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Sample records for earthquake monitoring center

  1. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  2. Earthquake Engineering Research Center: 25th anniversry edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    The Earthquake Engineering Research Center exists to conduct research and develop technical information in all areas pertaining to earthquake engineering, including strong ground motion and ground failure, response of natural and manmade structures to earthquakes, design of structures to resist earthquakes, development of new systems for earthquake protection, and development of architectural and public policy aspects of earthquake engineering. The annual report for 1992-93 presents information on: Current Research Programs; Contracts and Grants; Public Service Program; National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering; Core Administration; Committees of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Research Participants - Faculty; and Research Participants - Students.

  3. Hybrid wireless sensor network for rescue site monitoring after earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chong; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Weijian; Tan, Min; Gao, Bowei

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the design of a low-cost, low-complexity, and rapidly deployable wireless sensor network (WSN) for rescue site monitoring after earthquakes. The system structure of the hybrid WSN is described. Specifically, the proposed hybrid WSN consists of two kinds of wireless nodes, i.e., the monitor node and the sensor node. Then the mechanism and the system configuration of the wireless nodes are detailed. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-based request-response scheme is proposed to allow several monitor nodes to communicate with the monitoring center. UDP-based image transmission algorithms with fast recovery have been developed to meet the requirements of in-time delivery of on-site monitor images. In addition, the monitor node contains a ZigBee module that used to communicate with the sensor nodes, which are designed with small dimensions to monitor the environment by sensing different physical properties in narrow spaces. By building a WSN using these wireless nodes, the monitoring center can display real-time monitor images of the monitoring area and visualize all collected sensor data on geographic information systems. In the end, field experiments were performed at the Training Base of Emergency Seismic Rescue Troops of China and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the monitor system.

  4. NEIC; the National Earthquake Information Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.; Needham, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    At least 9,500 people were killed, 30,000 were injured and 100,000 were left homeless by this earthquake. According to some unconfirmed reports, the death toll from this earthquake may have been as high as 35,000. this earthquake is estimated to have seriously affected an area of 825,000 square kilometers, caused between 3 and 4 billion dollars in damage, and been felt by 20 million people. 

  5. An overview of the National Earthquake Information Center acquisition software system, Edge/Continuous Waveform Buffer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, John M.; Ketchum, David C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an overview of the capabilities, design, and use cases of the data acquisition and archiving subsystem at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. The Edge and Continuous Waveform Buffer software supports the National Earthquake Information Center’s worldwide earthquake monitoring mission in direct station data acquisition, data import, short- and long-term data archiving, data distribution, query services, and playback, among other capabilities. The software design and architecture can be configured to support acquisition and (or) archiving use cases. The software continues to be developed in order to expand the acquisition, storage, and distribution capabilities.

  6. Earthquake Observation through Groundwater Monitoring in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    According to previous researches, the influence of the some earthquakes can be detected by groundwater monitoring. Even in some countries groundwater monitoring is being used as an important tool to identify earthquake precursors and prediction measures. Thus, in this study we attempt to catch the anomalous changes in groundwater produced by earthquakes occurred in Korea through the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN). For observing the earthquake impacts on groundwater more effectively, from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network we selected 28 stations located in the five earthquake-prone zones in South Korea. And we searched the responses to eight earthquakes with M ≥2.5 which occurred in the vicinity of five earthquake-prone zones in 2012. So far, we tested the groundwater monitoring data (water-level, temperature and electrical conductivity). Those data have only been treated to remove barometric pressure changes. Then we found 29 anomalous changes, confirming that groundwater monitoring data can provide valuable information on earthquake effects. To identify the effect of the earthquake from mixture signals of water-level, other signals must be separated from the original data. Periodic signals will be separated from the original data using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). After that we will attempt to separate precipitation effect, and determine if the anomalies were generated by earthquake or not.

  7. Earthquakes: Risk, Monitoring, Notification, and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-19

    far away as Bangladesh , Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Several large aftershocks have occurred since the main seismic event. The May 12 earthquake...motion of tectonic plates; ! Earthquake geology and paleoseismology: studies of the history, effects, and mechanics of earthquakes; ! Earthquake hazards

  8. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  9. Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in Taiwan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Taiwan region is characterized by a high shortening rate and a strong seismic activity. The Central Weather Bureau (CWB) is responsible for the earthquake monitoring in Taiwan. The CWB seismic network consists of 71 real-time short-period seismic stations in Taiwan region for routinely earthquake monitoring and has recorded about 18,000 events each year in a roughly 400 km x 550 km region. There are 53 real-time broadband stations install for seismological research purposes and reporting moment tensor solution in Taiwan. With the implementation of a real-time strong-motion network by the CWB, earthquake rapid reporting and early warning systems have been developed in Taiwan. The network consists of 110 stations. For rapid reporting system, when a potentially felt earthquake occurs around the Taiwan area, the location, magnitude and shake map of seismic intensities can be automatically reported within about 40 to 60 sec. For large earthquakes, the shaking map and losses can be estimated within 2 min after the earthquake occurrence. For earthquake early warning system, earthquake information could be determined at about 15 to 20 sec after a large earthquake occurrence. Therefore, this system can provide early warning before the arrival of S-wave for metropolitan areas located 70 km away from the epicenter. Recently, onsite earthquake early warning device is developed using MEMS sensor. It focuses on that to offer early warning for areas close to the epicenter.

  10. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  11. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  12. Earthquakes: Risk, Monitoring, Notification, and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-02

    active margin of the North American tectonic plate , the New Madrid seismic zone is not on a plate boundary but may be related to old faults in the...interior of the plate , marking a zone of tectonic weakness. 12 The largest earthquakes in New York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts were, respectively...deformation: studies of the distortion or deformation of the earth’s surface near active faults as a result of the motion of tectonic plates . ! Earthquake

  13. Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Summer Internship Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M. L.; Perry, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2004-12-01

    For the eleventh consecutive year, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) coordinated undergraduate research experiences in summer 2004, allowing 35 students with a broad array of backgrounds and interests to work with the world's preeminent earthquake scientists and specialists. Students participate in interdisciplinary, system-level earthquake science and information technology research, and several group activities throughout the summer. Funding for student stipends and activities is made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. SCEC coordinates two intern programs: The SCEC Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SCEC/SURE) and the SCEC Undergraduate Summer in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/USEIT). SCEC/SURE interns work one-on-one with SCEC scientists at their institutions on a variety of earthquake science research projects. The goals of the program are to expand student participation in the earth sciences and related disciplines, encourage students to consider careers in research and education, and to increase diversity of students and researchers in the earth sciences. 13 students participated in this program in 2004. SCEC/USEIT is an NSF REU site that brings undergraduate students from across the country to the University of Southern California each summer. SCEC/USEIT interns interact in a team-oriented research environment and are mentored by some of the nation's most distinguished geoscience and computer science researchers. The goals of the program are to allow undergraduates to use advanced tools of information technology to solve problems in earthquake research; close the gap between computer science and geoscience; and engage non-geoscience majors in the application of earth science to the practical problems of reducing earthquake risk. SCEC/USEIT summer research goals are structured around a grand challenge problem in earthquake information technology. For the past three years the students have

  14. Monitoring of soft high damping elastomeric bearings for earthquake isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Coveney, V.A.; Kuroda, T.; Kobatake, M.; Nita, Y.; Kulak, R.F.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1993-07-01

    Over the last 20 years several practical systems for the protection of buildings and their contents against the effects of earthquakes were developed. These systems rely on effectively decoupling the building from the strong horizontal ground accelerations that are some of the most damaging features of an earthquake. The isolation of small buildings against earthquakes poses particular problems for high damping elastomer. systems. It was recognized that one way to overcome these problems was to use elastomers with particularly low moduli, high damping and other necessary characteristics. This paper describes some key features of the development of soft high damping natural bearings. Their use for the earthquake isolation of a small highly instrumented building at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan is discussed. The paper focuses on the monitoring of the bearings during production and their performance in situ under static and earthquake (dynamic) conditions.

  15. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  16. Selecting optimum groundwater monitoring stations for earthquake observation and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Woo, N. C.

    2011-12-01

    In Korea, the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), consisted of a total of 327 stations around the country up to date, has been established and operated to monitor the background level and quality of ground water since 1995. From some of the monitoring wells, we identified abnormal changes in groundwater due to earthquakes. Then, this project was initiated with the following objectives: a) to identify and characterize groundwater changes due to earthquakes from the NGMN wells, and b) to suggest groundwater monitoring wells that can be used as supplementary monitoring stations for present seismic network. To accomplish the objectives, we need to identify previous responding history of each well to the other earthquakes, and the well's hydrogeological setting. Groundwater responses to earthquake events are identified as the direction of water-level movement (rise/fall), the amount of absolute changes, and the time for recovery to the previous level. Then, the distribution of responded wells is analyzed for their locations with GIS tools. Finally, statistical analyses perform to identify the optimum monitoring stations, considering geological features and hydrogeological settings of the stations and the earthquake epicenters. In this presentation, we report the results of up-to-date study as a part of the above-mentioned program.

  17. Long Baseline Tilt Meter Array to Monitor Cascadia's Slow Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suszek, N.; Bilham, R.; Flake, R.; Melbourne, T. I.; Miller, M.

    2004-12-01

    Five biaxial Michelson tilt meters are currently being installed in the Puget Lowlands near Seattle to monitor dynamic tilt changes accompanying episodic slow earthquakes that occur at 20-40 km depth. Each tilt meter consists of a 1-2 m deep, 500-m-long, 15-cm diameter, horizontal, half-filled water-pipe, terminated by float sensors with sub-micron water-level resolution, similar to those that have operated unattended for the past decade within the Long Valley caldera. The sensors measure water height relative to the base of a pile driven to 10 m depth. A wide-body LVDT attached to this pile outside the reservoir, senses the motion of the core attached to the float within. The voltage indicating the position of the core is sampled 16 times a second, and digitally filtered before transmission via radio modem for storage as 1-minute samples in a remote computer. The computer gathers 16-bit water height, vault temperature, air pressure and various housekeeping data once per minute using remote telemetry. Installed during 2004, the first of the tilt meters, installed in 2004, float sensors at each end, and one in the center of each pipe, permit us to examine tilt signal coherence and local noise. Each adjacent pair of sensors has a tilt resolution of 2e-9 and a range of 8 microradians. We anticipate tilt signals with durations of 0.3-30 days, and amplitudes of less than 0.1 microradian associated with slow earthquakes. Anticipated noise levels in the tilt meters are 10-1000 times lower that these expected signals, similar to or better than signal-to-noise levels from planned strain meters of the PBO array.

  18. Web Services and Other Enhancements at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Zuzlewski, S.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides data archive and distribution services for seismological and geophysical data sets that encompass northern California. The NCEDC is enhancing its ability to deliver rapid information through Web Services. NCEDC Web Services use well-established web server and client protocols and REST software architecture to allow users to easily make queries using web browsers or simple program interfaces and to receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, or MiniSEED depending on the service, and are compatible with the equivalent IRIS DMC web services. The NCEDC is currently providing the following Web Services: (1) Station inventory and channel response information delivered in StationXML format, (2) Channel response information delivered in RESP format, (3) Time series availability delivered in text and XML formats, (4) Single channel and bulk data request delivered in MiniSEED format. The NCEDC is also developing a rich Earthquake Catalog Web Service to allow users to query earthquake catalogs based on selection parameters such as time, location or geographic region, magnitude, depth, azimuthal gap, and rms. It will return (in QuakeML format) user-specified results that can include simple earthquake parameters, as well as observations such as phase arrivals, codas, amplitudes, and computed parameters such as first motion mechanisms, moment tensors, and rupture length. The NCEDC will work with both IRIS and the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) to define a uniform set of web service specifications that can be implemented by multiple data centers to provide users with a common data interface across data centers. The NCEDC now hosts earthquake catalogs and waveforms from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) monitoring networks. These

  19. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  20. Lessons Learned from Creating the Public Earthquake Resource Center at CERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. L.; Michelle, D.; Johnston, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis opened the Public Earthquake Resource Center (PERC) in May 2004. The PERC is an interactive display area that was designed to increase awareness of seismology, Earth Science, earthquake hazards, and earthquake engineering among the general public and K-12 teachers and students. Funding for the PERC is provided by the US Geological Survey, The NSF-funded Mid America Earthquake Center, and the University of Memphis, with input from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Additional space at the facility houses local offices of the US Geological Survey. PERC exhibits are housed in a remodeled residential structure at CERI that was donated by the University of Memphis and the State of Tennessee. Exhibits were designed and built by CERI and US Geological Survey staff and faculty with the help of experienced museum display subcontractors. The 600 square foot display area interactively introduces the basic concepts of seismology, real-time seismic information, seismic network operations, paleoseismology, building response, and historical earthquakes. Display components include three 22" flat screen monitors, a touch sensitive monitor, 3 helicorder elements, oscilloscope, AS-1 seismometer, life-sized liquefaction trench, liquefaction shake table, and building response shake table. All displays include custom graphics, text, and handouts. The PERC website at www.ceri.memphis.edu/perc also provides useful information such as tour scheduling, ask a geologist, links to other institutions, and will soon include a virtual tour of the facility. Special consideration was given to address State science standards for teaching and learning in the design of the displays and handouts. We feel this consideration is pivotal to the success of any grass roots Earth Science education and outreach program and represents a valuable lesson that has been learned at CERI over the last several

  1. Utilizing online monitoring of water wells for detecting earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Anker, Y.; Inbar, N.; Yellin-Dror, A.; Guttman, J.; Flexer, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater reaction to earthquakes is well known and documented, mostly as changes in water levels or springs discharge, but also as changes in groundwater chemistry. During 2004 groundwater level undulations preceded a series of moderate (ML~5) earthquakes, which occurred along the Dead Sea Rift System (DSRS). In order to try and validate these preliminary observations monitoring of several observation wells was initiated. The monitoring and telemetry infrastructure as well as the wells were allocated specifically for the research by the Israeli National Water Company (Mekorot LTD.). Once several earthquake events were skipped due to insufficient sampling frequency and owing to insufficient storage capacity that caused loss of data, it was decided to establish an independent monitoring system. This current stage of research had commenced at 2011 and just recently became fully operative. At present there are four observation wells that are located along major faults, adjacent to the DSRS. The wells must be inactive and with a confined production layer. The wells are equipped with sensors for groundwter level, water conductivity and groundwater temperature measurements. The data acquisition and transfer resolution is of one minute and the dataset is being transferred through a GPRS network to a central database server. Since the start of the present research stage, most of the earthquakes recorded at the vicinity of the DSRS were smaller then ML 5, with groundwater response only after the ground movement. Nonetheless, distant earthquakes occurring as far as 300 km along a DSRS adjacent fault (ML~3), were noticed at the observation wells. A recent earthquake precursory reoccurrence was followed by a 5.5ML earthquake with an epicenter near the eastern shore of the Red Sea about 400km south to the wells that alerted the quake (see figure). In both wells anomalies is water levels and conductivity were found few hours before the quake, although any single anomaly cannot

  2. Artificial neural network model for earthquake prediction with radon monitoring.

    PubMed

    Külahci, Fatih; Inceöz, Murat; Doğru, Mahmut; Aksoy, Ercan; Baykara, Oktay

    2009-01-01

    Apart from the linear monitoring studies concerning the relationship between radon and earthquake, an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model approach is presented starting out from non-linear changes of the eight different parameters during the earthquake occurrence. A three-layer Levenberg-Marquardt feedforward learning algorithm is used to model the earthquake prediction process in the East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS). The proposed ANN system employs individual training strategy with fixed-weight and supervised models leading to estimations. The average relative error between the magnitudes of the earthquakes acquired by ANN and measured data is about 2.3%. The relative error between the test and earthquake data varies between 0% and 12%. In addition, the factor analysis was applied on all data and the model output values to see the statistical variation. The total variance of 80.18% was explained with four factors by this analysis. Consequently, it can be concluded that ANN approach is a potential alternative to other models with complex mathematical operations.

  3. Concerning Shot-term Earthquake Forecasting Through Magnetotelluric Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerimov, K. M.; Agaguliyev, G. B.; Biagi, F. P.; Abdullayev, A. A.; Mammadhasanov, K. G.

    It is recognized, each earthquake event is a unique phenomena and there is no similarity in its paradigm multiplicity, this event just bears information on a series of identical aspects. and therefore, several aspects, such as structure and peculiarities of geotectonical development, geologic setting, monitoring station location and monitoring technology should be considered while shot-term forecasting of strong earthquakes. In this context available data picked up from Earth's magnetic field magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) conducted within the major Caucasus sout hern slope in Azerbaijan is suggested to be of particular interest. Acquired data analysis made it possible to reveal a systematic trend in magnetotelluric field behavior while preceding period, at the moment of and after strong earthquakes. This effect is def initely reflected by MTS data acquired while two catastrophic earthquakes ­ Spitac (Armenia, 1988) and Zandjan (Iran, 1990). It has been identified that prior to this events, there were abrupt variations observed in electromagnetic field component intensity. These variations were recorded about 10 - 12 hour prior to event first case, and 5-6 hour prior ­ in the second case. Maximum values of MT-fields components had been recorded at the moment of events. Important implication of this study is the fact, that magnetic field vector prior to event becomes gaining direct ion towards the focus of up coning event. Intersection point detected from monitoring stations can provide the useful data on the coordinates of the upcoming event focus. So, MT-field components, intensity and vector trend abnormal variation observed prior to event, may probably elucidate all three required criteria (time, location and magnitude) of up coming event. Moreover, such kind of approach make it possible to forecast earthquakes in the area about 600-700 km away from observation point. Acquired data has been corroborated by further investigations. This is especially important

  4. Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

    2014-05-01

    In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

  5. Helping safeguard Veterans Affairs' hospital buildings by advanced earthquake monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Blair, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project of the U.S. Geological Survey has recently installed sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of hospital buildings during earthquake shaking. The new systems have been installed at more than 20 VA medical campuses across the country. These monitoring systems, which combine sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are capable of determining the structural health of each structure rapidly after an event, helping to ensure the safety of patients and staff.

  6. Earthquake Monitoring at Different Scales with Seiscomp3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunberg, M.; Engels, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few years, the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS) had to modernize its old and aging earthquake monitoring system coming from an inhouse developement. After having tried and conducted intensive tests on several real time frameworks such as EarthWorm and Seiscomp3 we have finaly adopted in 2012 Seiscomp3. Our actual system runs with two pipelines in parallel: the first one is tuned at a global scale to monitor the world seismicity (for event's magnitude > 5.5) and the second one is tuned at a national scale for the monitoring of the metropolitan France. The seismological stations used for the "world" pipeline are coming mainly from Global Seismographic Network (GSN), whereas for the "national" pipeline the stations are coming from the RENASS short period network and from the RESIF broadband network. More recently we have started to tune seiscomp3 at a smaller scale to monitor in real time the geothermal project (a R&D program in Deep Geothermal Energy) in the North-East part of France. Beside the use of the real time monitoring capabilities of Seiscomp3 we have also used a very handy feature to playback a 4 month length dataset at a local scale for the Rambervillers earthquake (22/02/2003, Ml=5.4) leading to the build of roughly 2000 aftershock's detections and localisations.

  7. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  8. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  9. High resolution strain sensor for earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Li, Li; Liu, Wenyi; Li, Fang

    2016-05-01

    We propose a high-resolution static-strain sensor based on a FBG Fabry-Perot interferometer (FBG-FP) and a wavelet domain cross-correlation algorithm. This sensor is used for crust deformation measurement, which plays an important role in earthquake precursor observation. The Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique based on a narrow-linewidth tunable fiber laser is used to interrogate the FBG-FPs. A demodulation algorithm based on wavelet domain cross-correlation is used to calculate the wavelength difference. The FBG-FP sensor head is fixed on the two steel alloy rods which are installed in the bedrock. The reference FBG-FP is placed in a strain-free state closely to compensate the environment temperature fluctuation. A static-strain resolution of 1.6 n(epsilon) can be achieved. As a result, clear solid tide signals and seismic signals can be recorded, which suggests that the proposed strain sensor can be applied to earthquake precursor observation and earthquake monitoring.

  10. Array monitoring of swarm earthquakes in the Pollino range (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2014-05-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the last centuries. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms, with the most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2013. The seismic activity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity. The rheology of these faults is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the level and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. We have been monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. The instruments are provided by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, and are operated in close collaboration between both institutes. Automatized seismic array methods are applied to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity in great detail. Using the GFZ array, we detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included in automatic local catalogues. The increase corresponds to an improvement in complete event detection down to M~0.5. Event locations and the magnitude-frequency distribution are analysed to characterise the swarm and investigate the possible role of fluids for earthquake triggering. In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin. However, the spread towards the northern end of the Castrovillari fault to the east in 2013 marks a swarm phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin. The observations characterize the behaviour of the faults and their inter-connection.

  11. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced

  12. Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center - ANMODAP Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Gerontidou, M.; Mariatos, G.; Papailiou, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Plainaki, C.; Sarlanis, C.; Souvatzoglou, G.

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic ray measurements in Athens were initiated in November 2000 with a standard 6NM-64 neutron monitor. Within the last years an effort has been made in order to construct an effective database of neutron monitor (NM) and satellite data in real-time, regarding the necessities of space weather monitoring (Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center - ANMODAP Center). The prospective goal of this network is to make possible the receiving of all data in real-time in close sequence from all servers around the globe. The graphical representation of all these data in real-time is available through the website of the station ( http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr). Moreover, a second database that collects data with 1-min resolution operates in a parallel mode. The online services as a special 'Alert' algorithm for Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) and some models created to analyze aspects of GLEs as the neutron monitor Basic Anisotropic Neutron Ground Level Enhancement (BANGLE) model and the Forbush Decreases (FORD) model as well, are presented. Moreover, a short account on work performed on the possible relationship between the geomagnetic activity level and the biological effects is given.

  13. Improved Data Access From the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Zuzlewski, S.; Klein, F.; Jensen, E.; Gee, L.; Murray, M.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and the USGS Menlo Park to provide a long-term archive and distribution center for geophysical data for northern California. Most data are available via the Web at http://quake.geo.berkeley.edu and research accounts are available for access to specialized datasets. Current efforts continue to expand the available datasets, enhance distribution methods, and to provide rapid access to all datasets. The NCEDC archives continuous and event-based seismic and geophysical time-series data from the BDSN, the USGS NCSN, the UNR Seismic Network, the Parkfield HRSN, and the Calpine/Unocal Geysers network. In collaboration with the USGS, the NCEDC has archived a total of 887 channels from 139 sites of the "USGS low-frequency" geophysical network (UL), including data from strainmeters, creep meters, magnetometers, water well levels, and tiltmeters. There are 336 active continuous data channels that are updated at the NCEDC on a daily basis. Geodetic data from the BARD network of over 40 continuously recording GPS sites are archived at the NCEDC in both raw and RINEX format. The NCEDC is the primary archive for survey-mode GPS and other geodetic data collected in northern California by the USGS, universities, and other agencies. All of the BARD data and GPS data archived from USGS Menlo Park surveys are now available through the GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC), and by FTP directly from the NCEDC. Virtually all time-series data at the NCEDC are now available in SEED with complete instrument responses. Assembling, verifying, and maintaining the response information for these networks is a huge task, and is accomplished through the collaborative efforts of the NCEDC and the contributing agencies. Until recently, the NCSN waveform data were available only through research accounts and special request methods due to incomplete instrument responses. In the last year, the USGS compiled the necessary

  14. Monitoring and control of lifeline systems to enhance post-earthquake operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the problem of earthquake damage to lifeline systems, particularly buried pipe, and the high cost of mitigation by replacement. System monitoring and control is presented as an alternative. Earthquake hazard, structural, soils, and system operation parameters are identified as useful for system control; examples are presented. Monitoring and control system implementation issues are discussed including system configuration, local/centralized control, hardware, and appropriate types of systems for earthquake mitigation implementation.

  15. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  16. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Earthquakes Earthquakes are sudden rolling or shaking events caused ... at any time of the year. Before An Earthquake Look around places where you spend time. Identify ...

  17. Romanian Data Center: A modern way for seismic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Marius Manea, Liviu; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    The main seismic survey of Romania is performed by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) which operates a real-time digital seismic network. The NIEP real-time network currently consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Mark l4c, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor Kinemetrics). The data are transmitted at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for the Black Sea tsunami events. NIEP is a data acquisition node for the seismic network of Moldova (FDSN code MD) composed of five seismic stations. NIEP has installed in the northern part of Bulgaria eight seismic stations equipped with broadband sensors and Episensors and nine accelerometers (Episensors) installed in nine districts along the Danube River. All the data are acquired at NIEP for Early Warning System and for primary estimation of the earthquake parameters. The real-time acquisition (RT) and data exchange is done by Antelope software and Seedlink (from Seiscomp3). The real-time data communication is ensured by different types of transmission: GPRS, satellite, radio, Internet and a dedicated line provided by a governmental network. For data processing and analysis at the two data centers Antelope 5.2 TM is being used running on 3 workstations: one from a CentOS platform and two on MacOS. Also a Seiscomp3 server stands as back-up for Antelope 5.2 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produce information about local and global parameters of earthquakes. In addition, Antelope is used for manual processing (event association, calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV, etc.), generating

  18. Southern California Earthquake Center--Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO): An Earthquake Research and Education Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Interns in the program Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Site) have designed, engineered, and distributed SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), an interactive software used by earthquake scientists and educators to integrate and visualize global and regional, georeferenced datasets. SCEC-VDO is written in Java/Java3D with an extensible, scalable architecture. An increasing number of SCEC-VDO datasets are obtained on the fly through web services and connections to remote databases; and user sessions may be saved in xml-encoded files. Currently users may display time-varying sequences of earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanisms, several 3-dimensional fault and rupture models, satellite imagery - optionally draped over digital elevation models - and cultural datasets including political boundaries. The ability to juxtapose and interactively explore these data and their temporal and spatial relationships has been particularly important to SCEC scientists who are evaluating fault and deformation models, or who must quickly evaluate the menace of evolving earthquake sequences. Additionally, SCEC-VDO users can annotate the display, plus script and render animated movies with adjustable compression levels. SCEC-VDO movies are excellent communication tools and have been featured in scientific presentations, classrooms, press conferences, and television reports.

  19. Monitoring road losses for Lushan 7.0 earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yang, Siquan; Li, Suju; He, Haixia; Liu, Ming; Xu, Feng; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake is one major nature disasters in the world. At 8:02 on 20 April 2013, a catastrophic earthquake with Ms 7.0 in surface wave magnitude occurred in Sichuan province, China. The epicenter of this earthquake located in the administrative region of Lushan County and this earthquake was named the Lushan earthquake. The Lushan earthquake caused heavy casualties and property losses in Sichuan province. After the earthquake, various emergency relief supplies must be transported to the affected areas. Transportation network is the basis for emergency relief supplies transportation and allocation. Thus, the road losses of the Lushan earthquake must be monitoring. The road losses monitoring results for Lushan earthquake disaster utilization multisource remote sensing images were reported in this paper. The road losses monitoring results indicated that there were 166 meters' national roads, 3707 meters' provincial roads, 3396 meters' county roads, 7254 meters' township roads, and 3943 meters' village roads were damaged during the Lushan earthquake disaster. The damaged roads mainly located at Lushan County, Baoxing County, Tianquan County, Yucheng County, Mingshan County, and Qionglai County. The results also can be used as a decision-making information source for the disaster management government in China.

  20. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  1. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  2. Quantifying 10 years of improved earthquake-monitoring performance in the Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Lynch, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and adjacent regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. Were a great tsunamigenic earthquake to occur in the Caribbean region today, the effects would potentially be catastrophic due to an increasingly vulnerable region that has seen significant population increases in the past 40–50 years and currently hosts an estimated 500,000 daily beach visitors from North America and Europe, a majority of whom are not likely aware of tsunami and earthquake hazards. Following the magnitude 9.1 Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Early Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE‐EWS) was established and developed minimum performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes. In this study, we model earthquake‐magnitude detection threshold and P‐wave detection time and demonstrate that the requirements established by the UNESCO ICG CARIBE‐EWS are met with 100% of the network operating. We demonstrate that earthquake‐monitoring performance in the Caribbean Sea region has improved significantly in the past decade as the number of real‐time seismic stations available to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami warning centers have increased. We also identify weaknesses in the current international network and provide guidance for selecting the optimal distribution of seismic stations contributed from existing real‐time broadband national networks in the region.

  3. Remote monitoring of the earthquake cycle using satellite radar interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tim J

    2002-12-15

    The earthquake cycle is poorly understood. Earthquakes continue to occur on previously unrecognized faults. Earthquake prediction seems impossible. These remain the facts despite nearly 100 years of intensive study since the earthquake cycle was first conceptualized. Using data acquired from satellites in orbit 800 km above the Earth, a new technique, radar interferometry (InSAR), has the potential to solve these problems. For the first time, detailed maps of the warping of the Earth's surface during the earthquake cycle can be obtained with a spatial resolution of a few tens of metres and a precision of a few millimetres. InSAR does not need equipment on the ground or expensive field campaigns, so it can gather crucial data on earthquakes and the seismic cycle from some of the remotest areas of the planet. In this article, I review some of the remarkable observations of the earthquake cycle already made using radar interferometry and speculate on breakthroughs that are tantalizingly close.

  4. Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

    1974-01-01

    Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

  5. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cleanup Workers Hurricanes PSAs ASL Videos: Hurricanes Landslides & Mudslides Lightning Lightning Safety Tips First Aid Recommendations ... Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Earthquakes Language: ...

  6. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-04

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  7. Acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yucheng; Li, Jing; Xian, Hong; Li, JiangBo; Liu, Si; Liu, GuanJian; Lin, JianNan; Han, Jun; Zeng, Zhi

    2009-09-01

    An increased incidence of cardiovascular events and sudden death occurs after an earthquake. However, the mechanism underlying this is not clear. Previous studies attributed this phenomenon to earthquake-induced elevation of sympathetic activity. This study investigated the acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake on hypertensive or suspected hypertensive patients. We studied the role of earthquake-induced changes in blood pressure and heart rate in the occurrence of post-earthquake cardiovascular events. This study included 11 patients who were undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring when the Wenchuan earthquake occurred. Trends in blood pressure and heart rate were analyzed, and blood pressure variability (BPV) data were obtained. The mean post-earthquake blood pressure rose rapidly from 125.8+/-17.3/72.1+/-11.9 to 150.5+/-20.3/98+/-10.6 mm Hg (average time of first measurement was 13.8+/-6.3 min after the first tremor), and blood pressure remained high until 6 h after the earthquake. Nighttime blood pressure declined to the mean pre-earthquake daytime levels. The mean daytime blood pressure after the earthquake was greater than the pre-earthquake daytime mean (systolic blood pressure: 138.9+/-14.6 vs. 129.5+/-13.6 mm Hg, P=0.009; diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 81.8+/-13.1 vs. 76.9+/-11.9 mm Hg, P=0.011). Pre- and post-earthquake BPV differed among individuals, but circadian variation was absent in all cases and nightly decreases were less than 10%. These data strongly suggest that significant post-earthquake elevation of blood pressure and abnormal circadian variation of blood pressure are related to the occurrence of post-earthquake cardiovascular events.

  8. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  9. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  10. A Potential of Borehole Strainmeters for Continuous Monitoring of Stress Change Associated with Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Inho; Chang, Chandong

    2016-04-01

    Coulomb stress transfer models to estimate the stress drops using various earthquake parameters (earthquake magnitudes, fault length, and slip displacement), and the modelled transferred stress drops at the strainmeter site are estimated to be similar to (or an order of magnitude lower than) those determined from the strainmeter data. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong applicability of the strainmeter data for continuous stress monitoring with a special emphasis on earthquakes.

  11. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of

  12. Potential utilization of the NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in earthquake engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, R. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research capabilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facilities at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama, were evaluated. The results indicate that the NASA/MSFC facilities and supporting capabilities offer unique opportunities for conducting earthquake engineering research. Specific features that are particularly attractive for large scale static and dynamic testing of natural and man-made structures include the following: large physical dimensions of buildings and test bays; high loading capacity; wide range and large number of test equipment and instrumentation devices; multichannel data acquisition and processing systems; technical expertise for conducting large-scale static and dynamic testing; sophisticated techniques for systems dynamics analysis, simulation, and control; and capability for managing large-size and technologically complex programs. Potential uses of the facilities for near and long term test programs to supplement current earthquake research activities are suggested.

  13. K12 Education Program Lessons Learned at the Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. L.; Dry, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis has been committed to increasing awareness for Seismic Hazard, Earthquake Engineering, and Earth Science among Mid-America's policy-makers, engineers, emergency managers, the general public, and K-12 teachers and students for nearly three decades. During that time we have learned many lessons related to providing effective education and outreach programs, especially for K-12 students. The lessons learned from these activities may be particularly appropriate for other regions where large earthquakes occur infrequently but have disproportionately high consequence areas due to low attenuation of seismic waves. Effective education programs in these settings must provide a consistent message across many states to a wide variety of socio-economic groups and professional communities through the leveraged resources of various groups and agencies. It is also beneficial to hire and train staff with K-12 teaching experience to work directly K-12 education organizations, and science curriculum coordinators.

  14. Seismic monitoring at Cascade Volcanic Centers, 2004?status and recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the current (May, 2004) status of seismic monitoring networks at the 13 major Cascade volcanic centers. Included in this assessment are descriptions of each network, analyses of the ability of each network to detect and to locate seismic activity, identification of specific weaknesses in each network, and a prioritized list of those networks that are most in need of additional seismic stations. At the outset it should be recognized that no Cascade volcanic center currently has an adequate seismic network relative to modern-day networks at Usu Volcano (Japan) or Etna and Stromboli volcanoes (Italy). For a system the size of Three Sisters, for example, a modern-day, cutting-edge seismic network would ideally consist of a minimum of 10 to 12 short-period three-component seismometers (for determining particle motions, reliable S-wave picks, moment tensor inversions, fault-plane solutions, and other important seismic parameters) and 7 to 10 broadband sensors (which, amongst other considerations, enable detection and location of very long period (VLP) and other low-frequency events, moment tensor inversions, and, because of their wide dynamic range, on-scale recording of large-amplitude events). Such a dense, multi component seismic network would give the ability to, for example, detect in near-real-time earthquake migrations over a distance of ~0.5km or less, locate tremor sources, determine the nature of a seismic source (that is, pure shear, implosive, explosive), provide on-scale recordings of very small and very large-amplitude seismic signals, and detect localized changes in seismic stress tensor orientations caused by movement of magma bodies. However, given that programmatic resources are currently limited, installation of such networks at this time is unrealistic. Instead, this report focuses on identifying what additional stations are needed to guarantee that anomalous seismicity associated with volcanic unrest will be

  15. 88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul S.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

  16. Atmospheric Baseline Monitoring Data Losses Due to the Samoa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Cunningham, M. C.; Vasel, B. A.; Butler, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates an Atmospheric Baseline Observatory at Cape Matatula on the north-eastern point of American Samoa, opened in 1973. The manned observatory conducts continuous measurements of a wide range of climate forcing and atmospheric composition data including greenhouse gas concentrations, solar radiation, CFC and HFC concentrations, aerosols and ozone as well as less frequent measurements of many other parameters. The onset of September 29, 2009 earthquake is clearly visible in the continuous data streams in a variety of ways. The station electrical generator came online when the Samoa power grid failed so instruments were powered during and subsequent to the earthquake. Some instruments ceased operation in a spurt of spurious data followed by silence. Other instruments just stopped sending data abruptly when the shaking from the earthquake broke a data or power links, or an integral part of the instrument was damaged. Others survived the shaking but were put out of calibration. Still others suffered damage after the earthquake as heaters ran uncontrolled or rotating shafts continued operating in a damaged environment grinding away until they seized up or chewed a new operating space. Some instruments operated as if there was no earthquake, others were brought back online within a few days. Many of the more complex (and in most cases, most expensive) instruments will be out of service, some for at least 6 months or more. This presentation will show these results and discuss the impact of the earthquake on long-term measurements of climate forcing agents and other critical climate measurements.

  17. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  18. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  19. Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

    1998-01-01

    One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

  20. Space Radiation Monitoring Center at SINP MSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Wera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Myagkova, Irina; Nguen, Minh; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Data on energetic particle fluxes from Russian satellites have been collected in Space monitoring data center at Moscow State University in the near real-time mode. Web-portal http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Operational data are coming from space missions ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M2. High-resolution data on energetic electron fluxes from MSU's satellite VERNOV with RELEC instrumentation on board are also available. Specific tools allow the visual representation of the satellite orbit in 3D space simultaneously with particle fluxes variations. Concurrent operational data coming from other spacecraft (ACE, GOES, SDO) and from the Earth's surface (geomagnetic indices) are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru provides access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in heliosphere and the Earth's magnetosphere in the real-time mode. Operational forecasting services automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons, using data from LEO and GEO orbits. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from different missions for the whole magnetosphere. On-line applications created on the base of these models provide short-term forecasting for SEP particles and relativistic electron fluxes at GEO and LEO, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting up to 1.5 hours ahead. Velocities of high-speed streams in solar wind on the Earth orbit are estimated with advance time of 3-4 days. Visualization system provides representation of experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  1. The April 18, 2008 Illinois earthquake: an ANSS monitoring success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Withers, M.; Benz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The largest-magnitude earthquake in the past 20 years struck near Mt. Carmel in southeastern Illinois on Friday morning, 18 April 2008 at 09:36:59 UTC (04:37 CDT). The Mw 5.2 earthquake was felt over an area that spanned Chicago and Atlanta, with about 40,000 reports submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) “Did You Feel It?” system. There were at least six felt aftershocks greater than magnitude 3 and 20 aftershocks with magnitudes greater than 2 located by regional and national seismic networks. Portable instrumentation was deployed by researchers of the University of Memphis and Indiana University (the first portable station was installed at about 23:00 UTC on 18 April). The portable seismographs were deployed both to capture near-source, high-frequency ground motions for significant aftershocks and to better understand structure along the active fault. The previous similar-size earthquake within the Wabash Valley seismic zone (WVSZ) of southeastern Illinois and southwestern Indiana was a magnitude 5.0 in June 1987. The seismicity associated with the WVSZ is thought to occur in a complex horst and graben system of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic units at depths between 12 and 20 km. Paleoliquefaction evidence suggests several major shaking events have occurred within the past 12,000 years (Munson et al. 1997).

  2. Providing Seismotectonic Information to the Public Through Continuously Updated National Earthquake Information Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, M. J.; Hayes, G. P.; Dannemann, F.; Benz, H.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main missions of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) is the dissemination of information to national and international agencies, scientists, and the general public through various products such as ShakeMap and earthquake summary posters. During the summer of 2012, undergraduate and graduate student interns helped to update and improve our series of regional seismicity posters and regional tectonic summaries. The "Seismicity of the Earth (1900-2007)" poster placed over a century's worth of global seismicity data in the context of plate tectonics, highlighting regions that have experienced great (M+8.0) earthquakes, and the tectonic settings of those events. This endeavor became the basis for a series of more regionalized seismotectonic posters that focus on major subduction zones and their associated seismicity, including the Aleutian and Caribbean arcs. The first round of these posters were inclusive of events through 2007, and were made with the intent of being continually updated. Each poster includes a regional tectonic summary, a seismic hazard map, focal depth cross-sections, and a main map that illustrates the following: the main subduction zone and other physiographic features, seismicity, and rupture zones of historic great earthquakes. Many of the existing regional seismotectonic posters have been updated and new posters highlighting regions of current seismological interest have been created, including the Sumatra and Java arcs, the Middle East region and the Himalayas (all of which are currently in review). These new editions include updated lists of earthquakes, expanded tectonic summaries, updated relative plate motion vectors, and major crustal faults. These posters thus improve upon previous editions that included only brief tectonic discussions of the most prominent features and historic earthquakes, and which did not systematically represent non-plate boundary faults. Regional tectonic

  3. Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this

  4. Earthquakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on this page will help you understand environmental dangers related to earthquakes, what you can do to prepare and recover. It will also help you recognize possible environmental hazards and learn what you can do to protect you and your family

  5. Hydra—The National Earthquake Information Center’s 24/7 seismic monitoring, analysis, catalog production, quality analysis, and special studies tool suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, John M.; Guy, Michelle R.; Benz, Harley M.; Buland, Raymond P.; Erickson, Brian K.; Kragness, David S.

    2016-08-18

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and design of Hydra, the global seismic monitoring and analysis system used for earthquake response and catalog production at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC). Hydra supports the NEIC’s worldwide earthquake monitoring mission in areas such as seismic event detection, seismic data insertion and storage, seismic data processing and analysis, and seismic data output.The Hydra system automatically identifies seismic phase arrival times and detects the occurrence of earthquakes in near-real time. The system integrates and inserts parametric and waveform seismic data into discrete events in a database for analysis. Hydra computes seismic event parameters, including locations, multiple magnitudes, moment tensors, and depth estimates. Hydra supports the NEIC’s 24/7 analyst staff with a suite of seismic analysis graphical user interfaces.In addition to the NEIC’s monitoring needs, the system supports the processing of aftershock and temporary deployment data, and supports the NEIC’s quality assurance procedures. The Hydra system continues to be developed to expand its seismic analysis and monitoring capabilities.

  6. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the Public Health Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    CRANE, Michael A.; CHO, Hyunje G.; LANDRIGAN, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449

  7. Application of Collocated GPS and Seismic Sensors to Earthquake Monitoring and Early Warning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Guo, Bofeng

    2013-01-01

    We explore the use of collocated GPS and seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring and early warning. The GPS and seismic data collected during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) and the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes are analyzed by using a tightly-coupled integration. The performance of the integrated results is validated by both time and frequency domain analysis. We detect the P-wave arrival and observe small-scale features of the movement from the integrated results and locate the epicenter. Meanwhile, permanent offsets are extracted from the integrated displacements highly accurately and used for reliable fault slip inversion and magnitude estimation. PMID:24284765

  8. Basin-centered asperities in great subduction zone earthquakes: A link between slip, subsidence, and subduction erosion?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.; Blakely, R.J.; Sugiyama, Y.; Scholl, D. W.; Dinterman, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Published areas of high coseismic slip, or asperities, for 29 of the largest Circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes are compared to forearc structure revealed by satellite free-air gravity, bathymetry, and seismic profiling. On average, 71% of an earthquake's seismic moment and 79% of its asperity area occur beneath the prominent gravity low outlining the deep-sea terrace; 57% of an earthquake's asperity area, on average, occurs beneath the forearc basins that lie within the deep-sea terrace. In SW Japan, slip in the 1923, 1944, 1946, and 1968 earthquakes was largely centered beneath five forearc basins whose landward edge overlies the 350??C isotherm on the plate boundary, the inferred downdip limit of the locked zone. Basin-centered coseismic slip also occurred along the Aleutian, Mexico, Peru, and Chile subduction zones but was ambiguous for the great 1964 Alaska earthquake. Beneath intrabasin structural highs, seismic slip tends to be lower, possibly due to higher temperatures and fluid pressures. Kilometers of late Cenozoic subsidence and crustal thinning above some of the source zones are indicated by seismic profiling and drilling and are thought to be caused by basal subduction erosion. The deep-sea terraces and basins may evolve not just by growth of the outer arc high but also by interseismic subsidence not recovered during earthquakes. Basin-centered asperities could indicate a link between subsidence, subduction erosion, and seismogenesis. Whatever the cause, forearc basins may be useful indicators of long-term seismic moment release. The source zone for Cascadia's 1700 A.D. earthquake contains five large, basin-centered gravity lows that may indicate potential asperities at depth. The gravity gradient marking the inferred downdip limit to large coseismic slip lies offshore, except in northwestern Washington, where the low extends landward beneath the coast. Transverse gravity highs between the basins suggest that the margin is seismically segmented and

  9. Monitoring of Ecological Restoration at the Central Quake-Hit Areas of Wenchuan Earthquake Using RS & GIS Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The 2008 Sichuan earthquake, occurred on 12 May 2008 with a magnitude of 8.0 and the center at Wenchuan (31.021°N, 103.367°E), has not only caused a large number of human casualties and property loss, but also severely damaged the ecological system in its surrounding 10 counties, threatening the local ecological safety. As part of the post-disaster reconstruction services, a systematic monitoring of the ecological restoration at the central quake-hit areas has been made based on RS & GIS remote sensing. In this paper we selected the Dujiangyan area for analysis. The reason to select this region is because that Dujiangyan area is about 40 km from the epicenter, and as a region in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, it has a well developed forest ecosystem in the northern part before the earth quake. The coverage of grassland in this region is relatively less. Since the ecological restoration after the earthquake is a long term process, the restoration for different vegetation types has different characteristics. From the analysis of the spatiotemporal change of land-use and vegetation cover in Dujiangyan area from the post-earthquake in 2008 to 2013, we found: (1) During the earthquake, the major vegetation type destroyed is the woodland, which accounts for 99.34% of the destroyed area, and the next are arable land and grassland. (2) The ecological restoration started from the grassland and gradually transited to shrub. In two years after the earthquake, the most significant increase in both area of coverage and magnitude is the grassland, and by 2013, the area of grassland decreased slightly, and instead the area of shrub increased, demonstrating a transition trend from the grassland to the shrub. (3) From the map of vegetation cover, we can see these change occurs mainly in the northern mountain area, while the change of land use mainly occurred in the southern part of the city. These changes can be linked clearly with the earthquake disaster and the post

  10. Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided.

  11. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http

  12. Volcano and Earthquake Monitoring Plan for the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, 2006-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    To provide Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and its surrounding communities with a modern, comprehensive system for volcano and earthquake monitoring, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) has developed a monitoring plan for the period 2006-2015. Such a plan is needed so that YVO can provide timely information during seismic, volcanic, and hydrothermal crises and can anticipate hazardous events before they occur. The monitoring network will also provide high-quality data for scientific study and interpretation of one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. Among the needs of the observatory are to upgrade its seismograph network to modern standards and to add five new seismograph stations in areas of the park that currently lack adequate station density. In cooperation with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its Plate Boundary Observatory Program (PBO), YVO seeks to install five borehole strainmeters and two tiltmeters to measure crustal movements. The boreholes would be located in developed areas close to existing infrastructure and away from sensitive geothermal features. In conjunction with the park's geothermal monitoring program, installation of new stream gages, and gas-measuring instruments will allow YVO to compare geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes and ground motions, to hydrothermal events, such as anomalous water and gas discharge. In addition, YVO seeks to characterize the behavior of geyser basins, both to detect any precursors to hydrothermal explosions and to monitor earthquakes related to fluid movements that are difficult to detect with the current monitoring system. Finally, a monitoring network consists not solely of instruments, but requires also a secure system for real-time transmission of data. The current telemetry system is vulnerable to failures that could jeopardize data transmission out of Yellowstone. Future advances in monitoring technologies must be accompanied by improvements in the infrastructure for

  13. Development of volcano monitoring technique using repeating earthquakes observed by the Volcano Observation Network of NIED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kimura, H.; Nagai, M.; Miyagi, Y.; Fujita, E.; Kozono, T.; Tanada, T.

    2012-12-01

    After the Grate East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) on March 11, 2011, the M6.4 earthquake occurred beneath Mt. Fuji on March 15, 2011. Although the hypocenter seemed to be very close to an assumed magma chamber of Fuji volcano, no anomalies in volcanic activity have been observed until August 2012. As an example, after the M6.1 earthquake occurred in 1998 at southwest of Iwate volcano, a change of seismic velocity structure (e.g. Nishimura et al., 2000) was observed as well as active seismicity and crustal deformation. It had affected waveforms of repeating earthquakes occurring at a plate subduction zone, that is, the waveform similarities were reduced just after the earthquake due to upwelling of magma. In this study, first we analyzed for Mt. Fuji where such changes are expected by the occurrence of the earthquake to try to develop a tool for monitoring active volcanoes using the Volcano Observation network (V-net) data. We used seismic waveform data of repeating earthquakes observed by short period seismometers of V-net and the High Sensitivity Seismograph Network Japan (Hi-net) stations near Fuji volcano after 2007. The seismic data were recorded with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, and we applied 4-8 Hz band pass filter to reduce noise. The repeating earthquakes occurred at the plate subduction zone and their catalog is compiled by Hi-net data (Kimura et al., 2006). We extracted repeating earthquake groups that include earthquakes before and after the M6.4 earthquake on March 15, 2011. A waveform of the first event of the group and waveforms of the other events are compared and calculated cross-correlation coefficients. We adjusted P wave arrivals of each event and calculate the coefficients and lag times of the latter part of the seismic waves with the time window of 1.25 s. We searched the best fit maximizing the cross-correlation coefficients with 0.1 s shift time at each time window. As a result we found three remarkable points at this time. [1] Comparing lag times

  14. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  15. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  16. Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A.; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

  17. [High Resolution Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of Secondary Geological Disasters Triggered by the Lushan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li; Li, Wen-jun; Liu, Xiong-fei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary geological disasters triggered by the Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, such as landslides, collapses, debris flows, etc., had caused great casualties and losses. We monitored the number and spatial distribution of the secondary geological disasters in the earthquake-hit area from airborne remote sensing images, which covered areas about 3 100 km2. The results showed that Lushan County, Baoxing County and Tianquan County were most severely affected; there were 164, 126 and 71 secondary geological disasters in these regions. Moreover, we analyzed the relationship between the distribution of the secondary geological disasters, geological structure and intensity. The results indicate that there were 4 high-hazard zones in the monitored area, one focused within six kilometers from the epicenter, and others are distributed along the two main fault zones of the Longmen Mountain. More than 97% secondary geological disasters occurred in zones with a seismic intensity of VII to IX degrees, a slope between 25 A degrees and 50 A degrees, and an altitude of between 800 and 2 000 m. At last, preliminary suggestions were proposed for the rehabilitation and reconstruction planning of Lushan earthquake. According to the analysis result, airborne and space borne remote sensing can be used accurately and effectively in almost real-time to monitor and assess secondary geological disasters, providing a scientific basis and decision making support for government emergency command and post-disaster reconstruction.

  18. Earthquake monitoring of eastern Washington: Annual technical report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, S.

    1987-10-01

    This report covers operations and research on the seismicity and structure of eastern Washington and northeastern Oregon for the year, July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987. The report covers the operation of the regional seismograph network including station maintenance and calibration, data processing and operational problems. A detailed description of the current network including telemetry routing through the BPA microwave system is included. This section also details a new VCO system developed to improve the center-frequency stability and reliability of our field stations. The seismicity of the past year and a description of the catalog is covered.

  19. Monitoring of Earthquake Disasters by Satellite Radio Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Nesterov, I.; Rekenthaler, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    This work addresses lithospheric-ionospheric coupling during strong earthquakes (EQ). Particular interest is placed on the physical phenomena preceding EQs - the precursors. We discuss both the ionospheric implications of EQs, and the ionospheric precursors to EQ. The requisite ionospheric sounding is carried out using satellite navigational system data; the data are analyzed using the methods of satellite radio tomography (RT). Signals from both low-orbiting beacons (Transit, Tsikada, etc.) and high orbiting global navigational satellite systems (GNSS including GPS and GLONASS) are used. The resulting 2D and 3D tomographic images and their time flow (4D RT) make it possible to study the spatiotemporal structure of ionospheric perturbations induced by EQs and EQ precursors, and to distinguish ionospheric responses to processes of EQ preparation against the effects of other factors. Low-orbital RT (LORT) provides almost "instantaneous" (with a time span of 5-8 min) 2-D snapshots of the electron density over the seismically active region of interest. LORT allows 2D imaging of various anomalies, including wave structures such as ionospheric manifestations of acoustic-gravity waves (AGW), wave-like disturbances, and solitary waves with the gaps between images, depending on the number of operating satellites (currently, 30-100 minutes). High-orbital RT (HORT) is capable of imaging 4D distributions of ionospheric plasma (resulting in 3D snapshots every 20-30 minutes). Using this approach, one can reconstruct RT images of ionospheric irregularities, wave structures, and perturbations such as solitary waves. In regions with a sufficient number of GNSS receivers (California, Japan), 4-D RT images can be generated every 2-4 minutes. The spatial resolution of LORT and HORT systems is on the order of 20-40, and 100 km, respectively. The combination of LORT and HORT systems has the potential for exploiting data provided by other experimental techniques, including radio

  20. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  1. An Architecture for Continuous Data Quality Monitoring in Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Endler, Gregor; Schwab, Peter K; Wahl, Andreas M; Tenschert, Johannes; Lenz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the medical domain, data quality is very important. Since requirements and data change frequently, continuous and sustainable monitoring and improvement of data quality is necessary. Working together with managers of medical centers, we developed an architecture for a data quality monitoring system. The architecture enables domain experts to adapt the system during runtime to match their specifications using a built-in rule system. It also allows arbitrarily complex analyses to be integrated into the monitoring cycle. We evaluate our architecture by matching its components to the well-known data quality methodology TDQM.

  2. Cloud-based systems for monitoring earthquakes and other environmental quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Olson, M.; Liu, A.; Chandy, M.; Bunn, J.; Guy, R.

    2013-12-01

    There are many advantages to using a cloud-based system to record and analyze environmental quantities such as earthquakes, radiation, various gases, dust and meteorological parameters. These advantages include robustness and dynamic scalability, and also reduced costs. In this paper, we present our experiences over the last three years in developing a cloud-based earthquake monitoring system (the Community Seismic Network). This network consists of over 600 sensors (accelerometers) in the S. California region that send data directly to the Google App Engine where they are analyzed. The system is capable of handing many other types of sensor data and generating a situation-awareness analysis as a product. Other advantages to the cloud-based system are integration with other peer networks, and being able to deploy anywhere in the world without have to build addition computing infrastructure.

  3. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT): Towards the Next Generation of Internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Benthien, M.; Jordan, T. H.

    2005-12-01

    The SCEC/UseIT internship program is training the next generation of earthquake scientist, with methods that can be adapted to other disciplines. UseIT interns work collaboratively, in multi-disciplinary teams, conducting computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists. Since 2002, the UseIT program has welcomed 64 students, in some two dozen majors, at all class levels, from schools around the nation. Each summer''s work is posed as a ``Grand Challenge.'' The students then organize themselves into project teams, decide how to proceed, and pool their diverse talents and backgrounds. They have traditional mentors, who provide advice and encouragement, but they also mentor one another, and this has proved to be a powerful relationship. Most begin with fear that their Grand Challenge is impossible, and end with excitement and pride about what they have accomplished. The 22 UseIT interns in summer, 2005, were primarily computer science and engineering majors, with others in geology, mathematics, English, digital media design, physics, history, and cinema. The 2005 Grand Challenge was to "build an earthquake monitoring system" to aid scientists who must visualize rapidly evolving earthquake sequences and convey information to emergency personnel and the public. Most UseIT interns were engaged in software engineering, bringing new datasets and functionality to SCEC-VDO (Virtual Display of Objects), a 3D visualization software that was prototyped by interns last year, using Java3D and an extensible, plug-in architecture based on the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment. Other UseIT interns used SCEC-VDO to make animated movies, and experimented with imagery in order to communicate concepts and events in earthquake science. One movie-making project included the creation of an assessment to test the effectiveness of the movie''s educational message. Finally, one intern created an interactive, multimedia presentation of the UseIT program.

  5. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwera, Marcel; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives

    2012-01-01

    Introduction During disaster relief, personnel’s safety is very important. Mental well being is a part of this safety issue. There is however a lack of objective mental well being monitoring tools, usable on scene, during disaster relief. This study covers the use of validated tools towards detection of psychological distress and monitoring of mental well being of disaster relief workers, during the Belgian First Aid and Support Team deployment after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Methodology The study was conducted using a demographic questionnaire combined with validated measuring instruments: Belbin Team Role, Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers, DMAT PsySTART, K6+ Self Report. A baseline measurement was performed before departure on mission, and measurements were repeated at day 1 and day 7 of the mission, at the end of mission, and 7 days, 30 days and 90 days post mission. Results 23 out of the 27 team members were included in the study. Using the Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test for Helpers as a monitoring tool, a stable condition was monitored in 7 participants, a dip in 5 participants, an arousal in 10 participants and a double pattern in 1 participant. Conclusions The study proved the ability to monitor mental well being and detect psychological distress, by self administered validated tools, during a real disaster relief mission. However for practical reasons some tools should be adapted to the specific use in the field. This study opens a whole new research area within the mental well being and monitoring field. Citation: Van der Auwera M, Debacker M, Hubloue I. Monitoring the mental well-being of caregivers during the Haiti-earthquake.. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18 PMID:22953241

  6. Open Access to Decades of NCSN Waveforms at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D.; Klein, F.; Zuzlewski, S.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D.; Gee, L.; Romanowicz, B.

    2003-12-01

    The USGS in Menlo Park has operated the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) since 1967 and has generated digital seismograms since 1984. Since its inception, the NCSN has recorded 2900 distinct channels at over 500 distinct sites. Although originally used only for earthquake location and coda magnitude, these seismograms are now of interest to seismologists for studying earth structure, precision relocations through cross correlation timing, and analysis of strong motion records. Until recently, the NCSN waveform data were available only through research accounts and special request methods due to incomplete instrument responses. Over the past 2 years, the USGS has assembled the necessary descriptions for both historic and current NCSN instrumentation. The NCEDC and USGS jointly developed a procedure to assemble the hardware attributes and instrument responses for the NCSN data channels using a combination of a simple spreadsheet that defines the attributes of each data channel, and a limited number of attribute files for classes of sensors and shared digitizers. These files are used by programs developed by the NCEDC to populate the NCEDC hardware tracking database tables and then to generate both the simple response and the full SEED instrument response database tables. As a result, the NCSN waveform data can now be distributed in SEED format with any of the NCEDC standard waveform request methods. The NCEDC provides access to waveform data through Web forms, email requests, and programming interfaces. The SeismiQuery Web interface provides information about data holdings. NetDC allows users to retrieve inventory information, instrument responses, and waveforms in SEED format. STP provides both a Web and programming interface to retrieve data in SEED or other user-friendly formats. Through the California Integrated Seismic Network, we are working with the SCEDC to provide unified access to California earthquake data. The NCEDC is a joint project of the UC

  7. Data and Visualizations in the Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center's Fault Information System (FIS) provides a single point of access to fault-related data and models from multiple databases and datasets. The FIS is built of computer code, metadata and Web interfaces based on Web services technology, which enables queries and data interchange irrespective of computer software or platform. Currently we have working prototypes of programmatic and browser-based access. The first generation FIS may be searched and downloaded live, by automated processes, as well as interactively, by humans using a browser. Users get ascii data in plain text or encoded in XML. Via the Earthquake Information Technology (EIT) Interns (Juve and others, this meeting), we are also testing the effectiveness of querying multiple databases using a fault database ontology. For more than a decade, the California Geological Survey (CGS), SCEC, and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have put considerable, shared resources into compiling and assessing published fault data, then providing the data on the Web. Several databases now exist, with different formats, datasets, purposes, and users, in various stages of completion. When fault databases were first envisioned, the full power of today's internet was not yet recognized, and the databases became the Web equivalents of review papers, where one could read an overview summation of a fault, then copy and paste pertinent data. Today, numerous researchers also require rapid queries and downloads of data. Consequently, the first components of the FIS are MySQL databases that deliver numeric values from earlier, text-based databases. Another essential service provided by the FIS is visualizations of fault representations such as those in SCEC's Community Fault Model. The long term goal is to provide a standardized, open-source, platform-independent visualization technique. Currently, the FIS makes available fault model viewing software for users with access to Matlab or Java3D

  8. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  9. The Southern California Earthquake Center/Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (SCEC/UseIT) Internship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2006-12-01

    Our undergraduate research program, SCEC/UseIT, an NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates site, provides software for earthquake researchers and educators, movies for outreach, and ways to strengthen the technical career pipeline. SCEC/UseIT motivates diverse undergraduates towards science and engineering careers through team-based research in the exciting field of earthquake information technology. UseIT provides the cross-training in computer science/information technology (CS/IT) and geoscience needed to make fundamental progress in earthquake system science. Our high and increasing participation of women and minority students is crucial given the nation"s precipitous enrollment declines in CS/IT undergraduate degree programs, especially among women. UseIT also casts a "wider, farther" recruitment net that targets scholars interested in creative work but not traditionally attracted to summer science internships. Since 2002, SCEC/UseIT has challenged 79 students in three dozen majors from as many schools with difficult, real-world problems that require collaborative, interdisciplinary solutions. Interns design and engineer open-source software, creating increasingly sophisticated visualization tools (see "SCEC-VDO," session IN11), which are employed by SCEC researchers, in new curricula at the University of Southern California, and by outreach specialists who make animated movies for the public and the media. SCEC-VDO would be a valuable tool for research-oriented professional development programs.

  10. Technology for monitoring and forecasting strong earthquakes in Russia with the use of the seismic entropy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, S. Ts.; Bondur, V. G.; Rogozhin, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The technology which is being developed based on the seismic entropy method for monitoring and forecasting the earthquakes in the territory of Russia is described. This technology relies on seismostatistics and makes it possible to automate the monitoring system and to efficiently tap the networks of ground-based and ground-and-satellite-based observations of operative precursors. The main seismic systems responsible for the preparation of the strong earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 5.5 are described. The track and energy diagrams constructed for each seismic system provide the means for monitoring the preparation and forecasting the strong earthquakes in the real-time mode. Forty-four seismic systems controlling almost all seismically hazardous regions in Russia were identified and tested in real time during the period from 2010 to 2015. The guidelines for the practical application of the results of monitoring and forecasting are developed.

  11. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    The objective my research has been to synthesize current understanding of the tectonics and faults of the Los Angeles Basin and surrounding region to quantify uncertainty in the characterization of earthquake sources used for geologically- and geodetically-based regional earthquake likelihood models. This work has focused on capturing epistemic uncertainty; i.e. uncertainty stemming from ignorance of the true characteristics of the active faults in the region and of the tectonic forces that drive them. In the present context, epistemic uncertainty has two components: First, the uncertainty in source geometrical and occurrence rate parameters deduced from the limited geological, geophysical and geodetic observations available; and second. uncertainties that result from fundamentally different interpretations of regional tectonic deformation and faulting. Characterization of the large number of active and potentially active faults that need to be included in estimating earthquake occurrence likelihoods for the Los Angeles region requires synthesis and evaluation of large amounts of data and numerous interpretations. This was accomplished primarily through a series of carefully facilitated workshops, smaller meetings involving key researchers, and email groups. The workshops and meetings were made possible by the unique logistical and financial resources available through SCEC, and proved to be extremely effective forums for the exchange and critical debate of data and interpretations that are essential in constructing fully representative source models. The main products from this work are a complete source model that characterizes all know or potentially active faults in the greater Los Angeles region. which includes the continental borderland as far south as San Diego, the Ventura Basin, and the Santa Barbara Channel. The model constitutes a series of maps and representative cross-sections that define alternative fault geometries, a table containing rault

  12. Application for temperature and humidity monitoring of data center environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ş.; Truşcǎ, M. R. C.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The technology and computer science registered a large development in the last years. Most systems that use high technologies require special working conditions. The monitoring and the controlling are very important. The temperature and the humidity are important parameters in the operation of computer systems, industrial and research, maintaining it between certain values to ensure their proper functioning being important. Usually, the temperature is maintained in the established range using an air conditioning system, but the humidity is affected. In the present work we developed an application based on a board with own firmware called "AVR_NET_IO" using a microcontroller ATmega32 type for temperature and humidity monitoring in Data Center of INCDTIM. On this board, temperature sensors were connected to measure the temperature in different points of the Data Center and outside of this. Humidity monitoring is performed using data from integrated sensors of the air conditioning system, thus achieving a correlation between humidity and temperature variation. It was developed a software application (CM-1) together with the hardware, which allows temperature monitoring and register inside Data Center and trigger an alarm when variations are greater with 3°C than established limits of the temperature.

  13. UNLV’s environmentally friendly Science and Engineering Building is monitored for earthquake shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Savage, Woody; Reza, Shahneam; Knight, Eric; Tian, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The University of Nevada Las Vegas’ (UNLV) Science and Engineering Building is at the cutting edge of environmentally friendly design. As the result of a recent effort by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Strong Motion Project in cooperation with UNLV, the building is now also in the forefront of buildings installed with structural monitoring systems to measure response during earthquakes. This is particularly important because this is the first such building in Las Vegas. The seismic instrumentation will provide essential data to better understand the structural performance of buildings, especially in this seismically active region.

  14. Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for the monitoring of radon concentration for possible earthquake precursors search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Alexander S.; Ulin, Sergey E.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Vlasik, Konstantin F.; Uteshev, Ziyaetdin M.; Shustov, Alexander E.; Petrenko, Denis V.; Bychkova, Oksana V.

    2016-09-01

    Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for monitoring of 222Rn concentration by means of measurement of its daughter nuclei gamma-ray emission intensity and the main characteristics of this device are presented. Time variations of radon concentration can be interpreted as possible precursors of the Earth's seismic activity, such as an earthquake, several days prior to these events. The results of the first experiments that were carried out in the Caucasus region of Russia show the possibility of using the described xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for this task.

  15. Postseismic Deformation after the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake: Collaborative Research with Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to carry out GPS observations on the Kenai Peninsula, southern Alaska, in order to study the postseismic and contemporary deformation following the 1964 Alaska earthquake. All of the research supported in this grant was carried out in collaboration with Dr. Steven Cohen of Goddard Space Flight Center. The research funding from this grant primarily supported GPS fieldwork, along with the acquisition of computer equipment to allow analysis and modeling of the GPS data. A minor amount of salary support was provided by the PI, but the great majority of the salary support was provided by the Geophysical Institute. After the expiration of this grant, additional funding was obtained from the National Science Foundation to continue the work. This grant supported GPS field campaigns in August 1995, June 1996, May-June and September 1997, and May-June 1998. We initially began the work by surveying leveling benchmarks on the Kenai peninsula that had been surveyed after the 1964 earthquake. Changes in height from the 1964 leveling data to the 1995+ GPS data, corrected for the geoid-ellipsoid separation, give the total elevation change since the earthquake. Beginning in 1995, we also identified or established sites that were suitable for long-term surveying using GPS. In the subsequent annual GPS campaigns, we made regular measurements at these GPS marks, and steadily enhanced our set of points for which cumulative postseismic uplift data were available. From 4 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, we find significant spatial variations in present-day deformation between the eastern and western Kenai peninsula, Alaska. Sites in the eastern Kenai peninsula and Prince William Sound move to the NNW relative to North America, in the direction of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Velocities decrease in magnitude from nearly the full plate rate in southern Prince William Sound to about 30 mm/yr at Seward and to about 5 mm

  16. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

  17. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  18. The academic health center in complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Christine; Theodosis, Christian; Bills, Corey; Kim, Jimin; Kinet, Melodie; Turner, Madeleine; Millis, Michael; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Olopade, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Haiti. The event disrupted infrastructure and was marked by extreme morbidity and mortality. The global response to the disaster was rapid and immense, comprising multiple actors-including academic health centers (AHCs)-that provided assistance in the field and from home. The authors retrospectively examine the multidisciplinary approach that the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) applied to postearthquake Haiti, which included the application of institutional structure and strategy, systematic deployment of teams tailored to evolving needs, and the actual response and recovery. The university mobilized significant human and material resources for deployment within 48 hours and sustained the effort for over four months. In partnership with international and local nongovernmental organizations as well as other AHCs, the UCM operated one of the largest and more efficient acute field hospitals in the country. The UCM's efforts in postearthquake Haiti provide insight into the role AHCs can play, including their strengths and limitations, in complex disasters. AHCs can provide necessary intellectual and material resources as well as technical expertise, but the cost and speed required for responding to an emergency, and ongoing domestic responsibilities, may limit the response of a large university and hospital system. The authors describe the strong institutional backing, the detailed predeployment planning and logistical support UCM provided, the engagement of faculty and staff who had previous experience in complex humanitarian emergencies, and the help of volunteers fluent in the local language which, together, made UCM's mission in postearthquake Haiti successful.

  19. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  20. Analogue models of subduction megathrust earthquakes: improving rheology and monitoring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizzi, Silvia; Corbi, Fabio; Funiciello, Francesca; Moroni, Monica

    2015-04-01

    duration and rupture width. Experimental monitoring has been performed by means of both PEP and PIV (i.e., Particle Image Velocimetry) algorithms. PEP differs from classic cross-correlation techniques (i.e., PIV) in its ability to provide sparse velocity vectors at points coincident with particle barycentre positions, allowing a lagrangian description of the velocity field and a better spatial resolution (i.e., ≈ 0.03 mm2) with respect to PIV. Results show that PEP algorithm is able to identify a greater number of analogue earthquakes (i.e., ≈ 20% more than PIV algorithm), decreasing the minimum detectable magnitude from 6.6 to 4.5. Furthermore, earthquake source parameters (e.g., hypocentre position, rupture limits and slip distribution) are more accurately defined. PEP algorithm is then suitable to potentially gain new insights on seismogenic process of STF, by extending the analysable magnitude range of analogue earthquakes and having implications on applicability of scaling relationship, such as Gutenberg - Richter law, to experimental results.

  1. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-02

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  2. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response

    SciTech Connect

    C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

    1999-09-30

    A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability that can interface with Federal or State officials and is designed for a quick response time and rapid radiological data collection and assessment. FRMAC Phase 1 products provide an initial characterization of the radiological situation and information on early health effects to officials responsible for making and implementing protective action decisions.

  3. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  4. The effects of educational program on health volunteers’ knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health centers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    JOUHARI, ZAHRA; PIRASTEH, AFSHAR; GHASSEMI, GHOLAM REZA; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The people's mental, intellectual and physical non-readiness to confront earthquake may result in disastrous outcomes. This research aimed to study of effects of a training intervention on health connector’s knowledge regarding their approach to earthquake in health-training centers in East of Tehran. Methods This research which is a semi-experimental study was designed and executed in 2011, using a questionnaire with items based on the information of Crisis Management Org. After a pilot study and making the questionnaire valid and reliable, we determined the sample size. Then, the questionnaires were completed before and after the training program by 82 health connectors at health-treatment centers in the East of Tehran. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using paired sample t–test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Health connectors were women with the mean age of 43.43±8.51 years. In this research, the mean score of connectors’ knowledge before and after the training was 35.15±4.3 and 43.73±2.91 out of 48, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). The classes were the most important source of information for the health connectors. Conclusion The people's knowledge to confront earthquake can be increased by holding training courses and workshops. Such training courses and workshops have an important role in data transfer and readiness of health connectors. PMID:25927068

  5. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    For more than 13 years a multi-temporal data-analysis method, named Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), has been being applied to satellite Thermal InfraRed (TIR) monitoring of seismically active regions. It gives a clear definition of a TIR anomaly within a validation/confutation scheme devoted to verify if detected anomalies can be associated or not to the time and location of the occurrence of major earthquakes. In this scheme, the confutation part (i.e. verifying if similar anomalies do not occur in the absence of a significant seismic activity) assumes a role even much important than the usual validation component devoted to verify the presence of anomalous signal transients before (or in association with) specific seismic events. Since 2001, RST approach has been being used to study tens of earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) occurred in different continents and in various geo-tectonic settings. In this paper such a long term experience is exploited in order to give a quantitative definition of a significant sequence of TIR anomalies (SSTA) in terms of the required space-time continuity constraints (persistence), identifying also the different typologies of known spurious sequences of TIR anomalies that have to be excluded from the following validation steps. On the same basis, taking also into account for the physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation between TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the validation process. In this work, such an approach is applied for the first time to a long-term dataset of night-time GMS-5/VISSR (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite/Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer) TIR measurements, comparing SSTAs and earthquakes with M > 4 which occurred in a wide area around Taiwan, in the month of September of

  6. Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3°E to 123.0°E and 21.0°N to 26.0°N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1° and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica

  7. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  8. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  9. Monitoring of the stress state variations of the Southern California for the purpose of earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M.; Garagash, I.; Bondur, V.; Steblov, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional geomechanical model of Southern California was developed, including a mountain relief, fault tectonics and characteristic internal features such as the roof of the consolidated crust and Moho surface. The initial stress state of the model is governed by the gravitational forces and horizontal tectonic motions estimated from GPS observations. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional geomechanical models allows monitoring of the changes in the stress state during the seismic process in order to constrain the distribution of the future places with increasing seismic activity. This investigation demonstrates one of possible approach to monitor upcoming seismicity for the periods of days - weeks - months. Continuous analysis of the stress state was carried out during 2009-2014. Each new earthquake with М~1 and above from USGS catalog was considered as the new defect of the Earth crust which has some definite size and causes redistribution of the stress state. Overall calculation technique was based on the single function of the Earth crust damage, recalculated each half month. As a result each half month in the upper crust layers and partially in the middle layers we revealed locations of the maximal values of the stress state parameters: elastic energy density, shear stress, proximity of the earth crust layers to their strength limit. All these parameters exhibit similar spatial and temporal distribution. How follows from observations all four strongest events with М ~ 5.5-7.2 occurred in South California during the analyzed period were prefaced by the parameters anomalies in peculiar advance time of weeks-months in the vicinity of 10-50 km from the upcoming earthquake. After the event the stress state source disappeared. The figure shows migration of the maximums of the stress state variations gradients (parameter D) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake 04.04.2010 with М=7.2 in the period of 01.01.2010-01.05.2010. Grey lines

  10. The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement System

    2012-07-31

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: Atmospheric transport modeling; Radiation monitoring; Radiological analysis and data assessments; and Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic

  11. A new era for low frequency Galactic center transient monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, N. E.; Hyman, S. D.; Intema, H.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2014-05-01

    An upgrade of the low frequency observing system of the VLA developed by NRL and NRAO, called low band (LB), will open a new era of Galactic center (GC) transient monitoring. Our previous searches using the VLA and GMRT have revealed a modest number of radio-selected transients, but have been severely sensitivity and observing time limited. The new LB system, currently accessing the 236--492 MHz frequency range, promises ≥5 × improved sensitivity over the legacy VLA system. The new system is emerging from commissioning in time to catch any enhanced sub-GHz emission from the G2 cloud event, and we review existing limits based on recent observations. We also describe a proposed 24/7 commensal system, called the LOw Band Observatory (LOBO). LOBO offers over 100 VLA GC monitoring hours per year, possibly revealing new transients and helping validate ASTRO2010's anticipation of a new era of transient radio astronomy. A funded LOBO pathfinder called the VLA Low Frequency Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE) is under development. Finally, we consider the impact of LB and LOBO on our GC monitoring program.

  12. Earthquake prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

  13. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  14. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, F.; Bhaskaran, A.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    The SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 3000 data channels from 375 SCSN recorded stations. The SCSN and SCEDC process and archive an average of 12,000 earthquakes each year, contributing to the southern California earthquake catalog that spans from 1932 to present. The SCEDC provides public, searchable access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP, NETDC and DHI. New data products: ● The SCEDC is distributing synthetic waveform data from the 2008 ShakeOut scenario (Jones et al., USGS Open File Rep., 2008-1150) and (Graves et al. 2008; Geophys. Res. Lett.) This is a M 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault. Users will be able to download 40 sps velocity waveforms in SAC format from the SCEDC website. The SCEDC is also distributing synthetic GPS data (Crowell et al., 2009; Seismo. Res. Letters.) for this scenario as well. ● The SCEDC has added a new web page to show the latest tomographic model of Southern California. This model is based on Tape et al., 2009 Science. New data services: ● The SCEDC is exporting data in QuakeML format. This is an xml format that has been adopted by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). This data will also be available as a web service. ● The SCEDC is exporting data in StationXML format. This is an xml format created by the SCEDC and adopted by ANSS to fully describe station metadata. This data will also be available as a web service. ● The stp 1.6 client can now access both the SCEDC and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) earthquake and waveform archives. In progress - SCEDC to distribute 1 sps GPS data in miniSEED format: ● As part of a NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology project in collaboration with Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California

  15. Non-linear Elasticity and Monitoring of Stress in the Focus of an Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, V.; Bakulin, A.

    2001-05-01

    Non-linear elasticity proved to give comprehensive framework for relating seismic velocities in rocks to stress. This powerful theory allows attacking the problem of estimating stress state at the focus of earthquakes. Such idea has been proposed long time ago [Kostrov and Nikitin, 1968] however its implementation requires a-priori knowledge of non-linear rock properties. Three non-linear constants needed to describe variation of any velocity with stress are typically estimated from core measurements [Bakulin et al., 2000]. More reliable estimates can be obtained from multi-mode inversions of borehole acoustic data [Sinha, 1996]. Nevertheless database of non-linear formation constants is still very limited. More measurements are required to estimate non-linear rock properties on larger scale and with independent stress constraints. Such measurements can be done in mines [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999] or in hydrocarbon reservoirs where time-dependent pressure measurements are available. Without knowledge of non-linear rock properties seismic waves can still bring information about directions of tectonic stresses. In particular, shear wave polarizations can deliver directions of principal stresses in the focus of an earthquake, provided the overburden effects were removed. If rock non-linear properties are independently derived then estimation of stress magnitudes becomes feasible. Such techniques were applied in mining environment [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999]. They may become routine for monitoring stress state in the focus of earthquakes and therefore can be used for forecasting the seismic activity. Bakulin, A. V., Troyan, V. N., and Bakulin, V. N., 2000, Acoustoelasticity of rocks, St. Petersburg (in Russian). Bakulin, V. and Bakulin, A., 1999, Acoustopolarizational method of measuring stress in rock mass and determination of Murnaghan constants: 69th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., 1971-1974. Kostrov, B.V., and Nikitin, L.V., 1968, Influence of initial

  16. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 1, Operations

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The Monitoring division is primarily responsible for the coordination and direction of: Aerial measurements to delineate the footprint of radioactive contaminants that have been released into the environment. Monitoring of radiation levels in the environment; Sampling to determine the extent of contaminant deposition in soil, water, air and on vegetation; Preliminary field analyses to quantify soil concentrations or depositions; and Environmental and personal dosimetry for FRMAC field personnel, during a Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) and Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) response. Monitoring and sampling techniques used during CM/FRMAC operations are specifically selected for use during radiological emergencies where large numbers of measurements and samples must be acquired, analyzed, and interpreted in the shortest amount of time possible. In addition, techniques and procedures are flexible so that they can be used during a variety of different scenarios; e.g., accidents involving releases from nuclear reactors, contamination by nuclear waste, nuclear weapon accidents, space vehicle reentries, or contamination from a radiological dispersal device. The Monitoring division also provides technicians to support specific Health and Safety Division activities including: The operation of the Hotline; FRMAC facility surveys; Assistance with Health and Safety at Check Points; and Assistance at population assembly areas which require support from the FRMAC. This volume covers deployment activities, initial FRMAC activities, development and implementation of the monitoring and assessment plan, the briefing of field teams, and the transfer of FRMAC to the EPA.

  17. Statistical monitoring of aftershock sequences: a case study of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Yosihiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Early forecasting of aftershocks has become realistic and practical because of real-time detection of hypocenters. This study illustrates a statistical procedure for monitoring aftershock sequences to detect anomalies to increase the probability gain of a significantly large aftershock or even an earthquake larger than the main shock. In particular, a significant lowering (relative quiescence) in aftershock activity below the level predicted by the Omori-Utsu formula or the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is sometimes followed by a large earthquake in a neighboring region. As an example, we detected significant lowering relative to the modeled rate after approximately 1.7 days after the main shock in the aftershock sequence of the Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake of April 25, 2015. The relative quiescence lasted until the May 12, 2015, M7.3 Kodari earthquake that occurred at the eastern end of the primary aftershock zone. Space-time plots including the transformed time can indicate the local places where aftershock activity lowers (the seismicity shadow). Thus, the relative quiescence can be hypothesized to be related to stress shadowing caused by probable slow slips. In addition, the aftershock productivity of the M7.3 Kodari earthquake is approximately twice as large as that of the M7.8 main shock.

  18. Logic-centered architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Jacek; Arochena, Hisbel E; Naguib, Raouf N G; Chao, Kuo-Ming; Garcia-Perez, Alexeis

    2014-09-01

    One of the key points to maintain and boost research and development in the area of smart wearable systems (SWS) is the development of integrated architectures for intelligent services, as well as wearable systems and devices for health and wellness management. This paper presents such a generic architecture for multiparametric, intelligent and ubiquitous wireless sensing platforms. It is a transparent, smartphone-based sensing framework with customizable wireless interfaces and plug'n'play capability to easily interconnect third party sensor devices. It caters to wireless body, personal, and near-me area networks. A pivotal part of the platform is the integrated inference engine/runtime environment that allows the mobile device to serve as a user-adaptable personal health assistant. The novelty of this system lays in a rapid visual development and remote deployment model. The complementary visual Inference Engine Editor that comes with the package enables artificial intelligence specialists, alongside with medical experts, to build data processing models by assembling different components and instantly deploying them (remotely) on patient mobile devices. In this paper, the new logic-centered software architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring applications is described, followed by a discussion as to how it helps to shift focus from software and hardware development, to medical and health process-centered design of new SWS applications.

  19. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  20. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Nielsen

    2003-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

  1. Efficacy of intrathoracic impedance and remote monitoring in patients with an implantable device after the 2011 great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that stress after catastrophic disasters can trigger cardiovascular events, however, little is known about its association with the occurrence of heart failure in past earthquakes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, increased the incidence of worsening heart failure in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with implantable devices. Furthermore, we examined whether intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring was effective for the management of CHF.We enrolled 44 CHF patients (32 males, mean age 63 ± 12 years) with implantable devices that can check intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring. We defined the worsening heart failure as accumulated impedance under reference impedance exceeding 60 ohms-days (fluid index threshold), and compared the incidence of worsening heart failure and arrhythmic events 30 days before and after March 11.Within the 30 days after March 11, 10 patients exceeded the threshold compared with only 2 patients in the preceding 30 days (P < 0.05). Although 9 patients using remote monitoring among the 10 patients with threshold crossings were not hospitalized, one patient without the system was hospitalized due to acute decompensated heart failure. On the contrary, arrhythmic events did not change between before and after March 11.Our results suggest that earthquake-induced stress causes an increased risk of worsening heart failure without changes in arrhythmia. Furthermore, intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring may be a useful tool for the management of CHF in catastrophic disasters.

  2. Results of seismological monitoring in the Cascade Range 1962-1989: earthquakes, eruptions, avalanches and other curiosities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, C.S.; Norris, R.D.; Jonientz-Trisler, C.

    1990-01-01

    Modern monitoring of seismic activity at Cascade Range volcanoes began at Longmire on Mount Rainier in 1958. Since then, there has been an expansion of the regional seismic networks in Washington, northern Oregon and northern California. Now, the Cascade Range from Lassen Peak to Mount Shasta in the south and Newberry Volcano to Mount Baker in the north is being monitored for earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0, and many of the stratovolcanoes are monitored for non-earthquake seismic activity. This monitoring has yielded three major observations. First, tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in two segments of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood and between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, whereas little seismicity occurs between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta. Second, the volcanic activity and associated phenomena at Mount St. Helens have produced intense and widely varied seismicity. And third, at the northern stratovolcanoes, signals generated by surficial events such as debris flows, icequakes, steam emissions, rockfalls and icefalls are seismically recorded. Such records have been used to alert authorities of dangerous events in progress. -Authors

  3. Combination of High Rate, Real-Time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations and Rapid Seismic Event Notification for Earthquake Early Warning and Volcano Monitoring with a Focus on the Pacific Rim.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, L. G.; Passmore, P.; Raczka, J.; Alvarez, M.; Jackson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, epoch-by-epoch storage integrity, and on-board real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 sps) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies, volcano monitoring, and critical infrastructure monitoring applications. Our presentation will focus on the characteristics of GNSS, seismic, and strong motion sensors in high dynamic environments, including historic earthquakes in Southern California and the Pacific Rim, replicated on a shake table, over a range of displacements and frequencies. We will explore the optimum integration of these sensors from a filtering perspective including simple harmonic impulses over varying frequencies and amplitudes and under the dynamic conditions of various earthquake scenarios. In addition we will discuss implementation of a Rapid Seismic Event Notification System that provides quick delivery of digital data from seismic stations to the acquisition and processing center and a full data integrity model for real-time earthquake notification that provides warning prior to significant ground shaking.

  4. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Meisenhelter, S.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    cooperation with QCN and CSN is exploring ways to archive and distribute data from high density low cost networks. As a starting point the SCEDC will store a dataset from QCN and CSN and distribute it through a separate STP client. New archival methods: ● The SCEDC is exploring the feasibility of archiving and distributing waveform data using cloud computing such as Google Apps. A month of continuous data from the SCEDC archive will be stored in Google Apps and a client developed to access it in a manner similar to STP. XML formats: ● The SCEDC is now distributing earthquake parameter data through web services in QuakeML format. ● The SCEDC in collaboration with the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) and USGS Golden has reviewed and revised the StationXML format to produce version 2.0. The new version includes a rules on extending the schema, use of named complex types, and greater consistency in naming conventions. Based on this work we plan to develop readers and writers of the StationXML format.

  5. Restoration of accelerator facilities damaged by Great East Japan Earthquake at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo P; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University is a joint-use institution for education and research in a wide variety of fields ranging from physics to medicine. Accelerator facilities at the CYRIC provide opportunities for implementing a broad research program, including medical research using positron emission tomography (PET), with accelerated ions and radioisotopes. At the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, no human injuries occurred and a smooth evacuation was made in the CYRIC, thanks to the anti-earthquake measures such as the renovation of the cyclotron building in 2009 mainly to provide seismic strengthening, fixation of shelves to prevent the falling of objects, and securement of the width of the evacuation route. The preparation of an emergency response manual was also helpful. However, the accelerator facilities were damaged because of strong shaking that continued for a few minutes. For example, two columns on which a 930 cyclotron was placed were damaged, and thereby the 930 cyclotron was inclined. All the elements of beam transport lines were deviated from the beam axis. Some peripheral devices in a HM12 cyclotron were broken. Two shielding doors fell from the carriage onto the floor and blocked the entrances to the rooms. The repair work on the accelerator facilities was started at the end of July 2011. During the repair work, the joint use of the accelerator facilities was suspended. After the repair work was completed, the joint use was re-started at October 2012, one and a half years after the earthquake.

  6. The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response.

  7. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  9. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  11. Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Shugay, Yulia; Barinov, Oleg; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir

    Space monitoring data center of Moscow State University provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ gives access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in the magnetosphere and heliosphere in the real time mode. Operational data coming from space missions (ACE, GOES, ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M1) at L1, LEO and GEO and from the Earth’s surface are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. On-line database of measurements is also maintained to allow quick comparison between current conditions and conditions experienced in the past. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from observations on the whole magnetosphere. Interactive applications and operational forecasting services are created on the base of these models. They automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons using data from LEO orbits. Special forecasting services give short-term forecast of SEP penetration to the Earth magnetosphere at low altitudes, as well as relativistic electron fluxes at GEO. Velocities of recurrent high speed solar wind streams on the Earth orbit are predicted with advance time of 3-4 days on the basis of automatic estimation of the coronal hole areas detected on the images of the Sun received from the SDO satellite. By means of neural network approach, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting 0.5-1.5 hours ahead, depending on solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, measured by ACE satellite, is carried out. Visualization system allows representing experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  12. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring.

    PubMed

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij Jp; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1-5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21-23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables automated

  13. Managing Multi-center Flow Cytometry Data for Immune Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    White, Scott; Laske, Karoline; Welters, Marij JP; Bidmon, Nicole; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Britten, Cedrik M; Enzor, Jennifer; Staats, Janet; Weinhold, Kent J; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2014-01-01

    With the recent results of promising cancer vaccines and immunotherapy1–5, immune monitoring has become increasingly relevant for measuring treatment-induced effects on T cells, and an essential tool for shedding light on the mechanisms responsible for a successful treatment. Flow cytometry is the canonical multi-parameter assay for the fine characterization of single cells in solution, and is ubiquitously used in pre-clinical tumor immunology and in cancer immunotherapy trials. Current state-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry involves multi-step, multi-reagent assays followed by sample acquisition on sophisticated instruments capable of capturing up to 20 parameters per cell at a rate of tens of thousands of cells per second. Given the complexity of flow cytometry assays, reproducibility is a major concern, especially for multi-center studies. A promising approach for improving reproducibility is the use of automated analysis borrowing from statistics, machine learning and information visualization21–23, as these methods directly address the subjectivity, operator-dependence, labor-intensive and low fidelity of manual analysis. However, it is quite time-consuming to investigate and test new automated analysis techniques on large data sets without some centralized information management system. For large-scale automated analysis to be practical, the presence of consistent and high-quality data linked to the raw FCS files is indispensable. In particular, the use of machine-readable standard vocabularies to characterize channel metadata is essential when constructing analytic pipelines to avoid errors in processing, analysis and interpretation of results. For automation, this high-quality metadata needs to be programmatically accessible, implying the need for a consistent Application Programming Interface (API). In this manuscript, we propose that upfront time spent normalizing flow cytometry data to conform to carefully designed data models enables

  14. An Update on Monitoring Stellar Orbits in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillessen, S.; Plewa, P. M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Sari, R.; Waisberg, I.; Habibi, M.; Pfuhl, O.; George, E.; Dexter, J.; von Fellenberg, S.; Ott, T.; Genzel, R.

    2017-03-01

    Using 25 years of data from uninterrupted monitoring of stellar orbits in the Galactic Center, we present an update of the main results from this unique data set: a measurement of mass and distance to Sgr A*. Our progress is not only due to the eight-year increase in time base, but also to the improved definition of the coordinate system. The star S2 continues to yield the best constraints on the mass of and distance to Sgr A* the statistical errors of 0.13× {10}6 {M}ȯ and 0.12 kpc have halved compared to the previous study. The S2 orbit fit is robust and does not need any prior information. Using coordinate system priors, the star S1 also yields tight constraints on mass and distance. For a combined orbit fit, we use 17 stars, which yields our current best estimates for mass and distance: M=4.28+/- 0.10{| }{stat.}+/- 0.21{| }{sys}× {10}6 {M}ȯ and {R}0=8.32+/- 0.07{| }{stat.}+/- 0.14{| }{sys} {kpc}. These numbers are in agreement with the recent determination of R 0 from the statistical cluster parallax. The positions of the mass, of the near-infrared flares from Sgr A*, and of the radio source Sgr A* agree to within 1 mas. In total, we have determined orbits for 40 stars so far, a sample which consists of 32 stars with randomly oriented orbits and a thermal eccentricity distribution, plus eight stars that we can explicitly show are members of the clockwise disk of young stars, and which have lower-eccentricity orbits.

  15. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation covers the following monitoring objectives at the demonstration site at Edison, NJ: Hydrologic performance, water quality performance, urban heat island effects, maintenance effects and infiltration water parameters. There will be a side by side monitoring of ...

  16. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  17. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  18. Real-time particulate fallout contamination monitoring technology development at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    Two separate real-time particulate fallout monitoring instruments have been developed by the contamination monitoring Laboratory at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center. These instruments monitor particular fallout contamination deposition rates in cleanrooms and allow certification of cleanliness levels as well as proactive protection of valuable flight hardware.

  19. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  20. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records

  1. Long-term Ocean Bottom Monitoring for Shallow Slow Earthquakes in the Hyuga-nada, Nankai Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Maeda, T.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hyuga-nada region, nearby the western end of the Nankai Trough in Japan, is one of the most active areas of shallow slow earthquakes in the world. Recently, ocean-bottom observation of offshore seismicity near the trench succeeded in detecting shallow tremor. The observed traces contained a complete episode lasting for one month exhibiting similar migration property of deep tremor [Yamashita et al., 2015]. This activity was associated with shallow very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) activity documented by land-based broadband seismic network. The coincidence between tremor and VLFE activities and similarity of their migration pattern show strong resemblance with the episodic tremor and slip episodes; this similarity suggests that the tremor activity in the shallow plate boundary may also be coupled with VLFE and short-term slow slip events in this area. It is important clarifying the seismicity including slow earthquakes to understand the slip behavior at a shallow plate boundary, and to improve assessments of the possibility of tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake that is anticipated to occur at the Nankai Trough. Motivated by these issues, we started long-term ocean-bottom monitoring in this area from May 2014 using 3 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers. In January 2015, we replaced the instruments and obtained the first data which includes minor shallow tremor and VLFE activity on June 1-3, 2014. Preliminary results of data processing show that the shallow tremor activity occurred at the northwestern part of the 2013 activity. The location corresponds the point where the tremors stopped migrating to further north direction and turned sharply eastward in the 2013 activity. On the other hand, clear tremor migration was not found in the 2014 activity. This local activity may imply that regional/small-scale heterogeneous structures such as a subducting sea mount affect the activity pattern. During the 2014 observation, many ordinary earthquakes also

  2. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Emergency Operations Center training manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-28

    The objective of this training is to: describe the responsibilities, resources, and goals of the Emergency Operations Center and be able to evaluate and interpret this information to best direct and allocate emergency, plant, and other resources to protect life and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  3. Passive seismic monitoring of natural and induced earthquakes: case studies, future directions and socio-economic relevance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Ellsworth, William L.; Ito, Hisao; Cloetingh, Sierd; Negendank, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important discovery in crustal mechanics has been that the Earth’s crust is commonly stressed close to failure, even in tectonically quiet areas. As a result, small natural or man-made perturbations to the local stress field may trigger earthquakes. To understand these processes, Passive Seismic Monitoring (PSM) with seismometer arrays is a widely used technique that has been successfully applied to study seismicity at different magnitude levels ranging from acoustic emissions generated in the laboratory under controlled conditions, to seismicity induced by hydraulic stimulations in geological reservoirs, and up to great earthquakes occurring along plate boundaries. In all these environments the appropriate deployment of seismic sensors, i.e., directly on the rock sample, at the earth’s surface or in boreholes close to the seismic sources allows for the detection and location of brittle failure processes at sufficiently low magnitude-detection threshold and with adequate spatial resolution for further analysis. One principal aim is to develop an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring at the seismic source and their relationship to the host geologic environment. In this paper we review selected case studies and future directions of PSM efforts across a wide range of scales and environments. These include induced failure within small rock samples, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and natural seismicity at convergent and transform plate boundaries. Each example represents a milestone with regard to bridging the gap between laboratory-scale experiments under controlled boundary conditions and large-scale field studies. The common motivation for all studies is to refine the understanding of how earthquakes nucleate, how they proceed and how they interact in space and time. This is of special relevance at the larger end of the magnitude scale, i.e., for large devastating earthquakes due to their severe socio-economic impact.

  4. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

  5. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  6. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Spall, Henry; Schnabel, Diane C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  7. Ultra Sensitive Monitoring of the Geomagnetic Field Combined with Radon Emanation as a Tool for Studying Earthquake Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, H.; Ginzburg, B.; Hrvoic, I.; Shirman, B.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Steinitz, G.; Wilson, M.

    2003-12-01

    An ultra sensitive magnetic gradiometric system and a very sensitive, continuous radon monitoring system are located with an existing seismic array, at the Amram Geophysical Observatory near Eilat, Israel. The purpose of setting these independent technologies together was to assess their applicability as a combined tool for studying earthquake related phenomena in the Dead Sea Rift (DSR) - a geodynamically active region (seismogenic). The magnetic system consists of three GEM Systems SuperGrad magnetometers, spaced several tens of meters apart, having a sensitivity of 0.05 pT/√ {Hz}, bandwidth ranging from DC to 10 Hz and featuring very high long-term stability. Several months of on-site operation shows that the magnetic gradiometric system demonstrates: a) a new capability of ultra-high precise geomagnetic field observations at sub-pT resolution; b) enables the suppression of diurnal variations and pulsations, thus enhancing the resolution of residual shallow crustal contributions; c) the registration bandwidth provides an opportunity to analyze field variation in a wide frequency domain, which was not attainable so far. The initiative of including radon monitoring is based on the combination of: a) large multi-day temporal radon variations are recorded at the Amram site; b) part of the variation is correlated to radon signatures at other locations in the same tectonic segment; c) some of the signals are similar to the multi-day signals, from another part of the DSR, which are significantly related to weak earthquakes in the DSR (Geology, v. 31, 505-508). The operated radon system consists of alpha and gamma ray detectors, integrating at a rate of 15 minutes and having a sensitivity of below 0.1 pCi/l in the geogas. The combined geophysical system is in continuous operation since 2002. It is expected that joint analysis of long-term multi-sensor data series will reveal subtle geophysical signals that precede or follow earthquakes in the region.

  8. The continuous automatic monitoring network installed in Tuscany (Italy) since late 2002, to study earthquake precursory phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Cioni, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network (CAMN) was designed, built and installed in Tuscany (Italy), in order to investigate and define the geochemical response of the aquifers to the local seismic activity. The purpose of the investigation was to identify eventual earthquake precursors. The CAMN is constituted by two groups of five measurement stations each. A first group has been installed in the Serchio and Magra graben (Garfagnana and Lunigiana Valleys, Northern Tuscany), while the second one, in the area of Mt. Amiata (Southern Tuscany), an extinct volcano. Garfagnana, Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata regions belong to the inner zone of the Northern Apennine fold-and-thrust belt. This zone has been involved in the post-collision extensional tectonics since the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. Such tectonic activity has produced horst and graben structures oriented from N-S to NW-SE that are transferred by NE-SW system. Both Garfagnana (Serchio graben) and Lunigiana (Magra graben) belong to the most inner sector of the belt where the seismic sources, responsible for the strongest earthquakes of the northern Apennine, are located (e.g. the M=6.5 earthquake of September 1920). The extensional processes in southern Tuscany have been accompanied by magmatic activity since the Upper Miocene, developing effusive and intrusive products traditionally attributed to the so-called Tuscan Magmatic Province. Mt. Amiata, whose magmatic activity ceased about 0.3 M.y. ago, belongs to the extensive Tyrrhenian sector that is characterized by high heat flow and crustal thinning. The whole zone is characterized by wide-spread but moderate seismicity (the maximum recorded magnitude has been 5.1 with epicentre in Piancastagnaio, 1919). The extensional regime in both the Garfagnana-Lunigiana and Mt. Amiata area is confirmed by the focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes. An essential phase of the monitoring activities has been the selection of suitable sites for the installation of

  9. Estimating Intensities and/or Strong Motion Parameters Using Civilian Monitoring Videos: The May 12, 2008, Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng; Xia, Min

    2011-05-01

    One of the important issues in macroseismology and engineering seismology is how to get as much intensity and/or strong motion data as possible. We collected and studied several cases in the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake, exploring the possibility of estimating intensities and/or strong ground motion parameters using civilian monitoring videos which were deployed originally for security purposes. We used 53 video recordings in different places to determine the intensity distribution of the earthquake, which is shown to be consistent with the intensity distribution mapped by field investigation, and even better than that given by the Community Internet Intensity Map. In some of the videos, the seismic wave propagation is clearly visible, and can be measured with the reference of some artificial objects such as cars and/or trucks. By measuring the propagating wave, strong motion parameters can be roughly but quantitatively estimated. As a demonstration of this `propagating-wave method', we used a series of civilian videos recorded in different parts of Sichuan and Shaanxi and estimated the local PGAs. The estimate is compared with the measurement reported by strong motion instruments. The result shows that civilian monitoring video provide a practical way of collecting and estimating intensity and/or strong motion parameters, having the advantage of being dynamic, and being able to be played back for further analysis, reflecting a new trend for macroseismology in our digital era.

  10. The environmental program at Kennedy Space Center - Baseline to monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    KSC has developed an environmental program to ensure that its activities do not adversely affect the surrounding environment. Two essential elements of the total program are the baseline and monitoring programs. The goal of the baseline program is to collect sufficient information about the environment prior to Shuttle launches so that adverse changes in the environment - if and when they occur after the Shuttle program becomes active - can be detected and cause-effect relationships established when possible. The goal of the monitoring program is to use information from the baseline program along with survey and sampling operations during the period of initial Shuttle launches to document adverse changes in the environment.

  11. Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster on the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center. The monitoring scheme for the project is discussed in-depth with graphics explaining the instrumentation installed at the site.

  12. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February, 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  13. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit #45455-FP, Monitoring Report February 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dynamic Revetment (gravel beach) was installed in November, 2011 on the shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) to mitigate erosion that threatened HMSC critical infrastructure. Shoreline topographic and biological monitoring was init...

  14. A survey conducted immediately after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: evaluation of infectious risks associated with sanitary conditions in evacuation centers.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Endo, Shiro; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kanamori, Hajime; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Yano, Hisakazu; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-08-01

    In cooperation with the Miyagi prefectural government, we conducted a survey of the management of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of the evacuees by visiting 324 evacuation centers at two weeks after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The facilities often used as evacuation centers were community centers (36%), schools (32.7%) and Nursing homes (10.2%). It was more difficult to maintain a distance of at least 1 m between evacuees at the evacuation centers with a larger number of residents. At evacuation centers where the water supply was not restored, hygienic handling of food and the hand hygiene of the cooks were less than adequate. Among evacuation centers with ≤50 evacuees, there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of digestive symptoms between the centers with and without persons in charge of health matters (0.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively, p < 0.001). The following three factors had an important influence on the level of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of evacuees: 1) the size of the evacuation center, 2) the status of the water supply, and 3) the allocation of persons in charge of health matters. Given that adjusting the number of evacuees to fit the size of the evacuation center and prompt restoration of the water supply are difficult to achieve immediately after an earthquake, promptly placing persons in charge of health matters at evacuation centers is a practicable and effective measure, and allocation of at least one such person per 50 evacuees is desirable.

  15. 88 hours: The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Earle, P.S.; Benz, H.M.; Wald, D.J.; Briggs, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a timeline of NEIC response to a major global earthquake for the first time in a formal journal publication. We outline the key observations of the earthquake made by the NEIC and its partner agencies, discuss how these analyses evolved, and outline when and how this information was released to the public and to other internal and external parties. Our goal in the presentation of this material is to provide a detailed explanation of the issues faced in the response to a rare, giant earthquake. We envisage that the timeline format of this presentation can highlight technical and procedural successes and shortcomings, which may in turn help prompt research by our academic partners and further improvements to our future response efforts. We have shown how NEIC response efforts have significantly improved over the past six years since the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We are optimistic that the research spawned from this disaster, and the unparalleled dense and diverse data sets that have been recorded, can lead to similar-and necessary-improvements in the future.

  16. Activity remotely triggered in volcanic and geothermal centers in California and Washington by the 3 November 2002 Mw=7.9 Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. P.; Prejean, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Pitt, A. M.; S. D. Malone; Richards-Dinger, K.

    2002-12-01

    The M=7.9 Alaska earthquake of 3 November 2002 was followed by bursts of remotely triggered earthquakes at several volcanic and geothermal areas across the western United States at epicentral distances of 2,500 to 3,660 km. Husen et al. (this session) describe the triggered response for Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming. Here we highlight the triggered response for the Geysers geothermal field in northern California, Mammoth Mountain and Long Valley caldera in eastern California, the Coso geothermal field in southeastern California, and Mount Rainier in central Washington. The onset of triggered seismicity at each of these areas began 15 to 17 minutes after the Alaska earthquake during the S-wave coda and the early phases of the Love and Raleigh waves with periods of 5 to 40 seconds and dynamic strains of a few microstrain. In each case, the seismicity was characterized by spasmodic bursts of small (M<2 ), brittle-failure earthquakes. The activity persisted for just a few minutes at Mount Rainier and Mammoth Mountain and roughly 30 minutes at the Geysers and Coso geothermal fields. Many of the triggered earthquakes at all three sites were too small for reliable locations (magnitudes M<1), although their small S-P times indicate hypocentral locations within a few km of the nearest seismic station. Borehole dilatometers in vicinity of Mammoth Mountain recorded strain offsets on the order of 0.1 microstrain coincident in time with the triggered seismicity (Johnston et al. this session), and water level in the 3-km-deep LVEW well in the center of Long Valley caldera dropped by ~13 cm during passage of the seismic wave train from the Alaska earthquake followed by a gradual recovery. The Geysers, Coso, and Mount Rainier have no continuous, high-resolution strain instrumentation. A larger earthquake swarm that began 23.5 hours later (21:38 UT on the 4th) in the south moat of Long Valley caldera and included nine M>2 and one M=3.0 earthquake may represent a delayed response to

  17. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  18. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs. (KJD)

  19. NCEER seminars on earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pantelic, J.

    1987-01-01

    In May of 1986, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER) in Buffalo, New York, held the first seminar in its new monthly forum called Seminars on Earthquakes. The Center's purpose in initiating the seminars was to educate the audience about earthquakes, to facilitate cooperation between the NCEER and visiting researchers, and to enable visiting speakers to learn more about the NCEER   

  20. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2011-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored volcanoes. This catalog includes locations and statistics of the earthquakes located in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to locate these earthquakes.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Development at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Wu, M. C.; Allison, S. G.; DeHaven, S. L.; Ghoshal, A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is applying considerable effort on the development of sensor technology for structural health monitoring (SHM). This research is targeted toward increasing the safety and reliability of aerospace vehicles, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Research programs are focused on applications to both aircraft and space vehicles. Sensor technologies under development span a wide range including fiber-optic sensing, active and passive acoustic sensors, electromagnetic sensors, wireless sensing systems, MEMS, and nanosensors. Because of their numerous advantages for aerospace applications, fiber-optic sensors are one of the leading candidates and are the major focus of this presentation. In addition, recent advances in active and passive acoustic sensing will also be discussed.

  2. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  3. Monitoring the Corniglio Landslide (Parma, Italy) before and after the M=5.4 earthquake of December 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virdis, S.; Guastaldi, E.; Rindinella, A.; Disperati, L.; Ciulli, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we present the results of monitoring the Corniglio landslide (CL), a large landslide located in the Northern Apennines, by integrating traditional geomorphologic and geological surveys, digital photogrammetry, GPS and geostatistics. The CL spreads over an area of about 3 km x 1 km, close to Corniglio village (Parma, Italy). We propose a new kinematic framework for the CL as Deep-Seated Slope Gravitational Deformation (DSGSD). Surveys were carried out in six periods, in July and September 2006, March and August 2007, July 2008 (after a M=4 earthquake of 28 December 2007, 10 km far from Corniglio), and finally January 2009 (after several earthquakes occurred in the last days of December 2008, with magnitude from 4 to 5.4 and epicentres located less than 30 km far from Corniglio). Geological survey, interpretation of orthophotographs related to 1976, 1988, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2005, and satellite imagery related to 2003 were integrated for analysing the state of activity of landslide from 1976 to 2009, quantifying the ground displacement vectors. A RTK GPS survey was periodically carried out in order to locate the crown of the main landslide scarp and to identify reactivation of the CL after the earthquakes of the end of December 2008. Then, kriged multitemporal maps representing azimuth and module of ground displacement vectors were built, by evaluating the displacement with time of homologous ground targets on the multitemporal remotely sensed images. Measuring of ground deformations was performed on imagery related to the periods between December 1994 to July 1996, between October and November 1996, as well as the recurrent activity from October 1998 to 2003. In some sector of the main body of the landslide we estimated 70 m of total of ground displacement. The fieldwork results and photogeologic interpretation performed along the the Bratica valley, to the east of the CL, suggest that the occurrence of rigid behaviour lithotypes (Mt. Caio calcareous

  4. On the Potential Uses of Static Offsets Derived From Low-Cost Community Instruments and Crowd-Sourcing for Earthquake Monitoring and Rapid Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Murray, J. R.; Iannucci, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the efficacy of low-cost community instruments (LCCIs) and crowd-sourcing to produce rapid estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture characteristics which can be used for earthquake loss reduction such as issuing tsunami warnings and guiding rapid response efforts. Real-time high-rate GPS data are just beginning to be incorporated into earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. These data are showing promising utility including producing moment magnitude estimates which do not saturate for the largest earthquakes and determining the geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake rupture in real-time. However, building a network of scientific-quality real-time high-rate GPS stations requires substantial infrastructure investment which is not practicable in many parts of the world. To expand the benefits of real-time geodetic monitoring globally, we consider the potential of pseudorange-based GPS locations such as the real-time positioning done onboard cell phones or on LCCIs that could be distributed in the same way accelerometers are distributed as part of the Quake Catcher Network (QCN). While location information from LCCIs often have large uncertainties, their low cost means that large numbers of instruments can be deployed. A monitoring network that includes smartphones could collect data from potentially millions of instruments. These observations could be averaged together to substantially decrease errors associated with estimated earthquake source parameters. While these data will be inferior to data recorded by scientific-grade seismometers and GPS instruments, there are features of community-based data collection (and possibly analysis) that are very attractive. This approach creates a system where every user can host an instrument or download an application to their smartphone that both provides them with earthquake and tsunami warnings while also providing the data on which the warning system operates. This symbiosis helps to encourage

  5. Seismic Monitoring and Post-Seismic Investigations following the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altidor, J.; Dieuseul, A.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Given, D. D.; Hough, S. E.; Janvier, M. G.; Maharrey, J. Z.; Meremonte, M. E.; Mildor, B. S.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.

    2010-12-01

    We report on ongoing efforts to establish seismic monitoring in Haiti. Following the devastating M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010, the Bureau des Mines et de l’Energie worked with the U.S. Geological Survey and other scientific institutions to investigate the earthquake and to better assess hazard from future earthquakes. We deployed several types of portable instruments to record aftershocks: strong-motion instruments within Port-au-Prince to investigate the variability of shaking due to local geological conditions, and a combination of weak-motion, strong-motion, and broadband instruments around the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault (EPGF), primarily to improve aftershock locations and to lower the magnitude threshold of aftershock recording. A total of twenty instruments were deployed, including eight RefTek instruments and nine strong-motion (K2) accelerometers deployed in Port-au-Prince in collaboration with the USGS, and three additional broadband stations deployed in the epicentral region in collaboration with the University of Nice. Five K2s have remained in operation in Port-au-Prince since late June; in late June two instruments were installed in Cap-Haitien and Port de Paix in northern Haiti to provide monitoring of the Septentrional fault. A permanent strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument was deployed in late June at the US Embassy. Five additional NetQuakes instruments will be deployed by the BME in late 2010/early 2011. Addionally, the BME has collaborated with other scientific institutions, including Columbia University, the Institut Géophysique du Globe, University of Nice, the University of Texas at Austin, and Purdue University, to conduct other types of investigations. These studies include, for example, sampling of uplifted corals to establish a chronology of prior events in the region of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, surveys of geotechnical properties to develop microzonation maps of metropolitan Port-au-Prince, surveys of

  6. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  7. New seismic array solution for earthquake observations and hydropower plant health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonovskaya, Galina N.; Kapustian, Natalya K.; Moshkunov, Alexander I.; Danilov, Alexey V.; Moshkunov, Konstantin A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the novel fusion of seismic safety monitoring data of the hydropower plant in Chirkey (Caucasus Mountains, Russia). This includes new hardware solutions and observation methods, along with technical limitations for three types of applications: (a) seismic monitoring of the Chirkey reservoir area, (b) structure monitoring of the dam, and (c) monitoring of turbine vibrations. Previous observations and data processing for health monitoring do not include complex data analysis, while the new system is more rational and less expensive. The key new feature of the new system is remote monitoring of turbine vibration. A comparison of the data obtained at the test facilities and by hydropower plant inspection with remote sensors enables early detection of hazardous hydrodynamic phenomena.

  8. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    10km depth comparative terres- trial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight-direction abnormality monitoring instrument, and data processing with an effective network of instruments in China, active seismic areas and their main parameters can be intersected and calculated. (5) Impending earthquake prediction us- ing the characteristic dynamic changes of the satellite infrared impending earthquake 1 precursors. (6) Analysis and calculations of the power source of the global crustal movement. The paper summarizes the authorSs findings in these respects most that are still unknown to seismologists in the west. The above study enabled the author to con- tact and help some of these Snon-mainstreamT to contribute abstracts of their papers & cedil;to this NH10 session of EGS2002. Key Words: earthquake prediction, imminent earth- quake prediction, occurrence time, epicenter location, magnitude, precursors, sensors, instrument, astronomy-seismology, planet positions, magnetic storm. 2

  9. Application of optical remote sensing in the Wenchuan earthquake assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Lei, Liping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Liangyun; Zhu, Boqin; Zuo, Zhengli

    2009-06-01

    A mega-earthquake of magnitude 8 of Richter scale occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China on May 12, 2008. The earthquake inflicted heavy loss of human lives and properties. The Wenchuan earthquake induced geological disasters, house collapse, and road blockage. In this paper, we demonstrate an application of optical remote sensing images acquired from airborne and satellite platforms in assessing the earthquake damages. The high-resolution airborne images were acquired by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The pre- and post-earthquake satellite images of QuickBird, IKONOS, Landsat TM, ALOS, and SPOT were collected by the Center for Earth Observation & Digital Earth (CEODE), CAS, and some of the satellite data were provided by the United States, Japan, and the European Space Agency. The pre- and post-earthquake remote sensing images integrated with DEM and GIS data were adopted to monitor and analyze various earthquake disasters, such as road blockage, house collapse, landslides, avalanches, rock debris flows, and barrier lakes. The results showed that airborne optical images provide a convenient tool for quick and timely monitoring and assessing of the distribution and dynamic changes of the disasters over the earthquake-struck regions. In addition, our study showed that the optical remote sensing data integrated with GIS data can be used to assess disaster conditions such as damaged farmlands, soil erosion, etc, which in turn provides useful information for the postdisaster reconstruction.

  10. Near-field observations of an offshore Mw 6.0 earthquake from an integrated seafloor and subseafloor monitoring network at the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Araki, E.; Saffer, D.; Wang, X.; Roesner, A.; Kopf, A.; Nakanishi, A.; Power, W.; Kobayashi, R.; Kinoshita, C.; Toczko, S.; Kimura, T.; Machida, Y.; Carr, S.

    2016-11-01

    An Mw 6.0 earthquake struck 50 km offshore the Kii Peninsula of southwest Honshu, Japan on 1 April 2016. This earthquake occurred directly beneath a cabled offshore monitoring network at the Nankai Trough subduction zone and within 25-35 km of two borehole observatories installed as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program's NanTroSEIZE project. The earthquake's location close to the seafloor and subseafloor network offers a unique opportunity to evaluate dense seafloor geodetic and seismological data in the near field of a moderate-sized offshore earthquake. We use the offshore seismic network to locate the main shock and aftershocks, seafloor pressure sensors, and borehole observatory data to determine the detailed distribution of seafloor and subseafloor deformation, and seafloor pressure observations to model the resulting tsunami. Contractional strain estimated from formation pore pressure records in the borehole observatories (equivalent to 0.37 to 0.15 μstrain) provides a key to narrowing the possible range of fault plane solutions. Together, these data show that the rupture occurred on a landward dipping thrust fault at 9-10 km below the seafloor, most likely on the plate interface. Pore pressure changes recorded in one of the observatories also provide evidence for significant afterslip for at least a few days following the main shock. The earthquake and its aftershocks are located within the coseismic slip region of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw 8.0), and immediately downdip of swarms of very low frequency earthquakes in this region, illustrating the complex distribution of megathrust slip behavior at a dominantly locked seismogenic zone.

  11. Source spectra, moment, and energy for recent eastern mediterranean earthquakes: calibration of international monitoring system stations

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K M; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R

    2000-07-26

    In the past several years there have been several large (M{sub w} > 7.0) earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean region (Gulf of Aqaba, Racha, Adana, etc.), many of which have had aftershock deployments by local seismological organizations. In addition to providing ground truth data (GT << 5 km) that is used in regional location calibration and validation, the waveform data can be used to aid in calibrating regional magnitudes, seismic discriminants, and velocity structure. For small regional events (m{sub b} << 4.5), a stable, accurate magnitude is essential in the development of realistic detection threshold curves, proper magnitude and distance amplitude correction processing, formation of an M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant, and accurate yield determination of clandestine nuclear explosions. Our approach provides a stable source spectra from which M{sub w} and m{sub b} can be obtained without regional magnitude biases. Once calibration corrections are obtained for earthquakes, the coda-derived source spectra exhibit strong depth-dependent spectral peaking when the same corrections are applied to explosions at the Nevada Test Site (Mayeda and Walter, 1996), chemical explosions in the recent ''Depth of Burial'' experiment in Kazahkstan (Myers et al., 1999), and the recent nuclear test in India. For events in the western U.S. we found that total seismic energy, E, scales as M{sub o}{sup 0.25} resulting in more radiated energy than would be expected under the assumptions of constant stress-drop scaling. Preliminary results for events in the Middle East region also show this behavior, which appears to be the result of intermediate spectra fall-off (f{sup 1.5}) for frequencies ranging between {approx}0.1 and 0.8 Hz for the larger events. We developed a Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) coda processing command that reads in an ASCII flat file that contains calibration information specific for a station and surrounding region, then outputs a coda-derived source spectra

  12. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

  13. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is monitoring an instrumented, working, 110-space pervious pavement parking at EPA’s Edison Environmental Center (EEC). Permeable pavement systems are classified as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) which reduce runo...

  14. Lessons learned from the introduction of autonomous monitoring to the EUVE science operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M.; Girouard, F.; Kronberg, F.; Ringrose, P.; Abedini, A.; Biroscak, D.; Morgan, T.; Malina, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Berkeley's (UCB) Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics (CEA), in conjunction with NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), has implemented an autonomous monitoring system in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science operations center (ESOC). The implementation was driven by a need to reduce operations costs and has allowed the ESOC to move from continuous, three-shift, human-tended monitoring of the science payload to a one-shift operation in which the off shifts are monitored by an autonomous anomaly detection system. This system includes Eworks, an artificial intelligence (AI) payload telemetry monitoring package based on RTworks, and Epage, an automatic paging system to notify ESOC personnel of detected anomalies. In this age of shrinking NASA budgets, the lessons learned on the EUVE project are useful to other NASA missions looking for ways to reduce their operations budgets. The process of knowledge capture, from the payload controllers for implementation in an expert system, is directly applicable to any mission considering a transition to autonomous monitoring in their control center. The collaboration with ARC demonstrates how a project with limited programming resources can expand the breadth of its goals without incurring the high cost of hiring additional, dedicated programmers. This dispersal of expertise across NASA centers allows future missions to easily access experts for collaborative efforts of their own. Even the criterion used to choose an expert system has widespread impacts on the implementation, including the completion time and the final cost. In this paper we discuss, from inception to completion, the areas where our experiences in moving from three shifts to one shift may offer insights for other NASA missions.

  15. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  16. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  17. Earthquake history of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen earthquakes, intensity V or greater, have centered in Texas since 1882, when the first shock was reported. The strongest earthquake, a maximum intensity VIII, was in western Texas in 1931 and was felt over 1 165 000 km 2. Three shocks in the Panhandle region in 1925, 1936, and 1943 were widely felt. 

  18. A Novel Cloud-Based Service Robotics Application to Data Center Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ludovico Orlando; Rosa, Stefano; Maggiora, Marcello; Bona, Basilio

    2016-08-08

    This work presents a robotic application aimed at performing environmental monitoring in data centers. Due to the high energy density managed in data centers, environmental monitoring is crucial for controlling air temperature and humidity throughout the whole environment, in order to improve power efficiency, avoid hardware failures and maximize the life cycle of IT devices. State of the art solutions for data center monitoring are nowadays based on environmental sensor networks, which continuously collect temperature and humidity data. These solutions are still expensive and do not scale well in large environments. This paper presents an alternative to environmental sensor networks that relies on autonomous mobile robots equipped with environmental sensors. The robots are controlled by a centralized cloud robotics platform that enables autonomous navigation and provides a remote client user interface for system management. From the user point of view, our solution simulates an environmental sensor network. The system can easily be reconfigured in order to adapt to management requirements and changes in the layout of the data center. For this reason, it is called the virtual sensor network. This paper discusses the implementation choices with regards to the particular requirements of the application and presents and discusses data collected during a long-term experiment in a real scenario.

  19. A Novel Cloud-Based Service Robotics Application to Data Center Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ludovico Orlando; Rosa, Stefano; Maggiora, Marcello; Bona, Basilio

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a robotic application aimed at performing environmental monitoring in data centers. Due to the high energy density managed in data centers, environmental monitoring is crucial for controlling air temperature and humidity throughout the whole environment, in order to improve power efficiency, avoid hardware failures and maximize the life cycle of IT devices. State of the art solutions for data center monitoring are nowadays based on environmental sensor networks, which continuously collect temperature and humidity data. These solutions are still expensive and do not scale well in large environments. This paper presents an alternative to environmental sensor networks that relies on autonomous mobile robots equipped with environmental sensors. The robots are controlled by a centralized cloud robotics platform that enables autonomous navigation and provides a remote client user interface for system management. From the user point of view, our solution simulates an environmental sensor network. The system can easily be reconfigured in order to adapt to management requirements and changes in the layout of the data center. For this reason, it is called the virtual sensor network. This paper discusses the implementation choices with regards to the particular requirements of the application and presents and discusses data collected during a long-term experiment in a real scenario. PMID:27509505

  20. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  1. Real-Time seismic waveforms monitoring with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) observations for the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays more and more high-rate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data become available in real time, which provide more opportunities to monitor the seismic waveforms. China's GNSS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), has already satisfied the requirement of stand-alone precise positioning in Asia-Pacific region with 14 in-orbit satellites, which promisingly suggests that BDS could be applied to the high-precision earthquake monitoring as GPS. In the present paper, real-time monitoring of seismic waveforms using BDS measurements is assessed. We investigate a so-called "variometric" approach to measure real-time seismic waveforms with high-rate BDS observations. This approach is based on time difference technique and standard broadcast products which are routinely available in real time. The 1HZ BDS data recorded by Beidou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake is analyzed. The results indicate that the accuracies of velocity estimation from BDS are 2-3 mm/s in horizontal components and 8-9 mm/s in vertical component, respectively, which are consistent with GPS. The seismic velocity waveforms during earthquake show good agreement between BDS and GPS. Moreover, the displacement waveforms is reconstructed by an integration of velocity time series with trend removal. The displacement waveforms with the accuracy of 1-2 cm are derived by comparing with post-processing GPS precise point positioning (PPP).

  2. Iterative user-centered design of a next generation patient monitoring system for emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tia; Kim, Matthew I; White, David; Alm, Alexander M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a system for real-time patient monitoring during large-scale disasters. Our system is designed with scalable algorithms to monitor large numbers of patients, an intuitive interface to support the overwhelmed responders, and ad-hoc mesh networking capabilities to maintain connectivity to patients in the chaotic settings. This paper describes an iterative approach to user-centered design adopted to guide development of our system. This system is a part of the Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) architecture.

  3. Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. R.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.; Summerfield, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

  4. Environmental monitoring and research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.R.; Hinkle, C.R.; Knott, W.M.; Summerfield, B.R. )

    1992-08-01

    The Biomedical Operations and Research Office at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center has been supporting environmental monitoring and research since the mid-1970s. Program elements include monitoring of baseline conditions to document natural variability in the ecosystem, assessments of operations and construction of new facilities, and ecological research focusing on wildlife habitat associations. Information management is centered around development of a computerized geographic information system that incorporates remote sensing and digital image processing technologies along with traditional relational data base management capabilities. The proactive program is one in which the initiative is to anticipate potential environmental concerns before they occur and, by utilizing in-house expertise, develop impact minimization or mitigation strategies to reduce environmental risk.

  5. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Verfaillie, R.; Philippe, O.

    2015-12-01

    There are several attempts to monitor real time seismic activity, using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, Antares in France or DONET in Japan.On another hand there are also initiatives in deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four 6-months deployments). These OBSs are autonomous, they are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data.Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3-years autonomy OBS equipped with a Nanometrics Trillium 120 s, a triaxial accelerometer, a differential, an absolute pressure gauge, and a hydrophone. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a seismic crisis) utilizing one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years (when an OBS is redeployed on the same site, it will not land in the same place), it is a perfect tool to monitor slow seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. A new version is being developed; for remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two- way Iridium

  6. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  7. RAPID: Collaboration Results from Three NASA Centers in Commanding/Monitoring Lunar Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, R. Jay; Allan, Mark; Hirsh, Robert; Wallick, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Three NASA centers are working together to address the challenge of operating robotic assets in support of human exploration of the Moon. This paper describes the combined work to date of the Ames Research Center (ARC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) on a common support framework to control and monitor lunar robotic assets. We discuss how we have addressed specific challenges including time-delayed operations, and geographically distributed collaborative monitoring and control, to build an effective architecture for integrating a heterogeneous collection of robotic assets into a common work. We describe the design of the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) architecture that effectively addresses the problem of interfacing a family of robots including the JSC Chariot, ARC K-10 and JPL ATHLETE rovers. We report on lessons learned from the June 2008 field test in which RAPID was used to monitor and control all of these assets. We conclude by discussing some future directions to extend the RAPID architecture to add further support for NASA's lunar exploration program.

  8. Integration of user centered design in the development of health monitoring system for elderly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guifeng; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Pan; Lin, Chengyu; Cao, Xia; Hu, Hua; Ning, Gangmin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a health monitoring system by incorporating the approach of user centered design (UCD) for enhancing system usability for the elderly. The system is designed for monitoring cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related physiological signals including electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse wave (PW) and body weight (BW). Ease of use and non-obtrusiveness are two key requirements for design criteria. Our health monitoring system is designed on three levels: personal medical device layer, mobile application layer and remote central service layer. A chair-based apparatus was built for physiological signal acquisition and a mobile application was developed for data delivery and health management. Finally, usability evaluation was conducted and the system efficiency was quantitatively analyzed by system usability scale (SUS). The results demonstrate that the performance of the system is acceptable for the elderly and the UCD principle is helpful for health system design.

  9. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  10. Revisiting Notable Earthquakes and Seismic Patterns of the Past Decade in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Macpherson, K. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska, the most seismically active region of the United States, has produced five earthquakes with magnitudes greater than seven since 2005. The 2007 M7.2 and 2013 M7.0 Andreanof Islands earthquakes were representative of the most common source of significant seismic activity in the region, the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. The 2013 M7.5 Craig earthquake, a strike-slip event on the Queen-Charlotte fault, occurred along the transform plate boundary in southeast Alaska. The largest earthquake of the past decade, the 2014 M7.9 Little Sitkin event in the western Aleutians, occurred at an intermediate depth and ruptured along a gently dipping fault through nearly the entire thickness of the subducted Pacific plate. Along with these major earthquakes, the Alaska Earthquake Center reported over 250,000 seismic events in the state over the last decade, and its earthquake catalog surpassed 500,000 events in mid-2015. Improvements in monitoring networks and processing techniques allowed an unprecedented glimpse into earthquake patterns in Alaska. Some notable recent earthquake sequences include the 2008 Kasatochi eruption, the 2006-2008 M6+ crustal earthquakes in the central and western Aleutians, the 2010 and 2015 Bering Sea earthquakes, the 2014 Noatak swarm, and the 2014 Minto earthquake sequence. In 2013, the Earthscope USArray project made its way into Alaska. There are now almost 40 new Transportable Array stations in Alaska along with over 20 upgraded sites. This project is changing the earthquake-monitoring scene in Alaska, lowering magnitude of completeness across large, newly instrumented parts of the state.

  11. What kind of disturbances did March 11, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunamis leave continental margin ecosystems? : Lessons from five years monitoring research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake with M9.0 took place at Japan Trench area off Northeast Japan. Vigorous disturbances of marine environments and ecosystems have taken place at coastal areas where huge tsunamis swept sediments and organisms away from the coastal areas to deeper oceans. Distributional pattern of sediments and organisms in coves and bays have strongly changed after tsunamis. Marine ecosystems at Northeast Japan have totally disturbed and damaged. Scientists from Tohoku University, the University of Tokyo and JAMSTEC have started to monitor how much marine ecosystem disturbed and how it may recover. A research team, named Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences, continually makes research on marine ecosystems as ten years monitoring project funded by MEXT, Japan since 2011. On 2016, it takes five years from the Earthquake and Tsunami occurred. What happens marine ecosystems at Tohoku area during these years. Water column ecosystems are rather easy to recover from disturbances. Seaweed communities have strongly damaged, but, they gradually recover. Sediment communities have not recovered yet as sediment distribution is different from before earthquake and tsunamis. Most difficulties are scars in human minds. We, scientists, try to share scientific activities and results with local peoples including fishermen and local governments for better understanding of both oceanic conditions and fishery resources. Disaster risk reduction should accelerate with resilience of community structure. But, mental resilience is the most effective way to recover human activities at the damaged areas.

  12. Surface displacements following the Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake: One year of continuous monitoring via Robotized Total Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco; Lollino, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of a continuous monitoring of the surface displacements following the April 6th 2009 L'Aquila earthquake in the area of Paganica village, central Italy. We considered 3-dimensional displacements measured via Robotized Total Station (RTS) installed the April 24th 2009 in the area of Paganica village (ca. 5 km ENE from L'Aquila town), where a water pipeline located within the urban centre was severely damaged. The RTS ran continuously for about one year, with high sampling rates, and measured displacements at selected point targets. The revealed surface displacements are in agreement with the results of a DInSAR time series analysis relevant to satellite SAR data acquired over the same area and time period by the Italian satellite's constellation Cosmo-SkyMed. Moreover, despite the RTS monitored area was spatially limited, our analyses provide detailed feedbacks on fault processes following the L'Aquila earthquake. The aftershocks temporal evolution and the post-seismic displacements measured in the area show very similar exponential decays over time, with estimated cross-correlation coefficients values ranging from 0.86 to 0.97. The results of our time dependent modelling of the RTS measurements suggest that L'Aquila earthquake post-seismic displacements were dominated by the fault afterslip and/or fault creep, while poroelastic and viscoelastic processes had negligible effects.

  13. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2015 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2015 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The objectives of the 2015 LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient, to monitor the vertical and horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs; including the upgradient and sidegradient extents, which are monitored every five years), and to monitor select locations internal to the dissolved groundwater plume. The 2015 LTM event included several upgradient and sidegradient monitoring wells that are not sampled annually to verify the extent of VOCs in this portion of the site. The December 2015 LTM groundwater sampling event included, depth to groundwater measurements, 40 VOC samples collected using passive diffusion bags, and one VOC sample collected using low-flow techniques. Additionally, monitoring well MW0052DD was overdrilled and abandoned using rotasonic drilling techniques. The following conclusions can be made based on the 2015 LTM results: groundwater flow is generally to the west with northwest and southwest flow components from the water table to approximately 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS); peripheral monitoring wells generally delineate VOCs to groundwater cleanup target levels (GCTLs) except for monitoring wells MW0088, MW0090, MW0095, and NPSHMW0039, which had vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations near the GCTL and MW0062, which had trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethenen (cDCE), and VC concentrations above natural attenuation default concentrations (NADCs); VOCs in interior downgradient wells generally fluctuate within historic ranges except for monitoring wells in the north-northwest portion of the site, which have increasing VC concentrations indicating potential plume migration and expansion; Historically, the vertical extents of the VOCs were delineated by monitoring wells

  14. Response to the great East Japan earthquake of 2011 and the Fukushima nuclear crisis: the case of the Laboratory Animal Research Center at Fukushima Medical University.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kiyoaki; Sekiguchi, Miho

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 great earthquake, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, occurred on March 11, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima NPS) accidents stirred up natural radiation around the campus of Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima City, and is 57 km to the northwest of Fukushima NPS. Due to temporary failure of the steam boilers, the air conditioning system for the animal rooms, all autoclaves, and a cage washer could not be used at the Laboratory Animal Research Center (LARC) of FMU. The outside air temperature dropped to zero overnight, and the temperature inside the animal rooms fell to 10°C for several hours. We placed sterilized nesting materials inside all cages to encourage rodents to create nests. The main water supply was cut off for 8 days in all, while supply of steam and hot water remained unavailable for 12 days. It took 20 days to restore the air conditioning system to normal operation at the facility. We measured radiation levels in the animal rooms to confirm the safety of care staff and researchers. On April 21, May 9, and June 17, the average radiation levels at a central work table in the animal rooms with HEPA filters were 46.5, 44.4, and 43.4 cpm, respectively, which is equal to the background level of the equipment. We sincerely hope our experiences will be a useful reference regarding crisis management for many institutes having laboratory animals.

  15. The large (M>5) co-eruptive earthquakes in Bárðarbunga caldera as observed by an accelerometer and cGPS in the caldera center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Geirsson, Halldór; Rodrigo Rodríguez-Cardozo, Félix; Iglesias, Arturo; Parks, Michelle; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Vogfjord, Kristín; Dumont, Stephanie; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Spaans, Karsten; Bagnardi, Marco; Hensch, Martin; Heimann, Sebastian; Cesca, Simone; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús; Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-2015 eruptive episode in Holuhraun, northern Iceland, was accompanied by almost 70 meters of caldera subsidence in the ice-covered Bárðarbunga volcano. During the subsidence, over seventy 5.7>M>5 earthquakes occurred on the caldera rim, many of them with an unusual moment tensor (large non-double-couple component), indicating that they do not involve slip on a planar fault. Non- double-couple moment tensors are principally found in volcanoes in eruption (Shuler et al 2013), and several mechanisms for generating them have been proposed, such as: slip on a ring-fault (Nettles & Ekström, 1998); closing crack or sill (Kanamori et al 1993, Riel et al 2014); or a combination of both (Heimann et al, submitted). Thus, by what processes the seismic signal is related to the caldera subsidence is still under debate. During the caldera subsidence, a high-rate (20 Hz) GPS station and an accelerometer were installed on top of the ice, near the center of the 7x11 km caldera. The GPS station started recording about three weeks into the caldera collapse and recorded over 35 m of subsidence, and several co-seismic steps of up to 40 cm in the vertical component. The size of the co-seismic steps diminished with time during the eruption. In addition to the steps, seismic waves are clearly seen in the high-rate GPS data at the caldera station. The accelerometer was installed more than two months after the start of the eruption and recorded intermittently due to unfavorable conditions on top of the ice sheet. However, more than 80 events were observed on the accelerometer, of magnitude M 1-4.3, providing important observations of s-p times. Furthermore, the deformation of the glacier surface induced by some of the largest earthquakes, was captured by 1-day COSMO-SkyMed interferograms, providing further constraints on the earthquake process. In this presentation we analyze the signals from the two instruments, together with InSAR interferograms as well as other available data

  16. Evaluating the Imbalance Between Increasing Hemodialysis Patients and Medical Staff Shortage After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Report From a Hemodialysis Center Near the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Takaaki; Nishiuchi, Takamitsu; Akaihata, Hidenori; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hajime; Kasahara, Masato; Hayashi, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused an unprecedented imbalance between an increasing number of hemodialysis patients and medical staff shortage in the Sousou area, the site of the Fukushima nuclear power plants. In 2014, capacity of our hemodialysis center reached a critical limit due to such an imbalance. We attempted to evaluate the effort of medical staff to clarify to what extent their burden had increased post-disaster. The ratio of total dialysis sessions over total working days of medical staff was determined as an approximate indicator of effort per month. The mean value of each year was compared. Despite fluctuations of the ratio, the mean value did not differ from 2010 to 2013. However, the ratio steadily increased in 2014, and there was a significant increase in the mean value. This proposed indicator of the effort of medical staff appears to reflect what we experienced, although its validity must be carefully examined in future studies.

  17. Wilson Corners SWMU 001 2014 Annual Long Term Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbach, James

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the findings of the 2014 Long Term Monitoring (LTM) that was completed at the Wilson Corners site, located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The goals of the 2014 annual LTM event were to evaluate the groundwater flow direction and gradient and to monitor the vertical and downgradient horizontal extent of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at the site. The LTM activities consisted of an annual groundwater sampling event in December 2014, which included the collection of water levels from the LTM wells. During the annual groundwater sampling event, depth to groundwater was measured and VOC samples were collected using passive diffusion bags (PDBs) from 30 monitoring wells. In addition to the LTM sampling, additional assessment sampling was performed at the site using low-flow techniques based on previous LTM results and assessment activities. Assessment of monitoring well MW0052DD was performed by collecting VOC samples using low-flow techniques before and after purging 100 gallons from the well. Monitoring well MW0064 was sampled to supplement shallow VOC data north of Hot Spot 2 and east of Hot Spot 4. Monitoring well MW0089 was sampled due to its proximity to MW0090. MW0090 is screened in a deeper interval and had an unexpected detection of trichloroethene (TCE) during the 2013 LTM, which was corroborated during the March 2014 verification sampling. Monitoring well MW0130 was sampled to provide additional VOC data beneath the semi-confining clay layer in the Hot Spot 2 area.

  18. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. E.; Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Meisenhelter, S.; Hutton, K.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the SCEDC archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 8400 data channels from 425 SCSN recorded stations, processing and archiving an average of 6.4 TB of continuous waveforms and 12,000 earthquakes each year. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through its website www.data.scec.org and through client applications such as STP and DHI. This poster will describe the most significant developments at the SCEDC during 2011. New website design: ? The SCEDC has revamped its website. The changes make it easier for users to search the archive, discover updates and new content. These changes also improve our ability to manage and update the site. New data holdings: ? Post processing on El Mayor Cucapah 7.2 sequence continues. To date there have been 11847 events reviewed. Updates are available in the earthquake catalog immediately. ? A double difference catalog (Hauksson et. al 2011) spanning 1981 to 6/30/11 will be available for download at www.data.scec.org and available via STP. ? A focal mechanism catalog determined by Yang et al. 2011 is available for distribution at www.data.scec.org. ? Waveforms from Southern California NetQuake stations are now being stored in the SCEDC archive and available via STP as event associated waveforms. Amplitudes from these stations are also being stored in the archive and used by ShakeMap. ? As part of a NASA/AIST project in collaboration with JPL and SIO, the SCEDC will receive real time 1 sps streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network (http://sopac.ucsd.edu/projects/realtime; Genrich and Bock, 2006, J. Geophys. Res.). These channels will be archived at the SCEDC as miniSEED waveforms, which then can be distributed to the user community via applications such as STP. Improvements in the user tool STP: ? STP sac output now includes picks from the SCSN. New archival methods: ? The SCEDC is exploring the feasibility of archiving and distributing

  19. Source Process of the Mw 5.0 Au Sable Forks, New York, Earthquake Sequence from Local Aftershock Monitoring Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    On April 20, 2002, a Mw 5 earthquake occurred near the town of Au Sable Forks, northeastern Adirondacks, New York. The quake caused moderate damage (MMI VII) around the epicentral area and it is well recorded by over 50 broadband stations in the distance ranges of 70 to 2000 km in the Eastern North America. Regional broadband waveform data are used to determine source mechanism and focal depth using moment tensor inversion technique. Source mechanism indicates predominantly thrust faulting along 45° dipping fault plane striking due South. The mainshock is followed by at least three strong aftershocks with local magnitude (ML) greater than 3 and about 70 aftershocks are detected and located in the first three months by a 12-station portable seismographic network. The aftershock distribution clearly delineate the mainshock rupture to the westerly dipping fault plane at a depth of 11 to 12 km. Preliminary analysis of the aftershock waveform data indicates that orientation of the P-axis rotated 90° from that of the mainshock, suggesting a complex source process of the earthquake sequence. We achieved an important milestone in monitoring earthquakes and evaluating their hazards through rapid cross-border (Canada-US) and cross-regional (Central US-Northeastern US) collaborative efforts. Hence, staff at Instrument Software Technology, Inc. near the epicentral area joined Lamont-Doherty staff and deployed the first portable station in the epicentral area; CERI dispatched two of their technical staff to the epicentral area with four accelerometers and a broadband seismograph; the IRIS/PASSCAL facility shipped three digital seismographs and ancillary equipment within one day of the request; the POLARIS Consortium, Canada sent a field crew of three with a near real-time, satellite telemetry based earthquake monitoring system. The Polaris station, KSVO, powered by a solar panel and batteries, was already transmitting data to the central Hub in London, Ontario, Canada within

  20. MO-D-213-01: Workflow Monitoring for a High Volume Radiation Oncology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Laub, S; Dunn, M; Galbreath, G; Gans, S; Pankuch, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Implement a center wide communication system that increases interdepartmental transparency and accountability while decreasing redundant work and treatment delays by actively monitoring treatment planning workflow. Methods: Intake Management System (IMS), a program developed by ProCure Treatment Centers Inc., is a multi-function database that stores treatment planning process information. It was devised to work with the oncology information system (Mosaiq) to streamline interdepartmental workflow.Each step in the treatment planning process is visually represented and timelines for completion of individual tasks are established within the software. The currently active step of each patient’s planning process is highlighted either red or green according to whether the initially allocated amount of time has passed for the given process. This information is displayed as a Treatment Planning Process Monitor (TPPM), which is shown on screens in the relevant departments throughout the center. This display also includes the individuals who are responsible for each task.IMS is driven by Mosaiq’s quality checklist (QCL) functionality. Each step in the workflow is initiated by a Mosaiq user sending the responsible party a QCL assignment. IMS is connected to Mosaiq and the sending or completing of a QCL updates the associated field in the TPPM to the appropriate status. Results: Approximately one patient a week is identified during the workflow process as needing to have his/her treatment start date modified or resources re-allocated to address the most urgent cases. Being able to identify a realistic timeline for planning each patient and having multiple departments communicate their limitations and time constraints allows for quality plans to be developed and implemented without overburdening any one department. Conclusion: Monitoring the progression of the treatment planning process has increased transparency between departments, which enables efficient

  1. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  2. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK

  3. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states.

  4. Launch Complex 39A, SWMU 008, Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from Year 1 operation of the air sparging (AS) groundwater interim measure (IM) for High-Concentration Plumes (HCPs) and Low-Concentration Plumes (LCPs) within the perimeter fence line at Launch Complex 39A (LC39A) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the LC39A groundwater IM is to actively decrease concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) in groundwater in the HCP and LCP within the pad perimeter fence line via AS to levels less than Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Groundwater Cleanup Target Levels (GCTLs). The objective was developed because LC39A is currently being leased to Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), and the original IM for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) over an extended period of time was not suitable for future planned site use.

  5. Utility of video-EEG monitoring in a tertiary care epilepsy center.

    PubMed

    Kumar-Pelayo, M; Oller-Cramsie, M; Mihu, N; Harden, C

    2013-09-01

    Our video-EEG monitoring (VEEG) unit is part of a typical metropolitan tertiary care center that services a diverse patient population. We aimed to determine if the specific clinical reason for inpatient VEEG was actually resolved. Our method was to retrospectively determine the stated goal of inpatient VEEG and to analyze the outcome of one hundred consecutive adult patients admitted for VEEG. The reason for admission fit into one of four categories: 1) to characterize paroxysmal events as either epileptic or nonepileptic, 2) to localize epileptic foci, 3) to characterize the epilepsy syndrome, and 4) to attempt safe antiepileptic drug adjustment. We found that VEEG was successful in accomplishing the goal of admission in 77% of cases. The remaining 23% failed primarily due to lack of typical events during monitoring. Furthermore, of the overall study cohort, VEEG outcomes altered medical management in 53% and surgery was pursued in 5%.

  6. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  7. Earthquake history of Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Since its admission into the Union in 1817, Mississippi has had only four earthquakes of intensity V or greater within its borders. Although the number of earthquakes known to have been centered within Mississippi's boundaries is small, the State has been affected by numerous shocks located in neighboring States. In 1811 and 1812, a series of great earthquakes near the New Madrid Missouri area was felt in Mississippi as far south as the gulf coast. The New Madrid series caused the banks of the Mississippi River to cave in as far as Vicksburg, mroe than 300 miles from the epicentral region. As a result of this great earthquake series, the northwest corner of Mississippi is in seismic risk zone 3, the highest risk zone. Expect for the new Madrid series, effects in Mississippi from earthquakes located outside of the State have been less than intensity V. 

  8. The new Athens center on data processing from the neutron monitor network in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Sarlanis, C.; Mariatos, G.; Gerontidou, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Plainaki, C.; Tatsis, S.; Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.

    2005-11-01

    The ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) record galactic and solar relativistic cosmic rays which can play a useful key role in space weather forecasting, as a result of their interaction with interplanetary disturbances. The Earth's-based neutron monitor network has been used in order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena. Therefore, the Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center (ANMODAP) takes advantage of this unique multi-directional device to solve problems concerning the diagnosis and forecasting of space weather. At this moment there has been a multi-sided use of neutron monitors. On the one hand, a preliminary alert for ground level enhancements (GLEs) may be provided due to relativistic solar particles and can be registered around 20 to 30 min before the arrival of the main part of lower energy particles responsible for radiation hazard. To make a more reliable prognosis of these events, real time data from channels of lower energy particles and X-ray intensity from the GOES satellite are involved in the analysis. The other possibility is to search in real time for predictors of geomagnetic storms when they occur simultaneously with Forbush effects, using hourly, on-line accessible neutron monitor data from the worldwide network and applying a special method of processing. This chance of prognosis is only being elaborated and considered here as one of the possible uses of the Neutron Monitor Network for forecasting the arrival of interplanetary disturbance to the Earth. The achievements, the processes and the future results, are discussed in this work.

  9. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  10. Seismicity and active tectonics at Coloumbo Reef (Aegean Sea, Greece): Monitoring an active volcano at Santorini Volcanic Center using a temporary seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, I.; Karagianni, E.; Panagiotopoulos, D.; Papazachos, C.; Hatzidimitriou, P.; Bohnhoff, M.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.

    2009-02-01

    The volcanic center of Santorini Island is the most active volcano of the southern Aegean volcanic arc. Α dense seismic array consisting of fourteen portable broadband seismological stations has been deployed in order to monitor and study the seismo-volcanic activity at the broader area of the Santorini volcanic center between March 2003 and September 2003. Additional recordings from a neighbouring larger scale temporary network (CYCNET) were also used for the relocation of more than 240 earthquakes recorded by both arrays. A double-difference relocation technique was used, in order to obtain optimal focal parameters for the best-constrained earthquakes. The results indicate that the seismic activity of the Santorini volcanic center is strongly associated with the tectonic regime of the broader Southern Aegean Sea area as well as with the volcanic processes. The main cluster of the epicenters is located at the Coloumbo Reef, a submarine volcano of the volcanic system of Santorini Islands. A smaller cluster of events is located near the Anydros Islet, aligned in a NE-SW direction, running almost along the main tectonic feature of the area under study, the Santorini-Amorgos Fault Zone. In contrast, the main Santorini Island caldera is characterized by the almost complete absence of seismicity. This contrast is in very good agreement with recent volcanological and marine studies, with the Coloumbo volcanic center showing an intense high-temperature hydrothermal activity, in comparison to the corresponding low-level activity of the Santorini caldera. The high-resolution hypocentral relocations present a clear view of the volcanic submarine structure at the Coloumbo Reef, showing that the main seismic activity is located within a very narrow vertical column, mainly at depths between 6 and 9 km. The focal mechanisms of the best-located events show that the cluster at the Coloumbo Reef is associated with the "Kameni-Coloumbo Fracture Zone", which corresponds to the

  11. 76 FR 61115 - Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) Monitoring Report and One-Stop Career Center Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... (233 + 300). Estimated Total Burden Cost: $172,211: Total annual One FTE FTE Annual Total hours salary... Center Record Keeper average annual salary is $45,000 and for the State Monitor Advocate (SMA) is $65,000... on the average median salary of one local one-stop center record keeper's of $45,000 per year and...

  12. Statistical analysis of the induced Basel 2006 earthquake sequence: introducing a probability-based monitoring approach for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Hainzl, S.

    2011-08-01

    Geothermal energy is becoming an important clean energy source, however, the stimulation of a reservoir for an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is associated with seismic risk due to induced seismicity. Seismicity occurring due to the water injection at depth have to be well recorded and monitored. To mitigate the seismic risk of a damaging event, an appropriate alarm system needs to be in place for each individual experiment. In recent experiments, the so-called traffic-light alarm system, based on public response, local magnitude and peak ground velocity, was used. We aim to improve the pre-defined alarm system by introducing a probability-based approach; we retrospectively model the ongoing seismicity in real time with multiple statistical forecast models and then translate the forecast to seismic hazard in terms of probabilities of exceeding a ground motion intensity level. One class of models accounts for the water injection rate, the main parameter that can be controlled by the operators during an experiment. By translating the models into time-varying probabilities of exceeding various intensity levels, we provide tools which are well understood by the decision makers and can be used to determine thresholds non-exceedance during a reservoir stimulation; this, however, remains an entrepreneurial or political decision of the responsible project coordinators. We introduce forecast models based on the data set of an EGS experiment in the city of Basel. Between 2006 December 2 and 8, approximately 11 500 m3 of water was injected into a 5-km-deep well at high pressures. A six-sensor borehole array, was installed by the company Geothermal Explorers Limited (GEL) at depths between 300 and 2700 m around the well to monitor the induced seismicity. The network recorded approximately 11 200 events during the injection phase, more than 3500 of which were located. With the traffic-light system, actions where implemented after an ML 2.7 event, the water injection was

  13. Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Database: A Gateway to Experimental Data Monitoring Projects for PV at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    This site is the gateway to experimental data monitoring projects for photovoltaic (PV) at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The website and the database were designed to facilitate and standardize the processes for archiving, analyzing and accessing data collected from dozens of operational PV systems and test facilities monitored by FSEC's Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division. [copied from http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/research/photovoltaics/data_monitoring/index.htm

  14. GPS Monitoring of Surface Change During and Following the Fortuitous Occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers Earthquake in our Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Meghan

    1998-01-01

    Accomplishments: (1) Continues GPS monitoring of surface change during and following the fortuitous occurrence of the M(sub w) = 7.3 Landers earthquake in our network, in order to characterize earthquake dynamics and accelerated activity of related faults as far as 100's of kilometers along strike. (2) Integrates the geodetic constraints into consistent kinematic descriptions of the deformation field that can in turn be used to characterize the processes that drive geodynamics, including seismic cycle dynamics. In 1991, we installed and occupied a high precision GPS geodetic network to measure transform-related deformation that is partitioned from the Pacific - North America plate boundary northeastward through the Mojave Desert, via the Eastern California shear zone to the Walker Lane. The onset of the M(sub w) = 7.3 June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake sequence within this network poses unique opportunities for continued monitoring of regional surface deformation related to the culmination of a major seismic cycle, characterization of the dynamic behavior of continental lithosphere during the seismic sequence, and post-seismic transient deformation. During the last year, we have reprocessed all three previous epochs for which JPL fiducial free point positioning products available and are queued for the remaining needed products, completed two field campaigns monitoring approx. 20 sites (October 1995 and September 1996), begun modeling by development of a finite element mesh based on network station locations, and developed manuscripts dealing with both the Landers-related transient deformation at the latitude of Lone Pine and the velocity field of the whole experiment. We are currently deploying a 1997 observation campaign (June 1997). We use GPS geodetic studies to characterize deformation in the Mojave Desert region and related structural domains to the north, and geophysical modeling of lithospheric behavior. The modeling is constrained by our

  15. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  16. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center Monitor and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan (Cindy); Torgerson, J. Leigh; Schoolcraft, Joshua; Brenman, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) software at JPL is an implementation of Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) which has been proposed as an interplanetary protocol to support space communication. The JPL Deep Impact Network (DINET) is a technology development experiment intended to increase the technical readiness of the JPL implemented ION suite. The DINET Experiment Operations Center (EOC) developed by JPL's Protocol Technology Lab (PTL) was critical in accomplishing the experiment. EOC, containing all end nodes of simulated spaces and one administrative node, exercised publish and subscribe functions for payload data among all end nodes to verify the effectiveness of data exchange over ION protocol stacks. A Monitor and Control System was created and installed on the administrative node as a multi-tiered internet-based Web application to support the Deep Impact Network Experiment by allowing monitoring and analysis of the data delivery and statistics from ION. This Monitor and Control System includes the capability of receiving protocol status messages, classifying and storing status messages into a database from the ION simulation network, and providing web interfaces for viewing the live results in addition to interactive database queries.

  17. Near real-time model to monitor SST anomalies related to undersea earthquakes and SW monsoon phenomena from TRMM-AQUA satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    Near real-time interactive computer model has been developed to extract daily mean global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) values of 1440x720 pixels, each one covering 0.25° x0.25° lat-long area and SST anomalies from longer period means pertaining to any required oceanic grid size of interest. The core MATLAB code uses the daily binary files (3-day aggregate values) of global SST data (derived from TRMM/TMI-AQUA/AMSRE satellite sensors) available on near real-time basis through the REMSS/NASA website and converts these SSTs into global/regional maps and displays as well as digitised text data tables for further analysis. As demonstrated applications of the model, the SST data for the period between 2003-2009 has been utilised to study (a) SST anomalies before, during and after the occurrence of two great under-sea earthquakes of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 near the western coast of Sumatra and (b) variation of pixel numbers with SSTs between 27-31° C within (i) Nino 4 region and (ii) a broader western Pacific region (say Nino-BP) affected by ENSO events before (January-May) and during (June-October) Monsoon onset/progress. Preliminary results of these studies have been published (Chakravarty, The Open Oceanography Journal, 2009 and Chakravarty, IEEE Xplore, 2009). The results of the SST-earthquake analysis indicate a small but consistent warming of 0.2-0.3° C in the 2° x2° grid area near the earthquake epicentre starting a week earlier to a week later for the event of 26 December 2004. The changes observed in SST for the second earthquake is also indicated but with less clarity owing to the mixing of land and ocean surfaces and hence less number of SST pixels available within the 2° x 2° grid area near the corresponding epicen-tre. Similar analysis for the same period of non-earthquake years did not show any such SST anomalies. These results have far reaching implications to use SST as a possible parameter to be monitored for signalling occurrence of

  18. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  19. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  20. Appraising the Early-est earthquake monitoring system for tsunami alerting at the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, F.; Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.; Lauciani, V.; Piatanesi, A.; Lorito, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present the procedure for earthquake location and characterization implemented in the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider at INGV in Roma. Following the ICG/NEAMTWS guidelines, the first tsunami warning messages are based only on seismic information, i.e. epicenter location, hypocenter depth and magnitude, which are automatically computed by the software Early-est. Early-est is a package for rapid location and seismic/tsunamigenic characterization of earthquakes. The Early-est software package operates on offline-event or continuous-realtime seismic waveform data to perform trace processing and picking, and, at a regular report interval, phase association, event detection, hypocenter location, and event characterization. In this paper we present the earthquake parameters computed by Early-est from the beginning of 2012 till the end of December 2014 at global scale for events with magnitude M ≥ 5.5, and the detection timeline. The earthquake parameters computed automatically by Early-est are compared with reference manually revised/verified catalogs. From our analysis the epicenter location and hypocenter depth parameters do not differ significantly from the values in the reference catalogs. The epicenter coordinates generally differ less than 20 ∓ 20 km from the reference epicenter coordinates; focal depths are less well constrained and differ generally less than 0 ∓ 30 km. Early-est also provides mb, Mwp and Mwpd magnitude estimations. mb magnitudes are preferred for events with Mwp ≲ 5.8, while Mwpd are valid for events with Mwp ≳ 7.2. The magnitude mb show wide differences with respect to the reference catalogs, we thus apply a linear correction mbcorr = mb · 0.52 + 2.46, such correction results into δmb ≈ 0.0 ∓ 0.2 uncertainty with respect the reference catalogs. As expected the Mwp show distance dependency. Mwp values at stations with epicentral distance Δ ≲ 30° are significantly overestimated

  1. Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

  2. Incorporating Fundamentals of Climate Monitoring into Climate Indicators at the National Climatic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, much attention has been dedicated to the development, testing and implementation of climate indicators. Several Federal agencies and academic groups have commissioned suites of indicators drawing upon and aggregating information available across the spectrum of climate data stewards and providers. As a long-time participant in the applied climatology discipline, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has generated climate indicators for several decades. Traditionally, these indicators were developed for sectors with long-standing relationships with, and needs of, the applied climatology field. These have recently been adopted and adapted to meet the needs of sectors who have newfound sensitivities to climate and needs for climate data. Information and indices from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center have been prominent components of these indicator suites, and in some cases have been drafted in toto by these aggregators, often with improvements to the communicability and aesthetics of the indicators themselves. Across this history of supporting needs for indicators, NCDC climatologists developed a handful of practical approaches and philosophies that inform a successful climate monitoring product. This manuscript and presentation will demonstrate the utility this set of practical applications that translate raw data into useful information.

  3. Supply Warehouse#3, SWMU 088 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the findings, observations, and results associated with Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring (OM&M) activities of Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) activities conducted at Supply Warehouse #3 (SW3) located at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida from October 8, 2015, to September 12, 2016, and performance monitoring results for semi-annual sampling events conducted in March and September 2016. The primary objective of SW3 CMI is to actively decrease concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to less than Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentrations (NADCs), and the secondary objective is to reduce TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethene (tDCE), 1,1-dichloroethene (11DCE), and VC concentrations to less than FDEP Groundwater Cleanup Target Levels (GCTLs). The SW3 facility has been designated Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 088 under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program. Based on the results to date, the SW3 air sparging (AS) system is operating at or below the performance criteria as presented in the 2008 SW3 Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Work Plan and 2009 and 2012 CMI Work Plan Addenda. Since the start of AS system operations on December 19, 2012, through the September 2016 groundwater sampling event, TCE concentrations have decreased to less than the GCTL in all wells within the Active Remediation Zone (ARZ), and VC results remain less than NADC but greater than GCTL. Based on these results, team consensus was reached at the October 2016 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) meeting to continue AS system operations and semi-annual performance monitoring of volatile organic compounds in March 2017 at ten monitoring wells at select locations, and in September 2017 at four monitoring wells at select locations to reduce VC concentrations to below GCTL. Additionally, surface water samples

  4. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 22, 1960. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the exploring expedition ... by wind or tides. Each year the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes . Most of ...

  5. Appraising the Early-est earthquake monitoring system for tsunami alerting at the Italian Candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, F.; Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.; Lauciani, V.; Piatanesi, A.; Lorito, S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the performance of the procedure for earthquake location and characterization implemented in the Italian Candidate Tsunami Service Provider at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome. Following the ICG/NEAMTWS guidelines, the first tsunami warning messages are based only on seismic information, i.e., epicenter location, hypocenter depth, and magnitude, which are automatically computed by the software Early-est. Early-est is a package for rapid location and seismic/tsunamigenic characterization of earthquakes. The Early-est software package operates using offline-event or continuous-real-time seismic waveform data to perform trace processing and picking, and, at a regular report interval, phase association, event detection, hypocenter location, and event characterization. Early-est also provides mb, Mwp, and Mwpd magnitude estimations. mb magnitudes are preferred for events with Mwp ≲ 5.8, while Mwpd estimations are valid for events with Mwp ≳ 7.2. In this paper we present the earthquake parameters computed by Early-est between the beginning of March 2012 and the end of December 2014 on a global scale for events with magnitude M ≥ 5.5, and we also present the detection timeline. We compare the earthquake parameters automatically computed by Early-est with the same parameters listed in reference catalogs. Such reference catalogs are manually revised/verified by scientists. The goal of this work is to test the accuracy and reliability of the fully automatic locations provided by Early-est. In our analysis, the epicenter location, hypocenter depth and magnitude parameters do not differ significantly from the values in the reference catalogs. Both mb and Mwp magnitudes show differences to the reference catalogs. We thus derived correction functions in order to minimize the differences and correct biases between our values and the ones from the reference catalogs. Correction of the Mwp

  6. Forecasting Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this video there are scenes of damage from the Northridge Earthquake and interviews with Dr. Andrea Donnelan, Geophysics at JPL, and Dr. Jim Dolan, earthquake geologist from Cal. Tech. The interviews discuss earthquake forecasting by tracking changes in the earth's crust using antenna receiving signals from a series of satellites called the Global Positioning System (GPS).

  7. Nowcasting earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gong, G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(n < n(t)) for the current count n(t) for the small earthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(n < n(t)). EPS is therefore the current level of hazard and assigns a number between 0% and 100% to every region so defined, thus providing a unique measure. Physically, the EPS corresponds to an estimate of the level of progress through the earthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  8. Hidden Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ross S.; Yeats, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Points out that large earthquakes can take place not only on faults that cut the earth's surface but also on blind faults under folded terrain. Describes four examples of fold earthquakes. Discusses the fold earthquakes using several diagrams and pictures. (YP)

  9. Post disaster monitoring for the Great East Japan Earthquake with a new L-band airborne SAR "Pi-SAR-L2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki

    2013-04-01

    A new L-band airborne SAR, Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band type-2 (Pi-SAR-L2) was developed in April 2012 by Japan Aerospace exploration Agency(JAXA). Pi-SAR-L2 employs a L-band with a band width of 85 MHz (1,215 - 1,300 MHz) with a peak power of 3.5 kW boarded on the Galfstream II. Pi-SAR-L2 conducted its first acquisitions for calibrations and validations over Tomakomai, Hokkaido, where is a test site with some corner reflectors in April 2012. The Great East Japan Earthquake with a magnitude 9.0 occurred at 14:46 on 11 Mar. 2011 and terribly big Tsunami attacked Tohoku district after the earthquake. The tsunami caused huge damage along its coast in Touhoku. Pi-SAR-L2 acquired these post disaster regions in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures along the coast on the way to Hokkaido in April 2012, some region still remain flooded area and debris caused by Tsumani. We will present Pi-SAR-L2 systems and specifications, and discuss monitoring these damages.

  10. The parkfield, california, earthquake prediction experiment.

    PubMed

    Bakun, W H; Lindh, A G

    1985-08-16

    Five moderate (magnitude 6) earthquakes with similar features have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault in central California since 1857. The next moderate Parkfield earthquake is expected to occur before 1993. The Parkfield prediction experiment is designed to monitor the details of the final stages of the earthquake preparation process; observations and reports of seismicity and aseismic slip associated with the last moderate Parkfield earthquake in 1966 constitute much of the basis of the design of the experiment.

  11. Insights into the origins of drumbeat earthquakes, periodic low frequency seismicity, and plug degradation from multi-instrument monitoring at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, April 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Andrew; Hernandez, Stephen; Gaunt, Elizabeth; Mothes, Patricia; Hidalgo, Silvana; Ruiz, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Highly-periodic repeating 'drumbeat' earthquakes have been reported from several andesitic and dacitic volcanoes. Physical models for the origin of drumbeat earthquakes incorporate, to different extents, the incremental upward movement of viscous magma. However, the roles played by stick-slip friction, brittle failure, and fluid flow, and the relations between drumbeat earthquakes and other low-frequency seismic signals, remain controversial. Here we report the results of analysis of three weeks of geophysical data recorded during an unrest episode at Tungurahua, an andesitic stratovolcano in Ecuador, during April 2015, by the monitoring network of the Instituto Geofisico of Ecuador. Combined seismic, geodetic, infrasound, and gas monitoring has provided new insights into the origins of periodic low-frequency seismic signals, conduit processes, and the nature of current unrest. Over the three-week period, the relative seismic amplitude (RSAM) correlated closely with short-term deformation rates and gas fluxes. However, the characteristics of the seismic signals, as recorded at a short-period station closest to the summit crater, changed considerably with time. Initially high RSAM and gas fluxes, with modest ash emissions, were associated with continuous and 'pulsed' tremor signals (amplitude modulated, with 30-100 second periods). As activity levels decreased over several days, tremor episodes became increasingly intermittent, and short-lived bursts of low-frequency earthquakes with quasiperiodic inter-event times were observed. Following one day of quiescence, the onset of pronounced low frequency drumbeat earthquakes signalled the resumption of elevated unrest, initially with mean inter-event times of 32 seconds, and later increasing to 74 seconds and longer, with periodicity progressively breaking down over several days. A reduction in RSAM was then followed by one week of persistent, quasiperiodic, longer-duration emergent low-frequency pulses, including

  12. Listening to Earthquakes with Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucek, A. E.; Langston, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A tripartite infrasound array was installed to listen to earthquakes occurring along the Guy-Greenbrier fault in Arkansas. The active earthquake swarm is believed to be caused by deep waste water injections and will allow us to explain the mechanisms causing earthquake "booms" that have been heard during an earthquake. The array has an aperture of 50 meters and is installed next to the X301 seismograph station run by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). This arrangement allows simultaneous recording of seismic and acoustic changes from the arrival of an earthquake. Other acoustic and seismic sources that have been found include thunder from thunderstorms, gunshots, quarry explosions and hydraulic fracturing activity from the local gas wells. The duration of the experiment is from the last week of June to the last week of September 2011. During the first month and a half, seven local earthquakes were recorded, along with numerous occurrences of the other infrasound sources. Phase arrival times of the recorded waves allow us to estimate wave slowness and azimuth of infrasound events. Using these two properties, we can determine whether earthquake "booms" occur at a site from the arrival of the P-wave or whether the earthquake "booms" occur elsewhere and travel through the atmosphere. Preliminary results show that the infrasound correlates well to the ground motion during an earthquake for frequencies below 15 Hertz.

  13. Very Large Array Monitoring of 1720 MHz OH Masers toward the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlström, Y. M.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Mesler, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present the first variability study of the 1720 MHz OH masers located in the Galactic center. Most of these masers are associated with the interaction between the supernova remnant Sgr A East and the interstellar medium, but a few masers are associated with the circumnuclear disk (CND). The monitoring program covered five epochs and a timescale of 20-195 days, during which no masers disappeared and no new masers appeared. All masers have previously been detected in a single-epoch observation about one year prior to the start of the monitoring experiment, implying relatively stable conditions for the 1720 MHz OH masers. No extreme variability was detected. The masers associated with the northeastern interaction region between the supernova remnant and the +50 km s-1 molecular cloud show the highest level of variability. This can be explained with the +50 km s-1 molecular cloud being located behind the supernova remnant and with a region of high OH absorbing column density along the line of sight. Possibly, the supernova remnant provides additional turbulence to the gas in this region, through which the maser emission must travel. The masers in the southern interaction region are located on the outermost edge of Sgr A East, the line of sight of which is not covered by either absorbing OH gas or a supernova remnant, in agreement with the much lower variability level observed. Similarly, the masers associated with the CND show little variability, consistent with those arising through collisions between relatively large clumps of gas in the CND and no significant amount of turbulent gas along the line of sight.

  14. Multi-Year Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunegnaw, A.; Teferle, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) started their reprocessing campaign, which proposes to re-analyze all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1994 to 2013. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodetic studies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stations at or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recent improvements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) at the University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow an evaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-year combination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes

  15. Long term Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has recently finallized their reprocessing campaign, using all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2014. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodeticstudies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stationsat or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recentimprovements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) atthe University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow anevaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-yearcombination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes.

  16. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  17. Earthquake prediction, societal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aki, Keiiti

    1995-07-01

    "If I were a brilliant scientist, I would be working on earthquake prediction." This is a statement from a Los Angeles radio talk show I heard just after the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Five weeks later, at a monthly meeting of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), where more than two hundred scientists and engineers gathered to exchange notes on the earthquake, a distinguished French geologist who works on earthquake faults in China envied me for working now in southern California. This place is like northeastern China 20 years ago, when high seismicity and research activities led to the successful prediction of the Haicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 with magnitude 7.3. A difficult question still haunting us [Aki, 1989] is whether the Haicheng prediction was founded on the physical reality of precursory phenomena or on the wishful thinking of observers subjected to the political pressure which encouraged precursor reporting. It is, however, true that a successful life-saving prediction like the Haicheng prediction can only be carried out by the coordinated efforts of decision makers and physical scientists.

  18. Using graphics and expert system technologies to support satellite monitoring at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Shirah, Gregory W.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1994-01-01

    At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analysts Assistant (GenSAA), was developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. This paper describes GenSAA's capabilities and how it is supporting monitoring functions of current and future NASA missions for a variety of satellite monitoring applications ranging from subsystem health and safety to spacecraft attitude. Finally, this paper addresses efforts to generalize GenSAA's data interface for more widespread usage throughout the space and commercial industry.

  19. Field reconnaissance of the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, Georgios; Qu, Bing; Ecemis, Nurhan; Dogruel, Seda

    2007-12-01

    As part of the 2007 Tri-Center Field Mission to Japan, a reconnaissance team comprised of fourteen graduate students and three faculty members from three U.S. earthquake engineering research centers, namely, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAE), and Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), undertook a reconnaissance visit to the affected area shortly after the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake. This mission provided an opportunity to review the nature of the earthquake damage that occurred, as well as to assess the significance of the damage from an educational perspective. This paper reports on the seismological characteristics of the earthquake, preliminary findings of geotechnical and structural damage, and the causes of the observed failures or collapses. In addition, economic and socio-economic considerations and experiences to enhance earthquake resilience are presented.

  20. Satellite Geodetic Constraints On Earthquake Processes: Implications of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes for Fault Mechanics and Seismic Hazards on the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Our principal activities during the initial phase of this project include: 1) Continued monitoring of postseismic deformation for the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes from repeated GPS survey measurements and expansion of the Marmara Continuous GPS Network (MAGNET), 2) Establishing three North Anatolian fault crossing profiles (10 sitedprofile) at locations that experienced major surface-fault earthquakes at different times in the past to examine strain accumulation as a function of time in the earthquake cycle (2004), 3) Repeat observations of selected sites in the fault-crossing profiles (2005), 4) Repeat surveys of the Marmara GPS network to continue to monitor postseismic deformation, 5) Refining block models for the Marmara Sea seismic gap area to better understand earthquake hazards in the Greater Istanbul area, 6) Continuing development of models for afterslip and distributed viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake cycle. We are keeping close contact with MIT colleagues (Brad Hager, and Eric Hetland) who are developing models for S. California and for the earthquake cycle in general (Hetland, 2006). In addition, our Turkish partners at the Marmara Research Center have undertaken repeat, micro-gravity measurements at the MAGNET sites and have provided us estimates of gravity change during the period 2003 - 2005.

  1. Seismological investigation of earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Final report, September 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, R.B.; Nguyen, B.

    1993-08-01

    Earthquake activity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone had been monitored by regional seismic networks since 1975. During this time period, over 3,700 earthquakes have been located within the region bounded by latitudes 35{degrees}--39{degrees}N and longitudes 87{degrees}--92{degrees}W. Most of these earthquakes occur within a 1.5{degrees} x 2{degrees} zone centered on the Missouri Bootheel. Source parameters of larger earthquakes in the zone and in eastern North America are determined using surface-wave spectral amplitudes and broadband waveforms for the purpose of determining the focal mechanism, source depth and seismic moment. Waveform modeling of broadband data is shown to be a powerful tool in defining these source parameters when used complementary with regional seismic network data, and in addition, in verifying the correctness of previously published focal mechanism solutions.

  2. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 1 contains chapters on earthquake parameters and hazards.

  3. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 2 contains chapters on earthquake prediction, control, building design and building response.

  4. Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center from repro2 solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman

    2016-04-01

    Recently the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has completed their repro2 solutions by re-analyzing the full history of all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2015. This re-processed data set will provide high-quality estimates of vertical land movements for more than 500 stations, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodetic studies. All the TIGA Analysis Centres (TACs) have processed the observations recorded by GPS stations at or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA Data Center at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org) besides those of the global IGS core network used for its reference frame implementations. Following the recent improvements in processing models, strategies (http://acc.igs.org/reprocess2.html), this is the first complete re-processing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series relevant to sea level changes. In this study we report on a first multi-year daily combined solution from the TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) at the University of Luxembourg (UL) with respect to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014). Using two independent combination software packages, CATREF and GLOBK, we have computed a first daily combined solution from TAC solutions already available to the TIGA WG. These combinations allow an evaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC parameters and their influences on the combined solution with respect to the latest ITRF2014. Some results of the UL TIGA multi-year combinations in terms of geocentric sea level changes will be presented and discussed.

  5. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  6. Recent earthquake prediction research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mogi, K

    1986-07-18

    Japan has experienced many major earthquake disasters in the past. Early in this century research began that was aimed at predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and in 1965 an earthquake prediction program was started as a national project. In 1978 a program for constant monitoring and assessment was formally inaugurated with the goal of forecasting the major earthquake that is expected to occur in the near future in the Tokai district of central Honshu Island. The issue of predicting the anticipated Tokai earthquake is discussed in this article as well as the results of research on major recent earthquakes in Japan-the Izu earthquakes (1978 and 1980) and the Japan Sea earthquake (1983).

  7. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  8. Broadband characteristics of earthquakes recorded during a dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, between October 2004 and May 2005: Chapter 5 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, Stephen P.; Norris, Robert D.; Moran, Seth C.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    From October 2004 to May 2005, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information of the University of Memphis operated two to six broadband seismometers within 5 to 20 km of Mount St. Helens to help monitor recent seismic and volcanic activity. Approximately 57,000 earthquakes identified during the 7-month deployment had a normal magnitude distribution with a mean magnitude of 1.78 and a standard deviation of 0.24 magnitude units. Both the mode and range of earthquake magnitude and the rate of activity varied during the deployment. We examined the time domain and spectral characteristics of two classes of events seen during dome building. These include volcano-tectonic earthquakes and lower-frequency events. Lower-frequency events are further classified into hybrid earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and long-duration volcanic tremor. Hybrid and low-frequency earthquakes showed a continuum of characteristics that varied systematically with time. A progressive loss of high-frequency seismic energy occurred in earthquakes as magma approached and eventually reached the surface. The spectral shape of large and small earthquakes occurring within days of each other did not vary with magnitude. Volcanic tremor events and lower-frequency earthquakes displayed consistent spectral peaks, although higher frequencies were more favorably excited during tremor than earthquakes.

  9. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  10. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  11. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    SciTech Connect

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  12. Efficacy of wildlife rehabilitation centers in surveillance and monitoring of pathogen activity: a case study with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Randall, Natalie J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Blanchong, Julie A

    2012-07-01

    Surveillance is critical for identifying and monitoring pathogen activity in wildlife populations, but often is cost- and time-prohibitive and logistically challenging. We tested the hypothesis that wildlife rehabilitation centers are useful for monitoring pathogen activity using West Nile virus (WNV) as a case study. We hypothesized that birds submitted to wildlife rehabilitation centers would have a similar prevalence of antibody to WNV as free-ranging birds. From 2008 to 2010, we collected sera from peridomestic birds submitted to the Wildlife Care Clinic (WCC), a wildlife rehabilitation center in central Iowa, and tested them for antibodies to WNV. We also collected and tested sera from free-ranging peridomestic birds in the area from which approximately 50% of WCC submissions historically originated. Prevalences of WNV antibodies in free-ranging birds and in peridomestic WCC birds were 2.3% (44/1,936) and 2.8% (2/72), respectively. However, none of the birds submitted to the WCC from the area where we captured free-ranging birds had antibodies (0/29). Our results indicate that rehabilitation facilities are not likely to be useful for monitoring WNV activity at small spatial scales or over short-time periods due to the low endemic prevalence of WNV, and low and variable submission rates. However, at larger spatial scales (ca. nine Iowa counties) WNV antibody prevalence in peridomestic birds submitted to the WCC was similar to that of free-ranging birds. Although limitations to using rehabilitation birds to monitor WNV must be considered, testing these birds could be useful for monitoring WNV activity regionally, especially with many states limiting surveillance due to budgetary constraints.

  13. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  14. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions...

  15. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center including the chemicals that have been applied in the past at the day care center by staff members or by commercial contractors. The day care teacher was asked questions related to t...

  16. Rapid characterization of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and its seismotectonic context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin; Briggs, Richard; Barnhart, William D.; Yeck, William; McNamara, Daniel E.; Wald, David J.; Nealy, Jennifer; Benz, Harley M.; Gold, Ryan D.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Marano, Kristin; Earle, Paul S.; Hearne, Mike; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Wald, Lisa A.; Samsonov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake response and related information products are important for placing recent seismic events into context and particularly for understanding the impact earthquakes can have on the regional community and its infrastructure. These tools are even more useful if they are available quickly, ahead of detailed information from the areas affected by such earthquakes. Here we provide an overview of the response activities and related information products generated and provided by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center in association with the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. This group monitors global earthquakes 24  hrs/day and 7  days/week to provide rapid information on the location and size of recent events and to characterize the source properties, tectonic setting, and potential fatalities and economic losses associated with significant earthquakes. We present the timeline over which these products became available, discuss what they tell us about the seismotectonics of the Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks, and examine how their information is used today, and might be used in the future, to help mitigate the impact of such natural disasters.

  17. Earthquake Monitoring at 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Kim, W.

    2004-12-01

    In the fall of 2003 nine ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from the R/V Keldysh within the `bull's-eye' region of the R2K ISS at 9° 49'N - 9° 51'N on the East Pacific Rise as part of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site. These instruments were recovered using the R/V Atlantis in April 2004, and twelve more were deployed to take their place for a second year of monitoring (with three years total planned). During the turn-around cruise, two short temporary deployments (~4-8 days), of an additional 3 OBSs each, were accomplished to provide very dense instrument spacing (a few 100 m) around specific vents where in situ chemical monitoring was taking place (Luther et al.). Good data were collected on seven of the nine long deployment and six short deployment OBSs. We will present early results from analysis of these data including an estimate of the level of activity observed through-out the seven month period of the first deployment, and preliminary epicenters. Data will also be shown from the short temporary deployments. Early analysis of these data indicates an event rate of ~8 events per day for events where arrivals are apparent on at least three instruments, and may therefore expect to be located. Also notable in these data are pulses and prolonged periods of what appear to be tremor. This tremor is not generally coherent or synchronous from station to station and is therefore likely a very localized phenomena associated with hydrothermal fluid flow. The exceptionally well characterized and monitored seafloor at this site will allow for unprecedented correlation of observed seismic activity with local biology, geology, geochemical and hydrothermal monitoring. In addition, past and future detailed geophysical imaging of this area will provide an excellent context for observed faulting and fracturing.

  18. Impending ionospheric anomaly preceding the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wang; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Chunmei; Kong, Qiaoli

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the coupling relationship between great earthquake and ionosphere, the GPS-derived total electron contents (TECs) by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe and the foF2 data from the Space Weather Prediction Center were used to analyse the impending ionospheric anomalies before the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1. Eliminating effects of the solar and geomagnetic activities on ionosphere by the sliding interquartile range with the 27-day window, the TEC analysis results represent that there were negative anomalies occurred on 15th day prior to the earthquake, and positive anomalies appeared in 5th day before the earthquake. The foF2 analysis results of ionosonde stations Jicamarca, Concepcion and Ramey show that the foF2 increased by 40, 50 and 45 per cent, respectively, on 5th day before the earthquake. The TEC anomalous distribution indicates that there was a widely TEC decrement over the epicentre with the duration of 6 hr on 15th day before the earthquake. On 5th day before the earthquake, the TEC over the epicentre increased with the amplitude of 15 TECu, and the duration exceeded 6 hr. The anomalies occurred on the side away from the equator. All TEC anomalies in these days were within the bounds of equatorial anomaly zone where should be the focal area to monitor ionospheric anomaly before strong earthquakes. The relationship between ionospheric anomalies and geomagnetic activity was detected by the cross wavelet analysis, which implied that the foF2 was not affected by the magnetic activities on 15th day and 5th day prior to the earthquake, but the TECs were partially affected by anomalous magnetic activity during some periods of 5th day prior to the earthquake.

  19. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  20. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-26

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  1. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  2. Satellite relay telemetry of seismic data in earthquake prediction and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Wayne H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1971-01-01

    The Satellite Telemetry Earthquake Monitoring Program was started in FY 1968 to evaluate the applicability of satellite relay telemetry in the collection of seismic data from a large number of dense seismograph clusters laid out along the major fault systems of western North America. Prototype clusters utilizing phone-line telemetry were then being installed by the National Center for Earthquake Research (NCER) in 3 regions along the San Andreas fault in central California; and the experience of installing and operating the clusters and in reducing and analyzing the seismic data from them was to provide the raw materials for evaluation in the satellite relay telemetry project.

  3. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Prejean, Stephanie; Sanchez, John J.; Sanches, Rebecca; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John

    2005-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2004.These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Mount Peulik, Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Over the past year, formal monitoring of Okmok, Tanaga and Gareloi were announced following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at each volcanic center. The seismicity at Mount Peulik was still being studied at the end of 2004 and has yet to be added to the list of monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. AVO located 6928 earthquakes in 2004.Monitoring highlights in 2004 include: (1) an earthquake swarm at Westdahl Peak in January; (2) an increase in seismicity at Mount Spurr starting in February continuing through the end of the year into 2005; (4) low-level tremor, and low-frequency events related to intermittent ash and steam emissions at Mount Veniaminof between April and October; (4) low-level tremor at Shishaldin Volcano between April and

  4. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.

    1998-10-01

    The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.

  5. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the source of earthquakes. Moonquakes (“earthquakes” on the moon) do occur, but they happen less frequently and ... with the varying distance between the Earth and Moon. They also occur at great depth, about halfway ...

  6. Earthquake Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)

  7. Deep Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes research to find the nature of deep earthquakes occurring hundreds of kilometers down in the earth's mantle. Describes further research problems in this area. Presents several illustrations and four references. (YP)

  8. Analysis of Instrumentation to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Green Infrastructure at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infiltration is one of the primary functional mechanisms of green infrastructure stormwater controls, so this study explored selection and placement of embedded soil moisture and water level sensors to monitor surface infiltration and infiltration into the underlying soil for per...

  9. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program: Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot is composed of EPA, DoD, DOE, other Federal agencies, state regulators, technology evaluation and verification entities, and potential end users of these technologies to facilitate independent..

  10. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    SciTech Connect

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  11. Earthquake watch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.

    1976-01-01

     When the time comes that earthquakes can be predicted accurately, what shall we do with the knowledge? This was the theme of a November 1975 conference on earthquake warning and response held in San Francisco called by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Jack W. Carlson. Invited were officials of State and local governments from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, utah, Washington, and Wyoming and representatives of the news media. 

  12. Investigation of the TEC Changes in the vicinity of the Earthquake Preparation Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    Recently, investigation of the anomalies in the ionosphere before the earthquake has taken too much attention. The Total Electron Content (TEC) data has been used to monitor the changes in the ionosphere. Hence, researchers use the TEC changes before the strong earthquakes to monitor the anomalies in the ionosphere. In this study, the GPS-TEC variations, obtained from the GNSS stations in the vicinity of the earthquake preparation zone, was investigated. Nidra earthquake (M6.5), which was occurred on the north-west of Greece on November 17th, 2015 (38.755°N, 20.552°E), was selected for this study. First, the equation proposed by Dobrovolsky et al. (1979) was used to calculate the radius of the earthquake preparation zone. International GNSS Service (IGS) stations in the region were classified with respect to the radius of the earthquake preparation zone. The observation data of each station was obtained from the Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive to estimate GPS-TEC variations between 16 October 2015 and 16 December 2015. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) products, obtained from the IGS, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. Possible anomalies were analyzed for each GNSS station by using the 15-day moving median method. In order to analyze these pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies, we investigated three indices (Kp, F10.7 and Dst) related to the space weather conditions between 16 October 2015 and 16 December 2015. Solar and geomagnetic indices were obtained from The Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), The Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC), and the Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC). This study aims at investigating the possible effects of the earthquake on the TEC variations.

  13. Patient-Centered Technological Assessment and Monitoring of Depression for Low-Income Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shinyi; Vidyanti, Irene; Liu, Pai; Hawkins, Caitlin; Ramirez, Magaly; Guterman, Jeffrey; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Ell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant challenge for ambulatory care because it worsens health status and outcomes, increases health care utilizations and costs, and elevates suicide risk. An automatic telephonic assessment (ATA) system that links with tasks and alerts to providers may improve quality of depression care and increase provider productivity. We used ATA system in a trial to assess and monitor depressive symptoms of 444 safety-net primary care patients with diabetes. We assessed system properties, evaluated preliminary clinical outcomes, and estimated cost savings. The ATA system is feasible, reliable, valid, safe, and likely cost-effective for depression screening and monitoring for low-income primary care population. PMID:24525531

  14. Ground-water-level monitoring for earthquake prediction; a progress report based on data collected in Southern California, 1976-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a research program to determine if groundwater-level measurements can be used for earthquake prediction. Earlier studies suggest that water levels in wells may be responsive to small strains on the order of 10 to the minus 8th power to 10 to the minus 10th power (dimensionless). Water-level data being collected in the area of the southern California uplift show response to earthquakes and other natural and manmade effects. The data are presently (1979) being made ready for computer analysis. The completed analysis may indicate the presence of precursory earthquake information. (USGS)

  15. MONITORING TOXIC ORGANIC GASES AND PARTICLES NEAR THE WORLD TRADE CENTER AFTER SEPTEMBER 11, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in an intense fire and the subsequent, complete collapse of the two main structures and adjacent buildings, as well as significant damage to many surrounding buildings within and around the WTC complex. Thi...

  16. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL Permit # 45455-FP. Monitoring Report. February, 2014.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of the Yaquina Bay shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) campus became necessary to halt erosion that threatened both HMSC critical infrastructure (seawater storage tank) and public access to the HMSC Nature Trail. A Dyn...

  17. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL Permit # 45455-FP. Monitoring Report. February, 2016

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of the Yaquina Bay shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) campus became necessary to halt erosion that threatened both HMSC critical infrastructure (seawater storage tank) and public access to the HMSC Nature Trail. A Dyn...

  18. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 05: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER PRE-MONITORING QUESTIONNAIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is used to identify the potential sources of pollutants at the day care center. The day care teacher is asked questions related to the age of their day care building; age and frequency of cleaning carpets or rugs; types of heating and air conditioning de...

  19. Hatfield Marine Science Center Dynamic Revetment Project DSL permit # 45455-FP, Monitoring Report February, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stabilization of the Yaquina Bay shoreline along the northeastern edge of the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) campus became necessary to halt erosion that threatened both HMSC critical infrastructure (seawater storage tank) and public access to the HMSC Nature Trail. A Dyn...

  20. Improving the RST Approach for Earthquake Prone Areas Monitoring: Results of Correlation Analysis among Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies and Earthquakes (M>4) occurred in Italy during 2004-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2015-12-01

    Looking toward the assessment of a multi-parametric system for dynamically updating seismic hazard estimates and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast, a preliminary step is to identify those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of a big earthquake. Among the different parameters, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, as measured by sensors on board of satellite system operating in the Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) spectral range, have been proposed since long time as potential earthquake precursors. Since 2001, a general approach called Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) has been used to discriminate anomalous thermal signals, possibly associated to seismic activity from normal fluctuations of Earth's thermal emission related to other causes (e.g. meteorological) independent on the earthquake occurrence. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS-MODIS) and geostationary (e.g. MSG-SEVIRI, NOAA-GOES/W, GMS-5/VISSR) satellite sensors, in order to verify the presence (or absence) of TIR anomalies in presence (absence) of earthquakes (with M>4) in different seismogenic areas around the world (e.g. Italy, Turkey, Greece, California, Taiwan, etc.).In this paper, a refined RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to identify Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) during eleven years (from May 2004 to December 2014) of TIR satellite records, collected over Italy by the geostationary satellite sensor MSG-SEVIRI. On the basis of specific validation rules (mainly based on physical models and results obtained by applying RST approach to several earthquakes all around the world) the level of space-time correlation among SSTAs and earthquakes (with M≥4

  1. Monitoring of the permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has installed an instrumented, working full-scale 110-space pervious pavement parking lot and has been monitoring several environmental stressors and runoff. This parking lot demonstration site has allowed the investigation of differenc...

  2. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form is used to provide information on the child's daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It includes questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-hr monitoring period. It also collects informati...

  3. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes for CTEPP-OH. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on th...

  4. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 07: CHILD DAY CARE CENTER POST-MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s daily activities and potential exposures to pollutants at their homes. It included questions on chemicals applied and cigarettes smoked at the home over the 48-h monitoring period. It also collected information on the child’s han...

  5. Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  6. 77 FR 53225 - National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Geological Survey National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC) AGENCY: Department of the... National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC) will hold a 1\\1/2\\ day meeting on September 17 and 18, 2012, at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC),...

  7. An attempt to directly monitor stress buildup and triggered earthquakes within one fault distance in South African deep gold mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, H.; Iio, Y.; Nakatani, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Shimoda, N.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.; Satoh, T.; Kawakata, H.; Kato, A.; Ward, A. K.; Murphy, S. K.; McGill, R.; Mendecki, A.; van Aswegen, G.; Seesag, R.

    2003-12-01

    Mining takes place at depths of 2-3km, thereby frequently inducing events with M>2 in the close vicinity of stopes. So, with sensors installed ahead of time in seismogenic areas, we can directly observe temporal change in stress, deformation and material (e.g. Seismogenic Process Monitoring, 2002, Balkema). At Bambanani mine, we could successfully record strain change up to 10-4 with 25 Hz 24 bit sampling associated with M ˜2 events at a ˜100m distance with an Ishii strainmeter (see Takeuchi's poster). However, our previous experiments had a lot to be desired: only single strainmeter or only remote (>200m) geophones with less dynamic range available, no in-situ stress measurement, no a priori or afterward material investigation and so on. To solve these, we deployed new experimental sites at Tau Tona and Mponeng with significant contrast in geology and current stress, where we carry out in situ stress measurement, install two Ishii strainmeters, two strong ground motion meters and multiple thermometers within 10 - 20 m from faults. The site at Tau Tona is within a pillar with a fault 2.9km deep, where an M>2 event is anticipated with mining advance. Geology is simply Quartzite, and the fault consists of intensely fractured quartzite ˜30cm thick with 0.5-1cm thick clay-like gouge at both boundaries. The fault is well exposed at adjacent stopes and tunnels, enabling investigation of fault material property. In four boreholes already drilled 7-15m long, significant borehole breakout is seen associated with active mining near the site. A direction of maximum stress has changed since June as mining has advanced, currently being 20-30 degrees oblique to the fault. The site at Mponeng mine (3.1km deep, ( ˜200m)3 in volume) has a fault zone several tens of meters thick in a planned pillar. The fault zone was originated by ancient, large lateral fault movement, and now is characterized by complex geology consisting of chopped various-sized surrounding country rock

  8. The nature of earthquake prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindh, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is inherently statistical. Although some people continue to think of earthquake prediction as the specification of the time, place, and magnitude of a future earthquake, it has been clear for at least a decade that this is an unrealistic and unreasonable definition. the reality is that earthquake prediction starts from the long-term forecasts of place and magnitude, with very approximate time constraints, and progresses, at least in principle, to a gradual narrowing of the time window as data and understanding permit. Primitive long-term forecasts are clearly possible at this time on a few well-characterized fault systems. Tightly focuses monitoring experiments aimed at short-term prediction are already underway in Parkfield, California, and in the Tokai region in Japan; only time will tell how much progress will be possible. 

  9. Deep earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

  10. X-ray Weekly Monitoring of the Galactic Center Sgr A* with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Saitoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    A small gas cloud, G2, is on an orbit almost straight into the supermassive blackhole Sgr A* by spring 2014. This event gives us a rare opportunity to test the mass feeding onto the blackhole by a gas. To catch a possible rise of the mass accretion from the cloud, we have been performing the bi-week monitoring of Sgr A* in autumn and spring in the 2013 fiscal year. The key feature of Suzaku is the high-sensitivity wide-band X-ray spectroscopy all in one observatory. It is characterized by a large effective area combined with low background and good energy resolution, in particular a good line spread function in the low-energy range. Since the desired flare events associated with the G2 approach is a transient event, the large effective area is critical and powerful tools to hunt them. The first monitoring in 2013 autumn was successfully made. The X-rays from Sgr A* and its nearby emission were clearly resolved from the bright transient source AX J1745.6-2901. No very large flare from Sgr A*was found during the monitoring. We also may report the X-ray properties of two serendipitous sources, the neutron star binary AX J1745.6-2901 and a magnetar SGR J1745-29.

  11. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  12. Earthquake Shaking - Finding the "Hot Spots"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Ned; Jones, Lucile; Jordan, Tom; Benthien, Mark; Wald, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    A new Southern California Earthquake Center study has quantified how local geologic conditions affect the shaking experienced in an earthquake. The important geologic factors at a site are softness of the rock or soil near the surface and thickness of the sediments above hard bedrock. Even when these 'site effects' are taken into account, however, each earthquake exhibits unique 'hotspots' of anomalously strong shaking. Better predictions of strong ground shaking will therefore require additional geologic data and more comprehensive computer simulations of individual earthquakes.

  13. Space weather monitoring by ground-based means carried out in Polar Geophysical Center at Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzhura, Alexander

    A real-time information on geophysical processes in polar regions is very important for goals of Space Weather monitoring by the ground-based means. The modern communication systems and computer technology makes it possible to collect and process the data from remote sites without significant delays. A new acquisition equipment based on microprocessor modules and reliable in hush climatic conditions was deployed at the Roshydromet networks of geophysical observations in Arctic and is deployed at observatories in Antarctic. A contemporary system for on-line collecting and transmitting the geophysical data from the Arctic and Antarctic stations to AARI has been realized and the Polar Geophysical Center (PGC) arranged at AARI ensures the near-real time processing and analyzing the geophysical information from 11 stations in Arctic and 5 stations in Antarctic. The space weather monitoring by the ground based means is one of the main tasks standing before the Polar Geophysical Center. As studies by Troshichev and Janzhura, [2012] showed, the PC index characterizing the polar cap magnetic activity appeared to be an adequate indicator of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere and the energy that is accumulating in the magnetosphere. A great advantage of the PC index application over other methods based on satellite data is a permanent on-line availability of information about magnetic activity in both northern and southern polar caps. A special procedure agreed between Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Space Institute of the Danish Technical University (DTUSpace) ensures calculation of the unified PC index in quasi-real time by magnetic data from the Thule and Vostok stations (see public site: http://pc-index.org). The method for estimation of AL and Dst indices (as indicators of state of the disturbed magnetosphere) based on data on foregoing PC indices has been elaborated and testified in the Polar Geophysical Center. It is

  14. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  15. Streamflow, groundwater, and water-quality monitoring by USGS Nevada Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gipson, Marsha L.; Schmidt, Kurtiss

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity and quality of our Nation's streams and aquifers since its inception in 1879. Today, the USGS provides hydrologic information to aid in the evaluation of the availability and suitability of water for public and domestic supply, agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, mining, and energy development. Although the USGS has no responsibility for the regulation of water resources, the USGS hydrologic data complement much of the data collected by state, county, and municipal agencies, tribal nations, U.S. District Court Water Masters, and other federal agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency, which focuses on monitoring for regulatory compliance. The USGS continues its mission to provide timely and relevant water-resources data and information that are available to water-resource managers, non-profit organizations, industry, academia, and the public. Data collected by the USGS provide the science needed for informed decision-making related to resource management and restoration, assessment of flood and drought hazards, ecosystem health, and effects on water resources from land-use changes.

  16. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  17. 4 Earthquake: Major offshore earthquakes recall the Aztec myth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1970-01-01

    Long before the sun clears the eastern mountains of April 29, 1970, the savanna highlands of Chiapas tremble from a magnitude 6.7 earthquake centered off the Pacific coast near Mexico’s southern border. Then, for a few hours, he Isthmus of Tehuantepec is quiet.

  18. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  19. Research on Earthquake Precursor in E-TEC: A Study on Land Surface Thermal Anomalies Using MODIS LST Product in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. Y.; Wu, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as an excellent natural laboratory characterized by rapid active tectonic rate and high dense seismicity. The Eastern Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (E-TEC) is established on 2013/09/24 in National Dong Hwa University and collaborates with Central Weather Bureau (CWB), National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE), National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR), Institute of Earth Science of Academia Sinica (IES, AS) and other institutions (NCU, NTU, CCU) and aims to provide an integrated platform for researchers to conduct the new advances on earthquake precursors and early warning for seismic disaster prevention in the eastern Taiwan, as frequent temblors are most common in the East Taiwan rift valley. E-TEC intends to integrate the multi-disciplinary observations and is equipped with stations to monitor a wide array of factors of quake precursors, including seismicity, GPS, strain-meter, ground water, geochemistry, gravity, electromagnetic, ionospheric density, thermal infrared remote sensing, gamma radiation etc, and will maximize the value of the data for researches with the range of monitoring equipment that enable to predict where and when the next devastated earthquake will strike Taiwan and develop reliable earthquake prediction models. A preliminary study on earthquake precursor using monthly Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) data before 2013/03/27 Mw6.2 Nantou earthquake in Taiwan is presented. Using the statistical analysis, the result shows the peak of the anomalous LST that exceeds a standard deviation of LST appeared on 2013/03/09 and became less or none anomalies observed on 2013/03/16 before the main-shock, which is in consist with the phenomenon observed by other researchers. This preliminary experimental result shows that the thermal anomalies reveal the possibility to associate surface thermal phenomena before the strong earthquakes.

  20. Earthquake tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, R.F. )

    1991-02-01

    Earthquakes release a tremendous amount of energy into the subsurface in the form of seismic waves. The seismic wave energy of the San Francisco 1906 (M = 8.2) earthquake was equivalent to over 8 billion tons of TNT (3.3 {times} 10{sup 19} joules). Four basic wave types are propagated form seismic sources, two non-rotational and two rotational. As opposed to the non-rotational R and SH waves, the rotational compressional (RC) and rotational shear (RS) waves carry the bulk of the energy from a seismic source. RC wavefronts propagate in the subsurface and refract similarly to P waves, but are considerably slower. RC waves are critically refracted beneath the air surface interface at velocities less than the velocity of sound in air because they refract at the velocity of sound in air minus the retrograde particle velocity at the top of the wave. They propagate at tsunami waves in the open ocean, and produce loud sounds on land that are heard by humans and animals during earthquakes. The energy of the RS wave dwarfs that of the P, SH, and even the RC wave. The RS wave is the same as what is currently called the S wave in earthquake seismology, and produces both folding and strike-slip faulting at considerable distances from the epicenter. RC and RS waves, propagated during earthquakes from the Santa Ynez fault and a right-slip fault on trend with the Red Mountain fault, produced the Santa Ynez Mountains in California beginning in the middle Pliocene and continuing until the present.

  1. Earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity 1811-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Bograd, Michael B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes two centuries of earthquake activity in Mississippi. Work on the Mississippi map was done in collaboration with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Geology. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Arkansas Geological Survey. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Mississippi and parts of adjacent States. Mississippi has undergone a number of felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Mississippi and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  2. Variability of the Black Sea from My Ocean Black Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Center Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotaev, G.; Ratner, Yu.; Kholod, A.; Martynov, M.; Ivanchik, M.; Denmyshev, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Knysh, V.; Moiseenko, V.; Kybryakov, A.; Churilova, T.; Suslin, V.

    2012-04-01

    My Ocean project has started provision of the full set of services from 10 January 2012. Regional products in the Black Sea are provided by the Black Sea Marine Forecasting Center (BS MFC). The BS MFC products include operational three-dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, current velocity hindcast, analysis and forecast up to five years (snapshots every three hours or daily averaged fields), reanalysis of the Black Sea dynamics from 1971 to 2002 years, nitrate and phytoplankton daily averaged fields in the upper 200 meter layer and attenuation coefficient analysis. Operational products are simulated by means of assimilation of the sea level anomalies, sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll concentration, which are products of the Thematic Assembly Centers of My Ocean project, in the models of marine dynamics and ecosystem. Atmospheric forcing for the dynamical model operation is downloaded fro the SKIRON web site. All products are free available in the real-time on the My Ocean project site www.myocean.eu from the My Ocean interactive catalogue in the form of maps on different levels, animations or in digital form. An accuracy of the Black Sea MFC product is estinmated by means fof the comparison of simulations with space remote sensing data or independent in situ measurements by profiling floats or surface drifting buoys. The Black Sea MFC products provide a new insight to the broad range variability of the Black sea dynamics and ecosystem This study is carried out with partial support of the FP6 Sesame project (contract 036949) and FP7 MyOcean project (grant agreement n°218812).

  3. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinico, Richard Steven

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 11-14, 2001 in support of the long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the June 2001 data indicate that redox conditions in the upper aquifer remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of CVOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer down gradient of the landfill appear to have become more favorable for reductive dechlorination because June 2001 dissolved hydrogen concentrations indicated strongly reducing conditions there for the first time. Although changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2001, a longer monitoring period is needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting the ground-water chemistry. A minor change to future monitoring is proposed. Filtered organic carbon (previously referred to as dissolved, and defined as that which passes through a 0.45-micrometer membrane filter) should be analyzed in the future rather than unfiltered (previously referred to as total) organic carbon because the filtered analysis may be a better measure of bioavailable organic carbon. Unfiltered and filtered organic carbon data were collected during June 2001 for comparison. Filtered organic carbon data collected in the future could be reasonably compared with historical unfiltered organic carbon data by multiplying the historical data by a factor of about 0.9.

  4. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    1906? Since the number of M>7.0 aftershocks has been low, does the distribution of large-magnitude aftershocks differ from previous events of this size? What is the origin of the extensional-type aftershocks at shallow depths within the upper plate? The international seismological community (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.A.) in collaboration with the Chilean seismological community responded with a total of 140 portable seismic stations to deploy in order to record aftershocks. This combined with the Chilean permanent seismic network, in the area results in 180 stations now in operation recording continuous at 100 cps. The seismic equipment is a mix of accelerometers, short -period and broadband seismic sensors deployed along the entire length of the aftershock zone that will record the aftershock sequence for three to six months. The collected seismic data will be merged and archived to produce an international data set open to the entire seismological community immediately after archiving. Each international group will submit their data as soon as possible in standard (mini seed) format with accompanying meta data to the IRIS DMC where the data will be merged into a combined data set and available to individuals and other data centers. This will be by far the best-recorded aftershock sequence of a large megathrust earthquake. This outstanding international collaboration will provide an open data set for this important earthquake as well as provide a model for future aftershock deployments around the world.

  5. Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

  6. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations indicated that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the geochemical and selected CVOC data for ground water at OU 1, collected by the USGS during June 10-14, 2002, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Overall, the geochemical data for June 2002 indicate that redox conditions in the upper-aquifer water remain favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs because strongly reducing conditions persisted beneath much of the former landfill. Redox conditions in the intermediate aquifer downgradient of the landfill also remained favorable for reductive dechlorination, although the 2002 dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentration from well MW1-28 is questionable. Changes in redox conditions were observed at certain wells during 2002, but a longer monitoring period and more thorough interpretation are needed to ascertain if phytoremediation activities are affecting redox conditions and if biodegradation processes are changing over time. The Navy intends to complete a more thorough interpretation in preparation for the 5-year review of OU 1 scheduled for 2004. There were a few substantial differences between the 2002 concentrations and previously observed concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Total CVOC concentrations in 2002 samples decreased substantially in all piezometers sampled in the northern plantation, and the largest percentages of decrease were for the compounds trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE). Changes in total CVOC concentrations in the southern plantation were less consistent

  7. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  8. Stalking the next Parkfield earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1984-01-06

    The 30-kilometer section of the San Andreas fault midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles is the most well understood and most intensely monitored fault in the world. The geology of the area, its rock mechanics, the study of its past earthquakes, and prediction efforts for the next quake are described.

  9. Monitoring poison control center data to detect health hazards during hurricane season--Florida, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    2006-04-21

    Eight hurricanes made landfall in Florida from August 13, 2004, through October 24, 2005. Each hurricane caused flooding and widespread power outages. In the fall of 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) began retrospectively reviewing data collected by the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) during the 2004 hurricane season. During the 2005 hurricane season, FDOH, in consultation with FPICN, initiated daily monitoring of FPICN records of exposures that might reflect storm-related health hazards. Analysis of these data determined that 28 carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were reported to FPICN in the 2 days after Hurricane Katrina made its August 25, 2005, landfall in Florida, en route to a second landfall on the Gulf Coast. Data on CO and other exposures were used to develop and distribute public health prevention messages to Florida communities affected by hurricanes.

  10. Launch Complex 39 Observation Gantry Area (SWMU# 107) Annual Long-Term Monitoring Report (Year 1) Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jill W.; Towns, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This document has been prepared by Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. (Geosyntec) to present and discuss the findings of the 2014 and 2015 Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) activities that were completed at the Launch Complex 39 (LC39) Observation Gantry Area (OGA) located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida (Site). The remainder of this report includes: (i) a description of the Site location; (ii) summary of Site background and previous investigations; (iii) description of field activities completed as part of the annual LTM program at the Site; (iv) groundwater flow evaluation; (v) presentation and discussion of field and analytical results; and (vi) conclusions and recommendations. Applicable KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting minutes are included in Attachment A. This Annual LTM Letter Report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under contract number NNK12CA13B, Delivery Order NNK13CA39T project number PCN ENV2188.

  11. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: Relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The 5 September 2012 Mw 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr–Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential. PMID:25404327

  12. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Timothy H; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

    2014-12-02

    The 5 September 2012 M(w) 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr-Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential.

  13. The Cooperative Monitoring Center: Achieving cooperative security objectives through technical collaborations

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.

    1996-08-01

    The post cold war security environment poses both difficult challenges and encouraging opportunities. Some of the most difficult challenges are related to regional conflict and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. New and innovative approaches to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are essential. More effort must be focused on underlying factors that motivate countries to seek weapons of mass destruction. Historically the emphasis has been on denial: denying information, denying technology, and denying materials necessary to build such weapons. Though still important, those efforts are increasingly perceived to be insufficient, and initiatives that address underlying motivational factors are needed. On the opportunity side, efforts to establish regional dialogue and confidence-building measures are increasing in many areas. Such efforts can result in cooperative agreements on security issues such as border control, demilitarized zones, weapons delivery systems, weapons of mass destruction free zones, environmental agreements, and resource sharing. In some cases, implementing such cooperative agreements will mean acquiring, analyzing, and sharing large quantities of data and sensitive information. These arrangements for ``cooperative monitoring`` are becoming increasingly important to the security of individual countries, regions, and international institutions. However, many countries lack sufficient technical and institutional infrastructure to take full advantage of these opportunities. Constructing a peaceful twenty-first century will require that technology is brought to bear in the most productive and innovative ways to meet the challenges of proliferation and to maximize the opportunities for cooperation.

  14. The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, D.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Loustau, D.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ICOS Ecosystem includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC) which is responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. The Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation and the data access and data use policies will be presented together with the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy. The aim is to identify and discuss integration and collaboration with others similar initiatives, also thanks to the support of the COOPEUS European project

  15. The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, Ivan; Papale, Dario; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Gielen, Bert; Loustau, Denis; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ecosystem network includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC), which is also responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. We present the actual status of the Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation, the data access and data use policies and the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy, with special emphasis on the approaches followed to reach high level of to standardization together with the uncertainty quantification.

  16. Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Maritza; Seijas, David; Agreda, Olga; Rodríguez, Maritza

    2006-02-01

    People in developing countries are often considered at greater risk of mercury (Hg) poisoning due to a variety of factors including a lack of awareness regarding their occupational risks. Individuals requiring urine mercury (U-Hg) analysis at the Center for Toxicological Investigations of the University of Carabobo (CITUC), between 1998 and 2002 were studied to identify demographic characteristics associated to U-Hg levels. The studied population included individuals with a history of exposure (or related exposures) to Hg processes, and was comprised of 1159 individuals (65 children, 1094 adults) ages 0.58-79 years old, mean 36.63+/-12.4. Children's geometric mean U-Hg levels were 2.73 microg/g Creatinine (Ct) and in adults 2.55 microg/g Ct. The highest frequency of adults' occupations were shipyard workers (35.47%), dentists (23.5%), lab technicians (11.43%), dental employees 10.42% and miners (10.2%). Chemical laboratory technicians had the highest mean U-Hg (4.46 microg/g Ct). Mean U-Hg levels in female adults (3.45 microg/g Ct) were statistically superior to levels in male adults (2.15 microg/g Ct). Two of the 172 women in reproductive age, had U-Hg levels higher than 78 microg/g Ct. Individuals from Falcon State were found to have the highest mean U-Hg (4.53 microg/g Ct). U-Hg levels higher than permissible limits were found in only 2 states (Carabobo and Bolivar) with a total of 24 cases. Although the results of this investigation were highly variable, the findings can be used to examine circumstances which influence mercury toxicity trends, and possibly used in future studies working to identify Hg exposures.

  17. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant.

  18. Data Management and Site-Visit Monitoring of the Multi-Center Registry in the Korean Neonatal Network

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Won

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN), a nationwide prospective registry of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, < 1,500 g at birth) infants, was launched in April 2013. Data management (DM) and site-visit monitoring (SVM) were crucial in ensuring the quality of the data collected from 55 participating hospitals across the country on 116 clinical variables. We describe the processes and results of DM and SVM performed during the establishment stage of the registry. The DM procedure included automated proof checks, electronic data validation, query creation, query resolution, and revalidation of the corrected data. SVM included SVM team organization, identification of unregistered cases, source document verification, and post-visit report production. By March 31, 2015, 4,063 VLBW infants were registered and 1,693 queries were produced. Of these, 1,629 queries were resolved and 64 queries remain unresolved. By November 28, 2014, 52 participating hospitals were visited, with 136 site-visits completed since April 2013. Each participating hospital was visited biannually. DM and SVM were performed to ensure the quality of the data collected for the KNN registry. Our experience with DM and SVM can be applied for similar multi-center registries with large numbers of participating centers. PMID:26566353

  19. Feasibility of Implementing a Patient-Centered Postoperative Wound Monitoring Program Using Smartphone Images: A Pilot Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    hospital readmission. Conclusions Health systems are increasingly dedicating efforts to transitional care improvement programs. This feasibility trial will confirm whether patients and their caregivers can learn to use a postdischarge wound monitoring smartphone app and will assess patient and provider satisfaction. This protocol will provide preliminary evidence for a shift in the delivery of postdischarge care in a patient-centered and cost-effective manner. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02735525; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02735525 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6oIvN4Mab) PMID:28228369

  20. Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California.

    PubMed

    Burco, Julia D; Massey, J Gregory; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa; Clemons, Karl V; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis remains a major cause of mortality in captive and rehabilitated seabirds. To date, there has been poor documentation of fungal (particularly Aspergillus spp.) burdens in natural seabird loafing and roosting sites compared with fungal numbers in rehabilitation or captive settings and the various microenvironments that seabirds are exposed to during the rehabilitation process. This study compares fungal, particularly Aspergillus spp., burdens potentially encountered by seabirds in natural and rehabilitation environments. Differences among the various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were evaluated to determine the risk of infection when seabirds are experiencing high stress and poor immune function. Aspergillus spp. counts were quantified in three wildlife rehabilitation centers and five natural seabird loafing and roosting sites in northern California using a handheld impact air sampler and a water filtration system. Wildlife rehabilitation centers demonstrated an increase in numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus in air and water samples from select aquatic bird rehabilitation centers compared with natural seabird environments in northern California. Various microenvironments in the rehabilitation facility were identified as having higher numbers of conidia of Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that periodic monitoring of multiple local areas, where the birds spend time in a rehabilitation facility, should be done to identify "high risk" sites, where birds should spend minimal time, or sites that should be cleaned more frequently or have improved air flow to reduce exposure to fungal conidia. Overall, these results suggest that seabirds may be more likely to encounter Aspergillus spp. in various microenvironments in captivity, compared with their native habitats, which could increase their risk of developing disease when in a debilitated state.

  1. Earthquakes and plate tectonics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

  2. A Broadly-Based Training Program in Volcano Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Center for the Study of Active Volcanoes, in cooperation with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based volcano hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing nations. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of volcano monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included volcano seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's Hawaii-specific hazards outreach programs, and volcano preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, Hawaii Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.

  3. Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The newly established USGS California Volcano Observatory has the broad responsibility of monitoring and assessing hazards at California's potentially threatening volcanoes, most notably Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, and Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California; and Long Valley Caldera, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono-Inyo Craters in east-central California. Volcanic eruptions occur in California about as frequently as the largest San Andreas Fault Zone earthquakes-more than ten eruptions have occurred in the last 1,000 years, most recently at Lassen Peak (1666 C.E. and 1914-1917 C.E.) and Mono-Inyo Craters (c. 1700 C.E.). The Long Valley region (Long Valley caldera and Mammoth Mountain) underwent several episodes of heightened unrest over the last three decades, including intense swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, rapid caldera uplift, and hazardous CO2 emissions. Both Medicine Lake and Lassen are subsiding at appreciable rates, and along with Clear Lake, Long Valley Caldera, and Mammoth Mountain, sporadically experience long period (LP) earthquakes related to migration of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids. Worldwide, the last two decades have shown the importance of tracking LP earthquakes beneath young volcanic systems, as they often provide indication of impending unrest or eruption. Herein we document the occurrence of LP earthquakes at several of California's young volcanoes, updating a previous study published in Pitt et al., 2002, SRL. All events were detected and located using data from stations within the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Event detection was spatially and temporally uneven across the NCSN in the 1980s and 1990s, but additional stations, adoption of the Earthworm processing system, and heightened vigilance by seismologists have improved the catalog over the last decade. LP earthquakes are now relatively well-recorded under Lassen (~150 events since 2000), Clear Lake (~60 events), Mammoth Mountain

  4. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  5. Shaken, not stirred: a serendipitous study of ants and earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Lighton, John R B; Duncan, Frances D

    2005-08-01

    There is anecdotal evidence for profound behavioral changes prior to and during earthquakes in many organisms, including arthropods such as ants. Behavioral or physiological analysis has often, in light of these reports, been proposed as a means of earthquake prediction. We report here a serendipitous study of the effect of the powerful Landers earthquake in the Mojave Desert, USA (Richter magnitude 7.4) on ant trail dynamics and aerobic catabolism in the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei. We monitored trail traffic rates to and from the colony, trail speed, worker mass distributions, rates of aerobic catabolism and temperature at ant height before and during the earthquake, and for 3 days after the earthquake. Contrary to anecdotal reports of earthquake effects on ant behavior, the Landers earthquake had no effect on any measured aspect of the physiology or behavior of M. pergandei. We conclude that anecdotal accounts of the effects of earthquakes or their precursors on insect behavior should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Near Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters for Tsunami Early Warning from Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manneela, Sunanda; Srinivasa Kumar, T.; Nayak, Shailesh R.

    2016-06-01

    Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS) allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS), starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  7. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

    2014-05-01

    level of shaking intensity with empirical models of fatality losses calibrated on past earthquakes in each country. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify as many as possible of the felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the US Geological Survey, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. All together, we estimate that the number of detected felt earthquakes is around 1 000 per year, compared with the 35 000 earthquakes annually reported by the EMSC! Felt events are already the subject of the web page "Latest significant earthquakes" on EMSC website (http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/significant_earthquakes.php) and of a dedicated Twitter service @LastQuake. We will present the identification process of the earthquakes that matter, the smartphone application itself (to be released in May) and its future evolutions.

  8. Using of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Earthquakes Activities Along the Northern Part of the Syrian Rift System (LEFT-LATERAL),SYRIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalati, Moutaz

    Earthquake mitigation can be achieved with a better knowledge of a region's infra-and substructures. High resolution Remote Sensing data can play a significant role to implement Geological mapping and it is essential to learn about the tectonic setting of a region. It is an effective method to identify active faults from different sources of Remote Sensing and compare the capability of some satellite sensors in active faults survey. In this paper, it was discussed a few digital image processing approaches to be used for enhancement and feature extraction related to faults. Those methods include band ratio, filtering and texture statistics . The experimental results show that multi-spectral images have great potentials in large scale active faults investigation. It has also got satisfied results when deal with invisible faults. Active Faults have distinct features in satellite images. Usually, there are obvious straight lines, circular structures and other distinct patterns along the faults locations. Remotely Sensed imagery Landsat ETM and SPOT XS /PAN are often used in active faults mapping. Moderate and high resolution satellite images are the best choice, because in low resolution images, the faults features may not be visible in most cases. The area under study is located Northwest of Syria that is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today. This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift system (Left-Lateral or African- Syrian Rift System). Those areas are tectonically active and caused a lot of seismically events. The AL-Ghab graben complex is situated within this wide area of Cenozoic deformation. The system formed, initially, as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate. This action indicates that these sites are active and in a continual movement. In addition to that, the statistic analysis of Thematic Mapper data and the features from a digital elevation model ( DEM )produced from

  9. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Valencia, Ayunda Aulia

    2015-04-24

    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 180{sup 0}. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic network can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  10. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Valencia, Ayunda Aulia

    2015-04-01

    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 1800. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic network can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  11. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  12. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  13. Selected natural attenuation monitoring data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport, Washington. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at OU 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during June 17-20, 2003 in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Strongly reducing conditions favorable for reductive dechlorination of CVOCs were found in fewer upper-aquifer wells during June 2003 than were found during sampling periods in 2001 and 2002. Redox conditions in water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. As was noted in previous monitoring reports, the changes in redox conditions observed at individual wells have not been consistent or substantial throughout either the upper or the intermediate aquifers. Compared to 2002 data, total CVOC concentrations in June 2003 were nearly unchanged in all northern plantation piezometers sampled, although the concentrations were historically low at two of those sites. Total CVOC concentrations decreased consistently in the southern plantation samples. Historically low total CVOC concentrations were observed in three of the piezometers sampled, and a two order-of-magnitude decrease in total CVOCs was observed at one of those sites. The observed decreases in CVOC concentrations appear to be in contrast with the 2003 redox data that suggested less favorable conditions for reductive dechlorination. The Navy and USGS plan to do more extensive data-collection and interpretation during 2004 to better understand and document possible changes in redox conditions and contaminant biodegradation.

  14. Design and characterization of the beam monitor detectors of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordanengo, S.; Donetti, M.; Garella, M. A.; Marchetto, F.; Alampi, G.; Ansarinejad, A.; Monaco, V.; Mucchi, M.; Pecka, I. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Scalise, M.; Tomba, C.; Cirio, R.

    2013-01-01

    A new hadron-therapy facility implementing an active beam scanning technique has been developed at the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO). This paper presents the design and the characterization of the beam monitor detectors developed for the on-line monitoring and control of the dose delivered during a treatment at CNAO. The detectors are based on five parallel-plate transmission ionization chambers with either a single large electrode or electrodes segmented in 128 strips (strip chambers) and 32×32 pixels (pixel chamber). The detectors are arranged in two independent boxes with an active area larger than 200×200 mm2 and a total water equivalent thickness along the beam path of about 0.9 mm. A custom front-end chip with 64 channels converts the integrated ionization channels without dead-time. The detectors were tested at the clinical proton beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) which implements a spot scanning technique, each spot being characterized by a predefined number of protons delivered with a pencil beam in a specified point of the irradiation field. The short-term instability was measured by delivering several identical spots in a time interval of few tenths of seconds and is found to be lower than 0.3%. The non-uniformity, measured by delivering sequences of spots in different points of the detector surface, results to be lower than 1% in the single electrode chambers and lower than 1.5% in the strip and pixel chambers, reducing to less than 0.5% and 1% in the restricted 100×100 mm2 central area of the detector.

  15. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  16. Anomalous Schumann resonance observed in China, possibly associated with Honshu, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Shen, X. H.; Miao, Y. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Schumann resonance (hereafter SR) occurs in the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere, and it is originated by the global lightning activities [1]. Some recent publications showed that anomalous SR phenomena may occur before major earthquakes [2-4]. Considering good prospects for the application of SR in Earthquake monitoring, we have established four observatories in Yunnan province, a region with frequent seismicity in the southwest of China. Our instruments can provide three components of magnetic field in 0-30 Hz, including BNS(North-South component), BEW(East-West component) and BV (Vertical component). The sample frequency is 100 Hz. In this research, we use high quality data recorded at Yongsheng observatory (geographic coordinates: 26.7° N, 100.77°E) to analyze SR phenomena to find out anomalous effects possibly related with the Ms9.0 Earthquake (epicenter: 38.297° N, 142.372° E) near the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011. We select the data 15 days before and after the earthquake. SR in BNS and SR in BEWappear different in background characteristics. Frequencies of four SR modes in BNSare generally higher than that in BEW. Amplitude of SR in BNSis strong at around 05:00 LT, 15:00 LT and 23:00 LT of the day, while amplitude of SR in BEW is just intense around 16:00 LT, corresponding to about 08:00 UT. Because American, African and Asian thunderstorm centers play their dominant roles respectively in the intervals of 21:00UT±1h, 15:00UT±1h and 08:00UT±1h [1, 3], we can see that SR in BEWis most sensitive to signals from Asian center and SR in BNS is in good response to three centers. SR in BNS and SR in BEW have presented different features in the aspect of anomalous effects related with earthquakes. BEW component gives us a clear picture of anomalous SR phenomena, which are characterized by increase in amplitude of four SR modes and increase in frequency at first SR mode several days before the earthquake. The amplitude of four SR

  17. Investigation on the Possible Relationship between Magnetic Pulsations and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, M.; Liu, H.; Yumoto, K.; Uozumi, T.; Takla, E. M.; Yousif Suliman, M. E.; Kawano, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Asillam, M.; Hashim, M.

    2012-12-01

    The sun is the main source of energy to the solar system, and it plays a major role in affecting the ionosphere, atmosphere and the earth surface. The connection between solar wind and the ground magnetic pulsations has been proven empirically by several researchers previously (H. J. Singer et al., 1977, E. W. Greenstadt, 1979, I. A. Ansari 2006 to name a few). In our preliminary statistical analysis on relationship between solar and seismic activities (Jusoh and Yumoto, 2011, Jusoh et al., 2012), we observed a high possibility of solar-terrestrial coupling. We observed high tendency of earthquakes to occur during lower phase solar cycles which significantly related with solar wind parameters (i.e solar wind dynamic pressure, speed and input energy). However a clear coupling mechanism was not established yet. To connect the solar impact on seismicity, we investigate the possibility of ground magnetic pulsations as one of the connecting agent. In our analysis, the recorded ground magnetic pulsations are analyzed at different ranges of ultra low frequency; Pc3 (22-100 mHz), Pc4 (6.7-22 mHz) and Pc5 (1.7-6.7 mHz) with the occurrence of local earthquake events at certain time periods. This analysis focuses at 2 different major seismic regions; north Japan (mid latitude) and north Sumatera, Indonesia (low latitude). Solar wind parameters were obtained from the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA via the OMNIWeb Data Explorer and the Space Physics Data Facility. Earthquake events were extracted from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) database. The localized Pc3-Pc5 magnetic pulsations data were extracted from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS)/Circum Pan Magnetic Network (CPMN) located at Ashibetsu (Japan); for earthquakes monitored at north Japan and Langkawi (Malaysia); for earthquakes observed at north Sumatera. This magnetometer arrays has established by International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University, Japan. From the

  18. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Latin America: Process and Methods for a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Silvia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy; Petroni, Gustavo; Pridgeon, Jim; Barber, Jason; Machamer, Joan; Cherner, Mariana; Chaddock, Kelley; Hendrix, Terence; Rondina, Carlos; Videtta, Walter; Celix, Juanita M.; Chesnut, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the influence on important outcomes of the use of information from intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to direct treatment has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We are conducting an RCT in six trauma centers in Latin America to test this question. We hypothesize that patients randomized to ICP monitoring will have lower mortality and better outcomes at 6-months post-trauma than patients treated without ICP monitoring. We selected three centers in Bolivia to participate in the trial, based on (1) the absence of ICP monitoring, (2) adequate patient accession and data collection during the pilot phase, (3) preliminary institutional review board approval, and (4) the presence of equipoise about the value of ICP monitoring. We conducted extensive training of site personnel, and initiated the trial on September 1, 2008. Subsequently, we included three additional centers. A total of 176 patients were entered into the trial as of August 31, 2010. Current enrollment is 81% of that expected. The trial is expected to reach its enrollment goal of 324 patients by September of 2011. We are conducting a high-quality RCT to answer a question that is important globally. In addition, we are establishing the capacity to conduct strong research in Latin America, where TBI is a serious epidemic. Finally, we are demonstrating the feasibility and utility of international collaborations that share resources and unique patient populations to conduct strong research about global public health concerns. PMID:22435793

  19. Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury in latin america: process and methods for a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carney, Nancy; Lujan, Silvia; Dikmen, Sureyya; Temkin, Nancy; Petroni, Gustavo; Pridgeon, Jim; Barber, Jason; Machamer, Joan; Cherner, Mariana; Chaddock, Kelley; Hendrix, Terence; Rondina, Carlos; Videtta, Walter; Celix, Juanita M; Chesnut, Randall

    2012-07-20

    In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the influence on important outcomes of the use of information from intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring to direct treatment has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We are conducting an RCT in six trauma centers in Latin America to test this question. We hypothesize that patients randomized to ICP monitoring will have lower mortality and better outcomes at 6-months post-trauma than patients treated without ICP monitoring. We selected three centers in Bolivia to participate in the trial, based on (1) the absence of ICP monitoring, (2) adequate patient accession and data collection during the pilot phase, (3) preliminary institutional review board approval, and (4) the presence of equipoise about the value of ICP monitoring. We conducted extensive training of site personnel, and initiated the trial on September 1, 2008. Subsequently, we included three additional centers. A total of 176 patients were entered into the trial as of August 31, 2010. Current enrollment is 81% of that expected. The trial is expected to reach its enrollment goal of 324 patients by September of 2011. We are conducting a high-quality RCT to answer a question that is important globally. In addition, we are establishing the capacity to conduct strong research in Latin America, where TBI is a serious epidemic. Finally, we are demonstrating the feasibility and utility of international collaborations that share resources and unique patient populations to conduct strong research about global public health concerns.

  20. The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake aftershock sequence, event catalog and locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, A.; Benz, H.; Brown, L.; Russo, R. M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The aftershock sequence of the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010 is one of the most well-recorded aftershock sequences from a great megathrust earthquake. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of geophysicists from Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States coordinated resources to capture aftershocks and other seismic signals associated with this significant earthquake. In total, 91 broadband, 48 short period, and 25 accelerometers stations were deployed above the rupture zone of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. In order to integrate these data into a unified catalog, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center develop procedures to use their real-time seismic monitoring system (Bulletin Hydra) to detect, associate, location and compute earthquake source parameters from these stations. As a first step in the process, the USGS has built a seismic catalog of all M3.5 or larger earthquakes for the time period of the main aftershock deployment from March 2010-October 2010. The catalog includes earthquake locations, magnitudes (Ml, Mb, Mb_BB, Ms, Ms_BB, Ms_VX, Mc), associated phase readings and regional moment tensor solutions for most of the M4 or larger events. Also included in the catalog are teleseismic phases and amplitude measures and body-wave MT and CMT solutions for the larger events, typically M5.5 and larger. Tuning of automated detection and association parameters should allow a complete catalog of events to approximately M2.5 or larger for that dataset of more than 164 stations. We characterize the aftershock sequence in terms of magnitude, frequency, and location over time. Using the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. In addition, phase data from candidate ground truth events and modeling of surface waves can be used to calibrate the

  1. Development of a telecare system based on ZigBee mesh network for monitoring blood pressure of patients with hemodialysis in health care centers.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lee, You-Yun; Lu, Yun-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jei; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong

    2011-10-01

    In Taiwan, the number of the patients needing dialysis increases rapidly in recent years. Because there is risk in every hemodialysis session, monitoring physiological status, such as blood pressure measurement every 30 min to 1 h is needed during about 4 h hemodialysis process. Therefore, an assisted measurement on blood pressure is needful in dialysis care centers. Telecare system (TCS) is regarded as one of important technique in the medical care. In this study, we utilized ZigBee wireless technique to establish a mesh network for monitoring blood pressure automatically and data storage in medical record system for display and further analysis. Moreover, while the blood pressure exceeds the normal range, the system could send a warning signal to remind, or inform the relatives and clinicians in health care center through the personal handy-phone system (PHS) immediately. The proposed system provides an assisted device for monitoring patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis process and saving medical manpower.

  2. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  3. PAGER - Rapid Assessment of an Earthquake's Impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.

    2007-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system to rapidly assess the number of people and regions exposed to severe shaking by an earthquake, and inform emergency responders, government agencies, and the media to the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER monitors the U.S. Geological Survey?s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake detections and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts.

  4. Multiple asperity model for earthquake prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyss, M.; Johnston, A.C.; Klein, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Large earthquakes often occur as multiple ruptures reflecting strong variations of stress level along faults. Dense instrument networks with which the volcano Kilauea is monitored provided detailed data on changes of seismic velocity, strain accumulation and earthquake occurrence rate before the 1975 Hawaii 7.2-mag earthquake. During the ???4 yr of preparation time the mainshock source volume had separated into crustal volumes of high stress levels embedded in a larger low-stress volume, showing respectively high- and low-stress precursory anomalies. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Identification of Deep Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    develop a ground truth dataset of earthquakes at both normal crustal depths and earthquakes from subduction zones , below the overlying crust. Many...deep earthquakes (depths between about 50 and 300 km). These deep earthquakes are known to occur in the Asia-India continental collision zone ...and/or NIL, as these stations are within a few hundred km of the zone where deep earthquakes are known to occur. To date we have selected about 300

  6. Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

    2007-05-01

    The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes

  7. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  8. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  9. The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

  10. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with on-going natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. In this report are groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 18-21, 2007, and June 16-18, 2008, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2007 and 2008, strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 9 of 16 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in groundwater from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations measured in the upper aquifer during 2007 and 2008 generally have been lower than H2 concentrations measured before 2002. However, widespread and relatively high methane and sulfide concentrations indicate that the lower H2 concentrations measured do not support a trend from strongly to mildly reducing redox conditions because no widespread changes in groundwater redox conditions were identified that should result in less favorable conditions for the reductive dechlorination of the

  11. First Observation of Coseismic Seafloor Crustal Deformation due to M7 Class Earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.; Ando, M.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Besana, G. M.; Kuno, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Mw7.3 and 7.5 earthquakes (Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes) occurred close to the source region of the anticipated Tonankai Trough in September 5, 2004. The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes have no low angle nodal planes, which shows that the earthquakes are intraplate earthquakes in the Philippine Sea Plate. We observed coseismic horizontal displacement due to the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes by means of a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation, which is the first observation of coseismic seafloor displacement in the world. We have developed a system for observing seafloor crustal deformation. The observation system is composed of 1) acoustic measurement between a ship transducer and sea-bottom transponders, and 2) kinematic GPS positioning of the observation vessel. We have installed a seafloor benchmark close to the epicenters of the Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes. The benchmark is composed of three sea-bottom transponders. The location of benchmark is defined as the weight center of the three transponders. We can determine the location of benchmark with an accuracy of about 5 cm at each observation. We have repeatedly measured the seafloor benchmark six times up to now: 1) July 12-16 and 21-22, 2004, 2) November 9-10, 3) January 19, 2005, 4) May 18-20, 5) July 19-20, and 6) August 18-19 and 29-30. The Off Kii-Peninsula Earthquakes occurred during the above monitoring period. The coseismic horizontal displacement of about 21 cm toward SSE was observed at our seafloor benchmark. The displacement is 3.5 times as large as the maximum displacement observed by on land GPS network in Japan, GEONET. The monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation is effective to detect the deformations associated with earthquakes occurring in ocean areas. This study is promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We are grateful to the captain and crews of Research Vessel, Asama, of Mie Prefectural

  12. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  13. Earthquake friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory friction slip experiments on rocks provide firm evidence that the static friction coefficient μ has values ∼0.7. This would imply large amounts of heat produced by seismically active faults, but no heat flow anomaly is observed, and mineralogic evidence of frictional heating is virtually absent. This stands for lower μ values ∼0.2, as also required by the observed orientation of faults with respect to the maximum compressive stress. We show that accounting for the thermal and mechanical energy balance of the system removes this inconsistence, implying a multi-stage strain release process. The first stage consists of a small and slow aseismic slip at high friction on pre-existent stress concentrators within the fault volume but angled with the main fault as Riedel cracks. This introduces a second stage dominated by frictional temperature increase inducing local pressurization of pore fluids around the slip patches, which is in turn followed by a third stage in which thermal diffusion extends the frictionally heated zones making them coalesce into a connected pressurized region oriented as the fault plane. Then, the system enters a state of equivalent low static friction in which it can undergo the fast elastic radiation slip prescribed by dislocation earthquake models.

  14. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  15. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  16. Precursory signals around epicenters and local active faults prior to inland or coastal earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh Alvan, Habibeh

    Although earthquakes are still considered as unpredictable phenomenon but scientific efforts during the past decade have revealed some pronounced changes in the quality and quantity of some materials and natural phenomenon on and above the earth’s surface taking place before strong shakes. Pre-earthquake physical and chemical interactions in the earth’s ground may cause anomalies in temperature, surface latent heat flux (SLHF), relative humidity, upwelling index and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration on the ground or sea surface. Earthquakes are triggered when the energy accumulated in rocks releases causing ruptures in place of faults. The main purpose of this study is to explore and demonstrate possibility of any changes in surface temperature or latent heat flux before, during and after earthquakes. We expect that variations in these factors are accompanied with the increase of Chl-a concentration on the sea surface and upwelling events prior to coastal earthquake events. For monitoring the changes in surface temperature we used NOAA-AVHRR and microwave radiometers like AMSR-E/Aqua data. SLHF data and upwelling indices are provided by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis Project and Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL) respectively. Chl-a concentration is also available in MODIS website. Our detailed analyses show significant increase of SLHF and upwelling of nutrient-rich water prior to the main events which is attributed to the raise in surface temperature and Chl-a concentration at that time. Meaningful increases in temperature, relative humidity and SLHF variations from weeks before the earthquakes in epicentral areas and along local active faults are revealed. In addition, considerable anomalies in Chl-a concentration are also attributed to the raise in upwelling index.

  17. A continuation of base-line studies for environmentally monitoring Space Transportation Systems at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Volume 2: Chemical studies of rainfall and soil analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study which was designed to monitor, characterize, and evaluate the chemical composition of precipitation (rain) which fell at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC) during the period July 1977 to March 1979 are reported. Results which were obtained from a soil sampling and associated chemical analysis are discussed. The purpose of these studies was to determine the environmental perturbations which might be caused by NASA space activities.

  18. Disruption of Groundwater System by Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. Y.; Liao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes can enhance permeability of groundwater systems at great distances. Here we use the tidal response of the water level in a deep well (~4 km) in the near field of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, western China, to investigate how large earthquakes may disrupt groundwater systems in the near field. The well is located near the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and 21 km from the ruptured fault of the Wenchuan earthquake, and is the only well we have found that is in the near field of a large earthquake and showed clear tidal signals before and after the earthquake. The well is open to a Triassic medium-grained sandstone aquifer confined by thick layers of shales on both sides. We show from tidal analysis of the water level in the well that large earthquakes can change not only the permeability but also the poroelastic properties of a groundwater system in an unexpected way. Using the lithologic well logs and experimental data for rock physical properties we interpret this change to reflect the breaching of aquitards of the groundwater system to depths of several km. Such disruption may connect previously isolated groundwater domains to impact groundwater supply, safety of underground waste repository, and hydrocarbon production. The method demonstrated here holds promise for monitoring the breaching of aquitards by hydraulic fracturing of shales during hydrocarbon production and deep injection of waste water.

  19. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents ground-water geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 12-14, 2006, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For June 2006, the strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of VOCs were inferred for 5 of 15 upper-aquifer sites in the northern and southern phytoremediation plantations. Predominant redox conditions in ground water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient from the landfill remained mildly reducing and somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. Since about 2003, measured dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the upper aquifer generally have been lower than those previously measured, although methane and sulfide have continued to be detected throughout the upper aquifer beneath the landfill. Overall, no widespread changes in ground-water redox conditions were measured that should result in either more or less efficient biodegradation of chlorinated VOCs. For the northern plantation in 2006, chlorinated VOC concentrations at piezometers P1-3 and P1-4 were lower than previously measured, and trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), or vinyl chloride (VC) were not detected at piezometers P1-1 and P1-5. The steady decrease in contaminant concentrations and the continued detection of the reductive dechlorination end-products ethene and ethane have been consistent throughout the upper aquifer beneath the northern plantation. For the southern

  20. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in shallow ground water beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU-1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor ground-water geochemistry to assure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation. This report presents the ground-water geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU-1 by the USGS during June 21-24, 2005, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For June 2005, the strongly reducing conditions (sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) most favorable for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated VOCs were detected in fewer upper-aquifer wells than were detected during 2004. Redox conditions in ground water from the intermediate aquifer just downgradient of the landfill remained somewhat favorable for reductive dechlorination. Overall, the changes in redox conditions observed at individual wells have not been consistent or substantial throughout either the upper or the intermediate aquifers. In apparent contrast to changes in redox conditions, the chlorinated VOC concentrations were lower than previously measured in many of the piezometers in the northern phytoremediation plantation. The decrease in contaminant concentrations beneath the northern plantation and the end-product (ethane and ethene) evidence for reductive dechlorination are consistent with 2000-04 results. In the southern phytoremediation plantation, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations were variable. Most notable was a substantial decrease in the sum of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride concentrations at piezometer P1-9 from 75,000 to 1,000 micrograms per liter between 2004 and 2005. The high concentrations of the reductive dechlorination end-products ethane and ethene measured at the most

  1. The land subsidence of the Venice historical center: twenty years of monitoring by SAR-based interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    The subsidence of Venice, one of the most beautiful and famous cities in the world, is well known not by reason of the magnitude of the ground movement, which amounts to less than 15 cm over the last century, but because it has seriously compromised the ground safety level of the city in relation of its small elevation above the sea. The lowering of Venice is still today a subject of debates with large rumours on press releases every time a scientific paper is published on the topic. Over the last two decades, satellites instrumented with SAR sensors provided excellent data for detecting land displacements by inteferometric processing. In particular, the accuracy achieved by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and the impressive number of detected measurement points have progressively reduced the use of in situ traditional measurements, i.e. leveling survey, for monitoring land displacements of Venice. In fact, the intensive urban development makes the historical center an optimal site for PSI. On the other hand, the correct interpretation of the PSI outcomes, which provide the relative movement of single churches, palaces, bridges with millimetric precision and metric spatial resolution, require a deep knowledge of the city and its subsoil due to the peculiarity of this urban area developed over the centuries within the sea. We investigate the movements of Venice by Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) over the last 20 years using SAR acquisitions of the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites. The density of detected scatterers is one order of magnitude larger with the newest very high resolution X-band sensors from TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed, but by reason of the larger observation period the accuracy of the mean displacement rate of the C-band ERS and ENVISAT is higher. IPTA results have been calibrated using leveling and permanent GPS stations to correct the so-called flattening problem, i.e. the slight phase tilt resulting by

  2. Human-centered design for neonatal apnea monitoring: application of the UFuRT process to analyze a monitor display layout.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Timothy S

    2008-11-06

    Resolution of apnea of prematurity is a criterion for hospital discharge of the preterm infant. False alarms recorded as true events can prolong hospitalization and increase cost of care. The UFuRT process was used to analyze neonatal apnea monitoring, using a typical monitor display. The goals were to determine 1) the data needed to recognize true events and reject false alarms, and 2) how the display layout could be modified to better support these tasks.

  3. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  4. The size of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.

    1980-01-01

    How we should measure the size of an earthquake has been historically a very important, as well as a very difficult, seismological problem. For example, figure 1 shows the loss of life caused by earthquakes in recent times and clearly demonstrates that 1976 was the worst year for earthquake casualties in the 20th century. However, the damage caused by an earthquake is due not only to its physical size but also to other factors such as where and when it occurs; thus, figure 1 is not necessarily an accurate measure of the "size" of earthquakes in 1976. the point is that the physical process underlying an earthquake is highly complex; we therefore cannot express every detail of an earthquake by a simple straightforward parameter. Indeed, it would be very convenient if we could find a single number that represents the overall physical size of an earthquake. This was in fact the concept behind the Richter magnitude scale introduced in 1935. 

  5. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. Earthquake Animations A trench dug across a fault to learn about past earthquakes. Science Fair Projects ... History A scientist stands in front of a fault scarp in southern California. Damage to badly-constructed ...

  6. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  7. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  8. Estimating earthquake potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hazards to life and property from earthquakes can be minimized in three ways. First, structures can be designed and built to resist the effects of earthquakes. Second, the location of structures and human activities can be chosen to avoid or to limit the use of areas known to be subject to serious earthquake hazards. Third, preparations for an earthquake in response to a prediction or warning can reduce the loss of life and damage to property as well as promote a rapid recovery from the disaster. The success of the first two strategies, earthquake engineering and land use planning, depends on being able to reliably estimate the earthquake potential. The key considerations in defining the potential of a region are the location, size, and character of future earthquakes and frequency of their occurrence. Both historic seismicity of the region and the geologic record are considered in evaluating earthquake potential. 

  9. The Performance of Trauma Research Centers of Iran during the Past 10 Years; A Science Monitor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Shamsedini, Narges; Shayan, Leila; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Bolandparvaz, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and evaluation of scores of trauma research center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran with other trauma research centers in Iran. Methods: The assessment scores of each center were gathered from Iran medical research and Ministry of Health and Medical Education website. Each score is recorded in helical year which is defined from the 21th of March of every year until the 20th of March of the next. They are ranked and scored by knowledge production, capacity development, and research projects. Results: The total evaluation scores of the trauma research center of Iran's Universities of Medical Sciences have increased from establishment. The highest increase in assessment scores was related to Tehran Trauma Research Center. An upward trend was observed in the total indicators of knowledge production index of all the trauma research centers from 2001/2002 to 2011/2012. An ascending trend was showed in the published articles score of Shiraz and Kashan Trauma Research Centers through the recent years. Conclusion: The increasing trend in scores of trauma research centers in Iran indicated a significant role in the knowledge production but it is need to find barriers of research and doing interventional projects to promote trauma care and prevention. PMID:27162863

  10. Combining Real-time Seismic and Geodetic Data to Improve Rapid Earthquake Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, M. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Gee, L. S.; Dreger, D. S.; Basset, A.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The Berkeley Seismological Laboratory operates seismic and geodetic stations in the San Francisco Bay area and northern California for earthquake and deformation monitoring. The seismic systems, part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN), include strong motion and broadband sensors, and 24-bit dataloggers. The data from 20 GPS stations, part of the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of more than 70 stations in northern California, are acquired in real-time. We have developed methods to acquire GPS data at 12 stations that are collocated with the seismic systems using the seismic dataloggers, which have large on-site data buffer and storage capabilities, merge it with the seismic data stream in MiniSeed format, and continuously stream both data types using reliable frame relay and/or radio modem telemetry. Currently, the seismic data are incorporated into the Rapid Earthquake Data Integration (REDI) project to provide notification of earthquake magnitude, location, moment tensor, and strong motion information for hazard mitigation and emergency response activities. The geodetic measurements can provide complementary constraints on earthquake faulting, including the location and extent of the rupture plane, unambiguous resolution of the nodal plane, and distribution of slip on the fault plane, which can be used, for example, to refine strong motion shake maps. We are developing methods to rapidly process the geodetic data to monitor transient deformation, such as coseismic station displacements, and for combining this information with the seismic observations to improve finite-fault characterization of large earthquakes. The GPS data are currently processed at hourly intervals with 2-cm precision in horizontal position, and we are beginning a pilot project in the Bay Area in collaboration with the California Spatial Reference Center to do epoch-by-epoch processing with greater precision.

  11. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2016-07-12

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  12. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  13. Response to major earthquakes affecting Gemini twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, Michiel; Rogers, Rolando; Rippa, Mathew; Perez, Gabriel; Montes, Vanessa; Moreno, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Both Gemini telescopes, in Hawaii and Chile, are located in highly seismic active areas. That means that the seismic protection is included in the structural design of the telescope, instruments and auxiliary structure. We will describe the specific design features to reduce permanent damage in case of major earthquakes. At this moment both telescopes have been affected by big earthquakes in 2006 and 2015 respectively. There is an opportunity to compare the original design to the effects that are caused by these earthquakes and analyze their effectiveness. The paper describes the way the telescopes responded to these events, the damage that was caused, how we recovered from it, the modifications we have done to avoid some of this damage in future occasions, and lessons learned to face this type of events. Finally we will cover on how we pretend to upgrade the limited monitoring tools we currently have in place to measure the impact of earthquakes.

  14. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  15. Retrospective stress-forecasting of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Observations of changes in azimuthally varying shear-wave splitting (SWS) above swarms of small earthquakes monitor stress-induced changes to the stress-aligned vertical microcracks pervading the upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost ~400km of the mantle. (The microcracks are intergranular films of hydrolysed melt in the mantle.) Earthquakes release stress, and an appropriate amount of stress for the relevant magnitude must accumulate before each event. Iceland is on an extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where two transform zones, uniquely run onshore. These onshore transform zones provide semi-continuous swarms of small earthquakes, which are the only place worldwide where SWS can be routinely monitored. Elsewhere SWS must be monitored above temporally-active occasional swarms of small earthquakes, or in infrequent SKS and other teleseismic reflections from the mantle. Observations of changes in SWS time-delays are attributed to stress-induced changes in crack aspect-ratios allowing stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation to be identified. Monitoring SWS in SW Iceland in 1988, stress-accumulation before an impending earthquake was recognised and emails were exchanged between the University of Edinburgh (EU) and the Iceland Meteorological Office (IMO). On 10th November 1988, EU emailed IMO that a M5 earthquake could occur soon on a seismically-active fault plane where seismicity was still continuing following a M5.1 earthquake six-months earlier. Three-days later, IMO emailed EU that a M5 earthquake had just occurred on the specified fault-plane. We suggest this is a successful earthquake stress-forecast, where we refer to the procedure as stress-forecasting earthquakes as opposed to predicting or forecasting to emphasise the different formalism. Lack of funds has prevented us monitoring SWS on Iceland seismograms, however, we have identified similar characteristic behaviour of SWS time-delays above swarms of small earthquakes which have enabled us to

  16. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  17. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  18. Can We Predict Earthquakes?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-08-31

    The only thing we know for sure about earthquakes is that one will happen again very soon. Earthquakes pose a vital yet puzzling set of research questions that have confounded scientists for decades, but new ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes — and when.

  19. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  20. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  1. Can We Predict Earthquakes?

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-09-09

    The only thing we know for sure about earthquakes is that one will happen again very soon. Earthquakes pose a vital yet puzzling set of research questions that have confounded scientists for decades, but new ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes — and when.

  2. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  3. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas

    SciTech Connect

    SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

    1999-08-01

    This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

  4. Engaging Students in Earthquake Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, I. E.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center Communication, Education, and Outreach program (SCEC CEO) has been collaborating with the University of Southern California (USC) Joint Education Project (JEP) and the Education Consortium of Central Los Angeles (ECCLA) to work directly with the teachers and schools in the local community around USC. The community surrounding USC is 57 % Hispanic (US Census, 2000) and 21% African American (US Census, 2000). Through the partnership with ECCLA SCEC has created a three week enrichment intersession program, targeting disadvantaged students at the fourth/fifth grade level, dedicated entirely to earthquakes. SCEC builds partnerships with the intersession teachers, working together to actively engage the students in learning about earthquakes. SCEC provides a support system for the teachers, supplying them with the necessary content background as well as classroom manipulatives. SCEC goes into the classrooms with guest speakers and take the students out of the classroom on two field trips. There are four intersession programs each year. SCEC is also working with USC's Joint Education Project program. The JEP program has been recognized as one of the "oldest and best organized" Service-Learning programs in the country (TIME Magazine and the Princeton Review, 2000). Through this partnership SCEC is providing USC students with the necessary tools to go out to the local schools and teach students of all grade levels about earthquakes. SCEC works with the USC students to design engaging lesson plans that effectively convey content regarding earthquakes. USC students can check out hands-on/interactive materials to use in the classrooms from the SCEC Resource Library. In both these endeavors SCEC has expanded our outreach to the local community. SCEC is reaching over 200 minority children each year through our partnerships, and this number will increase as our programs grow.

  5. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  6. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  7. Research on earthquake prediction from infrared cloud images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Yan, Liang; Gong, Jing; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of large earthquakes is frequent all over the word. In the face of the inevitable natural disasters, the prediction of the earthquake is particularly important to avoid more loss of life and property. Many achievements in the field of predict earthquake from remote sensing images have been obtained in the last few decades. But the traditional prediction methods presented do have the limitations of can't forecast epicenter location accurately and automatically. In order to solve the problem, a new predicting earthquakes method based on extract the texture and emergence frequency of the earthquake cloud is proposed in this paper. First, strengthen the infrared cloud images. Second, extract the texture feature vector of each pixel. Then, classified those pixels and converted to several small suspected area. Finally, tracking the suspected area and estimate the possible location. The inversion experiment of Ludian earthquake show that this approach can forecast the seismic center feasible and accurately.

  8. A new physical model for earthquake time interval distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a new physical model for time interval distribution of earthquakes, which was obtained by borrowing the idea from the research in the time interval distribution of sand-dust storms. Of the model, it was hypothesized that the earthquakes were induced by the magma movement inside the earth, and if the speed of magma ≥ threshold value Ut, the earthquakes with magnitude ≥ M occurred. With this model, it was obtained that for the earthquakes with magnitude ≥ M there existed lg N(> t) = c - dt, where N was the number of time intervals longer than t; the value d decreased with M. This result was also verified by analyzing the earthquake data from the China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC).

  9. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  10. Earthquake Hazard in the Heart of the Homeland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that earthquakes threaten the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash River valleys of the Central United States abounds. In fact, several of the largest historical earthquakes to strike the continental United States occurred in the winter of 1811-1812 along the New Madrid seismic zone, which stretches from just west of Memphis, Tenn., into southern Illinois. Several times in the past century, moderate earthquakes have been widely felt in the Wabash Valley seismic zone along the southern border of Illinois and Indiana. Throughout the region, between 150 and 200 earthquakes are recorded annually by a network of monitoring instruments, although most are too small to be felt by people. Geologic evidence for prehistoric earthquakes throughout the region has been mounting since the late 1970s. But how significant is the threat? How likely are large earthquakes and, more importantly, what is the chance that the shaking they cause will be damaging?

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Earthquake Forecasts during the 2010-12 Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.; Taroni, M.; Zechar, J. D.; Gerstenberger, M.; Liukis, M.; Rhoades, D. A.; Cattania, C.; Christophersen, A.; Hainzl, S.; Helmstetter, A.; Jimenez, A.; Steacy, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand (NZ), earthquake triggered a complex earthquake cascade that provides a wealth of new scientific data to study earthquake triggering and the predictive skill of statistical and physics-based forecasting models. To this end, the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is conducting a retrospective evaluation of over a dozen short-term forecasting models that were developed by groups in New Zealand, Europe and the US. The statistical model group includes variants of the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model, non-parametric kernel smoothing models, and the Short-Term Earthquake Probabilities (STEP) model. The physics-based model group includes variants of the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis, which are embedded either in Dieterich's (1994) rate-state formulation or in statistical Omori-Utsu clustering formulations (hybrid models). The goals of the CSEP evaluation are to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms governing earthquake triggering, to improve short-term earthquake forecasting models and time-dependent hazard assessment for the Canterbury area, and to understand the influence of poor-quality, real-time data on the skill of operational (real-time) forecasts. To assess the latter, we use the earthquake catalog data that the NZ CSEP Testing Center archived in near real-time during the earthquake sequence and compare the predictive skill of models using the archived data as input with the skill attained using the best available data today. We present results of the retrospective model comparison and discuss implications for operational earthquake forecasting.

  12. Seismo Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, C.; Lin, C.

    2011-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred near the east coast of Honshu (Tohoku area), Japan producing overwhelming Earth's surface motions and inducing devastating tsunami waves on 11 March 2011. The seismic and tsunami waves further excited atmospheric pressure waves near the Earth's surface, which then traveled into the ionosphere and significantly disturbed the electron density within it, hereafter referred to as the seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs). The total electron content (TEC) derived from nationwide GPS receiving networks in Japan and Taiwan is employed to monitor STIDs triggered by seismic and tsunami waves of the Tohoku earthquake. The STIDs first appear as a disk-shape TEC increase about 7 minutes after the earthquake occurrence centered at about 200 km east of the epicenter, near the west edge of Japan Trench. Fast propagating disturbances related to Rayleigh waves quickly travel away from the epicenter along the main island of Japan with a speed of 2.3-3.3km/s, accompanied by sequences of concentric circular TEC wavefronts (acoustic gravity waves) and followed by circular ripples (tsunami waves whit a speed of about 720-800km/hr) travel away from the STID center together with various confounded acoustic gravity waves of 290-1500 m/s. These are the most remarkable STIDs ever observed where signatures of Rayleigh waves, acoustic gravity waves, and tsunami waves, etc. simultaneously appear in the ionosphere.

  13. Unexpectedly frequent occurrence of very small repeating earthquakes (-5.1 ≤ Mw ≤ -3.6) in a South African gold mine: Implications for monitoring intraplate faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Igarashi, Toshihiro; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Yabe, Yasuo; Kgarume, Thabang; Murakami, Osamu; Masakale, Thabang; Ribeiro, Luiz; Ward, Anthony; Moriya, Hirokazu; Kawakata, Hironori; Nakao, Shigeru; Durrheim, Raymond; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We observed very small repeating earthquakes with -5.1 ≤ Mw ≤ -3.6 on a geological fault at 1 km depth in a gold mine in South Africa. Of the 851 acoustic emissions that occurred on the fault during the 2 month analysis period, 45% were identified as repeaters on the basis of waveform similarity and relative locations. They occurred steadily at the same location with similar magnitudes, analogous to repeaters at plate boundaries, suggesting that they are repeat ruptures of the same asperity loaded by the surrounding aseismic slip (background creep). Application of the Nadeau and Johnson (1998) empirical formula (NJ formula), which relates the amount of background creep and repeater activity and is well established for plate boundary faults, to the present case yielded an impossibly large estimate of the background creep. This means that the presently studied repeaters were produced more efficiently, for a given amount of background creep, than expected from the NJ formula. When combined with an independently estimated average stress drop of 16 MPa, which is not particularly high, it suggests that the small asperities of the presently studied repeaters had a high seismic coupling (almost unity), in contrast to one physical interpretation of the plate boundary repeaters. The productivity of such repeaters, per unit background creep, is expected to increase strongly as smaller repeaters are considered (∝ Mo -1/3 as opposed to Mo -1/6 of the NJ formula), which may be usable to estimate very slow creep that may occur on intraplate faults.

  14. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this.

    These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site.

    In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images.

    The tidal model used

  15. Earthquake research in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    Henry Spall talked recently with Robert L. Wesson, the new Chief, Office of Earthquake Studies at the U.S Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Va. Wesson has spent altogether almost 1 year in the U.S.S.R, and 6 months of that time in the Garm area of Soviet Tadzhikistan in 1974. 

  16. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes.

  17. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  18. Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    new ground motion models for the offshore Cascadia subduction zone . In formulating the 2008 maps, the USGS gave more weight to the probability of a...catastrophic magnitude 9 earthquake occurring along the Cascadia subduction zone . The Cascadia subduction zone fault ruptures, on average, every 500...14 The New Madrid Seismic Zone ........................................................................................... 15 Monitoring

  19. Missing great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) greater than 8.8 and six earthquakes larger than Mw 8.5, since 2004, has raised interest in the long-term global rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on the analysis of earthquakes since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era in seismology. Before this time, the catalog is less complete and magnitude estimates are more uncertain. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes before 1900, and the catalog of historical events is being used increasingly to improve hazard assessment. Here I consider the catalog of historical earthquakes and show that approximately half of all Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes are likely missing or underestimated in the 19th century. I further present a reconsideration of the felt effects of the 8 February 1843, Lesser Antilles earthquake, including a first thorough assessment of felt reports from the United States, and show it is an example of a known historical earthquake that was significantly larger than initially estimated. The results suggest that incorporation of best available catalogs of historical earthquakes will likely lead to a significant underestimation of seismic hazard and/or the maximum possible magnitude in many regions, including parts of the Caribbean.

  20. Prototype operational earthquake prediction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1986-01-01

    An objective if the U.S. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 is to introduce into all regions of the country that are subject to large and moderate earthquakes, systems for predicting earthquakes and assessing earthquake risk. In 1985, the USGS developed for the Secretary of the Interior a program for implementation of a prototype operational earthquake prediction system in southern California.

  1. A prototype earthquake warning system for strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafi Toksöz, M.; Dainty, Anton M.; Bullitt, John T.

    1990-05-01

    A prototype expert system has been developed to provide rapid warning of earthquakes while they are occurring. Warning times of up to 100 seconds will be possible. In the complete system, several accelerometers are distributed at intervals within a few kilometers of a known fault; data are telemetered to a central computer which implements the expert system. The expert system incorporates specific information about the type of fault to be monitored, and includes simple rules for estimating the fault slip, rupture length, and seismic moment, all in real time. If the seismic moment exceeds a preset value, an alarm may be issued. The prototype is designed for deployment on near-surface strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas and has been successfully tested with data from the 1979 Imperial Valley and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. Crucial concepts have also been tested using synthetic data calculated for a model of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. Parkfield, California, could be used as a test site.

  2. Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, David A.; Turner, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

  3. Benefits of Earthquake Early Warning to Large Municipalities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, J.

    2013-12-01

    The City of Los Angeles has been involved in the testing of the Cal Tech Shake Alert, Earthquake Early Warning (EQEW) system, since February 2012. This system accesses a network of seismic monitors installed throughout California. The system analyzes and processes seismic information, and transmits a warning (audible and visual) when an earthquake occurs. In late 2011, the City of Los Angeles Emergency Management Department (EMD) was approached by Cal Tech regarding EQEW, and immediately recognized the value of the system. Simultaneously, EMD was in the process of finalizing a report by a multi-discipline team that visited Japan in December 2011, which spoke to the effectiveness of EQEW for the March 11, 2011 earthquake that struck that country. Information collected by the team confirmed that the EQEW systems proved to be very effective in alerting the population of the impending earthquake. The EQEW in Japan is also tied to mechanical safeguards, such as the stopping of high-speed trains. For a city the size and complexity of Los Angeles, the implementation of a reliable EQEW system will save lives, reduce loss, ensure effective and rapid emergency response, and will greatly enhance the ability of the region to recovery from a damaging earthquake. The current Shake Alert system is being tested at several governmental organizations and private businesses in the region. EMD, in cooperation with Cal Tech, identified several locations internal to the City where the system would have an immediate benefit. These include the staff offices within EMD, the Los Angeles Police Department's Real Time Analysis and Critical Response Division (24 hour crime center), and the Los Angeles Fire Department's Metropolitan Fire Communications (911 Dispatch). All three of these agencies routinely manage the collaboration and coordination of citywide emergency information and response during times of crisis. Having these three key public safety offices connected and included in the

  4. Mexican Earthquakes and Tsunamis Catalog Reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Castillo-Aja, R.

    2015-12-01

    Today the availability of information on the internet makes online catalogs very easy to access by both scholars and the public in general. The catalog in the "Significant Earthquake Database", managed by the National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI formerly NCDC), NOAA, allows access by deploying tabular and cartographic data related to earthquakes and tsunamis contained in the database. The NCEI catalog is the product of compiling previously existing catalogs, historical sources, newspapers, and scientific articles. Because NCEI catalog has a global coverage the information is not homogeneous. Existence of historical information depends on the presence of people in places where the disaster occurred, and that the permanence of the description is preserved in documents and oral tradition. In the case of instrumental data, their availability depends on the distribution and quality of seismic stations. Therefore, the availability of information for the first half of 20th century can be improved by careful analysis of the available information and by searching and resolving inconsistencies. This study shows the advances we made in upgrading and refining data for the earthquake and tsunami catalog of Mexico since 1500 CE until today, presented in the format of table and map. Data analysis allowed us to identify the following sources of error in the location of the epicenters in existing catalogs: • Incorrect coordinate entry • Place name erroneous or mistaken • Too general data that makes difficult to locate the epicenter, mainly for older earthquakes • Inconsistency of earthquakes and the tsunami occurrence: earthquake's epicenter located too far inland reported as tsunamigenic. The process of completing the catalogs directly depends on the availability of information; as new archives are opened for inspection, there are more opportunities to complete the history of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Mexico. Here, we also present new earthquake and

  5. Business Activity Monitoring: Real-Time Group Goals and Feedback Using an Overhead Scoreboard in a Distribution Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.; Smith, Stuart M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Companies operating large industrial settings often find delivering timely and accurate feedback to employees to be one of the toughest challenges they face in implementing performance management programs. In this report, an overhead scoreboard at a retailer's distribution center informed teams of order selectors as to how many tasks were…

  6. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) Measurements of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios In Soil Extracts Supplied by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-02-28

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) activities concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for a series of chemically purified soil extracts received from the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) in New Mexico. Samples were analyzed without further purification at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This report also includes a brief description of the AMS system and internal laboratory procedures used to ensure the quality and reliability of the measurement data.

  7. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  8. The evaluation of the earthquake hazard using the exponential distribution method for different seismic source regions in and around Aǧrı

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, Yusuf; Türker, Tuǧba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study; were determined of the earthquake hazard using the exponential distribution method for different seismic sources of the Aǧrı and vicinity. A homogeneous earthquake catalog has been examined for 1900-2015 (the instrumental period) with 456 earthquake data for Aǧrı and vicinity. Catalog; Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (Burke), National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC), TUBITAK, TURKNET the International Seismological Center (ISC), Seismological Research Institute (IRIS) has been created using different catalogs like. Aǧrı and vicinity are divided into 7 different seismic source regions with epicenter distribution of formed earthquakes in the instrumental period, focal mechanism solutions, and existing tectonic structures. In the study, the average magnitude value are calculated according to the specified magnitude ranges for 7 different seismic source region. According to the estimated calculations for 7 different seismic source regions, the biggest difference corresponding with the classes of determined magnitudes between observed and expected cumulative probabilities are determined. The recurrence period and earthquake occurrence number per year are estimated of occurring earthquakes in the Aǧrı and vicinity. As a result, 7 different seismic source regions are determined occurrence probabilities of an earthquake 3.2 magnitude, Region 1 was greater than 6.7 magnitude, Region 2 was greater than than 4.7 magnitude, Region 3 was greater than 5.2 magnitude, Region 4 was greater than 6.2 magnitude, Region 5 was greater than 5.7 magnitude, Region 6 was greater than 7.2 magnitude, Region 7 was greater than 6.2 magnitude. The highest observed magnitude 7 different seismic source regions of Aǧrı and vicinity are estimated 7 magnitude in Region 6. Region 6 are determined according to determining magnitudes, occurrence years of earthquakes in the future years, respectively, 7.2 magnitude was in 158

  9. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  10. Signals of ENPEMF Used in Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, G.; Dong, H.; Zeng, Z.; Wu, G.; Zabrodin, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The signals of Earth's natural pulse electromagnetic field (ENPEMF) is a combination of the abnormal crustal magnetic field pulse affected by the earthquake, the induced field of earth's endogenous magnetic field, the induced magnetic field of the exogenous variation magnetic field, geomagnetic pulsation disturbance and other energy coupling process between sun and earth. As an instantaneous disturbance of the variation field of natural geomagnetism, ENPEMF can be used to predict earthquakes. This theory was introduced by A.A Vorobyov, who expressed a hypothesis that pulses can arise not only in the atmosphere but within the Earth's crust due to processes of tectonic-to-electric energy conversion (Vorobyov, 1970; Vorobyov, 1979). The global field time scale of ENPEMF signals has specific stability. Although the wave curves may not overlap completely at different regions, the smoothed diurnal ENPEMF patterns always exhibit the same trend per month. The feature is a good reference for observing the abnormalities of the Earth's natural magnetic field in a specific region. The frequencies of the ENPEMF signals generally locate in kilo Hz range, where frequencies within 5-25 kilo Hz range can be applied to monitor earthquakes. In Wuhan, the best observation frequency is 14.5 kilo Hz. Two special devices are placed in accordance with the S-N and W-E direction. Dramatic variation from the comparison between the pulses waveform obtained from the instruments and the normal reference envelope diagram should indicate high possibility of earthquake. The proposed detection method of earthquake based on ENPEMF can improve the geodynamic monitoring effect and can enrich earthquake prediction methods. We suggest the prospective further researches are about on the exact sources composition of ENPEMF signals, the distinction between noise and useful signals, and the effect of the Earth's gravity tide and solid tidal wave. This method may also provide a promising application in

  11. Earthquakes, November-December 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Other parts of the world suffered fatalities and significant damage from earthquakes. In Iran, an earthquake killed one person, injured many, and destroyed a number of homes. Earthquake fatalities also occurred in the Azores and in Algeria. 

  12. First Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J.D.; Werner, M.J.; Field, E.H.; Jackson, D.D.; Jordan, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict the future behavior of a system is a strong indication that the system is well understood. Certainly many details of the earthquake system remain obscure, but several hypotheses related to earthquake occurrence and seismic hazard have been proffered, and predicting earthquake behavior is a worthy goal and demanded by society. Along these lines, one of the primary objectives of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) working group was to formalize earthquake occurrence hypotheses in the form of prospective earthquake rate forecasts in California. RELM members, working in small research groups, developed more than a dozen 5-year forecasts; they also outlined a performance evaluation method and provided a conceptual description of a Testing Center in which to perform predictability experiments. Subsequently, researchers working within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) have begun implementing Testing Centers in different locations worldwide, and the RELM predictability experiment-a truly prospective earthquake prediction effort-is underway within the U. S. branch of CSEP. The experiment, designed to compare time-invariant 5-year earthquake rate forecasts, is now approximately halfway to its completion. In this paper, we describe the models under evaluation and present, for the first time, preliminary results of this unique experiment. While these results are preliminary-the forecasts were meant for an application of 5 years-we find interesting results: most of the models are consistent with the observation and one model forecasts the distribution of earthquakes best. We discuss the observed sample of target earthquakes in the context of historical seismicity within the testing region, highlight potential pitfalls of the current tests, and suggest plans for future revisions to experiments such as this one. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  13. Earthquakes of the Holocene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Areas in which significant new data and insights have been obtained are: 1) fault slip rates; 2) earthquake recurrence models; 3) fault segmentation; 4) dating past earthquakes; 5) paleoseismicity in the E and central US; 6) folds and earthquakes, and 7) future earthquake behavior. Summarizes important trends in each of these research areas based on information published between June 1982 and June 1986 and preprints of papers in press. The bibliography for this period contains mainly referred publications in journals and books.-from Author

  14. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  15. Center of Excellence for Applied Mathematical and Statistical Research in support of development of multicrop production monitoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, W. A.; Gray, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Efforts in support of the development of multicrop production monitoring capability are reported. In particular, segment level proportion estimation techniques based upon a mixture model were investigated. Efforts have dealt primarily with evaluation of current techniques and development of alternative ones. A comparison of techniques is provided on both simulated and LANDSAT data along with an analysis of the quality of profile variables obtained from LANDSAT data.

  16. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO located 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 volcanoes monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine Volcano, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin Volcano. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations, (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2006.

  17. Earthquake activity in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-08-01

    Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

  18. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  19. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  20. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  1. Regional characterization of mine blasts, earthquakes, mine tremors, and nuclear explosions using the intelligent seismic event identification system. Final report, 1 April 1992-1 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardt, D.R.

    1993-07-31

    This report describes the results of a study of the Intelligent Seismic Event Identification System (ISEIS) which was installed at the Center for Seismic Studies and applied to regional events in the Intelligent Monitoring System (IMS) database. A subset of IMS data has been collected for known events in a database called the Ground Truth Database (GTD) and these events were processed by ISEIS. This has shown that the regional high-frequency PIS ratio discriminates between explosions and earthquakes in the Vogtland region recorded at the GERESSS array. Mine tremors in the Lubin and Upper Silesia resemble earthquakes. Lg spectral ratio was found to separate explosions and earthquakes in the Vogtland region, but the Lubin and Upper Silesia region mine tremors had large scatter. An evaluation was made of the discrimination rules in the ISEIS expert system on the events in four regions (Vogtland. Lubin, Upper Silesia, and Steigen) in the GTD. This report also describes the results of the analysis of the December 31, 1992 event which occurred near the Russian test site on Novaya Zemlya. Analysis of Pn/Sn ratios at NORESS indicated that these ratios were comparable to those measured for Kola Peninsula mine blasts, although the propagation paths were different. The ratios were only slightly greater than those observed for earthquakes in the Greenland Sea. The August 1. 1986 event recorded was re-analyzed and also found to resemble mine blasts. However, other discriminants indicate that the event was probably an earthquake.

  2. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  3. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  4. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  5. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  6. Earthquake history of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The strongest and most widely felt earthquake in Oklahoma occured on April 9, 1952. The intensity VII (Modified Mercalli Scale) tremor was felt over 362,000 sqaure kilometres. A second intensity VII earthquake, felt over a very small area, occurred in October 1956. In addition, 15 other shocks, intensity V or VI, have originated within Oklahoma. 

  7. Earthquake-explosion discrimination using diffusion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, N.; Bregman, Y.; Lindenbaum, O.; Ben-Horin, Y.; Averbuch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination between earthquakes and explosions is an essential component of nuclear test monitoring and it is also important for maintaining the quality of earthquake catalogues. Currently used discrimination methods provide a partial solution to the problem. In this work, we apply advanced machine learning methods and in particular diffusion maps for modelling and discriminating between seismic signals. Diffusion maps enable us to construct a geometric representation that capture the intrinsic structure of the seismograms. The diffusion maps are applied after a pre-processing step, in which seismograms are converted to normalized sonograms. The constructed low-dimensional model is used for automatic earthquake-explosion discrimination of data that are collected in single seismic stations. We demonstrate our approach on a data set comprising seismic events from the Dead Sea area. The diffusion-based algorithm provides correct discrimination rate that is higher than 90 per cent.

  8. Disruption of groundwater systems by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Chi-Yuen; Liu, Chun-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Earthquakes are known to enhance permeability at great distances, and this phenomenon may also disrupt groundwater systems by breaching the barrier between different reservoirs. Here we analyze the tidal response of water level in a deep (~4 km) well before and after the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to show that the earthquake not only changed the permeability but also altered the poroelastic properties of the groundwater system. Based on lithologic well logs and experimental data for rock properties, we interpret the change to reflect a coseismic breaching of aquitards bounding the aquifer, due perhaps to clearing of preexisting cracks and creation of new cracks, to depths of several kilometers. This may cause mixing of groundwater from previously isolated reservoirs and impact the safety of groundwater supplies and underground waste repositories. The method demonstrated here may hold promise for monitoring aquitard breaching by both natural and anthropogenic processes.

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    ALTMANN, JURGEN

    2000-07-01

    For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

  10. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p {number_sign}1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p {number_sign}1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells.

  11. A search for paleoliquefaction and evidence bearing on the recurrence behavior of the great 1811-12 New Madrid earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesnousky, S.G.; Leffler, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This professional paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  12. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  13. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  14. Mono Lake earthquake of October 23, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.; Bryant, W.; Wilson, R.

    1991-02-01

    On October 23, 1990, a moderate earthquake of local magnitude (M{sub L}) 5.7 shook the Mono Lake area, a region known for its recent volcanic and tectonic activity. The earthquake was centered approximately 5 miles north of Lee Vining and 16 miles southeast of Bridgeport, near Black Point, an isolated flat-topped hill on the north shore of Mono Lake. Shaking from the earthquake was felt at approximately Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the local area and weakly throughout much of north central California as far west as Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay area. This article summarizes the seismological features of the earthquake and relates the findings made during a surface fault rupture investigation of epicentral area by Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) geologists. To demonstrate how this earthquake fits into the regional tectonic setting, the character of this event is compared to that of other noteworthy seismic events that have occurred over the last 12 years.

  15. Hydrologic and geochemical monitoring in Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.; Sorey, M.L.; Rojstaczer, S.A.; Steinemann, A.C.; Clark, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey continued to monitor hydrologic and geochemical conditions in the Long Valley caldera during 1986. The monitoring is directed toward detecting changes in the hydrologic system caused by tectonic or magmatic processes. Data collected during 1986 include chemical and isotopic composition of water from selected streams sites, springs, and wells; pumpage from four geothermal wells; flow rates of selected springs and stream sites; mean daily water or gas temperatures at selected sites; mean daily atmospheric pressures and water level at selected wells, and precipitation records for two sites. Seismicity within the caldera persisted at a relatively low level compared with the more active periods of 1978-84. The most significant events of seismicity that affected hydrologic monitoring sites in Long Valley during 1986 occurred during July , in response to the Chalfant Valley earthquakes, centered about 20 miles southeast of the caldera. Water level records for three wells show distinct responses to the Chalfant Valley earthquakes. (USGS)

  16. The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul S.; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

  17. Harnessing the Collective Power of Eyewitnesses for Improved Earthquake Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Lefebvre, S.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    earthquakes within, as an average 90s of their occurrence, and can map, in certain cases, the damaged areas. Thanks to the flashsourced and crowdsourced information, we developed an innovative Twitter earthquake information service (currently under test and to be open by November) which intends to offer notifications for earthquakes that matter for the public only. It provides timely information for felt and damaging earthquakes regardless their magnitude and heads-up for seismologists. In conclusion, the experience developed at the EMSC demonstrates the benefit of involving eyewitnesses in earthquake surveillance. The data collected directly and indirectly from eyewitnesses complement information derived from monitoring networks and contribute to improved services. By increasing interaction between science and society, it opens new opportunities for raising awareness on seismic hazard.

  18. The Himalayan Seismogenic Zone: A New Frontier for Earthquake Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Larry; Hubbard, Judith; Karplus, Marianne; Klemperer, Simon; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    significance of blind splay faulting in accommodating slip? m) Do lithologic contrasts juxtaposed across the continental seismogenic zone play a role in the rheological behavior of the SZ in the same manner as proposed for the ocean SZ? Major differences in the study of the continental vs oceanic seismogenic zone include the fact that Himalaya structures are open to: a) direct geological observation via field mapping b) dense and wide aperture monitoring of surface strain via GPS and INSAR c) extensive sampling of geofluids via surface flows and shallow drill holes d) cost effective deployment of long term geophysical arrays (e.g. seismic and MT) designed to detect subtle variations if physical properties within the seismogenic zone, and ultimately, e) a fixed platform for deep drilling of past and future rupture zones It remains to be established whether the Himalayan seismogenic zone has the potential for earthquakes of the greatest magnitudes (e.g. 9.0+). However, there is no question that future ruptures in this system represent a serious threat to major population centers (megacities) in the Indian subcontinent. For this reason alone the HSZ is deserving of a major new international, multidisciplinary effort.

  19. Implications for earthquake risk reduction in the United States from the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake of August 17, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    This report documents implications for earthquake risk reduction in the U.S. The magnitude 7.4 earthquake caused 17,127 deaths, 43,953 injuries, and displaced more than 250,000 people from their homes. The report warns that similar disasters are possible in the United States where earthquakes of comparable size strike the heart of American urban areas. Another concern described in the report is the delayed emergency response that was caused by the inadequate seismic monitoring system in Turkey, a problem that contrasts sharply with rapid assessment and response to the September Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Additionally, the experience in Turkey suggests that techniques for forecasting earthquakes may be improving.

  20. Magnitude and location of historical earthquakes in Japan and implications for the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity assignments IJMA are used to derive intensity attenuation models suitable for estimating the location and an intensity magnitude Mjma for historical earthquakes in Japan. The intensity for shallow crustal earthquakes on Honshu is equal to -1.89 + 1.42MJMA - 0.00887?? h - 1.66log??h, where MJMA is the JMA magnitude, ??h = (??2 + h2)1/2, and ?? and h are epicentral distance and focal depth (km), respectively. Four earthquakes located near the Japan Trench were used to develop a subducting plate intensity attenuation model where intensity is equal to -8.33 + 2.19MJMA -0.00550??h - 1.14 log ?? h. The IJMA assignments for the MJMA7.9 great 1923 Kanto earthquake on the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface are consistent with the subducting plate model; Using the subducting plate model and 226 IJMA IV-VI assignments, the location of the intensity center is 25 km north of the epicenter, Mjma is 7.7, and MJMA is 7.3-8.0 at the 1?? confidence level. Intensity assignments and reported aftershock activity for the enigmatic 11 November 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake are consistent with an MJMA 7.2 Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate source or Philippine Sea intraslab source at about 30 km depth. If the 1855 earthquake was a Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate event, the intensity center was adjacent to and downdip of the rupture area of the great 1923 Kanto earthquake, suggesting that the 1855 and 1923 events ruptured adjoining sections of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface.

  1. Satellite Relay Telemetry of Seismic Data in Earthquake Prediction and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. H.; Eaton, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The Satellite Telemetry Earthquake Monitoring Program was started to evaluate the applicability of satellite relay telemetry in the collection of seismic data from a large number of dense seismograph clusters laid out along the major fault systems of western North America. Prototype clusters utilizing phone-line telemetry were then being installed by the National Center for Earthquake Research in 3 regions along the San Andreas fault in central California; and the experience of installing and operating the clusters and in reducing and analyzing the seismic data from them was to provide the raw materials for evaluation in the satellite relay telemetry project. The principal advantages of the satellite relay system over commercial telephone or microwave systems were: (1) it could be made less prone to massive failure during a major earthquake; (2) it could be extended readily into undeveloped regions; and (3) it could provide flexible, uniform communications over large sections of major global tectonic zones. Fundamental characteristics of a communications system to cope with the large volume of raw data collected by a short-period seismograph network are discussed.

  2. GLASS 2.0: An Operational, Multimodal, Bayesian Earthquake Data Association Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H.; Johnson, C. E.; Patton, J. M.; McMahon, N. D.; Earle, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy approach to automated detection and determination of hypocenters is arrival time stacking algorithms. Examples of such algorithms are the associator, Binder, which has been in continuous use in many USGS-supported regional seismic networks since the 1980s and the spherical earth successor, GLASS 1.0, currently in service at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center for over 10 years. The principle short-comings of the legacy approach are 1) it can only use phase arrival times, 2) it does not adequately address the problems of extreme variations in station density worldwide, 3) it cannot incorporate multiple phase models or statistical attributes of phases with distance, and 4) it cannot incorporate noise model attributes of individual stations. Previously we introduced a theoretical framework of a new associator using a Bayesian kernel stacking approach to approximate a joint probability density function for hypocenter localization. More recently we added station- and phase-specific Bayesian constraints to the association process. GLASS 2.0 incorporates a multiplicity of earthquake related data including phase arrival times, back-azimuth and slowness information from array beamforming, arrival times from waveform cross correlation processing, and geographic constraints from real-time social media reports of ground shaking. We demonstrate its application by modeling an aftershock sequence using dozens of stations that recorded tens of thousands of earthquakes over a period of one month. We also demonstrate Glass 2.0 performance regionally and teleseismically using the globally distributed real-time monitoring system at NEIC.

  3. The BEYOND center of excellence for the effective exploitation of satellite time series towards natural disasters monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Amiridis, Vassilis; Balasis, George; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Herekakis, Themistocles; Christia, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    BEYOND project (2013-2016, 2.3Meuro) funded under the FP7-REGPOT scheme is an initiative which aims to build a Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation (EO) based monitoring of natural disasters in south-eastern Europe (http://beyond-eocenter.eu/), established at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). The project focuses on capacity building on top of the existing infrastructure, aiming at unlocking the institute's potential through the systematic interaction with high-profile partners across Europe, and at consolidating state-of-the-art equipment and technological know-how that will allow sustainable cutting-edge interdisciplinary research to take place with an impact on the regional and European socioeconomic welfare. The vision is to set up innovative integrated observational solutions to allow a multitude of space borne and ground-based monitoring networks to operate in a complementary and cooperative manner, create archives and databases of long series of observations and higher level products, and make these available for exploitation with the involvement of stakeholders. In BEYOND critical infrastructural components are being procured for fostering access, use, retrieval and analysis of long EO data series and products. In this framework NOA has initiated activities for the development, installation and operation of important acquisition facilities and hardware modules, including space based observational infrastructures as the X-/L-band acquisition station for receiving EOS Aqua/Terra, NPP, JPSS, NOAA, Metop, Feng Yun data in real time, the setting up of an ESA's Mirror Site of Sentinel missions to be operable from 2014 onwards, an advanced Raman Lidar portable station, a spectrometer facility, several ground magnetometer stations. All these are expected to work in synergy with the existing capacity resources and observational networks including the MSG/SEVIRI acquisition station, nationwide seismographic, GPS, meteo and atmospheric networks. The

  4. An atlas of ShakeMaps for selected global earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Earle, Paul S.; Marano, Kristin D.

    2008-01-01

    An atlas of maps of peak ground motions and intensity 'ShakeMaps' has been developed for almost 5,000 recent and historical global earthquakes. These maps are produced using established ShakeMap methodology (Wald and others, 1999c; Wald and others, 2005) and constraints from macroseismic intensity data, instrumental ground motions, regional topographically-based site amplifications, and published earthquake-rupture models. Applying the ShakeMap methodology allows a consistent approach to combine point observations with ground-motion predictions to produce descriptions of peak ground motions and intensity for each event. We also calculate an estimated ground-motion uncertainty grid for each earthquake. The Atlas of ShakeMaps provides a consistent and quantitative description of the distribution and intensity of shaking for recent global earthquakes (1973-2007) as well as selected historic events. As such, the Atlas was developed specifically for calibrating global earthquake loss estimation methodologies to be used in the U.S. Geological Survey Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) Project. PAGER will employ these loss models to rapidly estimate the impact of global earthquakes as part of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center's earthquake-response protocol. The development of the Atlas of ShakeMaps has also led to several key improvements to the Global ShakeMap system. The key upgrades include: addition of uncertainties in the ground motion mapping, introduction of modern ground-motion prediction equations, improved estimates of global seismic-site conditions (VS30), and improved definition of stable continental region polygons. Finally, we have merged all of the ShakeMaps in the Atlas to provide a global perspective of earthquake ground shaking for the past 35 years, allowing comparison with probabilistic hazard maps. The online Atlas and supporting databases can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/atlas.php/.

  5. Centers for Disease Control light traps for monitoring Anopheles arabiensis human biting rates in an area with low vector density and high insecticide-treated bed net use.

    PubMed

    Fornadel, Christen M; Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2010-10-01

    Human landing catches (HLCs) are currently the preferred method to determine vector human biting rates (HBRs), which are key determinants of entomologic inoculation rates and important measures for assessing the impact of vector control efforts. Although HLCs are the most direct means of establishing HBRs, they are labor-intensive, and their use is facing increasing ethical concerns. The relationship between Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and HLC collections was evaluated in Macha, Zambia during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons. A CDC light trap captured on average 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.28) times as many An. arabiensis per night as an indoor HLC. Additionally, nets treated with deltamethrin did not affect the numbers of An. arabiensis collected. Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs.

  6. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-01

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  7. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  8. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/12: ENTNEA: A Concept for Enhancing Nuclear Transparency for Confidence Building in Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Man-Kwon; Shin, Sung-Tack

    1999-06-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties.

  9. An application of earthquake prediction algorithm M8 in eastern Anatolia at the approach of the 2011 Van earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarab, Masoud; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Memarian, Hossein; Zare, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    On 23rd October 2011, an M7.3 earthquake near the Turkish city of Van, killed more than 600 people, injured over 4000, and left about 60,000 homeless. It demolished hundreds of buildings and caused great damages to thousand others in Van, Ercis, Muradiye, and Çaldıran. The earthquake's epicenter is located about 70 km from a preceding M7.3 earthquake that occurred in November 1976 and destroyed several villages near the Turkey-Iran border and killed thousands of people. This study, by means of retrospective application of the M8 algorithm, checks to see if the 2011 Van earthquake could have been predicted. The algorithm is based on pattern recognition of Times of Increased Probability (TIP) of a target earthquake from the transient seismic sequence at lower magnitude ranges in a Circle of Investigation (CI). Specifically, we applied a modified M8 algorithm adjusted to a rather low level of earthquake detection in the region following three different approaches to determine seismic transients. In the first approach, CI centers are distributed on intersections of morphostructural lineaments recognized as prone to magnitude 7 + earthquakes. In the second approach, centers of CIs are distributed on local extremes of the seismic density distribution, and in the third approach, CI centers were distributed uniformly on the nodes of a 1∘×1∘ grid. According to the results of the M8 algorithm application, the 2011 Van earthquake could have been predicted in any of the three approaches. We noted that it is possible to consider the intersection of TIPs instead of their union to improve the certainty of the prediction results. Our study confirms the applicability of a modified version of the M8 algorithm for predicting earthquakes at the Iranian-Turkish plateau, as well as for mitigation of damages in seismic events in which pattern recognition algorithms may play an important role.

  10. Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

  11. Earthquakes in the Central United States, 1699-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Volpi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This publication is an update of an earlier report, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Geologic Investigation I-2812 by Wheeler and others (2003), titled ?Earthquakes in the Central United States-1699-2002.? Like the original poster, the center of the updated poster is a map showing the pattern of earthquake locations in the most seismically active part of the central United States. Arrayed around the map are short explanatory texts and graphics, which describe the distribution of historical earthquakes and the effects of the most notable of them. The updated poster contains additional, post 2002, earthquake data. These are 38 earthquakes covering the time interval from January 2003 to June 2010, including the Mount Carmel, Illinois, earthquake of 2008. The USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) was the source of these additional data. Like the I-2812 poster, this poster was prepared for a nontechnical audience and designed to inform the general public as to the widespread occurrence of felt and damaging earthquakes in the Central United States. Accordingly, the poster should not be used to assess earthquake hazard in small areas or at individual locations.

  12. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments.

  13. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  14. Correlating precursory declines in groundwater radon with earthquake magnitude.

    PubMed

    Kuo, T

    2014-01-01

    Both studies at the Antung hot spring in eastern Taiwan and at the Paihe spring in southern Taiwan confirm that groundwater radon can be a consistent tracer for strain changes in the crust preceding an earthquake when observed in a low-porosity fractured aquifer surrounded by a ductile formation. Recurrent anomalous declines in groundwater radon were observed at the Antung D1 monitoring well in eastern Taiwan prior to the five earthquakes of magnitude (Mw ): 6.8, 6.1, 5.9, 5.4, and 5.0 that occurred on December 10, 2003; April 1, 2006; April 15, 2006; February 17, 2008; and July 12, 2011, respectively. For earthquakes occurring on the longitudinal valley fault in eastern Taiwan, the observed radon minima decrease as the earthquake magnitude increases. The above correlation has been proven to be useful for early warning local large earthquakes. In southern Taiwan, radon anomalous declines prior to the 2010 Mw 6.3 Jiasian, 2012 Mw 5.9 Wutai, and 2012 ML 5.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes were also recorded at the Paihe spring. For earthquakes occurring on different faults in southern Taiwan, the correlation between the observed radon minima and the earthquake magnitude is not yet possible.

  15. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  16. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  17. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  18. The State of the Colorado River Ecosystem in Grand Canyon: A Report of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center 1991-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloss, Steven P.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2005-01-01

    This report is an important milestone in the effort by the Secretary of the Interior to implement the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 (GCPA; title XVIII, secs. 1801-1809, of Public Law 102-575), the most recent authorizing legislation for Federal efforts to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. The chapters that follow are intended to provide decision makers and the American public with relevant scientific information about the status and recent trends of the natural, cultural, and recreational resources of those portions of Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations. Glen Canyon Dam is one of the last major dams that was built on the Colorado River and is located just south of the Arizona-Utah border in the lower reaches of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, approximately 15 mi (24 km) upriver from Grand Canyon National Park (fig. 1). The information presented here is a product of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the GCPA is met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) has responsibility for the scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program, including the preparation of reports such as this one.

  19. TLC-Asthma: An Integrated Information System for Patient-centered Monitoring, Case Management, and Point-of-Care Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Adams, William G.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Miller, Charles W.; Panek, Celeste G.; Gi, Yangsoon; Loane, Kathleen C.; Madden, Nancy E.; Plunkett, Anne M.; Friedman, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    A great deal of successful work has been done in the area of EMR development, implementation, and evaluation. Less work has been done in the area of automated systems for patients. Efforts to link data at multiple levels – the patient, the case manager, and the clinician have been rudimentary to-date. In this paper we present a model information system that integrates patient health information across multiple domains to support the monitoring and care of children with persistent asthma. The system has been developed for use in a multi-specialty group practice and includes three primary components: 1) a patient-centered telephone-linked communication system; 2) a web-based alert reporting and nurse case-management system; and 3) EMR-based provider communication to support clinical decision making at the point-of-care. The system offers a model for a new level of connectivity for health information that supports customized monitoring, IT-enabled nurse case-managers, and the delivery of longitudinal data to clinicians to support the care of children with persistent asthma. Systems like the one described are well -suited, perhaps essential, technologies for the care of children and adults with chronic conditions such as asthma. PMID:14728122

  20. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health response to monitoring Tdap safety in pregnant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moro, Pedro L; McNeil, Michael M; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; Broder, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, in response to a widespread pertussis outbreak and neonatal deaths, California became the first state to recommend routine administration of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) followed with a similar recommendation for Tdap vaccination during pregnancy for previously unvaccinated women. In 2012, this recommendation was expanded to include Tdap vaccination of every pregnant woman during each pregnancy. These recommendations were based on urgent public health needs and available evidence on the safety of other inactivated vaccines during pregnancy. However, there were limited data on the safety of Tdap during pregnancy. In response to the new ACIP recommendations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented ongoing collaborative studies to evaluate whether vaccination with Tdap during pregnancy adversely affects the health of mothers and their offspring and provide the committee with regular updates. The current commentary describes the public health actions taken by CDC to respond to the ACIP recommendation to study and monitor the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women and describes the current state of knowledge on the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women. Data from the various monitoring activities support the safety of Tdap use during pregnancy.

  1. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) answers the need for an openly accessible risk management tool. GEM is an internationally sanctioned public private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which will establish an authoritative standard for calculating and communicating earthquake hazard and risk, and will be designed to serve as the critical instrument to support decisions and actions that reduce earthquake losses worldwide. GEM will integrate developments on the forefront of scientific and engineering knowledge of earthquakes, at global, regional and local scale. The work is organized in three modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic impact. The hazard module calculates probabilities of earthquake occurrence and resulting shaking at any given location. The risk module calculates fatalities, injuries, and damage based on expected shaking, building vulnerability, and the distribution of population and of exposed values and facilities. The socio-economic impact module delivers tools for making educated decisions to mitigate and manage risk. GEM will be a versatile online tool, with open source code and a map-based graphical interface. The underlying data will be open wherever possible, and its modular input and output will be adapted to multiple user groups: scientists and engineers, risk managers and decision makers in the public and private sectors, and the public-at- large. GEM will be the first global model for seismic risk assessment at a national and regional scale, and aims to achieve broad scientific participation and independence. Its development will occur in a

  2. Earthquake source properties and wave propagation in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes de Matos Viegas Fernandes, Gisela Sofia

    The study of intraplate earthquakes is fundamental for the understanding of the physics of faulting, seismic hazard assessment, and nuclear monitoring, but large to moderate well recorded intraplate earthquakes are scarce. I use the best recorded earthquake in Eastern North America (ENA)---the Mw 5.0 20 April 2002, Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake and its aftershock sequence to investigate wave propagation and earthquake source properties in ENA. The Au Sable Forks epicenter is located near the boundary of two distinct geological provinces Appalachian (New England) and Grenville (New York). Existing regional one-dimensional (1D) crustal models were derived from seismic surveys or from sparse ground-motions recordings from regional moderate earthquakes. I obtain improved 1D crustal models for these two provinces by forward modeling, for the first time, multi-path high-quality ground-motions of a moderate earthquake in ENA. Using Au Sable Forks earthquake records at 16 stations (epicentral distances < 400 km) at intermediate frequencies (<1 Hz), I generate synthetic seismograms using the frequency-wave number method. The new models improve the fit of synthetics to data at all 6 stations in the Grenville province and at 5 of the 10 stations in the Appalachian province. I identify complex wave paths along the boundary between the provinces, and 3% azimuthal anisotropy in the Appalachian crust. It is unknown how much earthquake source properties depend on the tectonic setting in which the earthquakes occur. Debate exists regarding the invariance of stress drop with earthquake size in ENA, and whether earthquakes in intraplate regions have higher stress drops than those in more tectonically active regions. I estimate source parameters for 22 earthquakes (M1-M5) of the Au Sable Forks sequence, using two alternative methods: a direct wave method (Empirical Green's Function) and a coda wave method (Coda Ratio) applied for the first time to small magnitude earthquakes. Both

  3. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation II: Real-time Online earthquake Simulation (ROS) of Taiwan earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2014-06-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 min after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). A new island-wide, high resolution SEM mesh model is developed for the whole Taiwan in this study. We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 min for a 70 s ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  4. Nonlinear processes in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Frohlich, C.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

  5. Water Quality, Fish Tissue, and Bed Sediment Monitoring in Waterbodies of Fort Chaffee Maneuver Training Center, Arkansas, 2002-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The Fort Chaffee Maneuver Training Center is a facility used to train as many as 50,000 Arkansas National Guardsmen each year. Due to the nature of ongoing training and also to a poor understanding of environmental procedures that were practiced in the World War II era, areas within Fort Chaffee have the potential to be sources of a large number of contaminants. Because some streams flow on to Fort Chaffee, there is also the potential for sources that are off post to affect environmental conditions on post. This study evaluates constituent concentrations in water, fish tissue, and bed sediment collected from waterbodies on Fort Chaffee between September 2002 and July 2004. Constituent concentrations detected in the three media and measured at nine stream sites and four lake sites were compared to national and regional criteria when available. Two of the larger streams, Big and Vache Grasse Creeks, were sampled at multiple sites. All three sampled media were analyzed for insecticides, PCBs, explosives, and trace elements. Additionally, water samples were analyzed for nutrients and herbicides. The different constituents detected in the three sample media (water, fish tissue, and bed sediment) indicate that land-use activities both on and off post are influencing environmental conditions. Contaminants such as explosives that were sometimes detected in water samples have an obvious relation to military training; however, the occurrence and locations of some nutrients, insecticides, and trace elements suggest that land use both on and off post also could be influencing environmental conditions to some degree. Constituent concentrations at sites on Vache Grasse Creek, and particularly the most upstream site, which was located immediately downstream from an off-post wastewater-treatment facility, indicate that environmental conditions were being influenced by an off-post source. The most upstream site on Vache Grasse Creek had both the highest number of detections and the

  6. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  7. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi Volcano, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt Volcano. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2008.

  8. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  9. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  10. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  11. THE GEOLOGIC RISK IN THE LAKE KIVU BASIN AREA PRODUCTED BY EARTHQUAKES. Case of the February 3th 2008 earthquake. By: L.M.Bagalwa(1), F.Lukaya(1), M.Burume(2), J.Moeyerson(3) (1): Goma Volcano Observatory, D.R.Congo (2): Naturals Sciences Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalwa Rukeza, Montfort

    2010-05-01

    The eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is prone to earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4 on the Richter scale. The western edge of Lake Kivu, the most populated part of the region is no exception to the solicitation of these earthquakes. Since 1997, the western basin of Lake Kivu is experiencing intense seismicity, several earthquakes of great intensity, magnitude greater than or equal to 4 develop major destructive phenomena. These include the 1997 earthquake (M = 4.7) 2000 (M = 4.6 and 5.4), 2002 (M = 4.9, 5.2, 6.1 and 24 October 2002 M = 6.2) of February 3rd 2008 (M = 6). Earthquakes of Kalehe on October 24th 2002 and Birava, February 3rd 2008 have resulted deformations of soil, human and material damage. This latest natural disaster ever known in the south-western basin of Lake Kivu has attracted our scientific curiosity we go there to inquire into its causes and consequences in this region. The basin of Lake Kivu is affected by transform faults emerging (MUKONKI & CHOROWICZ, 1980, quoted by K.S.KAVOTHA & ali, 1990) that delimit the Rift were intersecting at the level of Lake Kivu. We Consider the seismicity, volcanism and uplift of the basin of Lake Kivu as a sign of fracturing under way to delimit a plate tectonics formed (Wong and Von Herzen, 1974, quoted by KSKAVOTHA et al, 1990). The physiography of Lake Kivu is dominated by the fault which borders the western shore and one which intersects the island of Idjwi. The telemetry data of Goma Volcano Observatory added to those of the seismographic station of Lwiro have always revealed a pattern of epicenters clearer in Lake Kivu. In correlation with the faults of the region, earthquakes affect mainly the western edge of Lake Kivu and the island of Idjwi with increasing density from north to south (K.S.KAVOTHA et al, 1990). The great earthquake of Lake Kivu basin on February 03rd 2008, of magnitude 6 on the Richter scale occurred at 07 hours 34 minutes 12 seconds GMT, about 20 km north of Bukavu

  12. Implementation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center(FRMAC) - Emergency Phase

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requireme