fault geometry is based on the location of the aftershock zone and comprises two fault segments with different orientations: a northern segment striking at N20??E with a 30?? dip to the west and a southern segment with a N20??W strike. For the southern segment we use both westerly and easterly dip directions to test thrust orientations previously proposed for this portion of the fault. The variance reduction is greater using a shallow west dipping segment, suggesting that the direction of dip did not change as the rupture propagated south from the hypocenter. This indicates that the earthquake resulted from the shallow underthrusting of Hokkaido beneath the Sea of Japan. Static vertical movements predicted by the corresponding distribution of fault slip are consistent with the general pattern of surface deformation observed following the earthquake. Fault rupture in the northern segment accounts for about 60% of the total P wave seismic moment of 3.4 ?? 1020 N m and includes a large circular slip zone (4-m peak) near the earthquake hypocenter at depths between 10 and 25 km. Slip in the southern segment is also predominantly shallower than 25 km, but the maximum coseismic displacements (2.0-2.5 m) are observed at a depth of about 5 km. This significant shallow slip in the southern portion of the rupture zone may have been responsible for the large tsunami that devastated the small offshore island of Okushiri. Localized shallow faulting near the island, however, may require a steep westerly dip to reconcile the measured values of ground subsidence.

  11. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  12. A flatfile of ground motion intensity measurements from induced earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas

    Rennolet, Steven B.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Thompson, Eric M.; Yeck, William

    2018-01-01

    We have produced a uniformly processed database of orientation-independent (RotD50, RotD100) ground motion intensity measurements containing peak horizontal ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and 5-percent-damped pseudospectral accelerations (0.1–10 s) from more than 3,800 M ≥ 3 earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas that occurred between January 2009 and December 2016. Ground motion time series were collected from regional, national, and temporary seismic arrays out to 500 km. We relocated the majority of the earthquake hypocenters using a multiple-event relocation algorithm to produce a set of near-uniformly processed hypocentral locations. Ground motion processing followed standard methods, with the primary objective of reducing the effects of noise on the measurements. Regional wave-propagation features and the high seismicity rate required careful selection of signal windows to ensure that we captured the entire ground motion record and that contaminating signals from extraneous earthquakes did not contribute to the database. Processing was carried out with an automated scheme and resulted in a database comprising more than 174,000 records (https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F73B5X8N). We anticipate that these results will be useful for improved understanding of earthquake ground motions and for seismic hazard applications.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Earthquake Dynamics: Case Study of the Mw 8.3 Illapel Earthquake, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Denolle, Marine A.; Yao, Huajian

    2018-01-01

    We develop a methodology that combines compressive sensing backprojection (CS-BP) and source spectral analysis of teleseismic P waves to provide metrics relevant to earthquake dynamics of large events. We improve the CS-BP method by an autoadaptive source grid refinement as well as a reference source adjustment technique to gain better spatial and temporal resolution of the locations of the radiated bursts. We also use a two-step source spectral analysis based on (i) simple theoretical Green's functions that include depth phases and water reverberations and on (ii) empirical P wave Green's functions. Furthermore, we propose a source spectrogram methodology that provides the temporal evolution of dynamic parameters such as radiated energy and falloff rates. Bridging backprojection and spectrogram analysis provides a spatial and temporal evolution of these dynamic source parameters. We apply our technique to the recent 2015 Mw 8.3 megathrust Illapel earthquake (Chile). The results from both techniques are consistent and reveal a depth-varying seismic radiation that is also found in other megathrust earthquakes. The low-frequency content of the seismic radiation is located in the shallow part of the megathrust, propagating unilaterally from the hypocenter toward the trench while most of the high-frequency content comes from the downdip part of the fault. Interpretation of multiple rupture stages in the radiation is also supported by the temporal variations of radiated energy and falloff rates. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanisms, either from prestress, fault geometry, and/or frictional properties to explain our observables. Our methodology is an attempt to bridge kinematic observations with earthquake dynamics.

  14. Multisclae heterogeneity of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake by inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aochi, H.; Ulrich, T.; Cornier, G.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake fault heterogeneity is often studied on a set of subfaults in kinematic inversion, while it is sometimes described with spatially localized geometry. Aochi and Ide (EPS, 2011) and Ide and Aochi (submitted to Pageoph and AGU, 2012) apply a concept of multi-scale heterogeneity to simulate the dynamic rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, introducing circular patches of different dimension in fault fracture energy distribution. Previously the patches are given by the past moderate earthquakes in this region, and this seems to be consistent with the evolution process of this mega earthquake, although a few patches, in particular, the largest patch, had not been known previously. In this study, we try to identify patches by inversion. As demonstrated in several earthquakes including the 2010 Maule (M8.8) earthquake, it is possible to indentify two asperities of ellipse kinematically or dynamically (e.g. Ruiz and Madariaga, 2011, and so on). In the successful examples, different asperities are rather visible, separated in space. However the Tohoku-oki earthquake has hierarchical structure of heterogeneity. We apply the Genetic Algorithm to inverse the model parameters from the ground motions (K-net and Kik-net from NIED) and the high sampling GPS (GSI). Starting from low frequency ranges (> 50 seconds), we obtain an ellipse corresponding to M9 event located around the hypocenter, coherent with the previous result by Madariaga et al. (pers. comm.). However it is difficult to identify the second smaller with few constraints. This is mainly because the largest covers the entire rupture area and any smaller patch improves the fitting only for the closer stations. Again, this needs to introduce the multi-scale concept in inversion procedure. Instead of finding the largest one at first, we have to start to extract rather smaller moderate patches from the beginning of the record, following the rupture process.

  15. The 2007 Nazko, British Columbia, earthquake sequence: Injection of magma deep in the crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt

    Cassidy, J.F.; Balfour, N.; Hickson, C.; Kao, H.; White, Rickie; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mazzotti, S.; Rogers, Gary C.; Al-Khoubbi, I.; Bird, A.L.; Esteban, L.; Kelman, M.; Hutchinson, J.; McCormack, D.

    2011-01-01

    On 9 October 2007, an unusual sequence of earthquakes began in central British Columbia about 20 km west of the Nazko cone, the most recent (circa 7200 yr) volcanic center in the Anahim volcanic belt. Within 25 hr, eight earthquakes of magnitude 2.3-2.9 occurred in a region where no earthquakes had previously been recorded. During the next three weeks, more than 800 microearthquakes were located (and many more detected), most at a depth of 25-31 km and within a radius of about 5 km. After about two months, almost all activity ceased. The clear P- and S-wave arrivals indicated that these were high-frequency (volcanic-tectonic) earthquakes and the b value of 1.9 that we calculated is anomalous for crustal earthquakes but consistent with volcanic-related events. Analysis of receiver functions at a station immediately above the seismicity indicated a Moho near 30 km depth. Precise relocation of the seismicity using a double-difference method suggested a horizontal migration at the rate of about 0:5 km=d, with almost all events within the lowermost crust. Neither harmonic tremor nor long-period events were observed; however, some spasmodic bursts were recorded and determined to be colocated with the earthquake hypocenters. These observations are all very similar to a deep earthquake sequence recorded beneath Lake Tahoe, California, in 2003-2004. Based on these remarkable similarities, we interpret the Nazko sequence as an indication of an injection of magma into the lower crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt. This magma injection fractures rock, producing high-frequency, volcanic-tectonic earthquakes and spasmodic bursts.

  16. Detailed fault structure of the 2000 Western Tottori, Japan, earthquake sequence

    Fukuyama, E.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Waldhauser, F.; Kubo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the faulting process of the aftershock region of the 2000 western Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.6) by combining aftershock hypocenters and moment tensor solutions. Aftershock locations were precisely determined by the double difference method using P- and S-phase arrival data of the Japan Meteorological Agency unified catalog. By combining the relocated hypocenters and moment tensor solutions of aftershocks by broadband waveform inversion of FREESIA (F-net), we successfully resolved very detailed fault structures activated by the mainshock. The estimated fault model resolves 15 individual fault segments that are consistent with both aftershock distribution and focal mechanism solutions. Rupture in the mainshock was principally confined to the three fault elements in the southern half of the zone, which is also where the earliest aftershocks concentrate. With time, the northern part of the zone becomes activated, which is also reflected in the postseismic deformation field. From the stress tensor analysis of aftershock focal mechanisms, we found a rather uniform stress field in the aftershock region, although fault strikes were scattered. The maximum stress direction is N107??E, which is consistent with the tectonic stress field in this region. In the northern part of the fault, where no slip occurred during the mainshock but postseismic slip was observed, the maximum stress direction of N130??E was possible as an alternative solution of stress tensor inversion.

  17. Populating the Advanced National Seismic System Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Perry, M. R.; Andrews, J. R.; Withers, M. M.; Hellweg, M.; Kim, W. Y.; Shiro, B.; West, M. E.; Storchak, D. A.; Pankow, K. L.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Gee, L. S.; Wolfe, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a repository of earthquake information produced by networks in the Advanced National Seismic System with additional data from the ISC-GEM catalog and many non-U.S. networks through their contributions to the National Earthquake Information Center PDE bulletin. This Comprehensive Catalog (ComCat) provides a unified earthquake product while preserving attribution and contributor information. ComCat contains hypocenter and magnitude information with supporting phase arrival-time and amplitude measurements (when available). Higher-level products such as focal mechanisms, earthquake slip models, "Did You Feel It?" reports, ShakeMaps, PAGER impact estimates, earthquake summary posters, and tectonic summaries are also included. ComCat is updated as new events are processed and the catalog can be accesed at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/. Throughout the past few years, a concentrated effort has been underway to expand ComCat by integrating global and regional historic catalogs. The number of earthquakes in ComCat has more than doubled in the past year and it presently contains over 1.6 million earthquake hypocenters. We will provide an overview of catalog contents and a detailed description of numerous tools and semi-automated quality-control procedures developed to uncover errors including systematic magnitude biases, missing time periods, duplicate postings for the same events, and incorrectly associated events.

  18. The Detection of Very Low Frequency Earthquake using Broadband Seismic Array Data in South-Western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kikuchi, M.

    2002-12-01

    The existences of variety of low-frequency seismic sources are obvious by the dense and equalized equipment_fs seismic network. Kikuchi(2000) and Kumagai et.al. (2001) analyzed about 50sec period ground motion excited by the volcanic activities Miyake-jima, Izu Islands. JMA is listing the low frequency earthquakes routinely in their hypocenter determination. Obara (2002) detected the low frequency, 2-4 Hz, tremor that occurred along subducting Philippine Sea plate by envelope analysis of high dense and short period seismic network (Hi-net). The monitoring of continuos long period waveform show us the existence of many unknown sources. Recently, the broadband seismic network of Japan (F-net, previous name is FREESIA) is developed and extends to linear array about 3,000 km. We reviewed the long period seismic data and earthquake catalogues. Many candidates, which are excited by unknown sources, are picked up manually. The candidates are reconfirmed in detail by the original seismograms and their rough frequency characteristics are evaluated. Most events have the very low frequency seismograms that is dominated period of 20 _E30 sec and smaller amplitude than ground noise level in shorter period range. We developed the hypocenter determination technique applied the grid search method. Moreover for the major events moment tensor inversion was performed. The most source locates at subducting plate and their depth is greater than 30km. However the location don_ft overlap the low frequency tremor source region. Major event_fs moment magnitude is 4 or greater and estimated source time is around 20 sec. We concluded that low frequency seismic event series exist in wide period range in subduction area. The very low frequency earthquakes occurred along Nankai and Ryukyu trough at southwestern Japan. We are planing to survey the very low frequency event systematically in wider western Pacific region.

  19. Slow earthquakes in microseism frequency band (0.1-2 Hz) off the Kii peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, L.; Ide, S.; Nakano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Slow earthquakes are divided into deep tectonic tremors, very low frequency (VLF) events, and slow slip events (SSE), each of which is observed in a different frequency band. Tremors are observed above 2 Hz, and VLF signals are visible mainly in 0.01-0.05 Hz. It was generally very difficult to find signals of slow underground deformation at frequencies between them, i.e., 0.1-2Hz, where microseism noise is dominant. However, after a Mw 5.9 plate boundary earthquake off the Kii peninsula on April 1st, 2016, sufficiently large signals have been observed in the microseism band, accompanied with signals from active tremors, VLFEs, and SSEs by the ocean bottom seismometer network DONET maintained by JAMSTEC and NIED. This is the first observation of slow earthquakes in the microseism frequency band. Here we report the detection and location of events in this band, and compare them with the spatial and temporal distributions of ordinary tectonic tremors above 2 Hz and VLF events. We used continuous records of 20 broadband seismometers of DONET from April 1st to 12th. We detected events by calculating arrival time differences between stations using an envelope correlation method of Ide (2010). Unlike ordinary applications, we repeated analyses for seismograms bandpass-filtered in four separated frequency bands, 0.1-1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-8 Hz. For each band, we successfully detected events and determined their hypocenter locations. Many VLF events have also been detected in this region in the frequency band of 0.03-0.05 Hz, with location and focal mechanism using a method of Nakano et al. (2008). In the 0.1-1 Hz microseism band, hypocenters were determined mainly on April 10th, when microseism noises are small and signal amplitudes are quite large. In several time windows, events were detected in all four bands, and located within the 2-sigma error ellipses, with similar source time functions. Sometimes, events were detected in two or three bands, suggesting wide variations

  20. Geodetic slip model of the 3 September 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma, earthquake: Evidence for fault‐zone collapse

    Pollitz, Fred; Wicks, Charles W.; Schoenball, Martin; Ellsworth, William L.; Murray, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The 3 September 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake in northern Oklahoma is the largest earthquake ever recorded in Oklahoma. The coseismic deformation was measured with both Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Global Positioning System (GPS), with measureable signals of order 1 cm and 1 mm, respectively. We derive a coseismic slip model from Sentinel‐1A and Radarsat 2 interferograms and GPS static offsets, dominated by distributed left‐lateral strike slip on a primary west‐northwest–east‐southeast‐trending subvertical plane, whereas strike slip is concentrated near the hypocenter (5.6 km depth), with maximum slip of ∼1  m located slightly east and down‐dip of the hypocenter. Based on systematic misfits of observed interferogram line‐of‐sight (LoS) displacements, with LoS based on shear‐dislocation models, a few decimeters of fault‐zone collapse are inferred in the hypocentral region where coseismic slip was the largest. This may represent the postseismic migration of large volumes of fluid away from the high‐slip areas, made possible by the creation of a temporary high‐permeability damage zone around the fault.

  1. TrigDB back-filling method in EEW for the regional earthquake for reducing false location of the deep focus earthquake event by considering neighborhood triggers and forced association.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.; Pak, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the first phase of EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) service to the public by KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) from 2015 in Korea, KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) has adopted ElarmS2 of UC Berkeley BSL and modified local magnitude relation, travel time curves and association procedures so called TrigDB back-filling method. The TrigDB back-filling method uses a database of sorted lists of stations based on epicentral distances of the pre-defined events located on the grids for 1,401 × 1,601 = 2,243,001 events around the Korean Peninsula at a grid spacing of 0.05 degrees. When the version of an event is updated, the TrigDB back-filling method is invoked. First, the grid closest to the epicenter of an event is chosen from the database and candidate stations, which are stations corresponding to the chosen grid and also adjacent to the already-associated stations, are selected. Second, the directions from the chosen grid to the associated stations are averaged to represent the direction of wave propagation, which is used as a reference for computing apparent travel times. The apparent travel times for the associated stations are computed using a P wave velocity of 5.5 km/s from the grid to the projected points in the reference direction. The travel times for the triggered candidate stations are also computed and used to obtain the difference between the apparent travel times of the associated stations and the triggered candidates. Finally, if the difference in the apparent travel times is less than that of the arrival times, the method forces the triggered candidate station to be associated with the event and updates the event location. This method is useful to reduce false locations of events which could be generated from the deep (> 500 km) and regional distance earthquakes happening on the subduction pacific plate boundaries. In comparison of the case study between TrigDB back-filling applied system and the others, we could get

  2. Tracking Down the Causes of Recent Induced and Natural Intraplate Earthquakes with 3D Seismological Analyses in Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uta, P.; Brandes, C.; Boennemann, C.; Plenefisch, T.; Winsemann, J.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest Germany is a typical low strain intraplate region with a low seismic activity. Nevertheless, 58 well documented earthquakes with magnitudes of 0.5 - 4.3 affected the area in the last 40 years. Most of the epicenters were located in the vicinity of active natural gas fields and some inside. Accordingly, the earthquakes were interpreted as a consequence of hydrocarbon recovery (e.g. Dahm et al. 2007, Bischoff et al. 2013) and classified as induced events in the bulletins of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The two major ones have magnitudes of 4.3 and 4.0. They are the strongest earthquakes ever recorded in Northern Germany. Consequently, these events raise the question whether the ongoing extraction itself can cause them or if other natural tectonic processes like glacial isostatic adjustment may considerably contribute to their initiation. Recent studies of Brandes et al. (2012) imply that lithospheric stress changes due to post glacial isostatic adjustment might be also a potential natural cause for earthquakes in Central Europe. In order to better analyse the earthquakes and to test this latter hypothesis we performed a relocalization of the events with the NonLinLoc (Lomax et al. 2000) program package and two differently scaled 3D P-wave velocity models. Depending on the station coverage for a distinct event, either a fine gridded local model (88 x 73 x 15 km, WEG-model, made available by the industry) or a coarse regional model (1600 x 1600 x 45 km, data from CRUST1.0, Laske et al. 2013) and for some cases a combination of both models was used for the relocalization. The results confirm the trend of the older routine analysis: The majority of the events are located at the margins of the natural gas fields, some of them are now located closer to them. Focal depths mostly vary between 3.5 km and 10 km. However, for some of the events, especially for the older events with relatively bad station coverage, the error bars

  3. Pore-fluid migration and the timing of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake

    Hughes, K.L.H.; Masterlark, Timothy; Mooney, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    Two great earthquakes have occurred recently along the Sunda Trench, the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake. These earthquakes ruptured over 1600 km of adjacent crust within 3 mo of each other. We quantitatively present poroelastic deformation analyses suggesting that postseismic fluid flow and recovery induced by the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake advanced the timing of the Nias earthquake. Simple back-slip simulations indicate that the megapascal (MPa)-scale pore-pressure recovery is equivalent to 7 yr of interseismic Coulomb stress accumulation near the Nias earthquake hypocenter, implying that pore-pressure recovery of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake advanced the timing of the Nias earthquake by ~7 yr. That is, in the absence of postseismic pore-pressure recovery, we predict that the Nias earthquake would have occurred in 2011 instead of 2005. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  4. Nucleation and kinematic rupture of the 2017 Mw 8.2 Chiapas Mexico earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Huang, H.; Xie, Y.; Feng, T.; Dominguez, L. A.; Han, J.; Davis, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated geophysical observations from the 2017 Mw 8.2 Oaxaca, Mexico earthquake allow the exploration of one of the largest recorded normal faulting events inside a subducting slab. In this study, we collect seismic data from regional and teleseismic stations, and regional tsunami recordings to better understand the preparation and rupture processes. The mainshock occurred on the steeply dipping plane of a mega-normal fault, confirmed by time reversal analysis of tsunami waves. We utilize a template matching approach to detect possible missing earthquakes within a 2-month period before the Oaxaca mainshock. The seismicity rate (M > 3.7) shows an abrupt increase in the last day within 30 km around the mainshock hypocenter. The largest one is a M 4.6 event with similar normal faulting as the mainshock located at about 18 km updip from the hypocenter. The waveforms of the subsequent foreshocks are not similar, supporting the diversity of their locations or focal mechanisms. The nucleation process can be explained by a cascading process which eventually triggers the mainshock. Back-projection using the USArray network in Alaska reveals that the mainshock rupture propagated northwestward unilaterally at a speed of 3.1 km/s, for about 200 km and terminated near the Tehuantepec Fracture Zone. We also document the tectonic fabric of bending related faulting of the incoming Cocos plate. The mainshock is likely a reactivation of subducted outer rise faults, supported by the similarity of the strike angle between the mainshock and the outer rise faults. The surprisingly large magnitude is consistent with the exceedingly large dimensions of outer rise faulting in this particular segment of the central Mexican trench.

  5. Ground motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake II: Ground motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    SciT

    Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D

    2007-02-09

    We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sitesmore » throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.« less

  6. Streaks of Aftershocks Following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.; Engdahl, E. R.; Diehl, T.

    2009-12-01

    Five years after the devastating 26 December, 2004 M 9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, regional and global seismic networks have recorded tens of thousands of aftershocks. We use bulletin data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), and waveforms from IRIS, to relocate more than 20,000 hypocenters between 1964 and 2008 using teleseimic cross-correlation and double-difference methods. Relative location uncertainties of a few km or less allow for detailed analysis of the seismogenic faults activated as a result of the massive stress changes associated with the mega-thrust event. We focus our interest on an area of intense aftershock activity off-shore Banda Aceh in northern Sumatra, where the relocated epicenters reveal a pattern of northeast oriented streaks. The two most prominent streaks are ~70 km long with widths of only a few km. Some sections of the streaks are formed by what appear to be small, NNE striking sub-streaks. Hypocenter depths indicate that the events locate both on the plate interface and in the overriding Sunda plate, within a ~20 km wide band overlying the plate interface. Events on the plate interface indicate that the slab dip changes from ~20° to ~30° at around 50 km depth. Locations of the larger events in the overriding plate indicate an extension of the steeper dipping mega thrust fault to the surface, imaging what appears to be a major splay fault that reaches the surface somewhere near the western edge of the Aceh basin. Additional secondary splay faults, which branch off the plate interface at shallower depths, may explain the diffuse distribution of smaller events in the overriding plate, although their relative locations are less well constrained. Focal mechanisms support the relocation results. They show a narrowing range of fault dips with increasing distance from the trench. Specifically, they show reverse faulting on ~30° dipping faults above the shallow (20

  7. Appraising the Early-est earthquake monitoring system for tsunami alerting at the Italian Candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, F.; Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.; Lauciani, V.; Piatanesi, A.; Lorito, S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the performance of the procedure for earthquake location and characterization implemented in the Italian Candidate Tsunami Service Provider at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome. Following the ICG/NEAMTWS guidelines, the first tsunami warning messages are based only on seismic information, i.e., epicenter location, hypocenter depth, and magnitude, which are automatically computed by the software Early-est. Early-est is a package for rapid location and seismic/tsunamigenic characterization of earthquakes. The Early-est software package operates using offline-event or continuous-real-time seismic waveform data to perform trace processing and picking, and, at a regular report interval, phase association, event detection, hypocenter location, and event characterization. Early-est also provides mb, Mwp, and Mwpd magnitude estimations. mb magnitudes are preferred for events with Mwp ≲ 5.8, while Mwpd estimations are valid for events with Mwp ≳ 7.2. In this paper we present the earthquake parameters computed by Early-est between the beginning of March 2012 and the end of December 2014 on a global scale for events with magnitude M ≥ 5.5, and we also present the detection timeline. We compare the earthquake parameters automatically computed by Early-est with the same parameters listed in reference catalogs. Such reference catalogs are manually revised/verified by scientists. The goal of this work is to test the accuracy and reliability of the fully automatic locations provided by Early-est. In our analysis, the epicenter location, hypocenter depth and magnitude parameters do not differ significantly from the values in the reference catalogs. Both mb and Mwp magnitudes show differences to the reference catalogs. We thus derived correction functions in order to minimize the differences and correct biases between our values and the ones from the reference catalogs. Correction of the Mwp

  8. Fluid-faulting evolution in high definition: Connecting fault structure and frequency-magnitude variations during the 2014 Long Valley Caldera, California earthquake swarm

    Shelly, David R.; Ellsworth, William L.; Hill, David P.

    2016-01-01

    An extended earthquake swarm occurred beneath southeastern Long Valley Caldera between May and November 2014, culminating in three magnitude 3.5 earthquakes and 1145 cataloged events on 26 September alone. The swarm produced the most prolific seismicity in the caldera since a major unrest episode in 1997-1998. To gain insight into the physics controlling swarm evolution, we used large-scale cross-correlation between waveforms of cataloged earthquakes and continuous data, producing precise locations for 8494 events, more than 2.5 times the routine catalog. We also estimated magnitudes for 18,634 events (~5.5 times the routine catalog), using a principal component fit to measure waveform amplitudes relative to cataloged events. This expanded and relocated catalog reveals multiple episodes of pronounced hypocenter expansion and migration on a collection of neighboring faults. Given the rapid migration and alignment of hypocenters on narrow faults, we infer that activity was initiated and sustained by an evolving fluid pressure transient with a low-viscosity fluid, likely composed primarily of water and CO2 exsolved from underlying magma. Although both updip and downdip migration were observed within the swarm, downdip activity ceased shortly after activation, while updip activity persisted for weeks at moderate levels. Strongly migrating, single-fault episodes within the larger swarm exhibited a higher proportion of larger earthquakes (lower Gutenberg-Richter b value), which may have been facilitated by fluid pressure confined in two dimensions within the fault zone. In contrast, the later swarm activity occurred on an increasingly diffuse collection of smaller faults, with a much higher b value.

  9. Prediction of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion for the M=7.4 and M=7.2 1999, Turkey Earthquakes based upon Geological Structure Modeling and Local Earthquake Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, R.; Hutchings, L.

    2004-05-01

    We test a means to predict strong ground motion using the Mw=7.4 and Mw=7.2 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes. We generate 100 rupture scenarios for each earthquake, constrained by a prior knowledge, and use these to synthesize strong ground motion and make the prediction. Ground motion is synthesized with the representation relation using impulsive point source Green's functions and synthetic source models. We synthesize the earthquakes from DC to 25 Hz. We demonstrate how to incorporate this approach into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). The synthesis of earthquakes is based upon analysis of over 3,000 aftershocks recorded by several seismic networks. The analysis provides source parameters of the aftershocks; records available for use as empirical Green's functions; and a three-dimensional velocity structure from tomographic inversion. The velocity model is linked to a finite difference wave propagation code (E3D, Larsen 1998) to generate synthetic Green's functions (DC < f < 0.5 Hz). We performed the simultaneous inversion for hypocenter locations and three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the Marmara region using SIMULPS14 along with 2,500 events. We also obtained source moment and corner frequency and individual station attenuation parameter estimates for over 500 events by performing a simultaneous inversion to fit these parameters with a Brune source model. We used the results of the source inversion to deconvolve out a Brune model from small to moderate size earthquake (M<4.0) recordings to obtain empirical Green's functions for the higher frequency range of ground motion (0.5 < f < 25.0 Hz). Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  10. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2017-11-01

    Using 3-D dynamic rupture simulations, we investigated the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake to elucidate why and how the rupture of the main shock propagated successfully, assuming a complicated fault geometry estimated on the basis of the distributions of the aftershocks. The Mw7.1 main shock occurred along the Futagawa and Hinagu faults. Within 28 h before the main shock, three M6-class foreshocks occurred. Their hypocenters were located along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, and their focal mechanisms were similar to that of the main shock. Therefore, an extensive stress shadow should have been generated on the fault plane of the main shock. First, we estimated the geometry of the fault planes of the three foreshocks as well as that of the main shock based on the temporal evolution of the relocated aftershock hypocenters. We then evaluated the static stress changes on the main shock fault plane that were due to the occurrence of the three foreshocks, assuming elliptical cracks with constant stress drops on the estimated fault planes. The obtained static stress change distribution indicated that Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) was positive just below the hypocenter of the main shock, while the ΔCFS in the shallow region above the hypocenter was negative. Therefore, these foreshocks could encourage the initiation of the main shock rupture and could hinder the propagation of the rupture toward the shallow region. Finally, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the main shock using the initial stress distribution, which was the sum of the static stress changes caused by these foreshocks and the regional stress field. Assuming a slip-weakening law with uniform friction parameters, we computed 3-D dynamic rupture by varying the friction parameters and the values of the principal stresses. We obtained feasible parameter ranges that could reproduce the characteristic features of the main shock rupture revealed by seismic waveform analyses. We also

  11. Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir and triggering of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wei; Masterlark, Timothy; Ronchin, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir (ZR), China, began in September 2005 and was followed 2.7 years later by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (WE) rupturing the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), with its epicenter ~12 km away from the ZR. Based on the poroelastic theory, we employ three‐dimensional finite element models to simulate the evolution of stress and pore pressure due to reservoir impoundment, and its effect on the Coulomb failure stress on the LSF. The results indicate that the reservoir impoundment formed a pore pressure front that slowly propagated through the crust with fluid diffusion. The reservoir loading induced either moderate or no increase of the Coulomb failure stress at the hypocenter prior to the WE. The Coulomb failure stress, however, grew ~9.3–69.1 kPa in the depth range of 1–8 km on the LSF, which may have advanced tectonic loading of the fault system by ~60–450 years. Due to uncertainties of fault geometry and hypocenter location of the WE, it is inconclusive whether impoundment of the ZR directly triggered the WE. However, a small event at the hypocenter could have triggered large rupture elsewhere on fault, where the asperities were weakened by the ZR. The microseismicity around the ZR also showed an expanding pattern from the ZR since its impoundment, likely associated with diffusion of a positive pore pressure pulse. These results suggest a poroelastic triggering effect (even if indirectly) of the WE due to the impoundment of the ZR. PMID:27812436

  12. Strong Ground Motion Generation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Strong ground motions during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) were densely observed by the strong motion observation networks all over Japan. Seeing the acceleration and velocity waveforms observed at strong stations in northeast Japan along the source region, those ground motions are characterized by plural wave packets with duration of about twenty seconds. Particularly, two wave packets separated by about fifty seconds could be found on the records in the northern part of the damaged area, whereas only one significant wave packets could be recognized on the records in the southern part of the damaged area. The record section shows four isolated wave packets propagating from different locations to north and south, and it gives us a hint of the strong motion generation process on the source fault which is related to the heterogeneous rupture process in the scale of tens of kilometers. In order to solve it, we assume that each isolated wave packet is contributed by the corresponding strong motion generation area (SMGA). It is a source patch whose slip velocity is larger than off the area (Miyake et al., 2003). That is, the source model of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake consists of four SMGAs. The SMGA source model has succeeded in reproducing broadband strong ground motions for past subduction-zone events (e.g., Suzuki and Iwata, 2007). The target frequency range is set to be 0.1-10 Hz in this study as this range is significantly related to seismic damage generation to general man-made structures. First, we identified the rupture starting points of each SMGA by picking up the onset of individual packets. The source fault plane is set following the GCMT solution. The first two SMGAs were located approximately 70 km and 30 km west of the hypocenter. The third and forth SMGAs were located approximately 160 km and 230 km southwest of the hypocenter. Then, the model parameters (size, rise time, stress drop, rupture velocity, rupture propagation pattern) of these

  13. Links between clay transformation and earthquakes along the Costa Rican subduction margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Rachel M.; Saffer, Demian M.; Harris, Robert N.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the depth distribution of smectite clay transformation and its along-strike variability at the Middle America Trench offshore Costa Rica. We take advantage of recent well-constrained thermal models that refine our understanding of the margin's thermal structure and which capture significant along-strike variability. Using these thermal models, together with sediment compositions defined by drilling, we compute the distribution of smectite transformation and associated fluid production. We show that the hypocenters of large (M > 6.9) well-located megathrust earthquakes lie consistently downdip of peak fluid production. We suggest that silica cementation associated with smectite transformation promotes lithification and slip-weakening behavior that, in combination with declining fluid pressures, facilitate the initiation of unstable slip. The earthquake ruptures extend updip into the region of peak reaction, possibly due to excess pore pressures that facilitate their propagation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that smectite transformation contributes to the onset of stick-slip behavior and acts as an important control on earthquake nucleation and propagation.

  14. Migrating swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    Shelly, D.R.; Hill, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, where high pressures and temperatures would typically promote ductile deformation, are relatively rare but occasionally observed beneath active volcanic centers. Where they occur, these earthquakes provide a rare opportunity to observe volcanic processes in the lower crust, such as fluid injection and migration, which may induce brittle faulting under these conditions. Here, we examine recent short-duration earthquake swarms deep beneath the southwestern margin of Long Valley Caldera, near Mammoth Mountain. We focus in particular on a swarm that occurred September 29-30, 2009. To maximally illuminate the spatial-temporal progression, we supplement catalog events by detecting additional small events with similar waveforms in the continuous data, achieving up to a 10-fold increase in the number of locatable events. We then relocate all events, using cross-correlation and a double-difference algorithm. We find that the 2009 swarm exhibits systematically decelerating upward migration, with hypocenters shallowing from 21 to 19 km depth over approximately 12 hours. This relatively high migration rate, combined with a modest maximum magnitude of 1.4 in this swarm, suggests the trigger might be ascending CO2 released from underlying magma.

  15. Spatiotemporal earthquake clusters along the North Anatolian fault zone offshore Istanbul

    Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) in northwest Turkey along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual fault patches, permitting a better understanding of fault kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent fault patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring fault patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.

  16. Source and Aftershock Analysis of a Large Deep Earthquake in the Tonga Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Warren, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 9 November 2009 (Mw 7.3) deep focus earthquake (depth = 591 km) occurred in the Tonga flat slab region, which is characterized by limited seismicity but has been imaged as a flat slab in tomographic imaging studies. In addition, this earthquake occurred immediately beneath the largest of the Fiji Islands and was well recorded by a temporary array of 16 broadband seismographs installed in Fiji and Tonga, providing an excellent opportunity to study the source mechanism of a deep earthquake in a partially aseismic flat slab region. We determine the positions of main shock hypocenter, its aftershocks and moment release subevents relative to the background seismicity using a hypocentroidal decomposition relative relocation method. We also investigate the rupture directivity by measuring the variation of rupture durations at different azimuth [e.g., Warren and Silver, 2006]. Arrival times picked from the local seismic stations together with teleseismic arrival times from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) are used for the relocation. Teleseismic waveforms are used for directivity study. Preliminary results show this entire region is relatively aseismic, with diffuse background seismicity distributed between 550-670 km. The main shock happened in a previously aseismic region, with only 1 small earthquake within 50 km during 1980-2012. 11 aftershocks large enough for good locations all occurred within the first 24 hours following the earthquake. The aftershock zone extends about 80 km from NW to SE, covering a much larger area than the mainshock rupture. The aftershock distribution does not correspond to the main shock fault plane, unlike the 1994 March 9 (Mw 7.6) Fiji-Tonga earthquake in the steeply dipping, highly seismic part of the Tonga slab. Mainshock subevent locations suggest a sub-horizontal SE-NW rupture direction. However, the directivity study shows a complicated rupture process which could not be solved with simple rupture assumption. We will

  17. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for

  18. High-precision relocation for aftershocks of the 2016 ML 5.8 Gyeongju earthquake in South Korea: Stress partitioning controlled by complex fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. U.; Rhie, J.; Kang, T. S.; Kim, S.; Chai, G.; Cho, E.

    2017-12-01

    Complex inherent fault system is one of key factors controlling the main shock occurrence and the pattern of aftershock sequence. Many field studies have shown that the fault systems in the Korean Peninsula are complex because they formed by various tectonic events since Proterozoic. Apart from that the mainshock is the largest one (ML 5.8) ever recorded in South Korea, the Gyeongju earthquake sequence shows particularly interesting features: ML 5.1 event preceded ML 5.8 event by 50 min and they are located closely to each other ( 1 km). In addition, ML 4.5 event occurred 2 3 km away from the two events after a week of the mainshock. Considering reported focal mechanisms and hypocenters of the three major events, it is unlikely that the earthquake sequence occurs on a single fault plane. To depict the detailed fault geometry associated with the sequence, we precisely determine the relative locations of 1,400 aftershocks recorded by 27 broadband stations, which started to be deployed less than one hour after the mainshock. Double difference algorithm is applied using relative travel time measurements by a waveform cross-correlation method. Relocated hypocenters show that a major fault striking NE-SW and some minor faults get involved in the sequence. In particular, aftershocks immediately following ML 4.5 event seem to occur on a fault striking NW-SE, which is orthogonal to the strike of a major fault. We expect that the Gyeongju earthquake sequence resulted from the stress transfer controlled by the complex inherent fault system in this region.

  19. Along-strike variations in fault frictional properties along the San Andreas Fault near Cholame, California from joint earthquake and low-frequency earthquake relocations

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Griffiths, Emily M.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of low‐frequency earthquakes (LFEs) and tectonic tremor along the Parkfield–Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault suggest slow‐slip earthquakes occur in a transition zone between the shallow fault, which accommodates slip by a combination of aseismic creep and earthquakes (<15  km depth), and the deep fault, which accommodates slip by stable sliding (>35  km depth). However, the spatial relationship between shallow earthquakes and LFEs remains unclear. Here, we present precise relocations of 34 earthquakes and 34 LFEs recorded during a temporary deployment of 13 broadband seismic stations from May 2010 to July 2011. We use the temporary array waveform data, along with data from permanent seismic stations and a new high‐resolution 3D velocity model, to illuminate the fine‐scale details of the seismicity distribution near Cholame and the relation to the distribution of LFEs. The depth of the boundary between earthquakes and LFE hypocenters changes along strike and roughly follows the 350°C isotherm, suggesting frictional behavior may be, in part, thermally controlled. We observe no overlap in the depth of earthquakes and LFEs, with an ∼5  km separation between the deepest earthquakes and shallowest LFEs. In addition, clustering in the relocated seismicity near the 2004 Mw 6.0 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter and near the northern boundary of the 1857 Mw 7.8 Fort Tejon rupture may highlight areas of frictional heterogeneities on the fault where earthquakes tend to nucleate.

  20. Application of Phase-Weighted Stacking to Low-Frequency Earthquakes near the Alpine Fault, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratin, L. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Savage, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Characterising seismicity in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a major transform boundary late in its typical earthquake cycle, may provide constraints on the state of stress preceding a large earthquake. Here, we use recently detected tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) to examine how slow tectonic deformation is loading the Alpine Fault toward an anticipated major rupture. We work with a continuous seismic dataset collected between 2009 and 2012 from a network of short-period seismometers, the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA). Fourteen primary LFE templates have been used to scan the dataset using a matched-filter technique based on an iterative cross-correlation routine. This method allows the detection of similar signals and establishes LFE families with common hypocenter locations. The detections are then combined for each LFE family using phase-weighted stacking (Thurber et al., 2014) to produce a signal with the highest possible signal to noise ratio. We find this method to be successful in increasing the number of LFE detections by roughly 10% in comparison with linear stacking. Our next step is to manually pick polarities on first arrivals of the phase-weighted stacked signals and compute preliminary locations. We are working to estimate LFE focal mechanism parameters and refine the focal mechanism solutions using an amplitude ratio technique applied to the linear stacks. LFE focal mechanisms should provide new insight into the geometry and rheology of the Alpine Fault and the stress field prevailing in the central Southern Alps.

  1. Hazard Assessment and Early Warning of Tsunamis: Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M 9.0) was the largest earthquake in Japanese history, and was the best recorded subduction-zone earthquakes in the world. In particular, various offshore geophysical observations revealed large horizontal and vertical seafloor movements, and the tsunami was recorded on high-quality, high-sampling gauges. Analysis of such tsunami waveforms shows a temporal and spatial slip distribution during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The fault rupture started near the hypocenter and propagated into both deep and shallow parts of the plate interface. Very large, ~25 m, slip off Miyagi on the deep part of plate interface corresponds to an interplate earthquake of M 8.8, the location and size similar to 869 Jogan earthquake model, and was responsible for the large tsunami inundation in Sendai and Ishinomaki plains. Huge slip, more than 50 m, occurred on the shallow part near the trench axis ~3 min after the earthquake origin time. This delayed shallow rupture (M 8.8) was similar to the 1896 "tsunami earthquake," and was responsible for the large tsunami on the northern Sanriku coast, measured at ~100 km north of the largest slip. Thus the Tohoku earthquake can be decomposed into an interplate earthquake and the triggered "tsunami earthquake." The Japan Meteorological Agency issued tsunami warning 3 minutes after the earthquake, and saved many lives. However, their initial estimation of tsunami height was underestimated, because the earthquake magnitude was initially estimated as M 7.9, hence the computed tsunami heights were lower. The JMA attempts to improve the tsunami warning system, including technical developments to estimate the earthquake size in a few minutes by using various and redundant information, to deploy and utilize the offshore tsunami observations, and to issue a warning based on the worst case scenario if a possibility of giant earthquake exists. Predicting a trigger of another large earthquake would still be a challenge

  2. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  3. Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

    2013-12-01

    (~320 events), and Long Valley Caldera (~40 events). LP earthquakes are notably absent under Mount Shasta. With the exception of Long Valley Caldera where LP earthquakes occur at depths of ≤5 km, hypocenters are generally between 15-25 km. The rates of LP occurrence over the last decade have been relatively steady within the study areas, except at Mammoth Mountain, where years of gradually declining LP activity abruptly increased after a swarm of unusually deep (20 km) VT earthquakes in October 2012. Epicenter locations relative to the sites of most recent volcanism vary across volcanic centers, but most LP earthquakes fall within 10 km of young vents. Source models for LP earthquakes often involve the resonance of fluid-filled cracks or nonlinear flow of fluids along irregular cracks (reviewed in Chouet and Matoza, 2013, JVGR). At mid-crustal depths the relevant fluids are likely to be low-viscosity basaltic melt and/or exsolved CO2-rich volatiles (Lassen, Clear Lake, Mammoth Mountain). In the shallow crust, however, hydrothermal waters/gases are likely involved in the generation of LP seismicity (Long Valley Caldera).

  4. Imaging inhomogeneous seismic velocity structure in and around the fault plane of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi, Japan, Nairiku Earthquake (M7.2) - spatial variation in depth of seismic-aseismic transition and possible high-T/overpressurized fluid distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, G. O.

    2008-12-01

    A large shallow earthquake (named the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake) with a JMA magnitude of 7.2 occurred in the central part of NE Japan on June 14, 2008. Focal area of the present earthquake is located in the Tohoku backbone range strain concentration zone (Miura et al., 2004) along the volcanic front. Just after the occurrence of this earthquake, Japanese universities (Hokkaido, Hirosaki, Tohoku, Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Kochi, Kyusyu, Kagoshima) and NIED deployed a dense aftershock observation network in and around the focal area. Total number of temporal stations is 128. Using data from this dense aftershock observation and other temporary and routinely operated stations, we estimate hypocenter distribution and seismic velocity structure of the crust in and around the focal area of the present earthquake. We determined three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and relocated hypocenters simultaneously using the double- difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). Spatial extent of the aftershock area is about 45 km (NNE-SSW) by 15 km (WNW-ESE). Most of aftershocks are aligned in westward dipping. Shallower extensions of aftershock alignments seem to be located nearly at the coseismic surface deformations, which are along a geological fault, and the surface trace of the active fault (Detana fault). Note that some aftershocks seem to occur off the fault plane of the mainshock. The focal area of the present earthquake is located at a high Vs area. In the lower crust, we found some distinct low-Vs areas. These low velocity zones are located just beneath the strain concentration zones / seismic belts along the backbone range and in the northern Miyagi region. Focal area of the present earthquake is also located just above the low velocity zone in the lower crust. Beneath active volcanoes, these low velocity zones become more distinct and shallower, and aftershocks tend to occur shallower and not occur within such low-velocity zones. These low

  5. Structural features of the Pernicana Fault (M. Etna, Sicily, Italy) inferred by high precise location of the microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alparone, S.; Gambino, S.; Mostaccio, A.; Spampinato, S.; Tuvè, T.; Ursino, A.

    2009-04-01

    The north-eastern flank of Mt. Etna is crossed by an important and active tectonic structure, the Pernicana Fault having a mean strike WNW-ESE. It links westward to the active NE Rift and seems to have an important role in controlling instability processes affecting the eastern flank of the volcano. Recent studies suggest that Pernicana Fault is very active through sinistral, oblique-slip movements and is also characterised by frequent shallow seismicity (depth < 2 km bsl) on the uphill western segment and by remarkable creeping on the downhill eastern one. The Pernicana Fault earthquakes, which can reach magnitudes up to 4.2, sometimes with coseismic surface faulting, caused severe damages to tourist resorts and villages along or close this structure. In the last years, a strong increase of seismicity, also characterized by swarms, was recorded by INGV-CT permanent local seismic network close the Pernicana Fault. A three-step procedure was applied to calculate precise hypocentre locations. In a first step, we chose to apply cross-correlation analysis, in order to easily evaluate the similarity of waveforms useful to identify earthquakes families. In a second step, we calculate probabilistic earthquake locations using the software package NONLINLOC, which includes systematic, complete grid search and global, non-linear search methods. Subsequently, we perform relative relocation of correlated event pairs using the double-difference earthquake algorithm and the program HypoDD. The double-difference algorithm minimizes the residuals between observed and calculated travel time difference for pairs of earthquakes at common stations by iteratively adjusting the vector difference between the hypocenters. We show the recognized spatial seismic clusters identifying the most active and hazarding sectors of the structure, their geometry and depth. Finally, in order to clarify the geodynamic framework of the area, we associate these results with calculated focal mechanisms

  6. How does Subduction Interface Roughness influence Megathrust Earthquakes: Insights from Natural Data and Analogue Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijsingen, E.; Lallemand, S.; Peyret, M.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Arcay, D.; Heuret, A.

    2017-12-01

    The role of subducting oceanic features on the seismogenic behavior of subduction zones has been increasingly addressed over the past years, although their exact relationship remains unclear. Do features like seamounts, fracture zones or submarine ridges act as barriers, prohibiting ruptures to propagate, or do they initiate megathrust earthquakes instead? With this question in mind, we aim to better understand the influence of subduction interface roughness on the location of an earthquake's hypocenter, rupture area and seismic asperity. Following the work on compiling a dual-wavelength subduction interface roughness (SubRough) database, we used this roughness proxy for a global comparison with large subduction earthquakes (MW > 7.5), which occurred since 1900 (SubQuake, new catalogue). We made a quantitative comparison between the earthquake data on the landward side of the trench and the roughness proxy on the seaward side, taking into account the most appropriate direction of roughness extrapolation. Main results show that areas with low roughness at long wavelengths (i.e. 80-100 km) are more prone to host large- to mega-earthquakes. In addition to this natural data study, we perform analogue experiments, which allow us to investigate the role subducting oceanic features play over the course of multiple seismic cycles. The experimental setup consists of a gelatin wedge and an underthrusting rigid aluminum plate (i.e. the analogues of the overriding and downgoing plates, respectively). By adding scaled 3D-printed topographic features (e.g. seamounts) on the downgoing plate, we are able to accurately monitor the initiation and propagation of ruptures with respect to the subducting features. Here we show the results of our natural data study, some preliminary results of the analogue models and our first conclusions on how the subduction interface roughness may influence the seismogenic potential of an area.

  7. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  8. Class Room Exercises Using JMA-59-Type Seismograms for Earthquake Study at High-School Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Furuta, S.; Hirota, N.

    2013-12-01

    The JMA-59-type electromagnetic seismograph was the standard seismograph for routine observations by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from the 1960's to the 1990's. Some features of those seismograms include 1) displacement wave records (electrically integrated from a velocity output by a moving-coil-type sensor), 2) ink records on paper (analog recording with time marks), 3) continuous drum recording for 12 h, and 4) lengthy operation time over several decades. However, the digital revolution in recording systems during the 1990's made these analog features obsolete, and their abundant and bulky paper-based records were stacked and sometimes disregarded in the library of every observatory. Interestingly, from an educational aspect, the disadvantages of these old-fashioned systems become highly advantageous for educational or outreach purposes. The updated digital instrument is essentially a 'black-box,' not revealing its internal mechanisms and being too fast for observing its signal processes. While the old seismometers and recording systems have been disposed of long since, stacks of analog seismograms continue to languish in observatories' back rooms. In our study, we develop some classroom exercises for studying earthquakes at the mid- to high-school level using these analog seismograms. These exercises include 1) reading the features of seismic records, 2) measuring the S-P time, 3) converting the hypocentral distance from Omori's distance formula, 4) locating the epicenter/hypocenter using the S-P times of surrounding stations, and 5) estimating earthquake magnitude using the Tsuboi's magnitude formula. For this calculation we developed a 'nomogram'--a graphical paper calculator created using a Python-based freeware tool named 'PyNomo.' We tested many seismograms and established the following rules: 1) shallow earthquakes are appropriate for using the Tsuboi's magnitude formula; 2) there is no saturation at peak amplitude; 3) seismograms make it easy to

  9. Imaging the Subduction Plate Interface Using Low-Frequency Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plourde, A. P.; Bostock, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Low-frequency Earthquakes (LFEs) in subduction zones are commonly thought to represent slip on the plate interface. They have also been observed to lie near or within a zone of low shear-wave velocity, which is modelled as fluid-rich upper oceanic crust. Due to relatively large depth uncertainties in absolute hypocenters of most LFE families, their location relative to an independently imaged subucting plate and, consequently, the nature of the plate boundary at depths between 30-45 km have not been precisely determined. For a selection of LFE families in northern Washington, we measure variations in arrival time of individual LFE detections using multi-channel cross-correlation incorporating both arrivals at the same station and different events (cross-detection data), and the same event but different stations (cross-station data). Employing HypoDD, these times are used to generate relative locations for individual LFE detections. After creating templates from spatial subgroups of detections, network cross-correlation techniques will be used to search for new detections in neighbouring areas, thereby expanding the local catalogue and enabling further subdivision. By combining the source ``arrays'' and the receiver arrays from the Array of Arrays experiment we plan to interrogate plate boundary structure using migration of scattered waves from the subduction complex as previously documented beneath southern Vancouver Island.

  10. Analysis of the similar epicenter earthquakes on 22 January 2013 and 01 June 2013, Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, Mostafa; Barth, Andreas; Ali, Sherif M.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-09-01

    On 22 January 2013 an earthquake with local magnitude ML 4.1 occurred in the central part of the Gulf of Suez. Six months later on 1 June 2013 another earthquake with local magnitude ML 5.1 took place at the same epicenter and different depths. These two perceptible events were recorded and localized by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) and additional networks in the region. The purpose of this study is to determine focal mechanisms and source parameters of both earthquakes to analyze their tectonic relation. We determine the focal mechanisms by applying moment tensor inversion and first motion analysis of P- and S-waves. Both sources reveal oblique focal mechanisms with normal faulting and strike-slip components on differently oriented faults. The source mechanism of the larger event on 1 June in combination with the location of aftershock sequence indicates a left-lateral slip on N-S striking fault structure in 21 km depth that is in conformity with the NE-SW extensional Shmin (orientation of minimum horizontal compressional stress) and the local fault pattern. On the other hand, the smaller earthquake on 22 January with a shallower hypocenter in 16 km depth seems to have happened on a NE-SW striking fault plane sub-parallel to Shmin. Thus, here an energy release on a transfer fault connecting dominant rift-parallel structures might have resulted in a stress transfer, triggering the later ML 5.1 earthquake. Following Brune's model and using displacement spectra, we calculate the dynamic source parameters for the two events. The estimated source parameters for the 22 January 2013 and 1 June 2013 earthquakes are fault length (470 and 830 m), stress drop (1.40 and 2.13 MPa), and seismic moment (5.47E+21 and 6.30E+22 dyn cm) corresponding to moment magnitudes of MW 3.8 and 4.6, respectively.

  11. High-frequency source radiation during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Japan, inferred from KiK-net strong-motion seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Aoi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    investigate source processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we utilized a source location method using high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes. In this method, we assumed far-field isotropic radiation of S waves, and conducted a spatial grid search to find the best fitting source locations along the subducted slab in each successive time window. Our application of the method to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake resulted in artifact source locations at shallow depths near the trench caused by limited station coverage and noise effects. We then assumed various source node distributions along the plate, and found that the observed seismograms were most reasonably explained when assuming deep source nodes. This result suggests that the high-frequency seismic waves were radiated at deeper depths during the earthquake, a feature which is consistent with results obtained from teleseismic back-projection and strong-motion source model studies. We identified three high-frequency subevents, and compared them with the moment-rate function estimated from low-frequency seismograms. Our comparison indicated that no significant moment release occurred during the first high-frequency subevent and the largest moment-release pulse occurred almost simultaneously with the second high-frequency subevent. We speculated that the initial slow rupture propagated bilaterally from the hypocenter toward the land and trench. The landward subshear rupture propagation consisted of three successive high-frequency subevents. The trenchward propagation ruptured the strong asperity and released the largest moment near the trench.

  12. An adjoint-based FEM optimization of coseismic displacements following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: new insights for the limits of the upper plate rebound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, Fabio; Jin, Shuanggen; Aloisi, Marco

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake was the strongest event recorded in recent historic seismicity in Japan. Several researchers reported the deformation and possible mechanism as triggered by a mega thrust fault located offshore at the interface between the Pacific and the Okhotsk Plate. The studies to estimate the deformation in detail and the dynamics involved are still in progress. In this paper, coseismic GPS displacements associated with Tohoku earthquake are used to infer the amount of slip on the fault plane. Starting from the fault displacements configuration proposed by Caltech-JPL ARIA group and Geoazur CNRS, an optimization of these displacements is performed by developing a 3D finite element method (FEM) model, including the data of GPS-acoustic stations located offshore. The optimization is performed for different scenarios which include the presence of topography and bathymetry (DEM) as well as medium heterogeneities. By mean of the optimized displacement distribution for the most complete case (heterogeneous with DEM), a broad slip distribution, not narrowly centered east of hypocenter, is inferred. The resulting displacement map suggests that the beginning of the area of subsidence is not at east of MYGW GPS-acoustic station, as some researchers have suggested, and that the area of polar reversal of the vertical displacement is rather located at west of MYGW. The new fault slip distribution fits well for all the stations at ground and offshore and provides new information on the earthquake generation process and on the kinematics of Northern Japan area.

  13. 3D Velocity Structure in Southern Haiti from Local Earthquake Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douilly, R.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Kissling, E. H.; Freed, A. M.; Deschamps, A.; de Lepinay, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate 3D local earthquake tomography for high-quality travel time arrivals from aftershocks following the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake on the Léogâne fault. The data were recorded by 35 stations, including 19 ocean bottom seismometers, from which we selected 595 events to simultaneously invert for hypocenter location and 3D Vp and Vs velocity structures in southern Haiti. We performed several resolution tests and concluded that clear features can be recovered to a depth of 15 km. At 5km depth we distinguish a broad low velocity zone in the Vp and Vs structure offshore near Gonave Island, which correlate with layers of marine sediments. Results show a pronounced low velocity zone in the upper 5 km across the city of Léogâne, which is consistent with the sedimentary basin location from geologic map. At 10 km depth, we detect a low velocity anomaly offshore near the Trois Baies fault and a NW-SE directed low velocity zone onshore across Petit-Goâve and Jacmel, which is consistent with a suspected fault from a previous study and that we refer to it in our study as the Petit-Goâve-Jacmel fault (PGJF). These observations suggest that low velocity structures delineate fault structures and the sedimentary basins across the southern peninsula, which is extremely useful for seismic hazard assessment in Haiti.

  14. Hazard assessment of long-period ground motions for the Nankai Trough earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Aoi, S.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate a seismic hazard for long-period ground motions associated with the Nankai Trough earthquakes (M8~9) in southwest Japan. Large interplate earthquakes occurring around the Nankai Trough have caused serious damages due to strong ground motions and tsunami; most recent events were in 1944 and 1946. Such large interplate earthquake potentially causes damages to high-rise and large-scale structures due to long-period ground motions (e.g., 1985 Michoacan earthquake in Mexico, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake in Japan). The long-period ground motions are amplified particularly on basins. Because major cities along the Nankai Trough have developed on alluvial plains, it is therefore important to evaluate long-period ground motions as well as strong motions and tsunami for the anticipated Nankai Trough earthquakes. The long-period ground motions are evaluated by the finite difference method (FDM) using 'characterized source models' and the 3-D underground structure model. The 'characterized source model' refers to a source model including the source parameters necessary for reproducing the strong ground motions. The parameters are determined based on a 'recipe' for predicting strong ground motion (Earthquake Research Committee (ERC), 2009). We construct various source models (~100 scenarios) giving the various case of source parameters such as source region, asperity configuration, and hypocenter location. Each source region is determined by 'the long-term evaluation of earthquakes in the Nankai Trough' published by ERC. The asperity configuration and hypocenter location control the rupture directivity effects. These parameters are important because our preliminary simulations are strongly affected by the rupture directivity. We apply the system called GMS (Ground Motion Simulator) for simulating the seismic wave propagation based on 3-D FDM scheme using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999) to our study. The grid spacing for the shallow region is 200 m and

  15. Seismic and Aseismic Behavior of the Altotiberina Low-angle Normal Fault System (Northern Apennines, Italy) through High-resolution Earthquake Locations and Repeating Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, L.; Chiaraluce, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low-angle normal faults (dip < 30°) are geologically widely documented and considered responsible for accommodating the crustal extension within the brittle crust although their mechanical behavior and seismogenic potential is enigmatic. We study the anatomy and slip-behavior of the actively slipping Altotiberina low-angle (ATF) normal fault system using a high-resolution 5-years-long (2010-2014) earthquake catalogue composed of 37k events (ML<3.9 and completeness magnitude MC=0.5 ML), recorded by a dense permanent seismic network of the Altotiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO). The seismic activity defines the fault system dominated at depth by the low-angle ATF surface (15-20°) coinciding to the ATF geometry imaged through seismic reflection data. The ATF extends for 50km along-strike and between 4-5 to 16km of depth. Seismicity also images the geometry of a set of higher angle faults (35-50°) located in the ATF hanging-wall (HW). The ATF-related seismicity accounts for 10% of the whole seismicity (3,700 events with ML<2.4), occurring at a remarkably constant rate of 2.2 events/day. This seismicity describes an about 1.5-km-thick fault zone composed by multiple sub-parallel slipping planes. The remaining events are instead organized in multiple mainshocks (MW>3) seismic sequences lasting from weeks to months, activating a contiguous network of 3-5-km-long syn- and antithetic fault segments within the ATF-HW. The space-time evolution of these minor sequences is consistent with subsequence failures promoted by fluid flow. The ATF-seismicity pattern includes 97 clusters of repeating events (RE) made of 299 events with ML<1.9. RE are located around locked patches identified by geodetic modeling, suggesting a mixed-mode (stick-slip and stable-sliding) slip-behavior along the fault plane in accommodating most of the NE-trending tectonic deformation with creeping dominating below 5 km depth. Consistently, the seismic moment released by the ATF-seismicity accounts

  16. Detection of high-frequency radiation sources during the 2004 Parkfield earthquake by a matched filter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchide, T.; Shearer, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    recorded at the 13 stations of UPSAR [Fletcher et al, 1992]. At each station, both acceleration and velocity sensors are installed, therefore both large and small earthquakes are observable. We employ 184 earthquakes (M 2.0 - 3.5) as template events, and 0.5 s of the P waves on the vertical components and the S waves on all three components. The data are bandpass-filtered between 4 and 16 Hz. One source is detected at 4 s and 12 km northwest from the hypocenter. Although the CC has generally low values, its peak is more than five times larger than its standard deviation and thus remarkably high. This source is close to the secondary onset revealed by a back-projection analysis of 2 - 8 Hz data from Parkfield strong motion stations [Allmann and Shearer, 2007]. While the back-projection approach images the peak of HF radiation, our method detects the onset time, which is slightly different. Another source is located at 1.2 s and 2 km southeast from the hypocenter, which may correspond to deceleration of the initial rupture. Comparisons of the derived HF radiation sources to the whole rupture process will help us reveal general earthquake source dynamics.

  17. Importance of model parameterization in finite fault inversions: Application to the 1974 Mw 8.0 Peru Earthquake

    Hartzell, Stephen; Langer, Charley

    1993-01-01

    The spatial and temporal slip distributions for the October 3, 1974 (Mw = 8.0), Peru subduction zone earthquake and its largest aftershock on November 9 (Ms = 7.1) are calculated and analyzed in terms of the inversion parameterization and tectonic significance. Teleseismic, long-period World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network, P and SH waveforms are inverted to obtain the rupture histories. We demonstrate that erroneous results are obtained if a parameterization is used that does not allow for a sufficiently complex source, involving spatial variation in slip amplitude, risetime, and rupture time. The inversion method utilizes a parameterization of the fault that allows for a discretized source risetime and rupture time. Well-located aftershocks recorded on a local network have the same general pattern as teleseismically determined hypocenters and help to constrain the geometry of the subduction zone. For the main shock a hinged fault is preferred having a shallow plane with a dip of 11° and a deeper, landward plane with a dip of 30°. The preferred nucleation depth lies between 11 and 15 km. A bilateral rupture is obtained with two major concentrations of slip, one 60 to 70 km to the northwest of the epicenter and a second 80 to 100 km to the south and southeast of the epicenter. For these source regions, risetimes vary from 6 to 18 s. Our estimates of risetimes are consistent with the time for the rupture to traverse the dominant local asperity. The slip distribution for the November 9 aftershock falls within a conspicuous hole in the main shock rupture pattern, near the hypocenter of the main shock. The November 9 event has a simple risetime function with a duration of 2 s. Aftershocks recorded by the local network are shown to cluster near the hypocenter of the impending November 9 event and downdip from the largest main shock source region. Slip during the main shock is concentrated at shallow depths above 15 km and extends updip from the hypocenter to near

  18. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, part II: Ground-motion estimates for the 1906 earthquake and scenario events

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.

  19. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  20. Detailed fault structure of the Tarutung Pull-Apart Basin in Sumatra, Indonesia, derived from local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muksin, Umar; Haberland, Christian; Nukman, Mochamad; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Tarutung Basin is located at a right step-over in the northern central segment of the dextral strike-slip Sumatran Fault System (SFS). Details of the fault structure along the Tarutung Basin are derived from the relocations of seismicity as well as from focal mechanism and structural geology. The seismicity distribution derived by a 3D inversion for hypocenter relocation is clustered according to a fault-like seismicity distribution. The seismicity is relocated with a double-difference technique (HYPODD) involving the waveform cross-correlations. We used 46,904 and 3191 arrival differences obtained from catalogue data and cross-correlation analysis, respectively. Focal mechanisms of events were analyzed by applying a grid search method (HASH code). Although there is no significant shift of the hypocenters (10.8 m in average) and centroids (167 m in average), the application of the double difference relocation sharpens the earthquake distribution. The earthquake lineation reflects the fault system, the extensional duplex fault system, and the negative flower structure within the Tarutung Basin. The focal mechanisms of events at the edge of the basin are dominantly of strike-slip type representing the dextral strike-slip Sumatran Fault System. The almost north-south striking normal fault events along extensional zones beneath the basin correlate with the maximum principal stress direction which is the direction of the Indo-Australian plate motion. The extensional zones form an en-echelon pattern indicated by the presence of strike-slip faults striking NE-SW to NW-SE events. The detailed characteristics of the fault system derived from the seismological study are also corroborated by structural geology at the surface.

  1. Source modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake sequence: Implications for geodynamics and earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Yeck, W. L.; Barnhart, W. D.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Bergman, E.; Adhikari, L. B.; Dixit, A.; Hough, S. E.; Benz, H. M.; Earle, P. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard. Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the décollement defining the plate boundary at depth, over an area surrounding but predominantly north of the capital city of Kathmandu (3) the distribution of aftershock seismicity surrounds the mainshock maximum slip patch; (4) aftershocks occur at or below the mainshock rupture plane with depths generally increasing to the north beneath the higher Himalaya, possibly outlining a 10-15 km thick subduction channel between the overriding Eurasian and subducting Indian plates; (5) the largest Mw 7.3 aftershock and the highest concentration of aftershocks occurred to the southeast the mainshock rupture, on a segment of the MHT décollement that was positively stressed towards failure; (6) the near surface portion of the MHT south of Kathmandu shows no aftershocks or slip during the mainshock. Results from this study characterize the details of the Gorkha earthquake sequence and provide constraints on where earthquake hazard remains high, and thus where future, damaging earthquakes may occur in this densely populated region. Up-dip segments of the MHT should be considered to be high hazard for future damaging earthquakes.

  2. Source modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake sequence: Implications for geodynamics and earthquake hazards

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Yeck, William; Barnhart, William D.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Bergman, E.; Adhikari, L. B.; Dixit, Amod; Hough, S.E.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard.Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a ~ 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the décollement defining the plate boundary at depth, over an area surrounding but predominantly north of the capital city of Kathmandu (3) the distribution of aftershock seismicity surrounds the mainshock maximum slip patch; (4) aftershocks occur at or below the mainshock rupture plane with depths generally increasing to the north beneath the higher Himalaya, possibly outlining a 10–15 km thick subduction channel between the overriding Eurasian and subducting Indian plates; (5) the largest Mw 7.3 aftershock and the highest concentration of aftershocks occurred to the southeast the mainshock rupture, on a segment of the MHT décollement that was positively stressed towards failure; (6) the near surface portion of the MHT south of Kathmandu shows no aftershocks or slip during the mainshock. Results from this study characterize the details of the Gorkha earthquake sequence and provide constraints on where earthquake hazard remains high, and thus where future, damaging earthquakes may occur in this densely populated region. Up-dip segments of the MHT should be considered to be high hazard for future damaging earthquakes.

  3. The 2008 earthquakes in the Bavarian Molasse Basin - possible relation to deep geothermics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Wassermann, J.; Deichmann, N.; Stange, S.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss several microearthquakes of magnitude up to Ml=2.3 that occurred in the Bavarian Molasse Basin (ByM), south of Munich, Germany, in February and July 2008. The strongest event was felt by local residents. The Bavarian Earthquake catalog, which dates back to the year 1000, does list a small number of isolated earthquakes in the western part of the ByM as well as a cluster of mining induced earthquakes (Peißenberg 1962-1970, I0(MSK)=5.5). The eastern part of the ByM, including the wider surrounding of Munich, was so far considered aseismic. Due to the spatio-temporal clustering of the microearthquakes in February and July 2008 the University of Munich (LMU) and the Swiss Seismologcical Service installed a temporal network of seismological stations in the south of Munich to investigate the newly arising seismicity. First analysis of the recorded data indicate shallow source depths (~5km) for the July events. This result is supported by the fact that one of these very small earthquakes was felt by local residents. The earthquakes hypocenters are located closely to a number of deep geothermal wells of 3-4.5km depth being either in production or running productivity tests in late 2007 and early 2008. Therefore, the 2008 seimicity might represent a case of induced seimicity related to the injection or withdrawal of water from the hydrothermal aquifer. Due to the lack of high quality recordings of a denser seismic monitoring network in the source area it is not possible to resolve details of the processes behind the 2008 seismicity. Therefore, a definite answer to the question if the earthquakes are related the deep geothermal projects or not can not be given at present. However, a number of recent well-studied cases have proved that earthquakes can also happen in depths much shallower than 5km, and that small changes of the hydrological conditions at depth are sufficient to trigger seismicity. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the causative processes

  4. Consistent earthquake catalog derived from changing network configurations: Application to the Rawil Depression in the southwestern Helvetic Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Timothy; Diehl, Tobias; Kissling, Edi; Wiemer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake catalogs derived from several decades of observations are often biased by network geometries, location procedures, and data quality changing with time. To study the long-term spatio-temporal behavior of seismogenic fault zones at high-resolution, a consistent homogenization and improvement of earthquake catalogs is required. Assuming that data quality and network density generally improves with time, procedures are needed, which use the best available data to homogeneously solve the coupled hypocenter - velocity structure problem and can be as well applied to earlier network configurations in the same region. A common approach to uniformly relocate earthquake catalogs is the calculation of a so-called "minimum 1D" model, which is derived from the simultaneous inversion for hypocenters and 1D velocity structure, including station specific delay-time corrections. In this work, we will present strategies using the principles of the "minimum 1D" model to consistently relocate hypocenters recorded by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) in the Swiss Alps over a period of 17 years in a region, which is characterized by significant changes in network configurations. The target region of this study is the Rawil depression, which is located between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs in southwestern Switzerland. The Rhone-Simplon Fault is located to the south of the Rawil depression and is considered as a dextral strike-slip fault representing the dominant tectonic boundary between Helvetic nappes to the north and Penninic nappes to the south. Current strike-slip earthquakes, however, occur predominantly in a narrow, east-west striking cluster located in the Rawil depression north of the Rhone-Simplon Fault. Recent earthquake swarms near Sion and Sierre in 2011 and 2016, on the other hand, indicate seismically active dextral faults close to the Rhone valley. The region north and south of the Rhone-Simplon Fault is one of the most seismically active regions in

  5. 2016-2017 Update of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    With a reported Richter magnitude (ML) of 4.8, the January 12, 2016 earthquake near Fox Creek is the largest event in Alberta during the past decade. This event led to the suspension of a nearby hydraulic fracturing well, in compliance with the provincial "traffic-light" protocol. In previous study, we examine the hypocenter location and focal mechanism of this earthquake, and the results support an anthropogenic origin. Since then (until August 2017), no event reached ML=4, while several ML>3 events occurred in the Fox Creek area. Their focal mechanisms are consistent with the ones from previous events that were induced by hydraulic fracturing, suggesting a strike-slip mechanism with either N-S or E-W trending fault. In 2017, the near-source station (distance <10 km) records around the ML 4.8 earthquake were released by the industry. To identify the true fault orientation(s), a waveform cross-correlation based analysis was conducted and over 1000 earthquakes with ML0 2 were identified within two weeks. The detected seismic swarm is closely distributed around the hydraulic fracturing well at 2.5-4.5 km depths, comparable to that of the injection (3.5 km). The spatial distribution of this earthquake cluster favors an N-S orientation of the reactivated faults, which is also supported by aeromagnetic and active-source seismic data. The temporal distribution of the seismicity indicates that the majority of these events took place during the stimulation phase, showing near-instantaneous response to the injection activity. Unlike an earlier (January 2015) earthquake swarm, the locations of these events are independent of injection phases (i.e., stimulation or shut-in). Finally, the b-value extracted from the detected cluster is close to one, which is comparable to natural earthquake sequences. In short, our updated study of the January 2016 sequence and recent events in 2017 offers new insights into the reactivated fault system and induced seismicity in the Fox Creek

  6. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  7. To what extent the repeating earthquakes repeated? - Analyses of 1982 and 2008 Ibaraki-ken-oki M7 class earthquakes using strong motion records -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, M.; Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2010-12-01

    Two M7 class subduction zone earthquakes have occurred in the Ibaraki-ken-oki region, northeast Japan, at 23:23 on July 23, 1982 JST (Mw7.0; 1982MS) and at 01:45 on May 8, 2008 JST (Mw6.8; 2008MS). It has been reported that, from the results of the teleseismic waveform inversion, the rupture of the asperity repeated (HERP, 2010). We estimated the source processes of these earthquakes in detail by analyzing the strong motion records and discussed how much the source characteristics of the two earthquakes repeated. First, we estimated the source model of 2008MS following the method of Miyake et al. (2003). The best-fit set of the model parameters was determined by a grid search using forward modeling of broad-band ground motions. A single 12.6 km × 12.6 km rectangular Strong Motion Generation Area (SMGA, Miyake et al., 2003) was estimated. The rupture of the SMGA of 2008MS (2008SMGA) started from the hypocenter and propagated mainly to northeast. Next, we estimated the source model of 1982MS. We compared the waveforms of 1982MS and 2008MS recorded at the same stations and found the initial rupture phase before the main rupture phase on the waveforms of 1982MS. The travel time analysis showed that the main rupture of the 1982MS started approximately 33 km west of the hypocenter at about 11s after the origin time. The main rupture starting point was located inside 2008SMGA, suggesting that the two SMGAs overlapped in part. The seismic moment ratio of 1982MS to 2008MS was approximately 1.6, and we also found the observed acceleration amplitude spectra of 1982MS were 1.5 times higher than those of 2008MS in the available frequency range. We performed the waveform modeling for 1982MS with a constraint of these ratios. A single rectangular SMGA (1982SMGA) was estimated for the main rupture, which had the same size and the same rupture propagation direction as those of 2008SMGA. However, the estimated stress drop or average slip amount of 1982SMGA was 1.5 times larger than

  8. The Western Guerrero, Mexico, seismogenic zone from the microseismicity associated to the 1979 Petatlan and 1985 Zihuatanejo earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-González, C.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    1998-03-01

    The Western Guerrero, Mexico, seismogenic zone was completely ruptured by the 1979 ( Ms 7.6) Petatlan and 1985 ( Ms 7.5) Zihuatanejo earthquakes. Hypocenters of the Petatlan aftershocks define an approximately 10-km-thick Wadati— Benioff zone of high seismic activity and a thinner seaward region that is primarily an extension of the deeper part of the 10-km-thick zone. The aftershocks of the Zihuatanejo earthquake occurred in the seaward portion of the same epicentral region but the hypocenters were shallower. The spatial distribution of the closely timed microseismicity following the two earthquakes outlines a seismogenic zone which begins at about 40 km from the trench axis of the Western Guerrero subduction region and extends approximately 90 km. These results indicate that the maximum possible size of thrust earthquakes in the Guerrero seismic gap is of Mw ˜8.4.

  9. Recent Earthquakes Mark the Onset of Induced Seismicity in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, P.; Nikulin, A.; Pietras, J.

    2017-12-01

    The link between induced seismicity and injection of hydraulic fracturing wastewater has largely been accepted and corroborated through case studies in Colorado, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. To date, induced seismicity has largely impacted hydrocarbon-producing regions in the Central United States, while the seismic response in Eastern states, like Pennsylvania, has been relatively muted. In recent years, Pennsylvania exponentially increased hydrocarbon production from the Marcellus and Utica Shales and our results indicate that this activity has triggered an onset of induced seismicity in areas of the state where no previous seismic activity was reported. Three recent earthquakes in Northeastern Pennsylvania directly correlate to hydraulic fracturing activity, though USGS NEIC earthquake catalog locations have vertical errors up to 31km. We present signal analysis results of recorded waveforms of the three identified events and results of a high-precision relocation effort and improvements to the regional velocity model aimed at constraining the horizontal and vertical error in hypocenter position. We show that at least one event is positioned directly along the wellbore track of an active well and correlate its timing to the hydraulic fracturing schedule. Results show that in the absence of wastewater disposal in this area, it is possible to confidently make the connection between the hydraulic fracturing process and induced seismicity.

  10. Seismicity of the St. Lawrence paleorift faults overprinted by a meteorite impact crater: Implications for crustal strength based on new earthquake relocations in the Charlevoix Seismic Zone, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Lamontagne, M.; Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Charlevoix Seismic Zone (CSZ), located along the St. Lawrence River (SLR) ~100 km downstream from Quebec City, is the most active seismic zone in eastern Canada with five historic earthquakes of M 6-7 and ~ 200 events/year reported by the Canadian National Seismograph Network. Cataloged earthquake epicenters outline two broad linear zones along the SLR with little shallow seismicity in between. Earthquakes form diffuse clusters between major dipping faults rather than concentrating on fault planes. Detailed fault geometry in the CSZ is uncertain and the effect on local seismicity of a meteorite impact structure that overprints the paleorift faults remains ambiguous. Here we relocate 1639 earthquakes occurring in the CSZ between 01/1988 - 10/2010 using the double-difference relocation method HypoDD and waveforms primarily from 7 local permanent stations. We use the layered SLR north shore velocity model from Lamontagne (1999), and travel time differences based on both catalog and cross-correlated P and S-phase picks. Of the 1639 relocated earthquakes, 1236 (75.4%) satisfied selection criteria of horizontal and vertical errors less than 2 km and 1 km respectively. Cross-sections of relocated seismicity show hypocenters along distinct active fault segments. Earthquakes located beneath the north shore of the SLR are likely correlated with the NW Gouffre fault, forming a ~10 km wide seismic zone parallel to the river, with dip angle changing to near vertical at the northern edge of the impact zone. In contrast, seismicity beneath the SLR forms a diffuse cloud within the impact structure, likely representing a highly fractured volume. It further implies that faults could be locally weak and subject to high pore-fluid pressures. Seismicity outside the impact structure defines linear structures aligning with the Charlevoix fault. Relocated events of M > 4 all locate outside the impact structure, indicating they nucleated on the NE-SW-oriented paleorift faults.

  11. Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) Applied to the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrell, V. E.; Cronin, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    We used the seismo-lineament analysis method (SLAM; http://bearspace.baylor.edu/Vince_Cronin/www/SLAM/) to "predict" the location of the fault that produced the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014, using hypocenter and focal mechanism data from NCEDC (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html) and a digital elevation model from the USGS National Elevation Dataset (http://viewer.nationalmap.gov/viewer/). The ground-surface trace of the causative fault (i.e., the Browns Valley strand of the West Napa fault zone; Bryant, 2000, 1982) and virtually all of the ground-rupture sites reported by the USGS and California Geological Survey (http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/2014-08-24-south-napa/) were located within the north-striking seismo-lineament. We also used moment tensors published online by the USGS and GCMT (http://comcat.cr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72282711#scientific_moment-tensor) as inputs to SLAM and found that their northwest-striking seismo-lineaments correlated spatially with the causative fault. We concluded that SLAM could have been used as soon as these mechanism solutions were available to help direct the search for the trace of the causative fault and possible rupture-related damage. We then considered whether the seismogenic fault could have been identified using SLAM prior to the 24 August event, based on the focal mechanisms of smaller prior earthquakes reported by the NCEDC or ISC (http://www.isc.ac.uk). Seismo-lineaments from three M~3.5 events from 1990 and 2012, located in the Vallejo-Crockett area, correlate spatially with the Napa County Airport strand of the West Napa fault and extend along strike toward the Browns Valley strand (Bryant, 2000, 1982). Hence, we might have used focal mechanisms from smaller earthquakes to establish that the West Napa fault is likely seismogenic prior to the South Napa earthquake. Early recognition that a fault with a mapped ground-surface trace is seismogenic, based on smaller earthquakes

  12. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  13. The complex architecture of the 2009 MW 6.1 L'Aquila normal fault system (Central Italy) as imaged by 64,000 high-resolution aftershock locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Piccinini, D.; Schaff, D. P.; Waldhauser, F.

    2011-12-01

    On April 6th 2009, a MW 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in Central Italy. We present high-precision hypocenter locations of an extraordinary dataset composed by 64,000 earthquakes recorded at a very dense seismic network of 60 stations operating for 9 months after the main event. Events span in magnitude (ML) between -0.9 to 5.9, reaching a completeness magnitude of 0.7. The dataset has been processed by integrating an accurate automatic picking procedure together with cross-correlation and double-difference relative location methods. The combined use of these procedures results in earthquake relative location uncertainties in the range of a few meters to tens of meters, comparable/lower than the spatial dimension of the earthquakes themselves). This data set allows us to image the complex inner geometry of individual faults from the kilometre to meter scale. The aftershock distribution illuminates the anatomy of the en-echelon fault system composed of two major faults. The mainshock breaks the entire upper crust from 10 km depth to the surface along a 14-km long normal fault. A second segment, located north of the normal fault and activated by two Mw>5 events, shows a striking listric geometry completely blind. We focus on the analysis of about 300 clusters of co-located events to characterize the mechanical behavior of the different portions of the fault system. The number of events in each cluster ranges from 4 to 24 events and they exhibit strongly correlated seismograms at common stations. They mostly occur where secondary structures join the main fault planes and along unfavorably oriented segments. Moreover, larger clusters nucleate on secondary faults located in the overlapping area between the two main segments, where the rate of earthquake production is very high with a long-lasting seismic decay.

  14. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  15. Facilitating open global data use in earthquake source modelling to improve geodetic and seismological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Steinberg, Andreas; Isken, Marius; Vasyura-Bathke, Hannes

    2017-04-01

    rupture models. 1d-layered medium models are implemented for both near- and far-field data predictions. A highlight of our approach is a weak dependence on earthquake bulletin information: hypocenter locations and source origin times are relatively free source model parameters. We present this harmonized source modelling environment based on example earthquake studies, e.g. the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and others. We discuss the benefit of combined-data non-linear modelling on the resolution of first-order rupture parameters, e.g. location, size, orientation, mechanism, moment/slip and rupture propagation. The presented studies apply our newly developed software tools which build up on the open-source seismological software toolbox pyrocko (www.pyrocko.org) in the form of modules. We aim to facilitate a better exploitation of open global data sets for a wide community studying tectonics, but the tools are applicable also for a large range of regional to local earthquake studies. Our developments therefore ensure a large flexibility in the parametrization of medium models (e.g. 1d to 3d medium models), source models (e.g. explosion sources, full moment tensor sources, heterogeneous slip models, etc) and of the predicted data (e.g. (high-rate) GPS, strong motion, tilt). This work is conducted within the project "Bridging Geodesy and Seismology" (www.bridges.uni-kiel.de) funded by the German Research Foundation DFG through an Emmy-Noether grant.

  16. Seismicity and state of stress near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan, after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Hino, R.; Shinohara, M.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured roughly 200 km wide and 500 km long megathrust along the Japan Trench. The rupture propagated to the trench axis with a maximum slip about 50 m near the trench axis. As a consequence of this large near-trench slip, earthquakes have been activated near the axis of the Japan Trench off Miyagi, northeast Japan. We have conducted ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) experiments in the Japan Trench axis area, surrounding area of the IODP JFAST drilling site, since the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Although conventionally used OBS cannot be deployed at seafloor deeper than 6000 m water depth, we used newly developed ultra-deep OBS using ceramic sphere, which can be deployed at a depth of 9000 m, for the observations in the trench axis. The ultra-deep OBS has almost equivalent dimensions and weight with the conventionally used OBS, thus we can handle it in the same manner with the conventionally OBS without any special operation. As a result of a series of the OBS observations, we obtained accurate hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms in both seaward and landward of the trench axis. Earthquakes near the trench axis area were located within the overriding and incoming/subducting plates with very few on the plate interface below the inner trench slope landward of the trench axis. Most of the earthquakes both in the overriding and incoming/subducting plates having normal or strike-slip faulting focal mechanisms with T-axis normal to the trench axis. This indicates that tensional stress is dominant in the trench axis area. However, most seaward part of the seismicity within the overriding plate is characterized by a localized cluster of trench-normal compressional earthquakes, which may relate to spatial variation of the frictional behavior of the shallowest part of the megathrust. On the other hand, trench-normal extensional earthquakes in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate were located at depths shallower than about

  17. Imaging the Fine-Scale Structure of the San Andreas Fault in the Northern Gabilan Range with Explosion and Earthquake Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of geophysical studies have been carried out along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in the Northern Gabilan Range (NGR) with the purpose of characterizing in detail the fault zone structure. Previous seismic research has revealed the complex structure of the crustal volume in the NGR region in two-dimensions (Thurber et al., 1996, 1997), and there has been some work on the three-dimensional (3D) structure at a coarser scale (Lin and Roecker, 1997). In our study we use earthquake body-wave arrival times and differential times (P and S) and explosion arrival times (only P) to image the 3D P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust along the SAF in the NGR using double-difference (DD) tomography. The earthquake and explosion data types have complementary strengths - the earthquake data have good resolution at depth and resolve both Vp and Vs structure, although only where there are sufficient seismic rays between hypocenter and stations, whereas the explosions contribute very good near-surface resolution but for P waves only. The original dataset analyzed by Thurber et al. (1996, 1997) included data from 77 local earthquakes and 8 explosions. We enlarge the dataset with 114 more earthquakes that occurred in the study area, obtain improved S-wave picks using an automated picker, and include absolute and cross-correlation differential times. The inversion code we use is the algorithm tomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We assess how the P and S velocity models and earthquake locations vary as we alter the inversion parameters and the inversion grid. The new inversion results show clearly the fine-scale structure of the SAF at depth in 3D, sharpening the image of the velocity contrast from the southwest side to the northeast side.

  18. Analysis of seismicity in the region off the southeastern Korean Peninsula after the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, W.; Hong, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula is located in a stable intraplate regime with relatively low seismicity. The seismicity in the Korean Peninsula was, however, changed significantly after the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki megathrust earthquake. An M5.0 earthquake occurred in 2016 at the region off the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The M5.0 earthquake was the largest event in the region since 1978 when the national seismic monitoring began. Several nuclear power plants are placed near the region. It is requested to understand the seismo-tectonic structures of the region, which may be crucial for mitigation of seismic hazards. Analysis of seismicity may be useful for illumination of fault structures. We investigate the focal mechanism solutions, ambient stress field, and spatial distribution of earthquakes. It is intriguing to note that the number of earthquakes increased since the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We refined the hypocenters of 52 events using a velocity-searching hypocentral inversion method (VELHYPO). We determined the focal mechanism solutions of 25 events using a P polarity analysis and long period waveform inversion. The ambient stress field was inferred from the focal mechanism solutions. Strike-slip events occurred dominantly although the paleo-tectonic structures suggest the presence of thrust faults in the region. We observe that the compressional stress field is applied in ENE-WSW, which may be a combination of lateral compressions from the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. The active strike-slip events and compressional stress field suggest reactivation of paleo-tectonic structures.

  19. The 2011 Virginia M5.8 earthquake: Insights from seismic reflection imaging into the influence of older structures on eastern U.S. seismicity

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Horton, J. Wright; Spear, D.B.; Gilmer, A.K.; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake of 23 August 2011 occurred at 6– 8 km depth within the allochthonous terranes of the Appalachian Piedmont Province, rupturing an ~N36°E striking reverse fault dipping ~50° southeast. This study used the Interstate Highway 64 seismic refl ection profi le acquired ~6 km southwest of the hypocenter to examine the structural setting of the earthquake. The profi le shows that the 2011 earthquake and its aftershocks are almost entirely within the early Paleozoic Chopawamsic volcanic arc terrane, which is bounded by listric thrust faults dipping 30°–40° southeast that sole out into an ~2-km-thick, strongly refl ective zone at 7– 12 km depth. Refl ectors above and below the southward projection of the 2011 earthquake focal plane do not show evidence for large displacement, and the updip projection of the fault plane does not match either the location or trend of a previously mapped fault or lithologic boundary. The 2011 earthquake thus does not appear to be a simple reactivation of a known Paleozoic thrust fault or a major Mesozoic rift basin-boundary fault. The fault that ruptured appears to be a new fault, a fault with only minor displacement, or to not extend the ~3 km from the aftershock zone to the seismic profi le. Although the Paleozoic structures appear to infl uence the general distribution of seismicity in the area, Central Virginia seismic zone earthquakes have yet to be tied directly to specifi c fault systems mapped at the surface or imaged on seismic profiles.

  20. Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna Volcano, Alaska

    Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of volcano-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of volcano monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm located beneath Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter locations observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Estimation of source processes of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes from strong motion waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, H.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we estimated the source processes for two large events of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes (the M7.3 event at 1:25 JST on April 16, 2016 and the M6.5 event at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016) from strong motion waveforms using multiple-time-window linear waveform inversion (Hartzell and Heaton 1983; Sekiguchi et al. 2000). Based on the observations of surface ruptures, the spatial distribution of aftershocks, and the geodetic data, a realistic curved fault model was developed for the source-process analysis of the M7.3 event. The source model obtained for the M7.3 event with a seismic moment of 5.5 × 1019 Nm (Mw 7.1) had two significant ruptures. One rupture propagated toward the northeastern shallow region at 4 s after rupture initiation, and continued with large slips to approximately 16 s. This rupture caused a large slip region with a peak slip of 3.8 m that was located 10-30 km northeast of the hypocenter and reached the caldera of Mt. Aso. The contribution of the large slip region to the seismic waveforms was large at many stations. Another rupture propagated toward the surface from the hypocenter at 2-6 s, and then propagated toward the northeast along the near surface at 6-10 s. This rupture largely contributed to the seismic waveforms at the stations south of the fault and close to the hypocenter. A comparison with the results obtained using a single fault plane model demonstrate that the use of the curved fault model led to improved waveform fit at the stations south of the fault. The extent of the large near-surface slips in this source model for the M7.3 event is roughly consistent with the extent of the observed large surface ruptures. The source model obtained for the M6.5 event with a seismic moment of 1.7 × 1018 Nm (Mw 6.1) had large slips in the region around the hypocenter and in the shallow region north-northeast of the hypocenter, both of which had a maximum slip of 0.7 m. The rupture of the M6.5 event propagated from the former region

  2. Bermuda earthquake of March 24, 1978: A significant oceanic intraplate event

    SciT

    Stewart, G.S.; Helmberger, D.V.

    1981-08-10

    The Bremuda earthquake (Mapprox.6) occured near the westerly extension of the Kane Fracture Zone roughly 370 km southwest of the island of Bermuda. It is one of the largest oceanic intraplate earthquakes to occur off the eastern coast of North America. Because of its size and location, it has provided an excellent set of WWSSN body waves. They can be used to infer its depth and faulting parameters by waveform modeling techniques. The results indicate a north-northwest striking thrust mechanism (strike = N20 /sup 0/W, dip = 42 /sup 0/NE, rake = 90/sup 0/) with the hypocenter located at amore » depth of 11 km, which for an oceanic crust places it predominantly in the mantle. The event had a seismic moment of 3.4 x 10/sup 25/ dyne cm, and its time history was modeled with a symmetric trapezoidal time function 3 s in duration. The north-northwest strike of the event is in good agreement with the bathymetry of the area, the epicenter being close to the southwestern edge of the Bermuda Rise. The strike of the event is also close to that of the inferred extensions of the present ridge fracture zones in the region. The strike of the event is also close to that of the inferred extensions of the present ridge fracture zones in the region. The presence of fracture zones is indicative of local weak zones in the lithosphere. The Bermuda earthquake most likely is associated with one of these zones of weakness and is the result of the application of present day stress imposed on the region by the North American plate in the direction of its absolute motion. This is an important event in terms of understanding and estimating seismic hazard on the eastern seaboard of North America.« less

  3. Revealing the deep structure and rupture plane of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw = 8.8) using wide angle seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso, Eduardo; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Flueh, Ernst R.; Dzierma, Yvonne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The 27 February, 2010 Maule earthquake (Mw = 8.8) ruptured ~ 400 km of the Nazca-South America plate boundary and caused hundreds of fatalities and billions of dollars in material losses. Here we present constraints on the fore-arc structure and subduction zone of the rupture area derived from seismic refraction and wide-angle data. The results show a wedge shaped body ~ 40 km wide with typical sedimentary velocities interpreted as a frontal accretionary prism (FAP). Landward of the imaged FAP, the velocity model shows an abrupt velocity-contrast, suggesting a lithological change which is interpreted as the contact between the FAP and the paleo accretionary prism (backstop). The backstop location is coincident with the seaward limit of the aftershocks, defining the updip limit of the co-seismic rupture and seismogenic zone. Furthermore, the seaward limit of the aftershocks coincides with the location of the shelf break in the entire earthquake rupture area (33°S-38.5°S), which is interpreted as the location of the backstop along the margin. Published seismic profiles at the northern and southern limit of the rupture area also show the presence of a strong horizontal velocity gradient seismic backstop at a distance of ~ 30 km from the deformation front. The seismic wide-angle reflections from the top of the subducting oceanic crust constrain the location of the plate boundary offshore, dipping at ~ 10°. The projection of the epicenter of the Maule earthquake onto our derived interplate boundary yielded a hypocenter around 20 km depth, this implies that this earthquake nucleated somewhere in the middle of the seismogenic zone, neither at its updip nor at its downdip limit.

  4. One-dimensional velocity model of the Middle Kura Depresion from local earthquakes data of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetirmishli, G. C.; Kazimova, S. E.; Kazimov, I. E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the method for determining the velocity model of the Earth's crust and the parameters of earthquakes in the Middle Kura Depression from the data of network telemetry in Azerbaijan. Application of this method allowed us to recalculate the main parameters of the hypocenters of the earthquake, to compute the corrections to the arrival times of P and S waves at the observation station, and to significantly improve the accuracy in determining the coordinates of the earthquakes. The model was constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates one-dimensional minimal velocity models from the travel times of seismic waves.

  5. Why are earthquakes nudging the pole towards 140°E?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Giorgio

    Earthquakes have collectively the tendency to displace the pole of rotation of the earth towards a preferred direction (∼140°E). This trend, which is still unexplained on quantitative grounds, has been revealed by computations of earthquake-induced inertia variations on both a secular and a decade time-scale. Purpose of this letter is to show that the above trend results from the combined effects of the geographical distribution of hypocenters and of the prevailing dip-slip nature of large earthquakes in this century. Our findings are based on the static dislocation theory and on simple geometrical arguments.

  6. Earthquake doublet that occurred in a pull-apart basin along the Sumatran fault and its seismotectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Inoue, H.; Toda, S.

    2007-12-01

    region show larger amplitude for the second event than that for the first one. Since the magnitudes, focal mechanisms, and source locations are almost identical for the two events, the larger amplitudes for the second event at BSI may be due to the effect of rupture directivity. Accordingly, we obtain the following image of source processes of the earthquake doublet: The first event initiated at the segment boundary and its rupture propagated along the Sumani segment to the SW direction. Then, the second event, which may be triggered by the first event, initiated at a location close to the hypocenter of the first event, but its rupture propagated along the Sianok segment to the NE direction, opposite to the first event. It is known that the previous significant seismic activity along the Sianok and Sumani segments occurred in 1926, which was also an earthquake doublet with similar magnitudes to those in 2007. If we assume that the time interval between the earthquake doublets in 1926 and 2007 represents the average recurrence interval and that typical slip in the individual earthquakes is 1 m, we obtain approximately 1 cm/year for a slip rate of the fault segments. Geological features indicate that Lake Singkrak is no more than a few million years old (Sieh and Natawidjaja, 2000, JGR). If the pull-apart basin has been created since a few million years ago with the estimated slip rate of the segments, we obtain roughly 20 km of the total offset on the Sianok and Sumani segments, which is consistent with the observed offset. Our study supports the model of Sieh and Natawidjaja (2000) that the basin continues to be created by dextral slip on the en echelon Sumani and Sianok segments.

  7. Ground-Motion Variability for a Strike-Slip Earthquake from Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Fujiwara, H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the important issues in seismic hazard analysis is the evaluation of ground-motion variability due to the epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in various aspects of ground-motion simulations. This study investigates the within-event ground-motion variability in broadband ground-motion simulations for strike-slip events. We conduct ground-motion simulations for a past event (2000 MW6.6 Tottori earthquake) using a set of characterized source models (e.g. Irikura and Miyake, 2011) considering aleatory variability. Broadband ground motion is computed by a hybrid approach that combines a 3D finite-difference method (> 1 s) and the stochastic Green's function method (< 1 s), using the 3D velocity model J-SHIS v2. We consider various locations of the asperities, which are defined as the regions with large slip and stress drop within the fault, and the rupture nucleation point (hypocenter). Ground motion records at 29 K-NET and KiK-net stations are used to validate our simulations. By comparing the simulated and observed ground motion, we found that the performance of the simulations is acceptable under the condition that the source parameters are poorly constrained. In addition to the observation stations, we set 318 virtual receivers with the spatial intervals of 10 km for statistical analysis of the simulated ground motion. The maximum fault-distance is 160 km. Standard deviation (SD) of the simulated acceleration response spectra (Sa, 5% damped) of RotD50 component (Boore, 2010) is investigated at each receiver. SD from 50 different patterns of asperity locations is generally smaller than 0.15 in terms of log10 (0.34 in natural log). It shows dependence on distance at periods shorter than 1 s; SD increases as the distance decreases. On the other hand, SD from 39 different hypocenter locations is again smaller than 0.15 in log10, and showed azimuthal dependence at long periods; it increases as the rupture directivity parameter Xcosθ(Somerville et al. 1997

  8. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  9. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  10. A new prototype system for earthquake early warning in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Chen, D.; Kuo, K.; Shin, T.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) system has already been developed and tested in Taiwan for more than ten years. With the implementation of a real-time strong-motion network by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), a virtual sub-network (VSN) system based on regional early warning approach was utilized at the first attempt. In order to shorten the processing time, seismic waveforms in a 10-sec time window starting from the first P-wave arrival time at the nearest station are used to determine the hypocenter and earthquake magnitude which is dubbed ML10. Since 2001, this EEW system has responded to a total of 255 events with magnitude greater than 4.5 occurred inland or off the coast of Taiwan. The system is capable of issuing an earthquake report within 20 sec of its occurrence with good magnitude estimations for events up to magnitude 6.5. This will provide early warning for metropolitan areas located 70 km away from the epicentre. In the latest development, a new prototype EEW system based on P-wave method was developed. Instead of ML10, we adopt the “Pd magnitude”, MPd, as our magnitude indicator in the new system. Pd is defined as the peak amplitude of the initial P-wave displacement. In the previous studies, by analyzing the Pd attenuation relationship with earthquake magnitudes, Pd was proved to be a good magnitude estimator for EEW purpose. Therefore, we adopt the Pd magnitude in developing our next generation EEW system. The new system is designed and constructed based on the Central Weather Bureau Seismographic Network (CWBSN). The CWBSN is a real-time seismographic network with more than one hundred digital telemetered seismic stations distributed over the entire Taiwan. Currently, there are three types of seismic instruments installed at the stations, either co-site or separately installed, including short-period seismographs, accelerometers, and broadband instruments. For the need of integral data processing, we use the Earthworm system as a common

  11. Rupture Characteristics of the 25 November 2016 Aketao Earthquake ( M w 6.6) in Eastern Pamir Revealed by GPS and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Gang; Qiao, Xuejun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Daiqin; Sun, Jianing; Yushan, Ailixiati; Yusan, Sulitan; Fang, Wei; Wang, Qi

    2018-02-01

    The 25 November 2016 Aketao, Xinjiang earthquake occurred on the northeastern margin of the Pamir plateau, rupturing the Muji fault on the northern segment of the Kongur Extensional System. We collected coseismic offsets at 7 GPS sites, which show that the fault experienced significate dextral slip with a near-field geodetic displacement of up to 12 cm along the strike. The joint inversion of GPS data and teleseismic P waveforms suggests a complex rupture pattern characterized by the unilateral propagation slip from the epicenter to the southeast for 60 km with a total seismic moment of 1.3 × 1019 Nm, corresponding to a magnitude of M w 6.7 earthquake. Our model of slip distribution shows two major slip patches with a slip amplitude up to 0.6 m, one located at shallow depths of 0-8 km close to the hypocenter with apparent surface breaks and the other, 40 km to the southeast, buried at a greater depth of 12 km. The rupture is dominated by a right-lateral strike slip with significant normal-slip components. The near-field GPS data enhances the spatial resolution of source model. Based on the preferred slip model, the static Coulomb Failure Stress change caused by 2016 Aketao earthquake suggests that the unzipped western and eastern ends of Muji fault and the northern segment of Kungai Fault are significantly promoted.

  12. How Deep is Shallow? Improving Absolute and Relative Locations of Upper Crustal Seismicity in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, T.; Kissling, E. H.; Singer, J.; Lee, T.; Clinton, J. F.; Waldhauser, F.; Wiemer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Information on the structure of upper-crustal fault systems and their connection with seismicity is key to the understanding of neotectonic processes. Precisely determined focal depths in combination with structural models can provide important insight into deformation styles of the upper crust (e.g. thin- vs. versus thick-skinned tectonics). Detailed images of seismogenic fault zones in the upper crust, on the other hand, will contribute to the assessment of the hazard related to natural and induced earthquakes, especially in regions targeted for radioactive waste repositories or geothermal energy production. The complex velocity structure of the uppermost crust and unfavorable network geometries, however, often hamper precise locations (i.e. focal depth) of shallow seismicity and therefore limit tectonic interpretations. In this study we present a new high-precision catalog of absolute locations of seismicity in Switzerland. High-quality travel-time data from local and regional earthquakes in the period 2000-2017 are used to solve the coupled hypocenter-velocity structure problem in 1D. For this purpose, the well-known VELEST inversion software was revised and extended to improve the quality assessment of travel-time data and to facilitate the identification of erroneous picks in the bulletin data. Results from the 1D inversion are used as initial parameters for a 3D local earthquake tomography. Well-studied earthquakes and high-quality quarry blasts are used to assess the quality of 1D and 3D relocations. In combination with information available from various controlled-source experiments, borehole data, and geological profiles, focal depths and associated host formations are assessed through comparison with the resolved 3D velocity structure. The new absolute locations and velocity models are used as initial values for relative double-difference relocation of earthquakes in Switzerland. Differential times are calculated from bulletin picks and waveform cross

  13. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  14. Relocation of the Mw 6.4 July 1, 2009 earthquake to the south of Crete and modeling of its associated small tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchini, Gian Maria; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatiana; Karastathis, Vassilis K.; Mouzakiotis, Aggelos; Voulgaris, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    On July 1, 2009 (09:30 UTC) a Mw6.4 earthquake ruptured south of Crete Island triggering a small tsunami. Eyewitness reported the tsunami from Myrtos and Arvi Port, in the SE coast of Crete, and in Chrisi islet. In Arvi 4 or 5 wave arrivals were reported after a withdrawal of the sea of about 1 m. The sea disturbance lasted for about 1 h. The earthquake occurred as the result of the subduction of the oceanic African Plate beneath the continental Eurasian Plate along the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ). South of Crete the Nubia-Aegean convergence rate (~3.5 cm/yr) is partially accommodated by low-angle (~20-25°) thrust faults at 20-40km depths and by steeper (>30°) reverse-faults at shallower depths. The area of interest has been struck by large magnitude earthquakes in historical times that in some cases triggered damaging tsunamis (e.g AD 1303). Routine earthquake locations performed by NOA do not provide good quality hypocenters for the area under investigation given the poor azimuthal coverage and the low density of the seismic stations. The 2009 earthquake, given its tsunamigenic nature, has been identified as a key event to study the central segment of the HSZ. We performed the relocation of the 2009 mainshock along with the seismicity of the area (ML>=3, period 2008-2015) using the NLLoc algorithm and testing several 1D velocity models available for the area and a 2D velocity model obtained from a published N-S seismic refraction profile across Crete. The hypocenters obtained from NLLoc have been subsequently relocated with HypoDD algorithm using catalog phase data. The results from the various relocation procedures showed a shallow hypocentral depth (12-17km) of the 2009 event and its likely intraplate nature. A set of hypocentral solutions were selected on the basis of minimum RMS and smaller errors with the aim to perform tsunami simulations with varying source parameters. Two different fault dips were used to discriminate between the intraplate (dip 32

  15. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  16. Three Dimensional P-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Eastern Turkey by Local Earthquake Tomography (LET) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoman, U. M.; Turkelli, N.; Gok, R.

    2005-12-01

    Recently, crustal structure and the tectonic evolution of Eastern Turkey region was extensively studied in the context of Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) from late 1999 to August 2001. Collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates has been occurring along East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the Bitlis Suture, which made Eastern Turkey an ideal platform for scientific research. High quality local earthquake data from the ETSE seismic network were used in order to determine the 3-D P-wave velocity structure of upper crust for Eastern Turkey. Within the 32-station network, 524 well locatable earthquakes with azimuthal gaps < 200° and number of P-wave observations > 8 (corresponding to 6842 P-phase readings) were selected from the initial data set and simultaneously inverted. 1-D reference velocity model was derived by an iterative 1-D velocity inversion including the updated hypocenters and the station delays. The following 3-D tomographic inversion was iteratively performed by SIMULPS14 algorithm in a ``damped least-squares'' sense using the appropriate ray tracing technique, model parametrization and control parameters. As far as resolution is concerned, S waves were not included in this study due to strong attenuation, insufficient number of S phase readings and higher picking errors with respect to P phases. Several tests with the synthetic data were conducted to assess the solution quality, suggesting that the velocity structure is well resolved down to ~17km. Overall,resulting 3-D P-wave velocity model led to a more reliable hypocenter determination indicated by reduced event scattering and a significant reduction of %50 both in variance and residual (rms) values.With the influence of improved velocity model, average location errors did not exceed ~1.5km in horizontal and ~4km in vertical directions. Tomographic images revealed the presence of lateral velocity variations in Eastern Turkey. Existence of relatively low velocity zones (5.6 < Vp < 6.0 km

  17. The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

  18. The 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake: Investigation of rupture velocity, risetime, and high-frequency radiation

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid global search algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear problem of calculating slip amplitude, rake, risetime, and rupture time on a finite fault. Thirty-five strong motion velocity records are inverted by this method over the frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz for the Northridge earthquake. Four regions of larger-amplitude slip are identified: one near the hypocenter at a depth of 17 km, a second west of the hypocenter at about the same depth, a third updip from the hypocenter at a depth of 10 km, and a fourth updip from the hypocenter and to the northwest. The results further show an initial fast rupture with a velocity of 2.8 to 3.0 km/s followed by a slow termination of the rupture with velocities of 2.0 to 2.5 km/s. The initial energetic rupture phase lasts for 3 s, extending out 10 km from the hypocenter. Slip near the hypocenter has a short risetime of 0.5 s, which increases to 1.5 s for the major slip areas removed from the hypocentral region. The energetic rupture phase is also shown to be the primary source of high-frequency radiation (1-15 Hz) by an inversion of acceleration envelopes. The same global search algorithm is used in the envelope inversion to calculate high-frequency radiation intensity on the fault and rupture time. The rupture timing from the low- and high-frequency inversions is similar, indicating that the high frequencies are produced primarily at the mainshock rupture front. Two major sources of high-frequency radiation are identified within the energetic rupture phase, one at the hypocenter and another deep source to the west of the hypocenter. The source at the hypocenter is associated with the initiation of rupture and the breaking of a high-stress-drop asperity and the second is associated with stopping of the rupture in a westerly direction.

  19. A Transformation-Induced Shear Instability Model for Deep Earthquakes Based on Laboratory Nanoseismological and Microstructural Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Shi, F.; Schubnel, A.; Hilairet, N.; Yu, T.; Rivers, M. L.; Gasc, J.; Li, Z.; Brunet, F.

    2016-12-01

    Global earthquake hypocenters depth displays a bimodal distribution: a first peak at < 50 km and a second peak around 550 - 600 km, before ceasing abruptly near 700 km. How fractures initiate, nucleate, and propagate at depths >70 km remains one of the greatest puzzles in earth science, since increasing pressure inhibits fracture propagation. Here we report high-resolution acoustic emission (AE) analysis of fractures triggered by partial transformation from olivine to spinel in Mg2GeO4, an analog to (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, the dominant mineral in the upper mantle. State-of-the-art synchrotron techniques and seismological methodologies were used for fault imaging and for event location and waveform analysis. Our results reveal unprecedented details of rupture nucleation and propagation, in both space and time: AE event magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law, with b values generally consistent with seismological observations, while the empirical relation between magnitude and rupture area is extended to millimeter-sized samples. A new rupture model for deep-focus earthquakes is proposed based on the well-known strain localization theory for pressure sensitive (dilatant) materials. The results show that shear failure processes, even at great depths, are scale-invariant.

  20. Using Cross-Correlation Methods to Characterize Earthquakes Associated with the Socorro Magma Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieceli, R.; Bilek, S. L.; Worthington, L. L.; Schmandt, B.; Aster, R. C.; Dodge, D. A.; Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Socorro Magma Body (SMB), a thin, sill-like body with a top surface-depth of 19 km situated within the Rio Grande Rift in central New Mexico, is one of the largest recognized continental mid-crustal magma bodies in the world by area. SMB-associated inflation leads to slow regional uplift of a few mm/yr and has been linked to longstanding concentrated shallow seismicity (< 10 km depth) with variable spatial and temporal occurrence, including early 20th century events of magnitude 5.5 - 6. Recent small earthquakes (magnitudes 3 to -1) have been monitored with a variety of broadband and short-term local seismic networks over the past several decades, but these routine catalogs have not been relocated or fully interpreted in terms of newer models of the structure, or its emplacement and history. In February 2015 seismic data were collected above the northern and most rapidly uplifting region of the SMB with a densely spaced temporary array, consisting of seven broadband and 804 short period Fairfield nodal vertical component seismographs. The total array area was 50 x 25 km with typical node spacing of 300 m along a road network. In this study, we exploit all available seismic network data in a cross-correlation framework developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to detect events and characterize earthquake swarms, clusters, and patterns occurring over the last 15 years. We use a power detector to build an initial catalog of small magnitude earthquakes, including 33 events (M <= 2.5) recorded during the February 2015 deployment, as templates to detect additional events. We also develop an updated shallow velocity model for the region and refine event hypocenters using Bayesloc, a bayesian, multiple-event location algorithm. This enhanced seismicity catalog will be utilized in interpreting the recent seismicity of the SMB. LLNL-ABS-735529

  1. Aftershocks of the 2014 South Napa, California, Earthquake: Complex faulting on secondary faults

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the aftershock sequence of the 2014 MW6.0 South Napa, California, earthquake. Low-magnitude aftershocks missing from the network catalog are detected by applying a matched-filter approach to continuous seismic data, with the catalog earthquakes serving as the waveform templates. We measure precise differential arrival times between events, which we use for double-difference event relocation in a 3D seismic velocity model. Most aftershocks are deeper than the mainshock slip, and most occur west of the mapped surface rupture. While the mainshock coseismic and postseismic slip appears to have occurred on the near-vertical, strike-slip West Napa fault, many of the aftershocks occur in a complex zone of secondary faulting. Earthquake locations in the main aftershock zone, near the mainshock hypocenter, delineate multiple dipping secondary faults. Composite focal mechanisms indicate strike-slip and oblique-reverse faulting on the secondary features. The secondary faults were moved towards failure by Coulomb stress changes from the mainshock slip. Clusters of aftershocks north and south of the main aftershock zone exhibit vertical strike-slip faulting more consistent with the West Napa Fault. The northern aftershocks correspond to the area of largest mainshock coseismic slip, while the main aftershock zone is adjacent to the fault area that has primarily slipped postseismically. Unlike most creeping faults, the zone of postseismic slip does not appear to contain embedded stick-slip patches that would have produced on-fault aftershocks. The lack of stick-slip patches along this portion of the fault may contribute to the low productivity of the South Napa aftershock sequence.

  2. Slip Distribution of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake obtained by Geodetic and Tsunami Data and with a 3-D Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; D'Agostino, N.; Cocco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rupture process of the Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been particularly well studied by using an unprecedented collection of geophysical data. There is a general agreement among the different source models obtained by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data. A slip patch of nearly 40÷50 meters has been imaged and located around and up-dip from the hypocenter by most of published models, while some differences exist in the slip pattern retrieved at shallow depths near the trench, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. It is well known that the modeling of great subduction earthquakes requires the use of 3-D structural models in order to properly account for the effects of topography, bathymetry and the geometrical variations of the plate interface as well as for the effects of elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere. In this study we build a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area in order to infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. The FE model is used to compute the geodetic and tsunami Green's functions. In order to understand how geometrical and elastic heterogeneities control the inferred slip distribution of the Tohoku-oki earthquake, we compare the slip patterns obtained using both homogeneous and heterogeneous structural models. The goal of this study is to better constrain the slip distribution and the maximum slip amplitudes. In particular, we aim to focus on the rupture process in the shallower part of the fault plane and near the trench, which is crucial to model the tsunami data and to assess the tsunamigenic potential of earthquakes in this region.

  3. New Frontiers in Characterization of Sub-Catalog Microseismicity: Utilizing Inter-Event Waveform Cross Correlation for Estimating Precise Locations, Magnitudes, and Focal Mechanisms of Tiny Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Shelly, D. R.; Hardebeck, J.; Hill, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microseismicity often conveys the most direct information about active processes in the earth's subsurface. However, routine network processing typically leaves most earthquakes uncharacterized. These "sub-catalog" events can provide critical clues to ongoing processes in the source region. To address this issue, we have developed waveform-based processing that leverages the existing routine catalog of earthquakes to detect and characterize "sub-catalog" events (those absent in routine catalogs). By correlating waveforms of cataloged events with the continuous data stream, we 1) identify events with similar waveform signatures in the continuous data across multiple stations, 2) precisely measure relative time lags across these stations for both P- and S-wave time windows, and 3) estimate the relative polarity between events by the sign of the peak absolute value correlations and its height above the secondary peak. When combined, these inter-event comparisons yield robust measurements, which enable sensitive event detection, relative relocation, and relative magnitude estimation. The most recent addition, focal mechanisms derived from correlation-based relative polarities, addresses a significant shortcoming in microseismicity analyses (see Shelly et al., JGR, 2016). Depending on the application, we can characterize 2-10 times as many events as included in the initial catalog. This technique is particularly well suited for compact zones of active seismicity such as seismic swarms. Application to a 2014 swarm in Long Valley Caldera, California, illuminates complex patterns of faulting that would have otherwise remained obscured. The prevalence of such features in other environments remains an important, as yet unresolved, question.

  4. Hypocenter relocation of microseismic events using a 3-D velocity model of the shale-gas production site in the Horn River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. U.; Kim, J. H.; Rhie, J.; Kang, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring is a crucial process to evaluate the efficiency of hydro-fracking and to understand the development of fracture networks. Consequently, it can provide valuable information for designing the post hydro-fracking stages and estimating the stimulated rock volumes. The fundamental information is a set of source parameters of microseismic events. The most important parameter is the hypocenter of event, and thus the accurate hypocenter determination is a key for the successful microseismic monitoring. The accuracy of hypocenters for a given dataset of seismic phase arrival times is dependent on that of the velocity model used in the seismic analysis. In this study, we evaluated how a 3-D model can affect the accuracy of hypocenters. We used auto-picked P- and S-wave travel-time data of about 8,000 events at the commercial shale gas production site in the Horn River Basin, Canada. The initial hypocenters of the events were determined using a single-difference linear inversion algorithm with a 1-D velocity model obtained from the well-logging data. Then we iteratively inverted travel times of events for the 3-D velocity perturbations and relocated their hypocenters using double-difference algorithm. Significant reduction of the errors in the final hypocenter was obtained. This result indicates that the 3-D model is useful for improving the performance of microseismic monitoring.

  5. Waveforms clustering of small magnitude earthquakes recorded in the Northern Sicilian offshore: evidence of multiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Mangano, G.; D'Anna, G.; Luzio, D.; Selvaggi, G.

    2011-12-01

    On September 6th 2002 the northern Sicily was hit by a strong earthquake (MW 5.9). In the following six months over a thousand aftershocks were located in the same area. On December 7th 2009, the INGV OBSLab deployed an OBS/H near the epicentral area of the main shock at a depth of 1500 m. The submarine station was recovered after 233 days. During the eight months of the experiment the OBS/H recorded about 250 small magnitude events of clear local origin. In order to identify seismic events generated by the same tectonic structure, we have applied a clustering technique based on the similarity of the waveforms. The similarity matrix was constructed using the maximum of the normalized cross-covariance function. To identify the multiplets, we used a clustering technique based on an agglomerative hierarchical algorithm, based on the nearest neighbor strategy. The results were summarized in the dendrogram of Fig. 1. The partitions have been obtained by "cutting" the dendrogram at a level of distance equal to 0.3. So we have identified 9 multiplets and some doublets and triplets. Fig. 2 shows as example the multiplet 1. The events of this cluster have a high level of similarity; 25 of the 31 micro-events are characterized by a similarity greater than 0.9. In order to locate the micro-earthquakes recorded by the OBS/H only a single station location technique was implemented and applied. Some multiplets have clouds of hypocenters overlapping each other. These clusters, indistinguishable without the application of a waveforms clustering technique, show differences in the waveforms that must be attributed to differences in focal mechanisms which generated the waveforms.

  6. Earthquake effects at nuclear reactor facilities: San Fernando earthquake of February 9th, 1971

    SciT

    Howard, G.; Ibanez, P.; Matthiesen, F.

    1972-02-01

    The effects of the San Fernando earthquake of February 9, 1971 on 26 reactor facilities located in California, Arizona, and Nevada are reported. The safety performance of the facilities during the earthquake is discussed. (JWR)

  7. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  8. Studies related to the Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake of 1886; tectonics and seismicity

    Gottfried, David; Annell, C.S.; Byerly, G.R.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Houser, Brenda B.; Schneider, Ray R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Yantis, B.R.; Costain, John K.; Schilt, F. Steve; Brown, Larry; Oliver, Jack E.; Kaufman, Sidney; Hamilton, Robert Morrison; Behrendt, John C.; Henry, V. James; Bayer, Kenneth C.; Daniels, David L.; Zietz, Isidore; Popenoe, Peter; Chowns, T.M.; Williams, C.T.; Dooley, Robert E.; Wampler, J.; Dillon, William P.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Paull, Charles K.; McGinnis, Lyle D.; Dewey, James W.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Rhea, Susan; Wentworth, Carl M.; Mergner-Keefer, Marcia; Bollinger, G.A.; Gohn, Gregory S.

    1983-01-01

    , at the present time, none of the young structures can be related unequivocally to the seismicity because earthquake fault-plane solutions and hypocenter distributions do not agree with the locations and orientations of these structures. Therefore, a major emphasis of continuing USGS investigations near Charleston will be to identify additional faults, if any exist, to delineate fault movement histories, and to further refine earthquake locations, focal mechanisms, and related seismological interpretations.

  9. Along-strike Variations in the Himalayas Illuminated by the Aftershock Sequence of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake Using the NAMASTE Local Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Karplus, M. S.; Nabelek, J.; Sapkota, S. N.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.; Velasco, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake, more than 8,000 people were killed from a combination of infrastructure failure and triggered landslides. This earthquake produced 4 m of peak co-seismic slip as the fault ruptured 130 km east under densely populated cities, such as Kathmandu. To understand earthquake dynamics in this part of the Himalayas and help mitigate similar future calamities by the next destructive event, it is imperative to study earthquake activities in detail and improve our understanding of the source and structural complexities. In response to the Gorkha event, multiple institutions developed and deployed a 10-month long dense seismic network called NAMASTE. It blanketed a 27,650 km2 area, mainly covering the rupture area of the Gorkha earthquake, in order to capture the dynamic sequence of aftershock behavior. The network consisted of a mix of 45 broadband, short-period, and strong motion sensors, with an average spacing of 20 km. From the first 6 months of data, starting approximately 1.5 after the mainshock, we develop a robust catalog containing over 3,000 precise earthquake locations, and local magnitudes that range between 0.3 and 4.9. The catalog has a magnitude of completeness of 1.5, and an overall low b-value of 0.78. Using the HypoDD algorithm, we relocate earthquake hypocenters with high precision, and thus illustrate the fault geometry down to depths of 25 km where we infer the location of the gently-dipping Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Above the MFT, the aftershocks illuminate complex structure produced by relatively steeply dipping faults. Interestingly, we observe sharp along-strike change in the seismicity pattern. The eastern part of the aftershock area is significantly more active than the western part. The change in seismicity may reflect structural and/or frictional lateral heterogeneity in this part of the Himalayan fault system. Such along-strike variations play an important role in rupture complexities and

  10. Kinematic Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, a MW6.9 thrust earthquake in northeast Japan, using Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MJMA7.2) on June 14, 2008, is a thrust type inland crustal earthquake, which occurred in northeastern Honshu, Japan. In order to see strong motion generation process of this event, the source rupture process is estimated by the kinematic waveform inversion using strong motion data. Strong motion data of the K-NET and KiK-net stations and Aratozawa Dam are used. These stations are located 3-94 km from the epicenter. Original acceleration time histories are integrated into velocity and band- pass filtered between 0.05 and 1 Hz. For obtaining the detailed source rupture process, appropriate velocity structure model for Green's functions should be used. We estimated one dimensional velocity structure model for each strong motion station by waveform modeling of aftershock records. The elastic wave velocity, density, and Q-values for four sedimentary layers are assumed following previous studies. The thickness of each sedimentary layer depends on the station, which is estimated to fit the observed aftershock's waveforms by the optimization using the genetic algorithm. A uniform layered structure model is assumed for crust and upper mantle below the seismic bedrock. We succeeded to get a reasonable velocity structure model for each station to give a good fit of the main S-wave part in the observation of aftershocks. The source rupture process of the mainshock is estimated by the linear kinematic waveform inversion using multiple time windows (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). A fault plane model is assumed following the moment tensor solution by F-net, NIED. The strike and dip angle is 209° and 51°, respectively. The rupture starting point is fixed at the hypocenter located by the JMA. The obtained source model shows a large slip area in the shallow portion of the fault plane approximately 6 km southwest of the hypocenter. The rupture of the asperity finishes within about 9 s. This large slip area corresponds to the area with surface

  11. The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

    2008-12-01

    simulations of a Hayward Fault earthquake, (5) a new USGS Fact Sheet about the earthquake and the Hayward Fault, (6) a virtual tour of the 1868 earthquake, and (7) a new online field trip guide to the Hayward Fault using locations accessible by car and public transit. Finally, the California Geological Survey and many other Alliance members sponsored the Third Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the East Bay at CSU East Bay in Hayward for the three days following the 140th anniversary. The 1868 Alliance hopes to commemorate the anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake every year to maintain and increase public awareness of this fault, the hazards it and other East Bay Faults pose, and the ongoing need for earthquake preparedness and mitigation.

  12. Rupture process of the 2009 L'Aquila, central Italy, earthquake, from the separate and joint inversion of Strong Motion, GPS and DInSAR data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Tinti, E.; Chini, M.; Cocco, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the rupture history of the April 6th 2009 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal faulting earthquake by using a nonlinear inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data. We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, the associated standard deviation and coefficient of variation. This technique, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. The application to the 2009 L'Aquila main-shock shows that both the separate and joint inversion solutions reveal a complex rupture process and a heterogeneous slip distribution. Slip is concentrated in two main asperities: a smaller shallow patch of slip located up-dip from the hypocenter and a second deeper and larger asperity located southeastward along strike direction. The key feature of the source process emerging from our inverted models concerns the rupture history, which is characterized by two distinct stages. The first stage begins with rupture initiation and with a modest moment release lasting nearly 0.9 seconds, which is followed by a sharp increase in slip velocity and rupture speed located 2 km up-dip from the nucleation. During this first stage the rupture front propagated up-dip from the hypocenter at relatively high (˜ 4.0 km/s), but still sub-shear, rupture velocity. The second stage starts nearly 2 seconds after nucleation and it is characterized by the along strike rupture propagation. The largest and deeper asperity fails during this stage of the rupture process. The rupture velocity is larger in the up

  13. Waveform Classification of the 2016 Gyeongju Earthquake Sequence Using Hierarchical Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J. S.; Son, M.; Cho, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Gyeongju earthquakes, including the ML 5.8 earthquake of September 12, 2016 ccurred around the Yangsan Fault System, which is the most prominent set of lineaments on the Korean Peninsula. The main event is the largest earthquake recorded since instrumental recording began in South Korea We analysed the waveforms of earthquake sequence to better understand the seismicity around this fault system. We defined groups of relocated hypocenters using hierarchical clustering based on waveform similarity. The 2016 Gyeongju events are classified into three major groups: Group A with 185 events, Group B with 134 events, and Group C with 45 events. The waveform similarity of each group was confirmed by the matrix of correlation coefficients. The three groups of waveforms wereare identified in space: the events of Group A occurred at shallower depths than those of Group B, while those of Group C occurred at intermediate depths at the north side. The eight major events occurred in the area including Group A and Group B, whereas the area of Group C produceds no major events. Therefore, the area of Group C couldcan be excluded in considering a major asperity for the Gyeongju earthquakes. Earthquakes that are close together spatially with similar rupture mechanisms produce similar waveforms at the same common station. Thus, the hypocenters classified from the three groups of waveforms, based on waveform similarity imply that the inferred fault plane contains three zones locked under slightly different conditions.

  14. Earthquakes: Recurrence and Interoccurrence Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaimov, S. G.; Turcotte, D. L.; Shcherbakov, R.; Rundle, J. B.; Yakovlev, G.; Goltz, C.; Newman, W. I.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the statistical distributions of recurrence times of earthquakes. Recurrence times are the time intervals between successive earthquakes at a specified location on a specified fault. Although a number of statistical distributions have been proposed for recurrence times, we argue in favor of the Weibull distribution. The Weibull distribution is the only distribution that has a scale-invariant hazard function. We consider three sets of characteristic earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: (1) The Parkfield earthquakes, (2) the sequence of earthquakes identified by paleoseismic studies at the Wrightwood site, and (3) an example of a sequence of micro-repeating earthquakes at a site near San Juan Bautista. In each case we make a comparison with the applicable Weibull distribution. The number of earthquakes in each of these sequences is too small to make definitive conclusions. To overcome this difficulty we consider a sequence of earthquakes obtained from a one million year “Virtual California” simulation of San Andreas earthquakes. Very good agreement with a Weibull distribution is found. We also obtain recurrence statistics for two other model studies. The first is a modified forest-fire model and the second is a slider-block model. In both cases good agreements with Weibull distributions are obtained. Our conclusion is that the Weibull distribution is the preferred distribution for estimating the risk of future earthquakes on the San Andreas fault and elsewhere.

  15. Seismic structure beneath Mt Vesuvius from receiver function analysis and local earthquakes tomography: evidences for location and geometry of the magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, N. Piana; Chiarabba, C.

    2008-12-01

    The recognition and localization of magmatic fluids are pre-requisites for evaluating the volcano hazard of the highly urbanized area of Mt Vesuvius. Here we show evidence and constraints for the volumetric estimation of magmatic fluids underneath this sleeping volcano. We use Receiver Functions for teleseismic data recorded at a temporary broad-band station installed on the volcano to constrain the S-wave velocity structure in the crust. Receiver Functions are analysed and inverted using the Neighbourhood Algorithm approach. The 1-D S-velocity profile is jointly interpreted and discussed with a new Vp and Vp/Vs image obtained by applying double difference tomographic techniques to local earthquakes. Seismologic data define the geometry of an axial, cylindrical high Vp, high Vs body consisting of a shallow solidified materials, probably the remnants of the caldera, and ultramafic rocks paving the crustal magma chamber. Between these two anomalies, we find a small region where the shear wave velocity drops, revealing the presence of magma at relatively shallow depths. The volume of fluids (30 km3) is sufficient to contribute future explosive eruptions.

  16. Possible deep fault slip preceding the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, inferred from detailed observations of tectonic tremor

    Shelly, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake predictability depends, in part, on the degree to which sudden slip is preceded by slow aseismic slip. Recently, observations of deep tremor have enabled inferences of deep slow slip even when detection by other means is not possible, but these data are limited to certain areas and mostly the last decade. The region near Parkfield, California, provides a unique convergence of several years of high-quality tremor data bracketing a moderate earthquake, the 2004 magnitude 6.0 event. Here, I present detailed observations of tectonic tremor from mid-2001 through 2008 that indicate deep fault slip both before and after the Parkfield earthquake that cannot be detected with surface geodetic instruments. While there is no obvious short-term precursor, I find unidirectional tremor migration accompanied by elevated tremor rates in the 3 months prior to the earthquake, which suggests accelerated creep on the fault ∼16 km beneath the eventual earthquake hypocenter.

  17. A comparison study of 2006 Java earthquake and other Tsunami earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Shao, G.

    2006-12-01

    We revise the slip processes of July 17 2006 Java earthquakes by combined inverting teleseismic body wave, long period surface waves, as well as the broadband records at Christmas island (XMIS), which is 220 km away from the hypocenter and so far the closest observation for a Tsunami earthquake. Comparing with the previous studies, our approach considers the amplitude variations of surface waves with source depths as well as the contribution of ScS phase, which usually has amplitudes compatible with that of direct S phase for such low angle thrust earthquakes. The fault dip angles are also refined using the Love waves observed along fault strike direction. Our results indicate that the 2006 event initiated at a depth around 12 km and unilaterally rupture southeast for 150 sec with a speed of 1.0 km/sec. The revised fault dip is only about 6 degrees, smaller than the Harvard CMT (10.5 degrees) but consistent with that of 1994 Java earthquake. The smaller fault dip results in a larger moment magnitude (Mw=7.9) for a PREM earth, though it is dependent on the velocity structure used. After verified with 3D SEM forward simulation, we compare the inverted result with the revised slip models of 1994 Java and 1992 Nicaragua earthquakes derived using the same wavelet based finite fault inversion methodology.

  18. Estimation of slip scenarios of mega-thrust earthquakes and strong motion simulations for Central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, N.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, Z.; Chlieh, M.; Calderon, D.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakai, S.; Yamazaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a methodology for the estimation of slip scenarios for megathrust earthquakes based on a model of interseismic coupling (ISC) distribution in subduction margins obtained from geodetic data, as well as information of recurrence of historical earthquakes. This geodetic slip model (GSM) delineates the long wavelength asperities within the megathrust. For the simulation of strong ground motion it becomes necessary to introduce short wavelength heterogeneities to the source slip to be able to efficiently simulate high frequency ground motions. To achieve this purpose we elaborate "broadband" source models constructed by combining the GSM with several short wavelength slip distributions obtained from a Von Karman PSD function with random phases. Our application of the method to Central Andes in Peru, show that this region has presently the potential of generating an earthquake with moment magnitude of 8.9, with a peak slip of 17 m and a source area of approximately 500 km along strike and 165 km along dip. For the strong motion simulations we constructed 12 broadband slip models, and consider 9 possible hypocenter locations for each model. We performed strong motion simulations for the whole central Andes region (Peru), spanning an area from the Nazca ridge (16^o S) to the Mendana fracture (9^o S). For this purpose we use the hybrid strong motion simulation method of Pulido et al. (2004), improved to handle a general slip distribution. Our simulated PGA and PGV distributions indicate that a region of at least 500 km along the coast of central Andes is subjected to a MMI intensity of approximately 8, for the slip model that yielded the largest ground motions among the 12 slip models considered, averaged for all assumed hypocenter locations. This result is in agreement with the macroseismic intensity distribution estimated for the great 1746 earthquake (M~9) in central Andes (Dorbath et al. 1990). Our results indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV for

  19. Intrastab Earthquakes: Dehydration of the Cascadia Slab

    Preston, L.A.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Brocher, T.M.; Trehu, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We simultaneously invert travel times of refracted and wide-angle reflected waves for three-dimensional compressional-wave velocity structure, earthquake locations, and reflector geometry in northwest Washington state. The reflector, interpreted to be the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, separates intrastab earthquakes into two groups, permitting a new understanding of the origins of intrastab earthquakes in Cascadia. Earthquakes up-dip of the Moho's 45-kilometer depth contour occur below the reflector, in the subducted oceanic mantle, consistent with serpentinite dehydration; earthquakes located down-dip occur primarily within the subducted crust, consistent with the basalt-to-eclogite transformation.

  20. Foreshocks and aftershocks of Pisagua 2014 earthquake: time and space evolution of megathrust event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuenzalida Velasco, Amaya; Rietbrock, Andreas; Wollam, Jack; Thomas, Reece; de Lima Neto, Oscar; Tavera, Hernando; Garth, Thomas; Ruiz, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The 2014 Pisagua earthquake of magnitude 8.2 is the first case in Chile where a foreshock sequence was clearly recorded by a local network, as well all the complete sequence including the mainshock and its aftershocks. The seismicity of the last year before the mainshock include numerous clusters close to the epicentral zone (Ruiz et al; 2014) but it was on 16th March that this activity became stronger with the Mw 6.7 precursory event taking place in front of Iquique coast at 12 km depth. The Pisagua earthquake arrived on 1st April 2015 breaking almost 120 km N-S and two days after a 7.6 aftershock occurred in the south of the rupture, enlarging the zone affected by this sequence. In this work, we analyse the foreshocks and aftershock sequence of Pisagua earthquake, from the spatial and time evolution for a total of 15.764 events that were recorded from the 1st March to 31th May 2015. This event catalogue was obtained from the automatic analyse of seismic raw data of more than 50 stations installed in the north of Chile and the south of Peru. We used the STA/LTA algorithm for the detection of P and S arrival times on the vertical components and then a method of back propagation in a 1D velocity model for the event association and preliminary location of its hypocenters following the algorithm outlined by Rietbrock et al. (2012). These results were then improved by locating with NonLinLoc software using a regional velocity model. We selected the larger events to analyse its moment tensor solution by a full waveform inversion using ISOLA software. In order to understand the process of nucleation and propagation of the Pisagua earthquake, we also analysed the evolution in time of the seismicity of the three months of data. The zone where the precursory events took place was strongly activated two weeks before the mainshock and remained very active until the end of the analysed period with an important quantity of the seismicity located in the upper plate and having

  1. The effect of heterogeneous crust on the earthquake -- The case study of the 2004 Chuetsu, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, T.; Kato, N.; Yin, J.; Kato, A.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004, Chuetsu, Japan, earthquake of Mw 6.6 occurred as shallow thrust event and the detailed kinematic source model was obtained by Hikima and Koketsu (2005). Just after the event, a dense temporal seismic network was deployed, and the detailed structure was elucidated (A. Kato et al. 2006). The seismic velocities in the hanging wall above the main shock fault are lower than those in the footwall, with the velocity contrast extending to a depth of approximately 10 km (A. Kato et al. 2006). Their results also show the high velocity on the asperity. We investigate that effect of the structure heterogeneity on fault rupture. First, we model the structure of the source region of 100km x 100km x 40km as simple as possible, and then solve the static elastic equation of motion with gravity effect by using finite difference method and GeoFEM. Our structure model consists of two layers, in which the boundary is a dipping surface from ground surface to 10km depth and bend to horizontal plane. The slope of the boundary corresponds to the earthquake fault and a bump located on the asperity between the depths of 4km and 10km. Finite difference grid size is 0.25km horizontally and 0.4km vertically. Ratio of the horizontal to vertical grids corresponds to the dip angle of the main shock. We simply assume the rigidity of 30GPa for lower sediment part and 40GPa for hard rock part. The boundary conditions imposed are, 1) stress free on the ground surface, 2) depth dependent or uniform normal stress are added on the sides that cause horizontal maximum stress, 3) Lithostatic vertical stress on the bottom. The calculated stress field on the main shock fault has the following features, 1) The high shear stress peaks appear around the depth of hypocenter and the top edge of the asperity, corresponding to the depths of the velocity contrast. These high stress zones are caused by stress concentration of the low rigidity wedge shaped sediment. 2) Expected stress drop distribution is

  2. Seismic structure of subducted Philippine Sea plate beneath the southern Ryukyu arc by receiver function and local earthquakes tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    /Vs anomalies are distributed along the hypocenters in the subducted slab. The plate interface is about 10 km above the slab earthquakes from the trace of negative RF amplitude. The slab earthquakes are distributed along the trace of positive RF amplitude. Therefore the slab earthquakes occur near the oceanic Moho of the PHS. The fault depth of the SSEs corresponds to the plate interface within 5 km. The fault-planes of the SSE are located above the low Vp and high Vp/Vs zone. Assuming that the difference between high Vp/Vs and low Vp/Vs originates to the fluid contents, this would be interpreted that the fluids from the subducted oceanic crust cannot be transported upward and is trapped at the plate interface. The observed strong S-wave reflector (Nakamura, 2001) in the upper interface of the subducted plate also supports the idea. The top of the faults of the SSEs connects to the cluster of earthquake swarms in the lower crust. This suggests that the trapped fluids are transported upward along the faults, accumulates in the lower crust, and induce the swarm of micro-earthquakes in the lower crust.

  3. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  4. Injection-induced earthquakes

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  5. TrigDB for improving the reliability of the epicenter locations by considering the neighborhood station's trigger and cutting out of outliers in operation of Earthquake Early Warning System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H. C.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    TrigDB is initially developed for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm in the case with unreasonably associated triggers producing mis-located epicenters. We have applied TrigDB to the current EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) from 2014. During the early stage of testing EEWS from 2011, we adapted ElarmS from US Berkeley BSL to Korean seismic network and applied more than 5 years. We found out that the real-time testing results of EEWS in Korea showed that all events inside of seismic network with bigger than magnitude 3.0 were well detected. However, two events located at sea area gave false location results with magnitude over 4.0 due to the long period and relatively high amplitude signals related to the teleseismic waves or regional deep sources. These teleseismic-relevant false events were caused by logical co-relation during association procedure and the corresponding geometric distribution of associated stations is crescent-shaped. Seismic stations are not deployed uniformly, so the expected bias ratio varies with evaluated epicentral location. This ratio is calculated in advance and stored into database, called as TrigDB, for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm. We upgraded this method, so called `TrigDB back filling', updating location with supplementary association of stations comparing triggered times between sandwiched stations which was not associated previously based on predefined criteria such as travel-time. And we have tested a module to reject outlier trigger times by setting a criteria comparing statistical values(Sigma) to the triggered times. The criteria of cutting off the outlier is slightly slow to work until the number of stations more than 8, however, the result of location is very much improved.

  6. Numerical models of pore pressure and stress changes along basement faults due to wastewater injection: Applications to the 2014 Milan, Kansas Earthquake

    Hearn, Elizabeth H.; Koltermann, Christine; Rubinstein, Justin R.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed groundwater flow models to explore the possible relationship between wastewater injection and the 12 November 2014 Mw 4.8 Milan, Kansas earthquake. We calculate pore pressure increases in the uppermost crust using a suite of models in which hydraulic properties of the Arbuckle Formation and the Milan earthquake fault zone, the Milan earthquake hypocenter depth, and fault zone geometry are varied. Given pre‐earthquake injection volumes and reasonable hydrogeologic properties, significantly increasing pore pressure at the Milan hypocenter requires that most flow occur through a conductive channel (i.e., the lower Arbuckle and the fault zone) rather than a conductive 3‐D volume. For a range of reasonable lower Arbuckle and fault zone hydraulic parameters, the modeled pore pressure increase at the Milan hypocenter exceeds a minimum triggering threshold of 0.01 MPa at the time of the earthquake. Critical factors include injection into the base of the Arbuckle Formation and proximity of the injection point to a narrow fault damage zone or conductive fracture in the pre‐Cambrian basement with a hydraulic diffusivity of about 3–30 m2/s. The maximum pore pressure increase we obtain at the Milan hypocenter before the earthquake is 0.06 MPa. This suggests that the Milan earthquake occurred on a fault segment that was critically stressed prior to significant wastewater injection in the area. Given continued wastewater injection into the upper Arbuckle in the Milan region, assessment of the middle Arbuckle as a hydraulic barrier remains an important research priority.

  7. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

    2009-04-01

    Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

  8. "The Big One" in Taipei: Numerical Simulation Study of the Sanchiao Fault Earthquake Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Ng, S.

    2012-12-01

    Sanchiao fault is a western boundary fault of the Taipei basin located in northern Taiwan, close to the densely populated Taipei metropolitan area. According to the report of Central Geological Survey, the terrestrial portion of the Sanchiao fault can be divided into north and south segments. The south segment is about 13 km and north segment is about 21 km. Recent study demonstrated that there are about 40 km of the fault trace that extended to the marine area offshore of northern Taiwan. Combined with the marine and terrestrial parts, the total fault length of Sanchiao fault could be nearly 70 kilometers. Based on the recipe proposed by IRIKURA and Miyake (2010), we estimate the Sanchiao fault has the potential to produce an earthquake with moment magnitude larger than Mw 7.2. The total area of fault rupture is about 1323 km2, asperity to the total fault plane is 22%, and the slips of the asperity and background are 2.8 m and 1.6 m respectively. Use the characteristic source model based on this assumption, the 3D spectral-element method simulation results indicate that Peak ground acceleration (PGA) is significantly stronger along the surface fault-rupture. The basin effects play an important role when wave propagates in the Taipei basin which cause seismic wave amplified and prolong the shaking for a very long time. It is worth noting that, when the rupture starts from the southern tip of the fault, i.e. the hypocenter locates in the basin, the impact of the Sanchiao fault earthquake to the Taipei metropolitan area will be the most serious. The strong shaking can cover the entire Taipei city, and even across the basin that extended to eastern-most part of northern Taiwan.

  9. Kinematic Rupture Process of the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake Sequence from Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, hr-GPS, Strong-Ground Motion, InSAR interferograms and pixel offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, H.; Simons, M.; Jiang, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Riel, B. V.; Polet, J.; Duputel, Z.; Samsonov, S. V.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake ruptured the front of Himalaya thrust belt, causing more than 9,000 fatalities. 17 days after the main event, a large aftershock (Mw 7.2) ruptured to down-dip and east of the main rupture area. To investigate the kinematic rupture process of this earthquake sequence, we explored linear and non-linear inversion techniques using a variety of datasets including teleseismic, high rate and conventional GPS, InSAR interferograms and pixel-offsets. InSAR interferograms from ALOS-2, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1a satellites are used in the joint inversion. The main event is characterized by unilateral rupture extending along strike approximately 70 km to the southeast and 40 km along dip direction. The rupture velocity is well resolved to be lie between 2.8 and 3.0 km/s, which is consistent with back-projection results. An emergent initial phase is observed in teleseismic body wave records, which is consistent with a narrow area of rupture initiation near the hypocenter. The rupture mode of the main event is pulse like. The aftershock ruptured down-dip to the northeast of the main event rupture area. The aftershock rupture area is compact and contained within 40 km of its hypocenter. In contrast to the main event, teleseismic body wave records of the aftershock suggest an abrupt initial phase, which is consistent with a crack like rupture mode. The locations of most of the aftershocks (small and large) surround the rupture area of the main shock with little, if any, spatial overlap.

  10. Inversion of Orkney M5.5 earthquake South Africa using strain meters at very close distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasutomi, T.; Mori, J. J.; Yamada, M.; Ogasawara, H.; Okubo, M.; Ogasawara, H.; Ishida, A.

    2017-12-01

    The largest event recorded in a South African gold mining region, a M5.5 earthquake took place near Orkney on 5 August 2014. The mainshock and afterhocks were recorded by 46 geophones at 2-3 km depths, 3 Ishii borehole strainmeters at 2.9km depth, and 17 surface strong motion instruments at close distances. The upper edge of the planar distribution of aftershock activity dips almost vertically and was only several hundred meters below the sites where the strainmeters were installed. In addition the seismic data, drilling across this fault is now in progress (Jun 2017 to December 2017) and will contribute valuable geological and stress information. Although the geophones data were saturated during the mainshock, the strainmeters recorded clear nearfield waveforms. We try to model the source of the M5.5 mainshock using the nearfield strainmeter data. Two strain meters located at same place, depth at 2.8km. Remaining one is located depth at 2.9km. Distance of each other is only 150m. Located at depth 2.9km recorded large stable strain, on the other hand, located at depth 2.8 km recorded three or four times smaller stable strain than 2.9km. These data indicates the distance between M5.5 fault and 2.9km depth strainmeter is a few hundred meters order. The strain Green functions were calculated assuming an infinite medium and using a finite difference method. We use small aftershocks to verify the Green function. Matching of the waveforms for the small events validates and Green functions used for the mainshock inversion. We present a model of the source rupture using these strain data. The nearfield data provide good resolution of the nearby earthquake rupture. There are two large subevents, one near the hypocenter and the second several hundred meters to the west.

  11. The 2005 Tarapaca, Chile, Intermediate-depth Earthquake: Evidence of Heterogeneous Fluid Distribution Across the Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuge, K.; Kase, Y.; Urata, Y.; Campos, J.; Perez, A.

    2008-12-01

    The physical mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes remains unsolved, and dehydration embrittlement in subducting plates is a candidate. An earthquake of Mw7.8 occurred at a depth of 115 km beneath Tarapaca, Chile. In this study, we suggest that the earthquake rupture can be attributed to heterogeneous fluid distribution across the subducting plate. The distribution of aftershocks suggests that the earthquake occurred on the subhorizontal fault plane. By modeling regional waveforms, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of moment release on the fault plane, testing a different suite of velocity models and hypocenters. Two patches of high slip were robustly obtained, although their geometry tends to vary. We tested the results separately by computing the synthetic teleseismic P and pP waveforms. Observed P waveforms are generally modeled, whereas two pulses of observed pP require that the two patches are in the WNW-ESE direction. From the selected moment-release evolution, the dynamic rupture model was constructed by means of Mikumo et al. (1998). The model shows two patches of high dynamic stress drop. Notable is a region of negative stress drop between the two patches. This was required so that the region could lack wave radiation but propagate rupture from the first to the second patches. We found from teleseismic P that the radiation efficiency of the earthquake is relatively small, which can support the existence of negative stress drop during the rupture. The heterogeneous distribution of stress drop that we found can be caused by fluid. The T-P condition of dehydration explains the locations of double seismic zones (e.g. Hacker et al., 2003). The distance between the two patches of high stress drop agrees with the distance between the upper and lower layers of the double seismic zone observed in the south (Rietbrock and Waldhauser, 2004). The two patches can be parts of the double seismic zone, indicating the existence of fluid from dehydration

  12. Earthquake technology fights crime

    Lahr, John C.; Ward, Peter L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have adapted their methods for quickly finding the exact source of an earthquake to the problem of locating gunshots. On the basis of this work, a private company is now testing an automated gunshot-locating system in a San Francisco Bay area community. This system allows police to rapidly pinpoint and respond to illegal gunfire, helping to reduce crime in our neighborhoods.

  13. Deep low-frequency earthquake activities during the failed magmatic eruptions of Mts. Iwate and Fuji, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, H.; Hamaguchi, H.; Ukawa, M.; Tanaka, S.; Ueki, S.; Nishimura, T.

    2008-12-01

    I review deep low-frequency earthquake (DLF) activities during the failed magmatic eruptions of Mts. Iwate and Fuji, Japan. Volcanic unrests at Mts. Iwate and Fuji were observed in 1998-1999 and 2000-2001, respectively. Several hundred DLFs occurred during the unrest at Mt. Iwate; the number of DLFs in a normal year is less than or equal to 10. The DLF activity at Mt. Fuji increased sharply during the period from September 2000 to May 2001. The frequency of DLFs at Mt. Fuji during the DLF swarm was 20 times higher than that during normal activity. The DLFs of Mts. Iwate and Fuji show non-DC source mechanisms and suggest fluid motion at the focal regions. The DLF hypocenters of Mt. Fuji defined an ellipsoid with a diameter of 5 km; their focal depths are 11-16 km. The ellipsoid was centered 3 km northeast of the summit, and its major axis was directed in the northwest-southeast direction. The center of the ellipsoid gradually migrated upward, and 2-3 km in the northwest direction during 1998-2001. The migration of the DLFs reflects the volcanic fluid migration associated with a northwest-southeast-oriented dike beneath Mt. Fuji. The DLFs of Mt. Iwate were located at intermediate depths (5-12 km) beneath the summit and at deep depths (31-37 km) in the regions located 10 km south and 10 km northeast of the summit. In April 1998, the frequency of DLFs increased five days before an increase in the occurrence of shallow volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Iwate. Hypocenter migration of the DLFs at intermediate depths was observed from April 1998 to September 1998. New fumarole activity in the western region of Mt. Iwate commenced in 1999. These observations indicate that DLFs at Mts. Fuji and Iwate have common features in their activities and source mechanisms. But, shallow volcanic activities at these two volcanoes were much different: strong shallow seismic activity and volcano inflations as well as a new formation of fumarolic area were observed at Mt. Iwate, while such

  14. Future of Earthquake Early Warning: Quantifying Uncertainty and Making Fast Automated Decisions for Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems have been rapidly developing over the past decade. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has an EEW system that was operating during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, and this increased the awareness of EEW systems around the world. While longer-time earthquake prediction still faces many challenges to be practical, the availability of shorter-time EEW opens up a new door for earthquake loss mitigation. After an earthquake fault begins rupturing, an EEW system utilizes the first few seconds of recorded seismic waveform data to quickly predict the hypocenter location, magnitude, origin time and the expected shaking intensity level around the region. This early warning information is broadcast to different sites before the strong shaking arrives. The warning lead time of such a system is short, typically a few seconds to a minute or so, and the information is uncertain. These factors limit human intervention to activate mitigation actions and this must be addressed for engineering applications of EEW. This study applies a Bayesian probabilistic approach along with machine learning techniques and decision theories from economics to improve different aspects of EEW operation, including extending it to engineering applications. Existing EEW systems are often based on a deterministic approach. Often, they assume that only a single event occurs within a short period of time, which led to many false alarms after the Tohoku earthquake in Japan. This study develops a probability-based EEW algorithm based on an existing deterministic model to extend the EEW system to the case of concurrent events, which are often observed during the aftershock sequence after a large earthquake. To overcome the challenge of uncertain information and short lead time of EEW, this study also develops an earthquake probability-based automated decision-making (ePAD) framework to make robust decision for EEW mitigation applications. A cost-benefit model that

  15. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  16. Evidence for fluid-triggered slip in the 2009 Mount Rainier, Washington earthquake swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelly, David R.; Moran, Seth C.; Thelen, Weston A.

    2013-04-01

    A vigorous swarm of over 1000 small, shallow earthquakes occurred 20-22 September 2009 beneath Mount Rainier, Washington, including the largest number of events ever recorded in a single day at Rainier since seismic stations were installed on the edifice in 1989. Many events were only clearly recorded on one or two stations on the edifice, or they overlapped in time with other events, and thus only ~200 were locatable by manual phase picking. To partially overcome this limitation, we applied waveform-based event detection integrated with precise double-difference relative relocation. With this procedure, detection and location goals are accomplished in tandem, using cross-correlation with continuous seismic data and waveform templates constructed from cataloged events. As a result, we obtained precise locations for 726 events, an improvement of almost a factor of 4. These event locations define a ~850 m long nearly vertical structure striking NNE, with episodic migration outward from the initial hypocenters. The activity front propagates in a manner consistent with a diffusional process. Double-couple-constrained focal mechanisms suggest dominantly near-vertical strike-slip motion on either NNW or ENE striking faults, more than 30° different than the strike of the event locations. This suggests the possibility of en echelon faulting, perhaps with a component of fault opening in a fracture-mesh-type geometry. We hypothesize that the swarm was initiated by a sudden release of high-pressure fluid into preexisting fractures, with subsequent activity triggered by diffusing fluid pressure in combination with stress transfer from the preceding events.

  17. Evidence for fluid-triggered slip in the 2009 Mount Rainier, Washington earthquake swarm

    Shelly, David R.; Moran, Seth C.; Thelen, Weston A.

    2013-01-01

    A vigorous swarm of over 1000 small, shallow earthquakes occurred 20–22 September 2009 beneath Mount Rainier, Washington, including the largest number of events ever recorded in a single day at Rainier since seismic stations were installed on the edifice in 1989. Many events were only clearly recorded on one or two stations on the edifice, or they overlapped in time with other events, and thus only ~200 were locatable by manual phase picking. To partially overcome this limitation, we applied waveform-based event detection integrated with precise double-difference relative relocation. With this procedure, detection and location goals are accomplished in tandem, using cross-correlation with continuous seismic data and waveform templates constructed from cataloged events. As a result, we obtained precise locations for 726 events, an improvement of almost a factor of 4. These event locations define a ~850 m long nearly vertical structure striking NNE, with episodic migration outward from the initial hypocenters. The activity front propagates in a manner consistent with a diffusional process. Double-couple-constrained focal mechanisms suggest dominantly near-vertical strike-slip motion on either NNW or ENE striking faults, more than 30° different than the strike of the event locations. This suggests the possibility of en echelon faulting, perhaps with a component of fault opening in a fracture-mesh-type geometry. We hypothesize that the swarm was initiated by a sudden release of high-pressure fluid into preexisting fractures, with subsequent activity triggered by diffusing fluid pressure in combination with stress transfer from the preceding events.

  18. Analog earthquakes

    SciT

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed.more » A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.« less

  19. Reexamination of the subsurface fault structure in the vicinity of the 1989 moment-magnitude-6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, central California, using steep-reflection, earthquake, and magnetic data

    Zhang, Edward; Fuis, Gary S.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Goldman, Mark; Bauer, Klaus

    2018-06-13

    We reexamine the geometry of the causative fault structure of the 1989 moment-magnitude-6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake in central California, using seismic-reflection, earthquake-hypocenter, and magnetic data. Our study is prompted by recent interpretations of a two-part dip of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) accompanied by a flower-like structure in the Coachella Valley, in southern California. Initially, the prevailing interpretation of fault geometry in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake was that the mainshock did not rupture the SAF, but rather a secondary fault within the SAF system, because network locations of aftershocks defined neither a vertical plane nor a fault plane that projected to the surface trace of the SAF. Subsequent waveform cross-correlation and double-difference relocations of Loma Prieta aftershocks appear to have clarified the fault geometry somewhat, with steeply dipping faults in the upper crust possibly connecting to the more moderately southwest-dipping mainshock rupture in the middle crust. Examination of steep-reflection data, extracted from a 1991 seismic-refraction profile through the Loma Prieta area, reveals three robust fault-like features that agree approximately in geometry with the clusters of upper-crustal relocated aftershocks. The subsurface geometry of the San Andreas, Sargent, and Berrocal Faults can be mapped using these features and the aftershock clusters. The San Andreas and Sargent Faults appear to dip northeastward in the uppermost crust and change dip continuously toward the southwest with depth. Previous models of gravity and magnetic data on profiles through the aftershock region also define a steeply dipping SAF, with an initial northeastward dip in the uppermost crust that changes with depth. At a depth 6 to 9 km, upper-crustal faults appear to project into the moderately southwest-dipping, planar mainshock rupture. The change to a planar dipping rupture at 6–9 km is similar to fault geometry seen in the

  20. Seismogeodesy of the 2014 Mw6.1 Napa earthquake, California: Rapid response and modeling of fast rupture on a dipping strike-slip fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, Diego; Geng, Jianghui; Crowell, Brendan W.; Haase, Jennifer S.; Bock, Yehuda; Hammond, William C.; Allen, Richard M.

    2015-07-01

    Real-time high-rate geodetic data have been shown to be useful for rapid earthquake response systems during medium to large events. The 2014 Mw6.1 Napa, California earthquake is important because it provides an opportunity to study an event at the lower threshold of what can be detected with GPS. We show the results of GPS-only earthquake source products such as peak ground displacement magnitude scaling, centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, and static slip inversion. We also highlight the retrospective real-time combination of GPS and strong motion data to produce seismogeodetic waveforms that have higher precision and longer period information than GPS-only or seismic-only measurements of ground motion. We show their utility for rapid kinematic slip inversion and conclude that it would have been possible, with current real-time infrastructure, to determine the basic features of the earthquake source. We supplement the analysis with strong motion data collected close to the source to obtain an improved postevent image of the source process. The model reveals unilateral fast propagation of slip to the north of the hypocenter with a delayed onset of shallow slip. The source model suggests that the multiple strands of observed surface rupture are controlled by the shallow soft sediments of Napa Valley and do not necessarily represent the intersection of the main faulting surface and the free surface. We conclude that the main dislocation plane is westward dipping and should intersect the surface to the east, either where the easternmost strand of surface rupture is observed or at the location where the West Napa fault has been mapped in the past.

  1. Broadband Ground Motion Synthesis of the 1999 Turkey Earthquakes Based On: 3-D Velocity Inversion, Finite Difference Calculations and Emprical Greens Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, R.; Kalafat, D.; Hutchings, L.

    2003-12-01

    We analyze over 3,500 aftershocks recorded by several seismic networks during the 1999 Marmara, Turkey earthquakes. The analysis provides source parameters of the aftershocks, a three-dimensional velocity structure from tomographic inversion, an input three-dimensional velocity model for a finite difference wave propagation code (E3D, Larsen 1998), and records available for use as empirical Green's functions. Ultimately our goal is to model the 1999 earthquakes from DC to 25 Hz and study fault rupture mechanics and kinematic rupture models. We performed the simultaneous inversion for hypocenter locations and three-dimensional P- and S- wave velocity structure of Marmara Region using SIMULPS14 along with 2,500 events with more than eight P- readings and an azimuthal gap of less than 180\\deg. The resolution of calculated velocity structure is better in the eastern Marmara than the western Marmara region due to the dense ray coverage. We used the obtained velocity structure as input into the finite difference algorithm and validated the model by using M < 4 earthquakes as point sources and matching long period waveforms (f < 0.5 Hz). We also obtained Mo, fc and individual station kappa values for over 500 events by performing a simultaneous inversion to fit these parameters with a Brune source model. We used the results of the source inversion to deconvolve out a Brune model from small to moderate size earthquakes (M < 4.0) to obtain empirical Green's function (EGF) for the higher frequency range of ground motion synthesis (0.5 < f > 25 Hz). We additionally obtained the source scaling relation (energy-moment) of these aftershocks. We have generated several scenarios constrained by a priori knowledge of the Izmit and Duzce rupture parameters to validate our prediction capability.

  2. 3-D simulations of M9 earthquakes on the Cascadia Megathrust: Key parameters and uncertainty

    Wirth, Erin; Frankel, Arthur; Vidale, John; Marafi, Nasser A.; Stephenson, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Geologic and historical records indicate that the Cascadia subduction zone is capable of generating large, megathrust earthquakes up to magnitude 9. The last great Cascadia earthquake occurred in 1700, and thus there is no direct measure on the intensity of ground shaking or specific rupture parameters from seismic recordings. We use 3-D numerical simulations to generate broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms for 50 M9 rupture scenarios on the Cascadia megathrust. Slip consists of multiple high-stress drop subevents (~M8) with short rise times on the deeper portion of the fault, superimposed on a background slip distribution with longer rise times. We find a >4x variation in the intensity of ground shaking depending upon several key parameters, including the down-dip limit of rupture, the slip distribution and location of strong-motion-generating subevents, and the hypocenter location. We find that extending the down-dip limit of rupture to the top of the non-volcanic tremor zone results in a ~2-3x increase in peak ground acceleration for the inland city of Seattle, Washington, compared to a completely offshore rupture. However, our simulations show that allowing the rupture to extend to the up-dip limit of tremor (i.e., the deepest rupture extent in the National Seismic Hazard Maps), even when tapering the slip to zero at the down-dip edge, results in multiple areas of coseismic coastal uplift. This is inconsistent with coastal geologic evidence (e.g., buried soils, submerged forests), which suggests predominantly coastal subsidence for the 1700 earthquake and previous events. Defining the down-dip limit of rupture as the 1 cm/yr locking contour (i.e., mostly offshore) results in primarily coseismic subsidence at coastal sites. We also find that the presence of deep subevents can produce along-strike variations in subsidence and ground shaking along the coast. Our results demonstrate the wide range of possible ground motions from an M9 megathrus