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Sample records for earthquake resistant buildings

  1. Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    How do cross-bracing, geometry, and base isolation help buildings withstand earthquakes? These important structural design features involve fundamental geometry that elementary school students can readily model and understand. The problem activity, Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building, was undertaken by several classes of sixth- grade…

  2. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  3. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  4. Building configuration and seismic design: The architecture of earthquake resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C.; Reitherman, R.; Whitaker, D.

    1981-05-01

    The architecture of a building in relation to its ability to withstand earthquakes was determined. Aspects of round motion which are significant to building behavior are discussed. Results of a survey of configuration decisions that affect the performance of buildings with a focus on the architectural aspects of configuration design are provided. Configuration derivation, building type as it relates to seismic design, and seismic design, and seismic issues in the design process are examined. Case studies of the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Loma Linda, California, and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, Japan, are presented. The seismic design process is described paying special attention to the configuration issues. The need is stressed for guidelines, codes, and regulations to ensure design solutions that respect and balance the full range of architectural, engineering, and material influences on seismic hazards.

  5. Creativity of Junior High School’s Students in Designing Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriani, D. N.; Kaniawati, I.; Ramalis, T. R.

    2017-09-01

    This research was stimulated by the present the territory of Indonesia is largely an area prone to earthquakes and the issue that human resources and disaster response planning process is still less competent and not optimal. In addition, the construction of houses and public facilities has not been in accordance with earthquake-resistant building standards. This study aims to develop students’ creativity through earthquake resistant building model’s projects. The research method used is descriptive qualitative method. The sample is one of the 7th grades consisting of 32 students in one of the junior high schools, Indonesia. Data was collected using an observation sheets and student worksheet. Results showed that students’ creativity in designing earthquake resistant building models varies greatly and yields new solutions to solve problems.

  6. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  7. Partial Prestress Concrete Beams Reinforced Concrete Column Joint Earthquake Resistant On Frame Structure Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astawa, M. D.; Kartini, W.; Lie, F. X. E.

    2018-01-01

    Floor Building that requires a large space such as for the meeting room, so it must remove the column in the middle of the room, then the span beam above the room will be long. If the beam of structural element with a span length reaches 15.00 m, then it is less effective and efficient using a regular Reinforced Concrete Beam because it requires a large section dimension, and will reduce the beauty of the view in terms of aesthetics of Architecture. In order to meet these criteria, in this design will use partial prestressing method with 400/600 mm section dimension, assuming the partial Prestressed Beam structure is still able to resist the lateral force of the earthquake. The design of the reinforcement has taken into account to resist the moment due to the gravitational load and lateral forces. The earthquake occurring on the frame structure of the building. In accordance with the provisions, the flexural moment capacity of the tendon is permitted only by 25% of the total bending moment on support of the beam, while the 75% will be charged to the reinforcing steel. Based on the analysis result, bring ini 1 (one) tendon contains 6 strand with diameter 15,2 mm. On the beam pedestal, requires 5D25 tensile reinforcement and 3D25 for the compression reinforcement, for shear reinforcement on the pedestal using Ø10-100 mm. Dimensional column section are 600/600 mm with longitudinal main reinforcement of 12D25, and transverse reinforcement Ø10-150. At the core of the beam-column joint, use the transversal reinforcement Ø10-100 mm. The moment of Column versus Beam Moment ∑Me > 1.2 Mg, with a value of 906.99 kNm > 832.25 kNm, qualify for ductility and Strong Columns-weak beam. Capacity of contribution bending moment of Strand Tendon’s is 23.95% from the total bending moment capacity of the beam, meaning in accordance with the provisions. Thus, the stability and ductility structure of Beam-Column joint is satisfy the requirements of SNI 2847: 2013 and ACI 318-11.

  8. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, M; Fujita, K; Tsuji, M; Takewaki, I

    2016-02-01

    A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency) earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency) and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  9. Soft storey effects on plastic hinge propagation of moment resisting reinforced concrete building subjected to Ranau earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chee Ghuan; Chia, Wei Ting; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan

    2017-10-01

    On 5th June 2015, a moderate earthquake with Mw 5.9 hit Ranau, resulted in damages of the existing non-seismically designed buildings, such that 61 buildings, including mosques, schools, hospitals and Ranau police headquarters were suffered from different level structural damages. Soft storey irregularity is one of the main reasons of the building damage. This study is to investigate the soft-story effect on the propagation path of plastic hinges RC building under seismic excitation. The plastic hinges formation and seismic performance of five moment resisting RC frames with different infill configurations are studied. The seismic performance of building is evaluated by Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA). Open ground soft storey structure shows the lowest seismic resistance, collapses at 0.55g pga. The maximum interstorey drift ratio (IDRmax) in soft storey buildings ranging from 0.53% to 2.96% which are far greater than bare frame ranging from 0.095% to 0.69%. The presence of infill walls creates stiffer upper stories causing moments concentrate at the soft storey, resulting the path of plastic hinge propagation is dominant at the soft storey columns. Hence, the buildings with soft storey are very susceptible under earthquake load.

  10. The utilization of brick walls for resisting earthquake in building technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J.; Benedicta, C.

    2018-03-01

    Many structures in Indonesia use reinforced concrete frames with brick walls as their infill. Commonly, the engineers consider brick walls as the partitions and count them as the non-structural elements in the structure design. However, brick walls are capable of resisting earthquake by yielding high stiffness to the structure in case the brick walls are integrated well with the frames. It will reduce the non-structural destructions that happen to structures which is one of the most frequently impacts in the earthquake. This paper will take the effects of applying brick walls as the structural elements up by comparing it with the structure using brick walls as the partitions. The modeling of the brick walls uses the equivalent spectrum method meanwhile the seismic analysis uses the respon spectrum method. The utilization of brick walls can cause the decrement of the natural period to 42%. It also reduce the structure displacements to 53% in X-direction and 67% in Y-direction and the story drifts to 57% in X-direction and 71% in Y-direction. Otherwise, it causes the increment of the base shear only up to 3% in X-direction and 7% in Y-direction.

  11. Urban Earthquakes - Reducing Building Collapse Through Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R.

    2004-12-01

    Fatalities from earthquakes rose from 6000k to 9000k/year in the past decade, yet the ratio of numbers of earthquake fatalities to instantaneous population continues to fall. Since 1950 the ratio declined worldwide by a factor of three, but in some countries the ratio has changed little. E.g in Iran, 1 in 3000 people can expect to die in an earthquake, a percentage that has not changed significantly since 1890. Fatalities from earthquakes remain high in those countries that have traditionally suffered from frequent large earthquakes (Turkey, Iran, Japan, and China), suggesting that the exposure time of recently increased urban populations in other countries may be too short to have interacted with earthquakes with long recurrence intervals. This in turn, suggests that disasters of unprecendented size will occur (more than 1 million fatalities) when future large earthquakes occur close to megacities. However, population growth is most rapid in cities of less than 1 million people in the developing nations, where the financial ability to implement earthquake resistant construction methods is limited. In that structural collapse can often be traced to ignorance about the forces at work in an earthquake, the future collapse of buildings presently under construction could be much reduced were contractors, builders and occupants educated in the principles of earthquake resistant assembly. Education of builders who are tempted to cut assembly costs is likely to be more cost effective than material aid.

  12. Advancing Integrated STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Sixth-Grade Students' Design and Construction of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna; Smeed, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    As part of a 3-year longitudinal study, 136 sixth-grade students completed an engineering-based problem on earthquakes involving integrated STEM learning. Students employed engineering design processes and STEM disciplinary knowledge to plan, sketch, then construct a building designed to withstand earthquake damage, taking into account a number of…

  13. School Safety Down to Earth: California's Earthquake-Resistant Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Schools in California being built to resist damage by earthquakes are part of a program to meet building standards established in 1933. The three new schools presented reflect the strengths and weaknesses of the program. (Author/MLF)

  14. VS30 – A site-characterization parameter for use in building Codes, simplified earthquake resistant design, GMPEs, and ShakeMaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    VS30, defined as the average seismic shear-wave velocity from the surface to a depth of 30 meters, has found wide-spread use as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified earthquake resistant design as implemented in building codes worldwide. VS30 , as initially introduced by the author for the US 1994 NEHRP Building Code, provides unambiguous definitions of site classes and site coefficients for site-dependent response spectra based on correlations derived from extensive borehole logging and comparative ground-motion measurement programs in California. Subsequent use of VS30 for development of strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and measurement of extensive sets of VS borehole data have confirmed the previous empirical correlations and established correlations of SVS30 with VSZ at other depths. These correlations provide closed form expressions to predict S30 V at a large number of additional sites and further justify S30 V as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified building codes, GMPEs, ShakeMap, and seismic hazard mapping.

  15. Building Loss Estimation for Earthquake Insurance Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Fahjan, Y.; Siyahi, B.

    2005-12-01

    After the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey several changes in the insurance sector took place. A compulsory earthquake insurance scheme was introduced by the government. The reinsurance companies increased their rates. Some even supended operations in the market. And, most important, the insurance companies realized the importance of portfolio analysis in shaping their future market strategies. The paper describes an earthquake loss assessment methodology that can be used for insurance pricing and portfolio loss estimation that is based on our work esperience in the insurance market. The basic ingredients are probabilistic and deterministic regional site dependent earthquake hazard, regional building inventory (and/or portfolio), building vulnerabilities associated with typical construction systems in Turkey and estimations of building replacement costs for different damage levels. Probable maximum and average annualized losses are estimated as the result of analysis. There is a two-level earthquake insurance system in Turkey, the effect of which is incorporated in the algorithm: the national compulsory earthquake insurance scheme and the private earthquake insurance system. To buy private insurance one has to be covered by the national system, that has limited coverage. As a demonstration of the methodology we look at the case of Istanbul and use its building inventory data instead of a portfolio. A state-of-the-art time depent earthquake hazard model that portrays the increased earthquake expectancies in Istanbul is used. Intensity and spectral displacement based vulnerability relationships are incorporated in the analysis. In particular we look at the uncertainty in the loss estimations that arise from the vulnerability relationships, and at the effect of the implemented repair cost ratios.

  16. Global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

  17. Effect of repeated earthquake on inelastic moment resisting concrete frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, R. M. K.; Majid, T. A.; Zaini, S. S.; Faisal, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the response of inelastic moment resisting concrete building under repeated earthquakes. 2D models consist of 3-storey, 6-storey and 9-storey representing low to medium rise building frame were designed using seismic load and ductility class medium (DCM) according to the requirements set by Euro Code 8. Behaviour factor and stiffness degradation were also taken into consideration. Seven sets of real repeated earthquakes as opposed to artificial earthquakes data were used. The response of the frame was measured in terms of the inter-storey drift and maximum displacement. By adopting repeated earthquake, the recorded mean IDR increased in the range of 3% - 21%. Similarly, in the case of maximum displacement, the values also increased from 20 mm to 40 mm. The findings concluded that the effect of using repeated earthquake in seismic analysis considerably influenced the inter-storey drift and the maximum displacement.

  18. Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, David A.; Turner, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

  19. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Earthquakes Earthquakes An earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, ... by the breaking and shifting of underground rock. Earthquakes can cause buildings to collapse and cause heavy ...

  20. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of tall buildings in Semarang, Indonesia due to fault earthquakes with maximum 7 Mw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partono, Windu; Pardoyo, Bambang; Atmanto, Indrastono Dwi; Azizah, Lisa; Chintami, Rouli Dian

    2017-11-01

    Fault is one of the dangerous earthquake sources that can cause building failure. A lot of buildings were collapsed caused by Yogyakarta (2006) and Pidie (2016) fault source earthquakes with maximum magnitude 6.4 Mw. Following the research conducted by Team for Revision of Seismic Hazard Maps of Indonesia 2010 and 2016, Lasem, Demak and Semarang faults are three closest earthquake sources surrounding Semarang. The ground motion from those three earthquake sources should be taken into account for structural design and evaluation. Most of tall buildings, with minimum 40 meter high, in Semarang were designed and constructed following the 2002 and 2012 Indonesian Seismic Code. This paper presents the result of sensitivity analysis research with emphasis on the prediction of deformation and inter-story drift of existing tall building within the city against fault earthquakes. The analysis was performed by conducting dynamic structural analysis of 8 (eight) tall buildings using modified acceleration time histories. The modified acceleration time histories were calculated for three fault earthquakes with magnitude from 6 Mw to 7 Mw. The modified acceleration time histories were implemented due to inadequate time histories data caused by those three fault earthquakes. Sensitivity analysis of building against earthquake can be predicted by evaluating surface response spectra calculated using seismic code and surface response spectra calculated from acceleration time histories from a specific earthquake event. If surface response spectra calculated using seismic code is greater than surface response spectra calculated from acceleration time histories the structure will stable enough to resist the earthquake force.

  2. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  3. Analysis of a school building damaged by the 2015 Ranau earthquake Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shugo; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    On June 5th, 2015 a severe earthquake with a moment Magnitude of 6.0 occurred in Ranau, Malaysia. Depth of the epicenter is 10 km. Due to the earthquake, many facilities were damaged and 18 people were killed due to rockfalls [1]. Because the British Standard (BS) is adopted as a regulation for built buildings in Malaysia, the seismic force is not considered in the structural design. Therefore, the seismic resistance of Malaysian buildings is unclear. To secure the human life and building safety, it is important to grasp seismic resistance of the building. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic resistance of the existing buildings in Malaysia built by the British Standard. A school building that was damaged at the Ranau earthquake is selected as the target building. The building is a four story building and the ground floor is designed to be a parking space for the staff. The structural types are infill masonries where main frame is configured by reinforced concrete columns and beams and brick is installed inside the frame as walls. Analysis is performed using the STERA_3D software that is the software to analyze the seismic performance of buildings developed by one of the authors. Firstly, the natural period of the building is calculated and compared with the result of micro-tremor measurement. Secondly, the nonlinear push-over analysis was conducted to evaluate the horizontal load bearing capacity of the building. Thirdly, the earthquake response analysis was conducted using the time history acceleration data measured at the Ranau earthquake by the seismograph installed at Kota Kinabalu. By comparing the results of earthquake response analysis and the actual damage of the building, the reason that caused damage to the building is clarified.

  4. Developing Methodologies for Evaluating the Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, B.; And Others

    This report contains four papers written during an investigation of methods for evaluating the safety of existing school buildings under Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) grants. In "Evaluation of Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings," by B. Bresler, preliminary ideas on the evaluation of the earthquake safety of existing…

  5. Earthquake response analysis of 11-story RC building that suffered damage in 2011 East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Akenori; Masuno, Hidemasa

    2017-10-01

    An eleven-story RC apartment building suffered medium damage in the 2011 East Japan earthquake and was retrofitted for re-use. Strong motion records were obtained near the building. This paper discusses the inelastic earthquake response analysis of the building using the equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (1-DOF) system to account for the features of damage. The method of converting the building frame into 1-DOF system with tri-linear reducing-stiffness restoring force characteristics was given. The inelastic response analysis of the building against the earthquake using the inelastic 1-DOF equivalent system could interpret well the level of actual damage.

  6. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  7. A global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat's demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Lessons learned from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake: Building damages and behavior of seismically isolated buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Keiko; Takayama, Mineo

    2017-10-01

    Powerful earthquakes stuck Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures in Kyushu, Japan. It began with the Magnitude 6.5 foreshock at 21:26 JST 14 April, followed by the Magnitude 7.3 mainshock at 1:25 JST 16 April, 2016. The sequence earthquakes also involved more than 1700 perceptible earthquakes as of 13 June. The entire sequence was named the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Thousands of buildings and many roads were damaged, and landslides occurred. The Japanese building standard law is revised in 1981. Structural damages were concentrated on buildings constructed prior to 1981. The area of Mashiki and Southern Aso were most badly affected, especially wooden houses extremely damaged. In Japan, Prof. Hideyuki Tada (title at the time) undertook research on laminated rubber bearings in 1978, and put it into practical use in 1981. The single family house at Yachiyodai, Chiba Prefecture is completed in 1983, it's the first seismically isolated building which is installed laminated rubber bearings in Japan. Afterward, this system is gradually adopted to mainly office buildings, like a research laboratory, a hospital, a computer center and other offices. In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1995 Kobe earthquake and 2011 Tohoku earthquake, seismically isolated buildings improve these good performances, and recently number of the buildings have increased, mainly high risk area of earthquakes. Many people believed that Kumamoto was a low risk area. But there were 24 seismically isolated buildings in Kumamoto Prefecture at the time. The seismically isolated buildings indicated excellent performances during the earthquakes. They protected people, buildings and other important facilities from damages caused by the earthquake. The purpose of this paper is to discuss lessons learned from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and behavior of seismically isolated buildings in the earthquake.

  9. Building Damage Extraction Triggered by Earthquake Using the Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Tang, H.

    2018-04-01

    When extracting building damage information, we can only determine whether the building is collapsed using the post-earthquake satellite images. Even the satellite images have the sub-meter resolution, the identification of slightly damaged buildings is still a challenge. As the complementary data to satellite images, the UAV images have unique advantages, such as stronger flexibility and higher resolution. In this paper, according to the spectral feature of UAV images and the morphological feature of the reconstructed point clouds, the building damage was classified into four levels: basically intact buildings, slightly damaged buildings, partially collapsed buildings and totally collapsed buildings, and give the rules of damage grades. In particular, the slightly damaged buildings are determined using the detected roof-holes. In order to verify the approach, we conduct experimental simulations in the cases of Wenchuan and Ya'an earthquakes. By analyzing the post-earthquake UAV images of the two earthquakes, the building damage was classified into four levels, and the quantitative statistics of the damaged buildings is given in the experiments.

  10. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  12. Living with earthquakes - development and usage of earthquake-resistant construction methods in European and Asian Antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs; Hariyadi, Agus; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Ditto Haryana, Yohanes

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are among the most horrible events of nature due to unexpected occurrence, for which no spiritual means are available for protection. The only way of preserving life and property is applying earthquake-resistant construction methods. Ancient Greek architects of public buildings applied steel clamps embedded in lead casing to hold together columns and masonry walls during frequent earthquakes in the Aegean region. Elastic steel provided strength, while plastic lead casing absorbed minor shifts of blocks without fracturing rigid stone. Romans invented concrete and built all sizes of buildings as a single, unflexible unit. Masonry surrounding and decorating concrete core of the wall did not bear load. Concrete resisted minor shaking, yielding only to forces higher than fracture limits. Roman building traditions survived the Dark Ages and 12th century Crusader castles erected in earthquake-prone Syria survive until today in reasonably good condition. Concrete and steel clamping persisted side-by-side in the Roman Empire. Concrete was used for cheap construction as compared to building of masonry. Applying lead-encased steel increased costs, and was avoided whenever possible. Columns of the various forums in Italian Pompeii mostly lack steel fittings despite situated in well-known earthquake-prone area. Whether frequent recurrence of earthquakes in the Naples region was known to inhabitants of Pompeii might be a matter of debate. Seemingly the shock of the AD 62 earthquake was not enough to apply well-known protective engineering methods throughout the reconstruction of the city before the AD 79 volcanic catastrophe. An independent engineering tradition developed on the island of Java (Indonesia). The mortar-less construction technique of 8-9th century Hindu masonry shrines around Yogyakarta would allow scattering of blocks during earthquakes. To prevent dilapidation an intricate mortise-and-tenon system was carved into adjacent faces of blocks. Only the

  13. Post-earthquake building safety inspection: Lessons from the Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Gould, N.; Turner, F.; Lizundia, B.; Barnes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the unique aspects and lessons of the New Zealand post-earthquake building safety inspection program that was implemented following the Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010–2011. The post-event safety assessment program was one of the largest and longest programs undertaken in recent times anywhere in the world. The effort engaged hundreds of engineering professionals throughout the country, and also sought expertise from outside, to perform post-earthquake structural safety inspections of more than 100,000 buildings in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding suburbs. While the building safety inspection procedure implemented was analogous to the ATC 20 program in the United States, many modifications were proposed and implemented in order to assess the large number of buildings that were subjected to strong and variable shaking during a period of two years. This note discusses some of the key aspects of the post-earthquake building safety inspection program and summarizes important lessons that can improve future earthquake response.

  14. Strength, functionality and beauty of university buildings in earthquake-prone countries

    PubMed Central

    WADA, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Strength, functionality and beauty are the three qualities identifying well-designed architecture. For buildings in earthquake-prone countries such as Japan, emphasis on seismic safety frequently leads to the sacrifice of functionality and beauty. Therefore, it is important to develop new structural technologies that can ensure the seismic performance of a building without hampering the pursuit of functionality and beauty. The moment-resisting frame structures widely used for buildings in Japan are likely to experience weak-story collapse. Pin-supported walls, which can effectively enhance the structural story-by-story integrity of a building, were introduced to prevent such an unfavorable failure pattern in the seismic retrofit of an eleven-story building on a university campus in Tokyo, while also greatly aesthetically enhancing the façade of the building. The slight damage observed and monitoring records of the retrofitted building during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan demonstrate that the pin-supported walls worked as intended, protecting the building and guaranteeing the safety of its occupants during the earthquake. PMID:29434079

  15. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  16. Physics of Earthquake Disaster: From Crustal Rupture to Building Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2018-05-01

    Earthquakes of relatively greater magnitude may cause serious, sometimes unexpected failures of natural and human-made structures, either on the surface, underground, or even at sea. In this review, by treating several examples of extraordinary earthquake-related failures that range from the collapse of every second building in a commune to the initiation of spontaneous crustal rupture at depth, we consider the physical background behind the apparently abnormal earthquake disaster. Simple but rigorous dynamic analyses reveal that such seemingly unusual failures actually occurred for obvious reasons, which may remain unrecognized in part because in conventional seismic analyses only kinematic aspects of the effects of lower-frequency seismic waves below 1 Hz are normally considered. Instead of kinematics, some dynamic approach that takes into account the influence of higher-frequency components of waves over 1 Hz will be needed to anticipate and explain such extraordinary phenomena and mitigate the impact of earthquake disaster in the future.

  17. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  18. Build an Earthquake City! Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students build a city out of sugar cubes, bouillon cubes, and gelatin cubes. The city is then put through simulated earthquakes to see which cube structures withstand the shaking the best. This activity requires a 50-minute time period for completion. (Author/SOE)

  19. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    PubMed

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  20. Building Inventory Database on the Urban Scale Using GIS for Earthquake Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, O.; Avdan, U.; Guney, Y.; Helvaci, C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of the existing buildings are not safe against earthquakes in most of the developing countries. Before a devastating earthquake, existing buildings need to be assessed and the vulnerable ones must be determined. Determining the seismic performance of existing buildings which is usually made with collecting the attributes of existing buildings, making the analysis and the necessary queries, and producing the result maps is very hard and complicated procedure that can be simplified with Geographic Information System (GIS). The aim of this study is to produce a building inventory database using GIS for assessing the earthquake risk of existing buildings. In this paper, a building inventory database for 310 buildings, located in Eskisehir, Turkey, was produced in order to assess the earthquake risk of the buildings. The results from this study show that 26% of the buildings have high earthquake risk, 33% of the buildings have medium earthquake risk and the 41% of the buildings have low earthquake risk. The produced building inventory database can be very useful especially for governments in dealing with the problem of determining seismically vulnerable buildings in the large existing building stocks. With the help of this kind of methods, determination of the buildings, which may collapse and cause life and property loss during a possible future earthquake, will be very quick, cheap and reliable.

  1. Response of high-rise and base-isolated buildings to a hypothetical M w 7.0 blind thrust earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hall, J.F.; Wald, D.J.; Halling, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    High-rise flexible-frame buildings are commonly considered to be resistant to shaking from the largest earthquakes. In addition, base isolation has become increasingly popular for critical buildings that should still function after an earthquake. How will these two types of buildings perform if a large earthquake occurs beneath a metropolitan area? To answer this question, we simulated the near-source ground motions of a Mw 7.0 thrust earthquake and then mathematically modeled the response of a 20-story steel-frame building and a 3-story base-isolated building. The synthesized ground motions were characterized by large displacement pulses (up to 2 meters) and large ground velocities. These ground motions caused large deformation and possible collapse of the frame building, and they required exceptional measures in the design of the base-isolated building if it was to remain functional.

  2. Evaluating Post-Earthquake Building Safety Using Economical MEMS Seismometers

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    The earthquake early warning (EEW)-research group at National Taiwan University has been developing a microelectromechanical system-based accelerometer called “P-Alert”, designed for issuing EEWs. The main advantage of P-Alert is that it is a relatively economical seismometer. However, because of the expensive nature of commercial hardware for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, the application of SHM to buildings remains limited. To determine the performance of P-Alert for evaluating post-earthquake building safety, we conducted a series of steel-frame shaking table tests with incremental damage. We used the fragility curves of different damage levels and the interstory drift ratios (calculated by the measured acceleration of each story using double integration and a filter) to gauge the potential damage levels. We concluded that the acceptable detection of damage for an entire building is possible. With improvements to the synchronization of the P-Alert sensors, we also anticipate a damage localization feature for the stories of a building. PMID:29734736

  3. Evaluating Post-Earthquake Building Safety Using Economical MEMS Seismometers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ting-Yu; Yin, Ren-Cheng; Wu, Yih-Min

    2018-05-05

    The earthquake early warning (EEW)-research group at National Taiwan University has been developing a microelectromechanical system-based accelerometer called “P-Alert”, designed for issuing EEWs. The main advantage of P-Alert is that it is a relatively economical seismometer. However, because of the expensive nature of commercial hardware for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, the application of SHM to buildings remains limited. To determine the performance of P-Alert for evaluating post-earthquake building safety, we conducted a series of steel-frame shaking table tests with incremental damage. We used the fragility curves of different damage levels and the interstory drift ratios (calculated by the measured acceleration of each story using double integration and a filter) to gauge the potential damage levels. We concluded that the acceptable detection of damage for an entire building is possible. With improvements to the synchronization of the P-Alert sensors, we also anticipate a damage localization feature for the stories of a building.

  4. Significance of beating observed in earthquake responses of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. F.; Taciroglu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The beating phenomenon observed in the recorded responses of a tall building in Japan and another in the U.S. are examined in this paper. Beating is a periodic vibrational behavior caused by distinctive coupling between translational and torsional modes that typically have close frequencies. Beating is prominent in the prolonged resonant responses of lightly damped structures. Resonances caused by site effects also contribute to accentuating the beating effect. Spectral analyses and system identification techniques are used herein to quantify the periods and amplitudes of the beating effects from the strong motion recordings of the two buildings. Quantification of beating effects is a first step towards determining remedial actions to improve resilient building performance to strong earthquake induced shaking.

  5. Helping safeguard Veterans Affairs' hospital buildings by advanced earthquake monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Blair, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project of the U.S. Geological Survey has recently installed sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of hospital buildings during earthquake shaking. The new systems have been installed at more than 20 VA medical campuses across the country. These monitoring systems, which combine sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are capable of determining the structural health of each structure rapidly after an event, helping to ensure the safety of patients and staff.

  6. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  7. Seismic Disaster Mitigation in Urban Area by using Building Vibration Observation of Weak Earthquake Ground Motion: an Approach of the IT Kyoshin Seismometer for Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Ito, T.

    2010-12-01

    There are a lot of buildings which is not experienced severe earthquakes in urban area. In Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake, it was presumed that 80 percent or more of the person was dead immediately after the earthquake by building collapse. Also in Haiti, a lot of buildings deprived of the life of persons. In order to prevent the earthquake damage of urban area, it is the most effective to make the building earthquake-proof. However, there are still a lot of buildings not made earthquake-proof in Japan though 15 years passed since Kobe Earthquake. In order to promote making of the building earthquake-proof, various approaches such as visualization of seismic hazard, education of disaster prevention and legal system for promotion are needed. We have developed the IT Kyoshin(strong motion) Seismometer for Building which is the observation system of the usual weak earthquake ground motion by installing a lot of acceleration sensors in building, and have been setting it up in some buildings of the University of Tokyo. We have also developed the visualization tool that can reproduce the building vibration during earthquake from the observed data. By this tool, we can successfully show where is more shaking in the building or what is the feature of building vibration easily. Such information contributes to not only promotion of making building earthquake-proof but also promotion of disaster prevention action such as fixation of bookshelf, making the safety area in building, etc. In addition, we proposed a concrete technique of the health investigation of buildings by using weak earthquake ground motion. Because there are 20 to 30 felt earthquakes in year in Tokyo area, it is possible to observe these building vibrations by using weak earthquake ground motions. In addition, we have developed the high sensitive ITK sensor which can observe from the microtremor to the felt earthquake in the place without the felt earthquake either.

  8. Estimating Fallout Building Attributes from Architectural Features and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Building Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Kane, Staci R.

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands (or more) of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing fallout radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and individuals indoors. Prior efforts have determined an initial set of building attributes suitable to reasonably assess a given building’s protection against fallout radiation. The current work provides methods to determine the quantitative values for these attributes from (a) common architectural features and data and (b) buildings described using the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy. Thesemore » methods will be used to improve estimates of fallout protection for operational US Department of Defense (DoD) and US Department of Energy (DOE) consequence assessment models.« less

  9. Estimating shaking-induced casualties and building damage for global earthquake events: a proposed modelling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    So, Emily; Spence, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7.0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6.9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found.

  10. Collapse risk of buildings in the Pacific Northwest region due to subduction earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raghunandan, Meera; Liel, Abbie B.; Luco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Subduction earthquakes similar to the 2011 Japan and 2010 Chile events will occur in the future in the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out on 24 buildings designed according to outdated and modern building codes for the cities of Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. The results indicate that the median collapse capacity of the ductile (post-1970) buildings is approximately 40% less when subjected to ground motions from subduction, as compared to crustal earthquakes. Buildings are more susceptible to earthquake-induced collapse when shaken by subduction records (as compared to crustal records of the same intensity) because the subduction motions tend to be longer in duration due to their larger magnitude and the greater source-to-site distance. As a result, subduction earthquakes are shown to contribute to the majority of the collapse risk of the buildings analyzed.

  11. A numerical simulation strategy on occupant evacuation behaviors and casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zhai, Changhai

    2018-01-01

    Casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes benefits to implement the economic loss estimation in the performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. Although after-earthquake observations reveal that the evacuation has effects on the quantity of occupant casualties during earthquakes, few current studies consider occupant movements in the building in casualty prediction procedures. To bridge this knowledge gap, a numerical simulation method using refined cellular automata model is presented, which can describe various occupant dynamic behaviors and building dimensions. The simulation on the occupant evacuation is verified by a recorded evacuation process from a school classroom in real-life 2013 Ya'an earthquake in China. The occupant casualties in the building under earthquakes are evaluated by coupling the building collapse process simulation by finite element method, the occupant evacuation simulation, and the casualty occurrence criteria with time and space synchronization. A case study of casualty prediction in a building during an earthquake is provided to demonstrate the effect of occupant movements on casualty prediction.

  12. Preliminary Results of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Detection with Object-Based Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Uca Avci, Z. D.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters, which result in massive loss of life, infrastructure damages and financial losses. Earthquake-induced building damage detection is a very important step after earthquakes since earthquake-induced building damage is one of the most critical threats to cities and countries in terms of the area of damage, rate of collapsed buildings, the damage grade near the epicenters and also building damage types for all constructions. Van-Ercis (Turkey) earthquake (Mw= 7.1) was occurred on October 23th, 2011; at 10:41 UTC (13:41 local time) centered at 38.75 N 43.36 E that places the epicenter about 30 kilometers northern part of the city of Van. It is recorded that, 604 people died and approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or seriously damaged by the earthquake. In this study, high-resolution satellite images of Van-Ercis, acquired by Quickbird-2 (Digital Globe Inc.) after the earthquake, were used to detect the debris areas using an object-based image classification. Two different land surfaces, having homogeneous and heterogeneous land covers, were selected as case study areas. As a first step of the object-based image processing, segmentation was applied with a convenient scale parameter and homogeneity criterion parameters. As a next step, condition based classification was used. In the final step of this preliminary study, outputs were compared with streetview/ortophotos for the verification and evaluation of the classification accuracy.

  13. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  14. Detection of collapsed buildings from lidar data due to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, Luis; Yamazaki, Fumio; Liu, Wen; Yamada, Masumi

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence was triggered by an Mw 6.2 event at 21:26 on 14 April. Approximately 28 h later, at 01:25 on 16 April, an Mw 7.0 event (the mainshock) followed. The epicenters of both events were located near the residential area of Mashiki and affected the region nearby. Due to very strong seismic ground motion, the earthquake produced extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. In this paper, collapsed buildings were detected using a pair of digital surface models (DSMs), taken before and after the 16 April mainshock by airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) flights. Different methods were evaluated to identify collapsed buildings from the DSMs. The change in average elevation within a building footprint was found to be the most important factor. Finally, the distribution of collapsed buildings in the study area was presented, and the result was consistent with that of a building damage survey performed after the earthquake.

  15. Application of laser scanning technique in earthquake protection of Istanbul's historical heritage buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaktı, Eser; Ercan, Tülay; Dar, Emrullah

    2017-04-01

    Istanbul's vast historical and cultural heritage is under constant threat of earthquakes. Historical records report repeated damages to the city's landmark buildings. Our efforts towards earthquake protection of several buildings in Istanbul involve earthquake monitoring via structural health monitoring systems, linear and non-linear structural modelling and analysis in search of past and future earthquake performance, shake-table testing of scaled models and non-destructive testing. More recently we have been using laser technology in monitoring structural deformations and damage in five monumental buildings which are Hagia Sophia Museum and Fatih, Sultanahmet, Süleymaniye and Mihrimah Sultan Mosques. This presentation is about these efforts with special emphasis on the use of laser scanning in monitoring of edifices.

  16. Earthquakes

    MedlinePlus

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  17. Impact of Stylistic Features, Architectural and Urban Rules of the Algiers Architectural Heritage Dating Between 1830 and 1930 ON the Strength of its Buildings during the Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    In a other work, we have highlighted a theoretical point of view that there is an relation between the earthquake-resistant architectural design codes and, the urban and stylistic characteristics of buildings and urban forms of the Algiers architectural heritage dating between 1830 and 1930. Following this, we hypothesized that its various stylistic and urban characteristics have a direct impact on the resilience of buildings to earthquakes. The purpose of this article is to try through the computer simulation examples of some stylistic and urban characteristics to prove the validity or not of our hypothesis.

  18. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogurcu, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column-stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.

  19. Shaking table test and dynamic response prediction on an earthquake-damaged RC building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianguo, Ye; Jiaru, Qian; Kangning, Li

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the results from shaking table tests of a one-tenth-scale reinforced concrete (RC) building model. The test model is a protype of a building that was seriously damaged during the 1985 Mexico earthquake. The input ground excitation used during the test was from the records obtained near the site of the prototype building during the 1985 and 1995 Mexico earthquakes. The tests showed that the damage pattern of the test model agreed well with that of the prototype building. Analytical prediction of earthquake response has been conducted for the prototype building using a sophisticated 3-D frame model. The input motion used for the dynamic analysis was the shaking table test measurements with similarity transformation. The comparison of the analytical results and the shaking table test results indicates that the response of the RC building to minor and the moderate earthquakes can be predicated well. However, there is difference between the predication and the actual response to the major earthquake.

  20. Quantifying Earthquake Collapse Risk of Tall Steel Braced Frame Buildings Using Rupture-to-Rafters Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourhatch, Ramses

    This thesis examines collapse risk of tall steel braced frame buildings using rupture-to-rafters simulations due to suite of San Andreas earthquakes. Two key advancements in this work are the development of (i) a rational methodology for assigning scenario earthquake probabilities and (ii) an artificial correction-free approach to broadband ground motion simulation. The work can be divided into the following sections: earthquake source modeling, earthquake probability calculations, ground motion simulations, building response, and performance analysis. As a first step the kinematic source inversions of past earthquakes in the magnitude range of 6-8 are used to simulate 60 scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. For each scenario earthquake a 30-year occurrence probability is calculated and we present a rational method to redistribute the forecast earthquake probabilities from UCERF to the simulated scenario earthquake. We illustrate the inner workings of the method through an example involving earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in southern California. Next, three-component broadband ground motion histories are computed at 636 sites in the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area by superposing short-period (0.2s-2.0s) empirical Green's function synthetics on top of long-period (> 2.0s) spectral element synthetics. We superimpose these seismograms on low-frequency seismograms, computed from kinematic source models using the spectral element method, to produce broadband seismograms. Using the ground motions at 636 sites for the 60 scenario earthquakes, 3-D nonlinear analysis of several variants of an 18-story steel braced frame building, designed for three soil types using the 1994 and 1997 Uniform Building Code provisions and subjected to these ground motions, are conducted. Model performance is classified into one of five performance levels: Immediate Occupancy, Life Safety, Collapse Prevention, Red-Tagged, and Model Collapse. The results are combined with

  1. Earthquakes and building design: a primer for the laboratory animal professional.

    PubMed

    Vogelweid, Catherine M; Hill, James B; Shea, Robert A; Johnson, Daniel B

    2005-01-01

    Earthquakes can occur in most regions of the United States, so it might be necessary to reinforce vulnerable animal facilities to better protect research animals during these unpredictable events. A risk analysis should include an evaluation of the seismic hazard risk at the proposed building site balanced against the estimated consequences of losses. Risk analysis can help in better justifying and recommending to building owners the costs of incorporating additional seismic reinforcements. The planning team needs to specify the level of post-earthquake building function that is desired in the facility, and then design the facility to it.

  2. Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake.

    PubMed

    Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50 m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100-150 km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest.

  3. Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50 m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100–150 km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest. PMID:23050093

  4. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakiser, Louis C.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake…

  5. Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the causes of earthquakes. Topics discussed include (1) geological and seismological factors that determine the effect of a particular earthquake on a given structure; (2) description of some large earthquakes such as the San Francisco quake; and (3) prediction of earthquakes. (HM)

  6. Modeling the behavior of an earthquake base-isolated building.

    SciTech Connect

    Coveney, V. A.; Jamil, S.; Johnson, D. E.

    1997-11-26

    Protecting a structure against earthquake excitation by supporting it on laminated elastomeric bearings has become a widely accepted practice. The ability to perform accurate simulation of the system, including FEA of the bearings, would be desirable--especially for key installations. In this paper attempts to model the behavior of elastomeric earthquake bearings are outlined. Attention is focused on modeling highly-filled, low-modulus, high-damping elastomeric isolator systems; comparisons are made between standard triboelastic solid model predictions and test results.

  7. Racking tests of non-structural building partitions (The behavior of architectural (nonstructural) building components during earthquakes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihal, S. S.

    1980-12-01

    The effects of inter-story displacement (drift) during simllated earthquake conditions are reported. The correlation between inter-story relative displacement and building partition behavior, the threshold levels of partition damage, and the fundamental characteristics of non-structural building partitions (stiffness, energy absorption capacity, and strength) under horizontal racking actions were investigated. Parameters in this study consist of geometry of partition configuration and placement of gypsum wallboard panels.

  8. A study of earthquake-induced building detection by object oriented classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, Asli; Damla Uca Avci, Zehra; Sunar, Filiz

    2017-04-01

    Among the natural hazards, earthquakes are the most destructive disasters and cause huge loss of lives, heavily infrastructure damages and great financial losses every year all around the world. According to the statistics about the earthquakes, more than a million earthquakes occur which is equal to two earthquakes per minute in the world. Natural disasters have brought more than 780.000 deaths approximately % 60 of all mortality is due to the earthquakes after 2001. A great earthquake took place at 38.75 N 43.36 E in the eastern part of Turkey in Van Province on On October 23th, 2011. 604 people died and about 4000 buildings seriously damaged and collapsed after this earthquake. In recent years, the use of object oriented classification approach based on different object features, such as spectral, textural, shape and spatial information, has gained importance and became widespread for the classification of high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos. The motivation of this study is to detect the collapsed buildings and debris areas after the earthquake by using very high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos with the object oriented classification and also see how well remote sensing technology was carried out in determining the collapsed buildings. In this study, two different land surfaces were selected as homogenous and heterogeneous case study areas. In the first step of application, multi-resolution segmentation was applied and optimum parameters were selected to obtain the objects in each area after testing different color/shape and compactness/smoothness values. In the next step, two different classification approaches, namely "supervised" and "unsupervised" approaches were applied and their classification performances were compared. Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) was performed using e-Cognition software.

  9. UNLV’s environmentally friendly Science and Engineering Building is monitored for earthquake shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Savage, Woody; Reza, Shahneam; Knight, Eric; Tian, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The University of Nevada Las Vegas’ (UNLV) Science and Engineering Building is at the cutting edge of environmentally friendly design. As the result of a recent effort by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Strong Motion Project in cooperation with UNLV, the building is now also in the forefront of buildings installed with structural monitoring systems to measure response during earthquakes. This is particularly important because this is the first such building in Las Vegas. The seismic instrumentation will provide essential data to better understand the structural performance of buildings, especially in this seismically active region.

  10. Structural damages observed in state buildings after Simav/Turkey earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tama, Y. S.

    2012-08-01

    Different levels of damages occurred in state buildings, especially in educational facilities, during the Simav earthquake (ML=5.7) on 19 May 2011. A site survey was carried out in the area after the earthquake, where six state buildings were examined in detail. The results of the survey showed that main reasons for the formation of damages in these buildings are the use of low strength concrete, insufficient reinforcement, inappropriate detailing, and low-quality workmanship. The investigated buildings were also evaluated by P25-rapid assessment method. The method demonstrates that two of the buildings in question are in "high risk band"; the other two fall into "detailed evaluation band", and the rest are in the "low risk band". This figure also matches with the damages observed in the site survey.

  11. Understanding continental megathrust earthquake potential through geological mountain building processes: an example in Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huai; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Liangshu; Leroy, Yves; shi, Yaolin

    2017-04-01

    How to reconcile continent megathrust earthquake characteristics, for instances, mapping the large-great earthquake sequences into geological mountain building process, as well as partitioning the seismic-aseismic slips, is fundamental and unclear. Here, we scope these issues by focusing a typical continental collisional belt, the great Nepal Himalaya. We first prove that refined Nepal Himalaya thrusting sequences, with accurately defining of large earthquake cycle scale, provide new geodynamical hints on long-term earthquake potential in association with, either seismic-aseismic slip partition up to the interpretation of the binary interseismic coupling pattern on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), or the large-great earthquake classification via seismic cycle patterns on MHT. Subsequently, sequential limit analysis is adopted to retrieve the detailed thrusting sequences of Nepal Himalaya mountain wedge. Our model results exhibit apparent thrusting concentration phenomenon with four thrusting clusters, entitled as thrusting 'families', to facilitate the development of sub-structural regions respectively. Within the hinterland thrusting family, the total aseismic shortening and the corresponding spatio-temporal release pattern are revealed by mapping projection. Whereas, in the other three families, mapping projection delivers long-term large (M<8)-great (M>8) earthquake recurrence information, including total lifespans, frequencies and large-great earthquake alternation information by identifying rupture distances along the MHT. In addition, this partition has universality in continental-continental collisional orogenic belt with identified interseismic coupling pattern, while not applicable in continental-oceanic megathrust context.

  12. The evaluation of damage mechanism of unreinforced masonry buildings after Van (2011) and Elazig (2010) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, D.; Aydin, E.; Öztürk, B.

    2015-07-01

    On March 8th, 2010 Karakocan-Elazig earthquake of magnitude 6.0 occurred at a region where masonry and adobe construction is very common. Karakocan-Elazig is located in a high seismicity region on Eastern Anatolian Fault System (EAFS). Due to the earthquake, 42 people were killed and 14’113 buildings were damaged. Another city, Van located at South east of Turkey is hit by earthquakes with M = 7.2 occurred on October 23rd, 2011 at 13:41 (local time), whose epicenter was about 16 km north of Van (Tabanli village) and M = 5.6 on November 9th, 2011 with an epicenter near the town of Edremit, south of Van and caused the loss of life and heavy damages. Both earthquakes killed 644 people and 2608 people were injured. Approximately 10’000 buildings were seriously damaged. There are many traditional types of structures existing in the region hit by earthquakes (both Van and Elazig). These buildings were built as adobe, unreinforced masonry or mixed type. These types of buildings are very common in rural areas (especially south and east) of Turkey because of easy workmanship and cheap construction cost. Many of those traditional type structures experienced serious damages. The use of masonry is very common in some of the world's most hazard-prone regions, such as in Latin America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia, the Middle East, and southern Europe. Based on damage and failure mechanism of those buildings, the parameters affecting the seismic performance of those traditional buildings are analyzed in this paper. The foundation type, soil conditions, production method of the masonry blocks, construction method, the geometry of the masonry walls, workmanship quality, existence of wooden beams, type of roof, mortar between adobe blocks are studied in order to understand the reason of damage for these types of buildings.

  13. Successful performance of a base-isolated hospital building during the 17 January 1994 northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the response records and thereby the performance of the base-isolated University of Southern California (USC) hospital building during the Ms = 6-8 Northridge (California) earthquake of 17 January 1994. The data retrieved from the building is the first set of data from any base-isolated building that (a) was tested to acceleration levels at the free-field similar to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) level postulated in the seismic design criteria of the building and (b) exhibits levels of relative displacement excursions which puts the isolators into the nonlinear range. The variation of the fundamental frequency as a function of changing instantaneous stiffness of the isolators is identifiable. During the shaking, the isolators (a) performed well and, having attained up to 10% hysteretic damping, effectively dissipated the incoming energy of motions and (b) reduced the drift ratios of the superstructure of the building to a maximum of 10% of the allowable, which should explain the fact that there was no damage to the structure or its contents. The primary conclusion of this study is that this base-isolated building performed well during the Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 when only approximately 10% of the displacement capability of the isolators were utilized. Therefore, there is every reason to believe that the building will perform well during future earthquakes in the region.

  14. Earthquake vulnerability assessment of buildings of ward no. 8 of Haldwani-Kathgodam Municipal Corporation, Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Kritika; Pande, Ravindra K.

    2017-07-01

    "Earthquake does not kill people; it is the building which kills people". Earthquake is a sudden event below the surface of the earth which results in vertical and horizontal waves that causes destruction. The main aim of this research is to bring into light the unplanned and non-engineered construction practices growing in the Urban areas. Lack of space and continuous migration from hills has resulted in Multistorey construction. The present study is based on primary data collection through Rapid Visual Screening for the assessment of vulnerability of buildings. "Haldwani-Kathgodam being a new Municipal Corporation located in the foot hills of Himalayas is facing same problem. The seismic zonation brings this area into zone 4 of damage risk. Therefore an assessment to estimate the risk of the built up environment is important. This paper presents a systematic and useful way of assessing physical vulnerability of buildings. The present paper will show how the growing pressure on urban area tends to make the built up environment vulnerable towards seismic activities. The challenge today is to make our living environment safe for living. The day by day growing population pressure on urban area as a migration trend in developing countries is leading to high rise building, no planning and reckless construction. For the sake of saving some money people usually do not take the approval from structural engineer. This unplanned and haphazard construction proves non-resistant towards earthquake and brings lives and properties to death and a stand still. The total no. of household in the current study area is 543 whereas the total population is 2497 (2011). The recent formation of Himalayas makes the area more sensitive towards seismic event. The closeness to the Main Boundary thrust brings it to zone 4 in the Seismic Zonation of India i.e., High Damage Risk Zone

  15. Building Damage Assessment after Earthquake Using Post-Event LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiveis, H.; Eslamizade, F.; Hosseini-Zirdoo, E.

    2015-12-01

    After an earthquake, damage assessment plays an important role in leading rescue team to help people and decrease the number of mortality. Damage map is a map that demonstrates collapsed buildings with their degree of damage. With this map, finding destructive buildings can be quickly possible. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic damage map generation after an earthquake using post-event LiDAR Data and pre-event vector map. The framework of the proposed approach has four main steps. To find the location of all buildings on LiDAR data, in the first step, LiDAR data and vector map are registered by using a few number of ground control points. Then, building layer, selected from vector map, are mapped on the LiDAR data and all pixels which belong to the buildings are extracted. After that, through a powerful classifier all the extracted pixels are classified into three classes of "debris", "intact building" and "unclassified". Since textural information make better difference between "debris" and "intact building" classes, different textural features are applied during the classification. After that, damage degree for each candidate building is estimated based on the relation between the numbers of pixels labelled as "debris" class to the whole building area. Calculating the damage degree for each candidate building, finally, building damage map is generated. To evaluate the ability proposed method in generating damage map, a data set from Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake was used. In this case, after calculating of all buildings in the test area using the proposed method, the results were compared to the damage degree which estimated through visual interpretation of post-event satellite image. Obtained results were proved the reliability of the proposed method in damage map generation using LiDAR data.

  16. Earthquake prediction rumors can help in building earthquake awareness: the case of May the 11th 2011 in Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Arcoraci, L.; Casarotti, E.; Cultrera, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.; Selvaggi, G.; May-11 Team

    2012-04-01

    , and was a great opportunity to talk with journalists and people about earthquake prediction and more in general about seismic risk in Italy. In general, the media attention to scientific topics raise up only after disasters or before fake predictions, unfortunately. This was the case of the May 11 event, for which the public fear triggered the media reaction and vice-versa. We took advantage of this circumstance to increase seismic risk awareness and build a bridge between researchers and journalists, contributing to turn a mass psychosis into an important opportunity for science communication. The May-11 Team included Simona Cerrato (SissaMedialab, Trieste, Italy), about 50 INGV colleagues from Rome and Irpinia offices, including the Press Office, the Laboratory of Scientific Education and Outreach, the Images and Graphics Laboratory, the Copies Office, and the researchers and technicians on duty in the INGV-Rome seismic monitoring room.

  17. Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiatrault, Andre; Sullivan, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    With the development and implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering, harmonization of performance levels between structural and nonstructural components becomes vital. Even if the structural components of a building achieve a continuous or immediate occupancy performance level after a seismic event, failure of architectural, mechanical or electrical components can lower the performance level of the entire building system. This reduction in performance caused by the vulnerability of nonstructural components has been observed during recent earthquakes worldwide. Moreover, nonstructural damage has limited the functionality of critical facilities, such as hospitals, following major seismic events. The investment in nonstructural components and building contents is far greater than that of structural components and framing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many past earthquakes, losses from damage to nonstructural components have exceeded losses from structural damage. Furthermore, the failure of nonstructural components can become a safety hazard or can hamper the safe movement of occupants evacuating buildings, or of rescue workers entering buildings. In comparison to structural components and systems, there is relatively limited information on the seismic design of nonstructural components. Basic research work in this area has been sparse, and the available codes and guidelines are usually, for the most part, based on past experiences, engineering judgment and intuition, rather than on objective experimental and analytical results. Often, design engineers are forced to start almost from square one after each earthquake event: to observe what went wrong and to try to prevent repetitions. This is a consequence of the empirical nature of current seismic regulations and guidelines for nonstructural components. This review paper summarizes current knowledge on the seismic design and analysis of nonstructural building components, identifying major

  18. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. The effect of shear wall location in resisting earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J.; Manggala, J.; Sitorus, T.

    2018-02-01

    Shear wall is one of lateral resisting structure which is used commonly. Shear wall gives high stiffness to the structure so as the structure will be stable. Applying shear wall can effectively reduce the displacement and story-drift of the structure. This will reduce the destruction comes from lateral loads such as an earthquake. Earlier studies showed that shear wall gives different performance based on its position in structures. In this paper, seismic analysis has been performed using response spectrum method for different Model of structures; they are the open frame, the shear wall at core symmetrically, the shear wall at periphery symmetrically, and the shear wall at periphery asymmetrically. The results are observed by comparing the displacement and story-drift. Based on the analysis, the placement of shear wall at the core of structure symmetrically gives the best performance to reduce the displacement and story-drift. It can reduce the displacement up to 61.16% (X-dir) and 70.60% (Y-dir). The placement of shear wall at periphery symmetrically will reduce the displacement up to 53.85% (X-dir) and 47.87% (Y-dir) while the placement of shear wall at periphery asymmetrically reducing the displacement up to 59.42% (X-dir) and 66.99% (Y-dir).

  20. How to build and teach with QuakeCaster: an earthquake demonstration and exploration tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linton, Kelsey; Stein, Ross S.

    2015-01-01

    QuakeCaster is an interactive, hands-on teaching model that simulates earthquakes and their interactions along a plate-boundary fault. QuakeCaster contains the minimum number of physical processes needed to demonstrate most observable earthquake features. A winch to steadily reel in a line simulates the steady plate tectonic motions far from the plate boundaries. A granite slider in frictional contact with a nonskid rock-like surface simulates a fault at a plate boundary. A rubber band connecting the line to the slider simulates the elastic character of the Earth’s crust. By stacking and unstacking sliders and cranking in the winch, one can see the results of changing the shear stress and the clamping stress on a fault. By placing sliders in series with rubber bands between them, one can simulate the interaction of earthquakes along a fault, such as cascading or toggling shocks. By inserting a load scale into the line, one can measure the stress acting on the fault throughout the earthquake cycle. As observed for real earthquakes, QuakeCaster events are not periodic, time-predictable, or slip-predictable. QuakeCaster produces rare but unreliable “foreshocks.” When fault gouge builds up, the friction goes to zero and fault creep is seen without large quakes. QuakeCaster events produce very small amounts of fault gouge that strongly alter its behavior, resulting in smaller, more frequent shocks as the gouge accumulates. QuakeCaster is designed so that students or audience members can operate it and record its output. With a stopwatch and ruler one can measure and plot the timing, slip distance, and force results of simulated earthquakes. People of all ages can use the QuakeCaster model to explore hypotheses about earthquake occurrence. QuakeCaster takes several days and about $500.00 in materials to build.

  1. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  2. Survey, Hbim and Conservation Plan of a Monumental Building Damaged by Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Banfi, F.

    2017-05-01

    constructive logic of each structural element; then it was used as a support tool for the restoration simulation, project, management and yard. To perform the division of the building in its constructive elements, sometimes it has been used stratigraphic methodologies and instruments of analysis. The entirety of the geometric and structural complexity of the basilica, was guarantee using sophisticated 3D software and drawing complex entities, integrated and stored in the parametric BIM logic. This process has allowed to accurately and timely represent the geometry of the structural elements, of the areas characterized by crushing, empties, variations of the masonry sections and out of plumbs. It is on the pillars of the nave that was focused the attention of survey: the will to preserve as much as possible the existing structures, in their material authenticity, required a careful analysis of each individual stone element of each pillar, investigated in its geometry, texture and state of conservation. The aim of the project was to ward a complete replacement of the pillars, preferring instead a removing and replacing intervention of only of the stone ashlars completely deteriorated and no longer recoverable, considering the question of structural safety as fundamental. The HBIM of the basilica had the primary function of connecting into one virtual space all the available data; that model has also been made as a tool for managing the restoration yard, supporting the computation of stone to buy, quarry and grossly slot, saving time on site. Different and complementary skills were used in every knowledge and restoration steps; the accurate analysis of the structures made it possible to plan a consolidation and restoration project as close as possible to the structural conception of the existing building, adding only the new structural elements necessary to increase the resistance and to guarantee the safety of the structures, also in case of new earthquake. The Italian Codice

  3. The Extraction of Post-Earthquake Building Damage Informatiom Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Wang, X.; Dou, A.; Wu, X.

    2018-04-01

    The seismic damage information of buildings extracted from remote sensing (RS) imagery is meaningful for supporting relief and effective reduction of losses caused by earthquake. Both traditional pixel-based and object-oriented methods have some shortcoming in extracting information of object. Pixel-based method can't make fully use of contextual information of objects. Object-oriented method faces problem that segmentation of image is not ideal, and the choice of feature space is difficult. In this paper, a new stratage is proposed which combines Convolution Neural Network (CNN) with imagery segmentation to extract building damage information from remote sensing imagery. the key idea of this method includes two steps. First to use CNN to predicate the probability of each pixel and then integrate the probability within each segmentation spot. The method is tested through extracting the collapsed building and uncollapsed building from the aerial image which is acquired in Longtoushan Town after Ms 6.5 Ludian County, Yunnan Province earthquake. The results show that the proposed method indicates its effectiveness in extracting damage information of buildings after earthquake.

  4. Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calugaru, Vladimir

    This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated

  5. Combined wave propagation analysis of earthquake recordings from borehole and building sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, B.; Parolai, S.; Dikmen, U.; Safak, E.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.

    2015-12-01

    In regions highly exposed to natural hazards, Early Warning Systems can play a central role in risk management and mitigation procedures. To improve at a relatively low cost the spatial resolution of regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, decentralized onsite EEW and building monitoring, a wireless sensing unit, the Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) was developed and further improved to include the multi-parameter acquisition. SOSEWINs working in continuous real time mode are currently tested on various sites. In Bishkek and Istanbul, an instrumented building is located close to a borehole equipped with downhole sensors. The joint data analysis of building and borehole earthquake recordings allows the study of the behavior of the building, characteristics of the soil, and soil-structure interactions. The interferometric approach applied to recordings of the building response is particularly suitable to characterize the wave propagation inside a building, including the propagation velocity of shear waves and attenuation. Applied to borehole sensors, it gives insights into velocity changes in different layers, reflections and mode conversion, and allows the estimation of the quality factor Qs. We used combined building and borehole data from the two test sites: 1) to estimate the characteristics of wave propagation through the building to the soil and back, and 2) to obtain an empirical insight into soil-structure interactions. The two test sites represent two different building and soil types, and soil structure impedance contrasts. The wave propagation through the soil to the building and back is investigated by the joint interferometric approach. The propagation of up and down-going waves through the building and soil is clearly imaged and the reflection of P and S waves from the earth surface and the top of the building identified. An estimate of the reflected and transmitted energy amounts is given, too.

  6. Research on Optimal Observation Scale for Damaged Buildings after Earthquake Based on Optimal Feature Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Chen, W.; Dou, A.; Li, W.; Sun, Y.

    2018-04-01

    A new information extraction method of damaged buildings rooted in optimal feature space is put forward on the basis of the traditional object-oriented method. In this new method, ESP (estimate of scale parameter) tool is used to optimize the segmentation of image. Then the distance matrix and minimum separation distance of all kinds of surface features are calculated through sample selection to find the optimal feature space, which is finally applied to extract the image of damaged buildings after earthquake. The overall extraction accuracy reaches 83.1 %, the kappa coefficient 0.813. The new information extraction method greatly improves the extraction accuracy and efficiency, compared with the traditional object-oriented method, and owns a good promotional value in the information extraction of damaged buildings. In addition, the new method can be used for the information extraction of different-resolution images of damaged buildings after earthquake, then to seek the optimal observation scale of damaged buildings through accuracy evaluation. It is supposed that the optimal observation scale of damaged buildings is between 1 m and 1.2 m, which provides a reference for future information extraction of damaged buildings.

  7. Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Assessment Based on SAR Correlation and Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lixia; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-08-01

    Comparing with optical Remote Sensing, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has unique advantages as applied to seismic hazard monitoring and evaluation. SAR can be helpful in the whole process of after an earthquake, which can be divided into three stages. On the first stage, pre-disaster imagery provides history information of the attacked area. On the mid-term stage, up-to-date thematic maps are provided for disaster relief. On the later stage, information is provided to assist secondary disaster monitoring, post- disaster assessment and reconstruction second stage. In recent years, SAR has become an important data source of earthquake damage analysis and evaluation.Correlation between pre- and post-event SAR images is considered to be related with building damage. There will be a correlation decrease when the building collapsed in a shock. Whereas correlation decrease does not definitely indicate building changes. Correlation is also affected by perpendicular baseline, the ground coverage type, atmospheric change and other natural conditions, data processing and other factors. Building samples in the earthquake are used to discriminate the relation between damage degree and SAR correlation.

  8. a New Quantitative Method for the Rapid Evaluation of Buildings against Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir; Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-07-01

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable.

  9. Earthquake response of storey building in Jakarta using accelerographs data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Julius, Admiral Musa, E-mail: admiralmusajulius@yahoo.com; Jakarta Geophysics Observatory, Indonesia Agency of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics; Sunardi, Bambang, E-mail: b.sunardi@gmail.com

    As seismotectonic, the Jakarta city will be greatly affected by the earthquake which originated from the subduction zone of the Sunda Strait and south of Java. Some occurrences of earthquakes in these location are often perceived by the occupants in the upper floors of multi-storey buildings in Jakarta but was not perceived by the occupants on the ground floor. The case shows the difference in ground-motion parameters on each floor height. The analysis of the earthquake data recorded by accelerographs on different floors need to be done to know the differences in ground-motion parameters. Data used in this research ismore » accelerograph data installed on several floors in the main building of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Agency with a case study of Kebumen earthquake on January 25{sup th} 2014. Parameters analyzed include the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), Peak Spectral Acceleration (PSA), Amplification (Ag), and the Effective Duration of earthquake (t{sub e}). Research stages include accelerographs data acquisition in three (3) different floors, conversion and data partition for each component, conversion to units of acceleration, determination of PGA, PGD, PSA, Ag and t{sub e} as well as data analysis. The study shows the value of PGA on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floors, respectively are 0.016 g, 0.053 g and 0.116 g. PGD on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 2.15 cm, 2.98 cm and 4.92 cm. PSA on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 0.067 g, 0.308 g and 0.836 g. Amplification of the peak acceleration value on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor to the surface rock are 4.37, 6.07 and 7.30. Effective duration of the earthquake on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 222.28 s, 202.28 s and 91.58 s. In general, with increasing floor of the building, the value

  10. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with Geopolymer Concrete and X-shaped Metallic Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Prakash vel, J.; Sathishkumar, K.; Rao, G. V. Rama

    2017-06-01

    A three-storey half scale reinforced concrete (RC) building is fixed with X-shaped metallic damper at the ground floor level, is designed and fabricated to study its seismic response characteristics. Experimental studies are carried out using the (4 m × 4 m) tri-axial shake-table facility to evaluate the seismic response of a retrofitted RC building with open ground storey (OGS) structure using yielding type X-shaped metallic dampers (also called as Added Damping and Stiffness-ADAS elements) and repairing the damaged ground storey columns using geopolymer concrete composites. This elasto-plastic device is normally incorporated within the frame structure between adjacent floors through chevron bracing, so that they efficiently enhance the overall energy dissipation ability of the seismically deficient frame structure under earthquake loading. Free vibration tests on RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper is carried out. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper are determined. The retrofitted reinforced concrete building is subjected to earthquake excitations and the response from the structure is recorded. This work discusses the preparation of test specimen, experimental set-up, instrumentation, method of testing of RC building and the response of the structure. The metallic damper reduces the time period of the structure and displacement demands on the OGS columns of the structure. Nonlinear time history analysis is performed using structural analysis package, SAP2000.

  11. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  12. Statistical analysis of low-rise building damage caused by the San Fernando earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, R.E.

    1974-02-01

    An empirical investigation of damage to low-rise buildings in two selected control areas within Glendale, California, caused by the ground motion precipitated by the San Fernando earthquake of February 9, 1971 is summarized. The procedures for obtaining the appropriate data and the methodology used in deriving ground motion-damage relationships are described. Motion-damage relationships are derived for overall damage and for the most frequently damaged building components. Overall motion-damage relationships are expressed in terms of damage incidence (damage ratio) and damage cost (damage cost factor). The motion-damage relationships derived from the earthquake data are compared with similar data obtained for lou-risemore » buildings subjected to ground motion generated by an underground nuclear explosion. Overall comparison results show that for the same spectral acceleration, the earthquake caused slightly more damage. Differences in ground-motion characteristics for the two types of disturbances provide the most probable explanation for this discrepancy. (auth)« less

  13. Earthquake Building Damage Mapping Based on Feature Analyzing Method from Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Zhang, J.; Gong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Playing an important role in gathering information of social infrastructure damage, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing is a useful tool for monitoring earthquake disasters. With the wide application of this technique, a standard method, comparing post-seismic to pre-seismic data, become common. However, multi-temporal SAR processes, are not always achievable. To develop a post-seismic data only method for building damage detection, is of great importance. In this paper, the authors are now initiating experimental investigation to establish an object-based feature analysing classification method for building damage recognition.

  14. Field investigation on severely damaged aseismic buildings in 2014 Ludian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xuchuan; Zhang, Haoyu; Chen, Hongfu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Junqi

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 magnitude 6.5 Ludian earthquake caused a death toll of 617, many landslides and tens of thousands of collapsed buildings. A field investigation to evaluate the damage to buildings was carried out immediately after the occurrence of the earthquake. Severely damaged aseismic buildings, which were basically observed in the downtown of Longtoushan Town, were carefully examined one by one with the aim to improve design codes. This paper summarizes the damage observed to the investigated aseismic buildings in both the structural and local levels. A common failure mode was observed that most of the aseismic buildings, such as RC frame structures and confined masonry structures, were similarly destroyed by severe damage or complete collapse of the first story. The related strong ground motion, which was recorded at the nearby station, had a short duration of less than 20 s but a very large PGA up to 1.0 g. The RC frames based on the new design codes still failed to achieve the design target for "strong column, weak beam". Typical local failure details, which were related to the interaction between RC columns and infill walls and between constructional columns and masonry walls, are summarized with preliminary analyses.

  15. Architectural layout and vulnerability to earthquakes of housing buildings of the Modernism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, lays in a high seismic risk zone, being affected about three times a century by strong earthquakes. These occur in the mountainous region of Vrancea, at about 150 km from Bucharest, but given the fact that Bucharest is situated on alluvial soil deposits the effect of the earthquakes is stronger than in other regions of the country. In the 20th century damaging earthquakes occurred in 1940 and 1977. In both of them mostly affected were the interwar buildings, built 1920-1940 in the style of Romanian Modernism. There is little data about the 1940 earthquake, but the effects of the 1977 earthquake were extensively studied and last year 30 years since this earthquake passed. Scope of this contribution is to examine the architectural characteristics of the buildings of Modernism which lead to this high vulnerability, more precisely the criterion of zoning in the layout of the plans. This is the scope of a research project funded 2007-2010 by the European Commission with a Marie Curie Reintegration Grant; contract MERG-CT-2007-200636. Not only the buildings from Bucharest will be considered, but also from Athens, Greece and from Milan, Italy. Both Greece and Italy are countries with high seismic risk; however, Athens did not experience such damaging earthquakes until 1999 and Milan ever. The buildings of Romanian Modernism are characterised by a highly irregular shape in plan in both the overall contour as well as in the distribution of columns and beams. This is due to the following the architectural layout as well as to a lacking local seismic culture to apply at high rise buildings. It will be explained that Vrancea earthquakes, with their specific vibration periods, affect high rise buildings, and previously the style of living in Romania was the single family house, low rise, and thus less affected. Strong earthquakes used to affect slender high constructions, like the towers of churches, for example, and this is where the local

  16. Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the ``5.12'' Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yayong

    2010-06-01

    A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions GB50223-2008” and “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001.” The definition of seismic fortification class for buildings has been revisited, and as a result, the seismic classifications for schools, hospitals and other buildings that hold large populations such as evacuation shelters and information centers have been upgraded in the GB50223-2008 Code. The main aspects of the revised GB50011-2001 code include: (a) modification of the seismic intensity specified for the Provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu; (b) basic conceptual design for retaining walls and building foundations in mountainous areas; (c) regularity of building configuration; (d) integration of masonry structures and pre-cast RC floors; (e) requirements for calculating and detailing stair shafts; and (f) limiting the use of single-bay RC frame structures. Some significant examples of damage in the epicenter areas are provided as a reference in the discussion on the consequences of collapse, the importance of duplicate structural systems, and the integration of RC and masonry structures.

  17. Counteracting moment device for reduction of earthquake-induced excursions of multi-level buildings.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, K; Fukushima, T; Kosugi, Y

    1999-05-01

    A vibration-control mechanism for beams and columns was presented in our previous report in which the earthquake force was transformed into a vibration-control force by using a gear train mechanism. In our previous report, however, only the principle of transforming the earthquake force into the control force was presented; the discussion for real structures and the design method were not presented. The present article provides a theoretical analysis of the column which is used in multi-layered buildings. Experimental tests were carried out for a model of multi-layered buildings in the frequency range of a principal earthquake wave. Theoretical results are compared to the experimental data. The optimal design of the control mechanism, which is of importance in the column design, is presented. Numerical calculations are carried out for the optimal design. It is shown that vibrations of the column involving the mechanism are suppressed remarkably. The optimal design method and the analytical results are applicable to the design of the column.

  18. Application of Remote Sensing in Building Damages Assessment after Moderate and Strong Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, J.; Dou, A.

    2003-04-01

    - Earthquake is a main natural disaster in modern society. However, we still cannot predict the time and place of its occurrence accurately. Then it is of much importance to survey the damages information when an earthquake occurs, which can help us to mitigate losses and implement fast damage evaluation. In this paper, we use remote sensing techniques for our purposes. Remotely sensed satellite images often view a large scale of land at a time. There are several kinds of satellite images, which of different spatial and spectral resolutions. Landsat-4/5 TM sensor can view ground at 30m resolution, while Landsat-7 ETM Plus has a resolution of 15m in panchromatic waveband. SPOT satellite can provide images with higher resolutions. Those images obtained pre- and post-earthquake can help us greatly in identifying damages of moderate and large-size buildings. In this paper, we bring forward a method to implement quick damages assessment by analyzing both pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. First, those images are geographically registered together with low RMS (Root Mean Square) error. Then, we clip out residential areas by overlaying images with existing vector layers through Geographic Information System (GIS) software. We present a new change detection algorithm to quantitatively identify damages degree. An empirical or semi-empirical model is then established by analyzing the real damage degree and changes of pixel values of the same ground objects. Experimental result shows that there is a good linear relationship between changes of pixel values and ground damages, which proves the potentials of remote sensing in post-quake fast damage assessment. Keywords: Damages Assessment, Earthquake Hazard, Remote Sensing

  19. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  20. Building and design defects observed in the residential sector and the types of damage observed in recent earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolga Çöğürcü, M.

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Marmara earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011, the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing, and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC, 2007). The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak column-stronger beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft story or weak story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, so to prepare for future earthquakes, they must be rehabilitated.

  1. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  2. Simulation of earthquake caused building damages for the development of fast reconnaissance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweier, C.; Markus, M.; Steinle, E.

    2004-04-01

    Catastrophic events like strong earthquakes can cause big losses in life and economic values. An increase in the efficiency of reconnaissance techniques could help to reduce the losses in life as many victims die after and not during the event. A basic prerequisite to improve the rescue teams' work is an improved planning of the measures. This can only be done on the basis of reliable and detailed information about the actual situation in the affected regions. Therefore, a bundle of projects at Karlsruhe university aim at the development of a tool for fast information retrieval after strong earthquakes. The focus is on urban areas as the most losses occur there. In this paper the approach for a damage analysis of buildings will be presented. It consists of an automatic methodology to model buildings in three dimensions, a comparison of pre- and post-event models to detect changes and a subsequent classification of the changes into damage types. The process is based on information extraction from airborne laserscanning data, i.e. digital surface models (DSM) acquired through scanning of an area with pulsed laser light. To date, there are no laserscanning derived DSMs available to the authors that were taken of areas that suffered damages from earthquakes. Therefore, it was necessary to simulate such data for the development of the damage detection methodology. In this paper two different methodologies used for simulating the data will be presented. The first method is to create CAD models of undamaged buildings based on their construction plans and alter them artificially in such a way as if they had suffered serious damage. Then, a laserscanning data set is simulated based on these models which can be compared with real laserscanning data acquired of the buildings (in intact state). The other approach is to use measurements of actual damaged buildings and simulate their intact state. It is possible to model the geometrical structure of these damaged buildings based

  3. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  4. Procedures and criteria for increasing the earthquake resistance level of electrical substations and special installations

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R.W.; Deacon, R.J.

    1973-09-30

    This report defines a procedure and provides basic information needed to determine the modifications required to make electrical substations and special installations of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) more resistant to strong earthquake ground motion. It also provides a procedure for developing an effective plan for establishing the sequence, or priority, of providing the required modifications.

  5. Nonstructural damages of reinforced concrete buildings due to 2015 Ranau earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    On 15th June 2016 a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw5.9 was occurred in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the epicentre was located at 16 km northwest of Ranau. Less than two days after the first event, a reconnaissance mission took action to investigate the damages on buildings. Since the reinforced concrete buildings in Ranau were designed based on gravity and wind load only, a lot of minor to severe damages was occurred. This paper presents the damages on the nonstructural elements of reinforced concrete buildings due to Ranau earthquake. The assessment was conducted via in-situ field investigation covering the visual observation, taking photo, and interview with local resident. Based on in-situ field investigation, there was a lot of damages occurred on the nonstructural elements like the brick walls. Such damages cannot be neglected since it can cause injury and fatality to the victims. Therefore, it can be concluded that the installation of nonstructural elements should be reviewed for the sake of safety.

  6. Damages from the 20 September earthquakes near Klamath Falls, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the damage resulting from the earthquakes was reported from Klamath Falls, approximately 20 km from the source region of earthquakes. As has commonly been the case with earthquakes in other parts of the United States, the degree of damage was highly uneven in Klamath Falls. Most of the town escaped with little damage to buildings or building contents. Losses were concentrated in the downtown area, but even there most of the buildings were not damaged. The unevenness of damage in earthquakes results primarily from large differences in the seismic resistance of individual buildings and differences in the seismic response due to different soil conditions and geology beneath buildings

  7. The impact evaluation of soil liquefaction on low-rise building in the Meinong earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chih-Chieh; Hwang, Jin-Hung; Hsu, Shang-Yi

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents major preliminary observations on the liquefaction-induced damages in the Meinong earthquake ( M L = 6.4). The severe damages to buildings centered on Huian and Sanmin Streets in Tainan City where the places were reclaimed fish or farm ponds with poor construction quality from many decades ago. To better understand the effect due to the soil liquefaction at these sites, the information provided by the in situ 13 Standard Penetration Test boreholes and 5 Cone Penetration Test soundings accompanying with the PGAs derived from the near seismographs was used to conduct the soil liquefaction evaluation by the Seed method (Seed et al. in J Geotech Eng ASCE 111(12):1425-1445, 1985) when subject to the Meinong earthquake. The liquefaction potential index (LPI) was then evaluated accordingly. From the results, it was found that the estimated damage severity was not consistent to the field conditions if the local site effect was not taken into account. To better reflect the site response in such sites, the sites' PGAs in the PGA contour map were multiplied by 1.5 times to quantify the amplification effects due to the soft geological condition. In addition, the PGAs based on other simple approaches were evaluated as well for comparison. Besides, the effects of fines content and magnitude scaling factor were also discussed in this paper. After that, several common simplified methods were also used to calculate the LPI when subject to the Meinong earthquake in order to evaluate the applicability of these simplified methods.

  8. Spatial aspects of building and population exposure data and their implications for global earthquake exposure modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dell’Acqua, F.; Gamba, P.; Jaiswal, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses spatial aspects of the global exposure dataset and mapping needs for earthquake risk assessment. We discuss this in the context of development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM), which requires compilation of a multi-scale inventory of assets at risk, for example, buildings, populations, and economic exposure. After defining the relevant spatial and geographic scales of interest, different procedures are proposed to disaggregate coarse-resolution data, to map them, and if necessary to infer missing data by using proxies. We discuss the advantages and limitations of these methodologies and detail the potentials of utilizing remote-sensing data. The latter is used especially to homogenize an existing coarser dataset and, where possible, replace it with detailed information extracted from remote sensing using the built-up indicators for different environments. Present research shows that the spatial aspects of earthquake risk computation are tightly connected with the availability of datasets of the resolution necessary for producing sufficiently detailed exposure. The global exposure database designed by the GED4GEM project is able to manage datasets and queries of multiple spatial scales.

  9. Evaluation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings under near-field earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniri, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Near-field ground motions are significantly severely affected on seismic response of structure compared with far-field ground motions, and the reason is that the near-source forward directivity ground motions contain pulse-long periods. Therefore, the cumulative effects of far-fault records are minor. The damage and collapse of engineering structures observed in the last decades' earthquakes show the potential of damage in existing structures under near-field ground motions. One important subject studied by earthquake engineers as part of a performance-based approach is the determination of demand and collapse capacity under near-field earthquake. Different methods for evaluating seismic structural performance have been suggested along with and as part of the development of performance-based earthquake engineering. This study investigated the results of illustrious characteristics of near-fault ground motions on the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, by the use of Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method. Due to the fact that various ground motions result in different intensity-versus-response plots, this analysis is done again under various ground motions in order to achieve significant statistical averages. The OpenSees software was used to conduct nonlinear structural evaluations. Numerical modelling showed that near-source outcomes cause most of the seismic energy from the rupture to arrive in a single coherent long-period pulse of motion and permanent ground displacements. Finally, a vulnerability of RC building can be evaluated against pulse-like near-fault ground motions effects.

  10. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-08

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performedmore » on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m{sup 2} with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is

  11. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  12. Damage extraction of buildings in the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake from high-resolution SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Bahri, Rendy; Liu, Wen; Sasagawa, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is recognized as one of the effective tools for detecting and monitoring affected areas due to natural disasters. Since SAR sensors can capture images not only at daytime but also at nighttime and under cloud-cover conditions, they are especially useful at an emergency response period. In this study, multi-temporal high-resolution TerraSAR-X images were used for damage inspection of the Kathmandu area, which was severely affected by the April 25, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The SAR images obtained before and after the earthquake were utilized for calculating the difference and correlation coefficient of backscatter. The affected areas were identified by high values of the absolute difference and low values of the correlation coefficient. The post-event high-resolution optical satellite images were employed as ground truth data to verify our results. Although it was difficult to estimate the damage levels for individual buildings, the high resolution SAR images could illustrate their capability in detecting collapsed buildings at emergency response times.

  13. Object-Oriented Analysis of Satellite Images Using Artificial Neural Networks for Post-Earthquake Buildings Change Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaverdi zahraee, N.; Rastiveis, H.

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake is one of the most divesting natural events that threaten human life during history. After the earthquake, having information about the damaged area, the amount and type of damage can be a great help in the relief and reconstruction for disaster managers. It is very important that these measures should be taken immediately after the earthquake because any negligence could be more criminal losses. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement an automatic approach for mapping destructed buildings after an earthquake using pre- and post-event high resolution satellite images. In the proposed method after preprocessing, segmentation of both images is performed using multi-resolution segmentation technique. Then, the segmentation results are intersected with ArcGIS to obtain equal image objects on both images. After that, appropriate textural features, which make a better difference between changed or unchanged areas, are calculated for all the image objects. Finally, subtracting the extracted textural features from pre- and post-event images, obtained values are applied as an input feature vector in an artificial neural network for classifying the area into two classes of changed and unchanged areas. The proposed method was evaluated using WorldView2 satellite images, acquired before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The reported overall accuracy of 93% proved the ability of the proposed method for post-earthquake buildings change detection.

  14. Seismic soil structure interaction analysis for asymmetrical buildings supported on piled raft for the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badry, Pallavi; Satyam, Neelima

    2017-01-01

    Seismic damage surveys and analyses conducted on modes of failure of structures during past earthquakes observed that the asymmetrical buildings show the most vulnerable effect throughout the course of failures (Wegner et al., 2009). Thus, all asymmetrical buildings significantly fails during the shaking events and it is really needed to focus on the accurate analysis of the building, including all possible accuracy in the analysis. Apart from superstructure geometry, the soil behavior during earthquake shaking plays a pivotal role in the building collapse (Chopra, 2012). Fixed base analysis where the soil is considered to be infinitely rigid cannot simulate the actual scenario of wave propagation during earthquakes and wave transfer mechanism in the superstructure (Wolf, 1985). This can be well explained in the soil structure interaction analysis, where the ground movement and structural movement can be considered with the equal rigor. In the present study the object oriented program has been developed in C++ to model the SSI system using the finite element methodology. In this attempt the seismic soil structure interaction analysis has been carried out for T, L and C types piled raft supported buildings in the recent 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake (M = 7.8). The soil properties have been considered with the appropriate soil data from the Katmandu valley region. The effect of asymmetry of the building on the responses of the superstructure is compared with the author's research work. It has been studied/observed that the shape or geometry of the superstructure governs the response of the superstructure subjected to the same earthquake load.

  15. Correlations between ground motion and building damage. Engineering intensity scale applied to the San Fernando earthquake of February 1971

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, D.; Kintzer, F.C.

    1977-11-01

    The correlation between ground motion and building damage was investigated for the San Fernando earthquake of 1971. A series of iso-intensity maps was compiled to summarize the ground motion in terms of the Blume Engineering Intensity Scale (EIS). This involved the analysis of ground motion records from 62 stations in the Los Angeles area. Damage information for low-rise buildings was obtained in the form of records of loans granted by the Small Business Administration to repair earthquake damage. High-rise damage evaluations were based on direct inquiry and building inspection. Damage factors (ratio of damage repair cost to building value) weremore » calculated and summarized on contour maps. A statistical study was then undertaken to determine relationships between ground motion and damage factor. Several parameters for ground motion were considered and evaluated by means of correlation coefficients.« less

  16. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  17. Nonlinear analyses and failure patterns of typical masonry school buildings in the epicentral zone of the 2016 Italian earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, Cristhian; Clementi, Francesco; Lenci, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses the behavior of typical masonry school buildings in the center of Italy built at the end of 1950s without any seismic guidelines. These structures have faced the recent Italian earthquakes in 2016 without diffuse damages. Global numerical models of the building have been built and masonry material has been simulated as nonlinear. Sensitivity analyses are done to evaluate the reliability of the structural models.

  18. Adaptive control of base-isolated buildings using piezoelectric friction dampers against near-field earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitaraf, Maryam; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of two adaptive control strategies for modulating control force of piezoelectric friction dampers (PFDs) that are employed as semi-active devices in combination with laminated rubber bearings for seismic protection of buildings. The first controller developed in this study is a direct adaptive fuzzy logic controller. It consists of an upper-level and a sub-level direct fuzzy controller. In the hierarchical control scheme, higher-level controller modifies universe of discourse of both premise and consequent variables of the sub-level controller using scaling factors in order to determine command voltage of the damper according to current level of ground motion. The sub-level fuzzy controller employs isolation displacement and velocity as its premise variables and command voltage as its consequent variable. The second controller is based on the simple adaptive control (SAC) method, which is a type of direct adaptive control approach. The objective of the SAC method is to make the plant, the controlled system, track the behavior of the structure with the optimum performance. By using SAC strategy, any change in the characteristics of the structure or uncertainties in the modeling of the structure and in the external excitation would be considered because it continuously monitors its own performance to modify its parameters. Here, SAC methodology is employed to obtain the required force which results in the optimum performance of the structure. Then, the command voltage of the PFD is determined to generate the desired force. For comparison purposes, an optimal controller is also developed and considered in the simulations together with maximum passive operation of the friction damper. Time-history analyses of a base-isolated five-story building are performed to evaluate the performance of the controllers. Results reveal that developed adaptive controllers can successfully improve seismic response of the base-isolated buildings

  19. 8 March 2010 Elazığ-Kovancilar (Turkey) Earthquake: observations on ground motions and building damage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akkar, Sinan; Aldemir, A.; Askan, A.; Bakir, S.; Canbay, E.; Demirel, I.O.; Erberik, M.A.; Gulerce, Z.; Gulkan, Polat; Kalkan, Erol; Prakash, S.; Sandikkaya, M.A.; Sevilgen, V.; Ugurhan, B.; Yenier, E.

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake of MW = 6.1 occurred in the Elazığ region of eastern Turkey on 8 March 2010 at 02:32:34 UTC. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported the epicenter of the earthquake as 38.873°N-39.981°E with a focal depth of 12 km. Forty-two people lost their lives and 137 were injured during the event. The earthquake was reported to be on the left-lateral strike-slip east Anatolian fault (EAF), which is one of the two major active fault systems in Turkey. Teams from the Earthquake Engineering Research Center of the Middle East Technical University (EERC-METU) visited the earthquake area in the aftermath of the mainshock. Their reconnaissance observations were combined with interpretations of recorded ground motions for completeness. This article summarizes observations on building and ground damage in the area and provides a discussion of the recorded motions. No significant observations in terms of geotechnical engineering were made.

  20. Building vulnerability and human loss assessment in different earthquake intensity and time: a case study of the University of the Philippines, Los Baños (UPLB) Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusydy, I.; Faustino-Eslava, D. V.; Muksin, U.; Gallardo-Zafra, R.; Aguirre, J. J. C.; Bantayan, N. C.; Alam, L.; Dakey, S.

    2017-02-01

    Study on seismic hazard, building vulnerability and human loss assessment become substantial for building education institutions since the building are used by a lot of students, lecturers, researchers, and guests. The University of the Philippines, Los Banos (UPLB) located in an earthquake prone area. The earthquake could cause structural damage and injury of the UPLB community. We have conducted earthquake assessment in different magnitude and time to predict the posibility of ground shaking, building vulnerability and estimated the number of casualty of the UPLB community. The data preparation in this study includes the earthquake scenario modeling using Intensity Prediction Equations (IPEs) for shallow crustal shaking attenuation to produce intensity map of bedrock and surface. Earthquake model was generated from the segment IV and the segment X of the Valley Fault System (VFS). Building vulnerability of different type of building was calculated using fragility curve of the Philippines building. The population data for each building in various occupancy time, damage ratio, and injury ratio data were used to compute the number of casualties. The result reveals that earthquake model from the segment IV and the segment X of the VFS could generate earthquake intensity between 7.6 - 8.1 MMI in the UPLB campus. The 7.7 Mw earthquake (scenario I) from the segment IV could cause 32% - 51% damage of building and 6.5 Mw earthquake (scenario II) occurring in the segment X could cause 18% - 39% structural damage of UPLB buildings. If the earthquake occurs at 2 PM (day-time), it could injure 10.2% - 18.8% for the scenario I and could injure 7.2% - 15.6% of UPLB population in scenario II. The 5 Pm event, predicted will injure 5.1%-9.4% in the scenario I, and 3.6%-7.8% in scenario II. A nighttime event (2 Am) cause injury to students and guests who stay in dormitories. The earthquake is predicted to injure 13 - 66 students and guests in the scenario I and 9 - 47 people in the

  1. Systematic Consensus Building on Disaster Mental Health Services After the Great East Japan Earthquake by Phase.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nakajima, Satomi; Asano, Keiko; Narisawa, Tomomi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-08-01

    We intended to build consensus on appropriate disaster mental health services among professionals working in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We focused on the first 3 months after the disaster, divided into 3 phases: immediate aftermath, acute phase, and midphase. We adopted the Delphi process and asked our survey participants (n=115) to rate the appropriateness of specific mental health services in each phase and comment on them. We repeated this process 3 times, giving participants feedback on the results of the previous round. Through this process, we determined the criterion for positive consensus for each item as having the agreement of more than 80% of the participants. We found that the importance of acute psychiatric care and prescribing regular medication for psychiatric patients gained positive consensus in the immediate aftermath and acute phase. Counseling and psychoeducation after traumatic events or provision of information gained consensus in the acute phase and midphase, and screening of mental distress gained consensus in the midphase. Higher priority was given to continuous psychiatric services in the immediate aftermath and mental health activities in later phases.

  2. Quantitative risk assessment of landslides triggered by earthquakes and rainfall based on direct costs of urban buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, Cesar Augusto

    2016-11-01

    This paper outlines a framework for risk assessment of landslides triggered by earthquakes and rainfall in urban buildings in the city of Medellín - Colombia, applying a model that uses a geographic information system (GIS). We applied a computer model that includes topographic, geological, geotechnical and hydrological features of the study area to assess landslide hazards using the Newmark's pseudo-static method, together with a probabilistic approach based on the first order and second moment method (FOSM). The physical vulnerability assessment of buildings was conducted using structural fragility indexes, as well as the definition of damage level of buildings via decision trees and using Medellin's cadastral inventory data. The probability of occurrence of a landslide was calculated assuming that an earthquake produces horizontal ground acceleration (Ah) and considering the uncertainty of the geotechnical parameters and the soil saturation conditions of the ground. The probability of occurrence was multiplied by the structural fragility index values and by the replacement value of structures. The model implemented aims to quantify the risk caused by this kind of disaster in an area of the city of Medellín based on different values of Ah and an analysis of the damage costs of this disaster to buildings under different scenarios and structural conditions. Currently, 62% of ;Valle de Aburra; where the study area is located is under very low condition of landslide hazard and 38% is under low condition. If all buildings in the study area fulfilled the requirements of the Colombian building code, the costs of a landslide would be reduced 63% compared with the current condition. An earthquake with a return period of 475 years was used in this analysis according to the seismic microzonation study in 2002.

  3. Accelerating risk reduction in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Theory-based mass-media intervention proven to increase knowledge of, belief in, and intent to support earthquake-resistant construction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanquini, A.; Thapaliya, S. M.; Wood, M. M.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Motivating people in rapidly urbanizing areas to take protective actions against natural disasters faces the challenge that these people often do not know what actions to take, do not believe that such actions are effective, and/or believe that the disaster will not happen to them within their lifetimes. Thus, finding demonstrated ways of motivating people to take protective action likely constitutes a grand challenge for natural disaster risk reduction and resiliency, because it may be one of the largest, lowest-cost sources of potential risk reduction in these situations. We developed a theory-based documentary film (hereafter, intervention) targeted at motivating retrofits of local school buildings, and tested its effectiveness in Kathmandu, Nepal, using a matched-pair clustered randomized controlled trial. The intervention features Nepalese who have strengthened their school buildings as role models to others at schools still in need of seismic work. It was tested at 16 Kathmandu Valley schools from November 2014 through March 2015. Schools were matched into 8 pairs, then randomly assigned to see either the intervention film or an attention placebo control film on an unrelated topic. Testing was completed just five weeks before the M 7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck central Nepal. When compared to the control schools, the schools whose community members saw the retrofit intervention film increased their knowledge of specific actions to take in support of earthquake-resistant construction, belief in the feasibility of making buildings earthquake-resistant, willingness to support seismic strengthening of the local school building, and likelihood to recommend to others that they build earthquake-resistant homes, which have all been shown to be precursors to taking self-protective action. This suggests that employing a mass-media intervention featuring community members who have already taken the desired action increases factors that may accelerate adoption of risk

  4. What is the best use of 100 Euros to reduce the earthquake risk of a residential masonry building in a developed nation? Optimisation and Quantification of the benefits of risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    The average loss per building in developed countries like Australia or Switzerland due to earthquakes will be far in excess of 100€ over a political lifetime of 4 years (via a stochastic risk assessment). So a good question is, what can be done for 100€ and a bit of hard work, to strengthen and retrofit a URM (unreinforced masonry house). Of course much of the loss occurs in a few large events, but significant damage also occurs from more frequent smaller events. Using the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database (Daniell et al., 2011), 57% of deaths from earthquakes have occurred in masonry buildings since 1900 globally. Thus, with a view towards life safety and the maximum return on investment, different options are tested and discussed for retrofitting the average brick house for earthquake resistance. Bolting and bracketing furniture, electrical equipment and valuables to walls, the removal or tying in of certain non-structural elements, as well as adjustments such as seismic wallpaper and reinforcement are tested from empirical and analytical experience from around the world. Of course, earthquakes are not the only main concern for developed nation populations, so a view as to the best use of the 100€ is looked at in combination with other disaster types. Insurance takeout and its implications are also discussed. The process is repeated for the D-A-CH (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) region in order to see the regional economic implications for widespread awareness of earthquake risks and losses. The risk reduction is quantified and is seen to be significant for nearly all of the D-A-CH region. This analysis has implications for developed and developing nations alike.

  5. Study of responses of 64-story Rincon Building to Napa, Fremont, Piedmont, San Ramon earthquakes and ambient motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hooper, John; Klemencic, Ron

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the recorded responses of a 64-story, instrumented, concrete core shear wall building in San Francisco, California, equipped with tuned sloshing liquid dampers (TSDs) and buckling restraining braces (BRBs). Previously, only ambient data from the 72-channel array in the building were studied (Çelebi et al. 2013). Recently, the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa and three other earthquakes were recorded. The peak accelerations of ambient and the larger Napa earthquake responses at the basement are 0.12 cm/s/s and 5.2 cm/s/s respectively—a factor of ~42. At the 61st level, they are 0.30 cm/s/s (ambient) and 16.8 cm/s/s (Napa), respectively—a factor of ~56. Fundamental frequencies (NS ~ 0.3, EW ~ 0.27 Hz) from earthquake responses vary within an insignificant frequency band of ~0.02–0.03 Hz when compared to those from ambient data. In the absence of soil-structure interaction (SSI), these small and insignificant differences may be attributed to (1) identification errors, (2) any nonlinear behavior, and (3) shaking levels that are not large enough to activate the BRBs and TSDs to make significant shifts in frequencies and increase damping.

  6. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  7. Ambient Vibration and Earthquake-Data Analyses of a 62-STORY Building Using System Identification and Seismic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, E.; Fletcher, J. B.; Ulusoy, H. S.; Baker, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    A 62-story residential tower in San Francisco—the tallest all-residential building in California—was recently instrumented by the USGS's National Strong Motion Project in collaboration with the Strong Motion Instrumentation Program of the California Geological Survey to monitor the motion of a tall building built with specifically engineered features (including buckling-restrained braces, outrigger columns and a tuned liquid damper) to reduce its sway from seismic and wind loads. This 641-ft tower has been outfitted with 72 uni-axial accelerometers, spanning through 26 different levels of the building. For damage detection and localization through structural health monitoring, we use local micro-earthquake and ambient monitoring (background noises) to define linear-elastic (undamaged) dynamic properties of the superstructure including its modal parameters (fundamental frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping values) and shear-wave propagation profile and wave attenuation inside the building, which need to be determined in advance of strong shaking. In order to estimate the baseline modal parameters, we applied a frequency domain decomposition method. Using this method, the first three bending modes in the reference east-west direction, the first two bending modes in the reference north-south direction, and the first two torsional modes were identified. The shear-wave propagation and wave attenuation inside the building were computed using deconvolution interferometry. The data used for analyses are from ambient vibrations having 20 minutes duration, and earthquake data from a local M4.5 event located just north east of Geyserville, California. We show that application of deconvolution interferometry to data recorded inside a building is a powerful technique for monitoring structural parameters, such as velocities of traveling waves, frequencies of normal modes, and intrinsic attenuation (i.e., damping). The simplicity and similarity of the deconvolved

  8. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  9. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Building Structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    1998-01-01

    Several approaches are used to assess the performance of the built environment following an earthquake -- preliminary damage surveys conducted by professionals, detailed studies of individual structures, and statistical analyses of groups of structures. Reports of damage that are issued by many organizations immediately following an earthquake play a key role in directing subsequent detailed investigations. Detailed studies of individual structures and statistical analyses of groups of structures may be motivated by particularly good or bad performance during an earthquake. Beyond this, practicing engineers typically perform stress analyses to assess the performance of a particular structure to vibrational levels experienced during an earthquake. The levels may be determined from recorded or estimated ground motions; actual levels usually differ from design levels. If a structure has seismic instrumentation to record response data, the estimated and recorded response and behavior of the structure can be compared.

  10. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliò, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; D'Amore, E.; Marletta, M.; Pantò, B.

    2008-07-01

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to the requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria.

  11. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Calio, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; Marletta, M.

    2008-07-08

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to themore » requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria.« less

  12. Response of a 42-storey steel-frame building to the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of 14 acceleration records was obtained from a 42-storey steel-frame building, the Chevron Building, in San Francisco during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Data were analysed using a system identification method based on the discretetime linear filtering, and the least-squares estimation techniques. The results show that the response of the building is dominated by two modes: a translational mode in the weaker (southwest-northeast) principal direction of the building at 0.16 Hz with 5% damping, and a translational-torsional mode along the east-west diagonal of the building's cross-section at 0.20 Hz with 7% damping. There are significant contributions from higher modes at 0.54 Hz, 0.62 Hz, 1.02 Hz and 1.09 Hz. All the modes incorporate some torsion, but the amplitudes of torsional components are small, about 10% of translational amplitudes. Soil-structure interaction influences the vibrations near 1.0 Hz. The contribution of soil-structure interaction to the peak displacements of the building is significant, particularly at lower floors. ?? 1993.

  13. Responses of a 58-story RC dual core shear wall and outrigger frame building inferred from two earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Responses of a dual core shear-wall and outrigger-framed 58-story building recorded during the Mw6.0 Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014 and the Mw3.8 Berkeley earthquake of 20 October 2011 are used to identify its dynamic characteristics and behavior. Fundamental frequencies are 0.28 Hz (NS), 0.25 Hz (EW), and 0.43 Hz (torsional). Rigid body motions due to rocking are not significant. Average drift ratios are small. Outrigger frames do not affect average drift ratios or mode shapes. Local site effects do not affect the response; however, response associated with deeper structure may be substantial. A beating effect is observed from data of both earthquakes but beating periods are not consistent. Low critical damping ratios may have contributed to the beating effect. Torsion is relatively larger above outriggers as indicated by the time-histories of motions at the roof, possibly due to the discontinuity of the stiffer shear walls above level 47.

  14. Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment for Hospital Buildings Using a Gis-Based Group Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach: a Case Study of Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavar, M. R.; Moradi, M.; Moshiri, B.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert's judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  15. Design of passive interconnections in tall buildings subject to earthquake disturbances to suppress inter-storey drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Smith, MC

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the problem of passive control of a multi-storey building subjected to an earthquake disturbance. The building is represented as a homogeneous mass chain model, i.e., a chain of identical masses in which there is an identical passive connection between neighbouring masses and a similar connection to a movable point. The paper considers passive interconnections of the most general type, which may require the use of inerters in addition to springs and dampers. It is shown that the scalar transfer functions from the disturbance to a given inter-storey drift can be represented as complex iterative maps. Using these expressions, two graphical approaches are proposed: one gives a method to achieve a prescribed value for the uniform boundedness of these transfer functions independent of the length of the mass chain, and the other is for a fixed length of the mass chain. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques using a 10-storey building model. The disturbance suppression performance of the designed interconnection is also verified for a 10-storey building model which has a different stiffness distribution but with the same undamped first natural frequency as the homogeneous model.

  16. Boundary element analysis of active mountain building and stress heterogeneity proximal to the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. B.; Meade, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on Earth with ten peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest. The geometrically complex fault system at the Himalayan Range Front produces both great relief and great earthquakes, like the recent Mw=7.8 Nepal rupture. Here, we develop geometrically accurate elastic boundary element models of the fault system at the Himalayan Range Front including the Main Central Thrust, South Tibetan Detachment, Main Frontal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust, the basal detachment, and surface topography. Using these models, we constrain the tectonic driving forces and frictional fault strength required to explain Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These models provide a characterization of the heterogeneity of internal stress in the region surrounding the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

  17. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  18. Earthquake Damping Device for Steel Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri Ramli, Mohd; Delfy, Dezoura; Adnan, Azlan; Torman, Zaida

    2018-04-01

    Structures such as buildings, bridges and towers are prone to collapse when natural phenomena like earthquake occurred. Therefore, many design codes are reviewed and new technologies are introduced to resist earthquake energy especially on building to avoid collapse. The tuned mass damper is one of the earthquake reduction products introduced on structures to minimise the earthquake effect. This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of tuned mass damper by experimental works and finite element modelling. The comparisons are made between these two models under harmonic excitation. Based on the result, it is proven that installing tuned mass damper will reduce the dynamic response of the frame but only in several input frequencies. At the highest input frequency applied, the tuned mass damper failed to reduce the responses. In conclusion, in order to use a proper design of damper, detailed analysis must be carried out to have sufficient design based on the location of the structures with specific ground accelerations.

  19. Recorded motions of the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake and implications for building structural damage: Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Bazzurro, P.; Chiaraluce, L.; Clemente, P.; Decanini, L.; Desortis, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Gorini, A.; Kalkan, E.; Marcucci, S.; Milana, G.; Mollaioli, F.; Olivieri, M.; Paolucci, R.; Rinaldis, D.; Rovelli, A.; Sabetta, F.; Stephens, C.

    2010-01-01

    The normal-faulting earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of central Italy caused heavy losses of life and substantial damage to centuriesold buildings of significant cultural importance and to modern reinforcedconcrete- framed buildings with hollow masonry infill walls. Although structural deficiencies were significant and widespread, the study of the characteristics of strong motion data from the heavily affected area indicated that the short duration of strong shaking may have spared many more damaged buildings from collapsing. It is recognized that, with this caveat of shortduration shaking, the infill walls may have played a very important role in preventing further deterioration or collapse of many buildings. It is concluded that better new or retrofit construction practices that include reinforcedconcrete shear walls may prove helpful in reducing risks in such seismic areas of Italy, other Mediterranean countries, and even in United States, where there are large inventories of deficient structures. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, A.

    2012-04-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

  1. Cyclone-Resistant Rural Primary School Construction - A Design Guide. Educational Building Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.; Loo, G. A. van't

    One of a series of documents on design of disaster-resistant buildings, this publication treats construction of rural primary schools to resist destruction by wind and water from cyclones. Also appropriate for other buildings, material is aimed at rural primary schools because they are less likely to be professionally designed or supervised; the…

  2. Design of isolated buildings with S-FBI system subjected to near-fault earthquakes using NSGA-II algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbulut, O. E.; Silwal, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the optimum design parameters of a superelastic friction base isolator (S-FBI) system through a multi-objective genetic algorithm and performance-based evaluation approach. The S-FBI system consists of a flat steel- PTFE sliding bearing and a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) device. Sliding bearing limits the transfer of shear across the isolation interface and provides damping from sliding friction. SMA device provides restoring force capability to the isolation system together with additional damping characteristics. A three-story building is modeled with S-FBI isolation system. Multiple-objective numerical optimization that simultaneously minimizes isolation-level displacements and superstructure response is carried out with a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to optimize S-FBI system. Nonlinear time history analyses of the building with S-FBI system are performed. A set of 20 near-field ground motion records are used in numerical simulations. Results show that S-FBI system successfully control response of the buildings against near-fault earthquakes without sacrificing in isolation efficacy and producing large isolation-level deformations.

  3. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  4. Development of k-300 concrete mix for earthquake-resistant Housing infrastructure in indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkarnain, Fahrizal

    2018-03-01

    In determining the strength of K-300 concrete mix that is suitable for earthquake-resistant housing infrastructure, it is necessary to research the materials to be used for proper quality and quantity so that the mixture can be directly applied to the resident’s housing, in the quake zone. In the first stage, the examination/sieve analysis of the fine aggregate or sand, and the sieve analysis of the coarse aggregate or gravel will be carried out on the provided sample weighing approximately 40 kilograms. Furthermore, the specific gravity and absorbance of aggregates, the examination of the sludge content of aggregates passing the sieve no. 200, and finally, examination of the weight of the aggregate content. In the second stage, the planned concrete mix by means of the Mix Design K-300 is suitable for use in Indonesia, with implementation steps: Planning of the cement water factor (CWF), Planning of concrete free water (Liters / m3), Planning of cement quantity, Planning of minimum cement content, Planning of adjusted cement water factor, Planning of estimated aggregate composition, Planning of estimated weight of concrete content, Calculation of composition of concrete mixture, Calculation of mixed correction for various water content. Implementation of the above tests also estimates the correction of moisture content and the need for materials of mixture in kilograms for the K-300 mixture, so that the slump inspection result will be achieved in planned 8-12 cm. In the final stage, a compressive strength test of the K-300 experimental mixture is carried out, and subsequently the composition of the K-300 concrete mixture suitable for one sack of cement of 50 kg is obtained for the foundation of the proper dwelling. The composition is consists of use of Cement, Sand, Gravel, and Water.

  5. 2016 National Earthquake Conference

    Science.gov Websites

    Thank you to our Presenting Sponsor, California Earthquake Authority. What's New? What's Next ? What's Your Role in Building a National Strategy? The National Earthquake Conference (NEC) is a , state government leaders, social science practitioners, U.S. State and Territorial Earthquake Managers

  6. Using SW4 for 3D Simulations of Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: Application to Near-Field Strong Motion, Building Response, Basin Edge Generated Waves and Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, N. A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCallen, D.; Miah, M.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of earthquake ground motions is becoming more widely used due to improvements of numerical methods, development of ever more efficient computer programs (codes), and growth in and access to High-Performance Computing (HPC). We report on how SW4 can be used for accurate and efficient simulations of earthquake strong motions. SW4 is an anelastic finite difference code based on a fourth order summation-by-parts displacement formulation. It is parallelized and can run on one or many processors. SW4 has many desirable features for seismic strong motion simulation: incorporation of surface topography; automatic mesh generation; mesh refinement; attenuation and supergrid boundary conditions. It also has several ways to introduce 3D models and sources (including Standard Rupture Format for extended sources). We are using SW4 to simulate strong ground motions for several applications. We are performing parametric studies of near-fault motions from moderate earthquakes to investigate basin edge generated waves and large earthquakes to provide motions to engineers study building response. We show that 3D propagation near basin edges can generate significant amplifications relative to 1D analysis. SW4 is also being used to model earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes modeling moderate (M3.5-5) events to evaluate the United States Geologic Survey's 3D model of regional structure as well as strong motions from the 2014 South Napa earthquake and possible large scenario events. Recently SW4 was built on a Commodity Technology Systems-1 (CTS-1) at LLNL, new systems for capacity computing at the DOE National Labs. We find SW4 scales well and runs faster on these systems compared to the previous generation of LINUX clusters.

  7. Performance-based plastic design of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete moment frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Cheng

    Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method has been recently developed to achieve enhanced performance of earthquake resistant structures. The design concept uses pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism as performance criteria. The design base shear for selected hazard level is determined by equating the work needed to push the structure monotonically up to the target drift to the corresponding energy demand of an equivalent SDOF oscillator. This study presents development of the PBPD approach as applied to reinforced concrete special moment frame (RC SMF) structures. RC structures present special challenge because of their complex and degrading ("pinched") hysteretic behavior. In order to account for the degrading hysteretic behavior the 1-EMA 440 C2 factor approach was used in the process of determining the design base shear. Four baseline RC SMF (4, 8, 12 and 20-story) as used in the FEMA P695 were selected for this study. Those frames were redesigned by the PBPD approach. The baseline frames and the PBPD frames were subjected to extensive inelastic pushover and time-history analyses. The PBPD frames showed much improved response meeting all desired performance objectives, including the intended yield mechanisms and the target drifts. On the contrary, the baseline frames experienced large story drifts due to flexural yielding of the columns. The work-energy equation to determine design base shear can also be used to estimate seismic demands, called the energy spectrum method. In this approach the skeleton force-displacement (capacity) curve of the structure is converted into energy-displacement plot (Ec) which is superimposed over the corresponding energy demand plot ( Ed) for the specified hazard level to determine the expected peak displacement demands. In summary, this study shows that the PBPD approach can be successfully applied to RC moment frame structures as well, and that the responses of the example moment frames were much improved over those

  8. Building Time-Dependent Earthquake Recurrence Models for Probabilistic Loss Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a Risk Management perspective on earthquake recurrence on mature faults, and the ways that it can be modeled. The specificities of Risk Management relative to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA), include the non-linearity of the exceedance probability curve for losses relative to the frequency of event occurrence, the fact that losses at all return periods are needed (and not at discrete values of the return period), and the set-up of financial models which sometimes require the modeling of realizations of the order in which events may occur (I.e., simulated event dates are important, whereas only average rates of occurrence are routinely used in PSHA). We use New Zealand as a case study and review the physical characteristics of several faulting environments, contrasting them against properties of three probability density functions (PDFs) widely used to characterize the inter-event time distributions in time-dependent recurrence models. We review the data available to help constrain both the priors and the recurrence process. And we propose that with the current level of knowledge, the best way to quantify the recurrence of large events on mature faults is to use a Bayesian combination of models, i.e., the decomposition of the inter-event time distribution into a linear combination of individual PDFs with their weight given by the posterior distribution. Finally we propose to the community : 1. A general debate on how best to incorporate our knowledge (e.g., from geology, geomorphology) on plausible models and model parameters, but also preserve the information on what we do not know; and 2. The creation and maintenance of a global database of priors, data, and model evidence, classified by tectonic region, special fluid characteristic (pH, compressibility, pressure), fault geometry, and other relevant properties so that we can monitor whether some trends emerge in terms of which model dominates in which conditions.

  9. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Shimizu, T.; Schmidt, H.-U.; Li, Y.-F.; Morfill, G. E.; Isbary, G.

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms.

  10. Broadband characteristics of earthquakes recorded during a dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, between October 2004 and May 2005: Chapter 5 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, Stephen P.; Norris, Robert D.; Moran, Seth C.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    From October 2004 to May 2005, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information of the University of Memphis operated two to six broadband seismometers within 5 to 20 km of Mount St. Helens to help monitor recent seismic and volcanic activity. Approximately 57,000 earthquakes identified during the 7-month deployment had a normal magnitude distribution with a mean magnitude of 1.78 and a standard deviation of 0.24 magnitude units. Both the mode and range of earthquake magnitude and the rate of activity varied during the deployment. We examined the time domain and spectral characteristics of two classes of events seen during dome building. These include volcano-tectonic earthquakes and lower-frequency events. Lower-frequency events are further classified into hybrid earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and long-duration volcanic tremor. Hybrid and low-frequency earthquakes showed a continuum of characteristics that varied systematically with time. A progressive loss of high-frequency seismic energy occurred in earthquakes as magma approached and eventually reached the surface. The spectral shape of large and small earthquakes occurring within days of each other did not vary with magnitude. Volcanic tremor events and lower-frequency earthquakes displayed consistent spectral peaks, although higher frequencies were more favorably excited during tremor than earthquakes.

  11. A New Method for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Time Series Analysis and Its Application to the Earthquake and Building Response Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum, Example of application of this method to earthquake and building response will be given. The results indicate those low frequency components, totally missed by the Fourier analysis, are clearly identified by the new method. Comparisons with Wavelet and window Fourier analysis show the new method offers much better temporal and frequency resolutions.

  12. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  13. Implications of next generation attenuation ground motion prediction equations for site coefficients used in earthquake resistant design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Proposals are developed to update Tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published as American Society of Civil Engineers Structural Engineering Institute standard 7-10 (ASCE/SEI 7–10). The updates are mean next generation attenuation (NGA) site coefficients inferred directly from the four NGA ground motion prediction equations used to derive the maximum considered earthquake response maps adopted in ASCE/SEI 7–10. Proposals include the recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of (average shear velocity to 30-m depth). The NGA coefficients are shown to agree well with adopted site coefficients at low levels of input motion (0.1 g) and those observed from the Loma Prieta earthquake. For higher levels of input motion, the majority of the adopted values are within the 95% epistemic-uncertainty limits implied by the NGA estimates with the exceptions being the mid-period site coefficient, Fv, for site class D and the short-period coefficient, Fa, for site class C, both of which are slightly less than the corresponding 95% limit. The NGA data base shows that the median value  of 913 m/s for site class B is more typical than 760 m/s as a value to characterize firm to hard rock sites as the uniform ground condition for future maximum considered earthquake response ground motion estimates. Future updates of NGA ground motion prediction equations can be incorporated easily into future adjustments of adopted site coefficients using procedures presented herein. 

  14. The characteristic of the earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    The Kyoto city is located in the northern part of the Kyoto basin, central Japan and has a history of more than 1200 years. Kyoto has long been populated area with many buildings, and the center of politics, economics and culture of Japan. Due to historical large earthquakes, the Kyoto city was severely damaged such as collapses of buildings and human casualties. In the historical period, the Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquake of 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662 and 1830. Among them, Kyoto has experienced three damaging large earthquakes from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century, when the urban area was being expanded. All of these earthquakes are considered to be not the earthquakes in the Kyoto basin but inland earthquakes occurred in the surrounding area. The earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period is strongly controlled by ground conditions and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from the estimated source fault. To better estimate seismic intensity based on building damage, it is necessary to consider the state of buildings (e.g., elapsed years since established, histories of repairs and/or reinforcements, building structures) as well as the strength of ground shakings. By considering the strength of buildings at the time of an earthquake occurrence, the seismic intensity distribution due to historical large earthquakes can be estimated with higher reliability than before. The estimated seismic intensity distribution map for such historical earthquakes can be utilized for developing the strong ground motion prediction in the Kyoto basin.

  15. The behaviour of reinforced concrete structure due to earthquake load using Time History analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifuddin, M.; Panjaitan, M. A. R.; Ayuna, D.

    2017-02-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous, destructive and unpredictable natural hazards, which can leave everything up to a few hundred kilometres in complete destruction in seconds. Indonesia has a unique position as an earthquake prone country. It is the place of the interaction for three tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. Banda Aceh is one of the cities that located in earthquake-prone areas. Due to the vulnerable conditions of Banda Aceh some efforts have been exerted to reduce these unfavourable conditions. Many aspects have been addressed, starting from community awareness up to engineering solutions. One of them is all buildings that build in the city should be designed as an earthquake resistant building. The objectives of this research are to observe the response of a reinforced concrete structure due to several types of earthquake load, and to see the performance of the structure after earthquake loads applied. After Tsunami in 2004 many building has been build, one of them is a hotel building located at simpang lima. The hotel is made of reinforced concrete with a height of 34.95 meters with a total area of 8872.5 m2 building. So far this building was the tallest building in Banda Aceh.

  16. Nonlinear analysis of r.c. framed buildings retrofitted with elastomeric and friction bearings under near-fault earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings designed in compliance with inadequate seismic classifications and code provisions present in many cases a high vulnerability and need to be retrofitted. To this end, the insertion of a base isolation system allows a considerable reduction of the seismic loads transmitted to the superstructure. However, strong near-fault ground motions, which are characterised by long-duration horizontal pulses, may amplify the inelastic response of the superstructure and induce a failure of the isolation system. The above considerations point out the importance of checking the effectiveness of different isolation systems for retrofitting a r.c. framed structure. For this purpose, a numerical investigation is carried out with reference to a six-storey r.c. framed building, which, primarily designed (as to be a fixed-base one) in compliance with the previous Italian code (DM96) for a medium-risk seismic zone, has to be retrofitted by insertion of an isolation system at the base for attaining performance levels imposed by the current Italian code (NTC08) in a high-risk seismic zone. Besides the (fixed-base) original structure, three cases of base isolation are studied: elastomeric bearings acting alone (e.g. HDLRBs); in-parallel combination of elastomeric and friction bearings (e.g. high-damping-laminated-rubber bearings, HDLRBs and steel-PTFE sliding bearings, SBs); friction bearings acting alone (e.g. friction pendulum bearings, FPBs). The nonlinear analysis of the fixed-base and base-isolated structures subjected to horizontal components of near-fault ground motions is performed for checking plastic conditions at the potential critical (end) sections of the girders and columns as well as critical conditions of the isolation systems. Unexpected high values of ductility demand are highlighted at the lower floors of all base-isolated structures, while re-centring problems of the base isolation systems under near-fault earthquakes are

  17. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  18. Chapter 5: Buildings (EERI Earthquake Reconnaissance Team Report: M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake on April 25, 2015 and its Aftershocks)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushik, Hemant; Bevington, John; Jaiswal, Kishor; Lizundia, Bret; Shrestha, Surya

    2016-01-01

    The most common building typologies in Nepal are reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings with masonry infill walls, unreinforced masonry (URM) bearing wall buildings, and wood frame buildings (Figure 5-1). The RC frames with masonry infills are commonly constructed in urban and semi-urban areas. Most of these buildings are three to five stories high, and most privately owned buildings are non-engineered. High rise buildings (up to 17 stories high) are also found in Kathmandu, but their number is limited. Burnt clay bricks are widely used as masonry infill walls; external walls are generally one full brick thick (~ 230 mm), and internal walls are one half brick thick. URM bearing wall buildings are an obvious choice for the population in rural areas and the outskirts of cities, primarily to limit the material expenses. Such buildings are generally two to four stories high and constructed using burnt clay brick masonry or stone masonry with cement, lime, or mud mortar. In some of the older constructions, a different mortar known as Vajra (a mix of lime and brick dust) is also observed. These buildings have either wooden or reinforced concrete flooring. A hybrid type of construction also prevails in semi-urban and rural areas, where wood frames are used in the ground story front façade, and rest of the house is made of unreinforced masonry bearing walls. Wood frame houses (generally two to three stories high) are also observed in rural areas where the material for such construction is easily available.

  19. Hazard-to-Risk: High-Performance Computing Simulations of Large Earthquake Ground Motions and Building Damage in the Near-Fault Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M.; Rodgers, A. J.; McCallen, D.; Petersson, N. A.; Pitarka, A.

    2017-12-01

    We are running high-performance computing (HPC) simulations of ground motions for large (magnitude, M=6.5-7.0) earthquakes in the near-fault region (< 50 km) to 5 Hz and higher. Ground motions are then used as forcing functions for canonical steel moment frame buildings throughout the near-fault domain. For ground motions, we are using SW4, a fourth order summation-by-parts finite difference time-domain code running on 10,000-100,000's of cores. Earthquake ruptures are generated using the Graves and Pitarka (2017) method. We validated ground motion intensity measurements against Ground Motion Prediction Equations. We considered two events (M=6.5 and 7.0) for vertical strike-slip ruptures with three-dimensional (3D) basin structures, including stochastic heterogeneity. We have also considered M7.0 scenarios for a Hayward Fault rupture scenario which effects the San Francisco Bay Area and northern California using both 1D and 3D earth structure. Dynamic, inelastic response of canonical buildings is computed with the NEVADA, a nonlinear, finite-deformation finite element code. Canonical buildings include 3-, 9-, 20- and 40-story steel moment frame buildings. Damage potential is tracked by the peak inter-story drift (PID) ratio, which measures the maximum displacement between adjacent floors of the building and is strongly correlated with damage. PID ratios greater 1.0 generally indicate non-linear response and permanent deformation of the structure. We also track roof displacement to identify permanent deformation. PID (damage) for a given earthquake scenario (M, slip distribution, hypocenter) is spatially mapped throughout the SW4 domain with 1-2 km resolution. Results show that in the near fault region building damage is correlated with peak ground velocity (PGV), while farther away (> 20 km) it is better correlated with peak ground acceleration (PGA). We also show how simulated ground motions have peaks in the response spectra that shift to longer periods for

  20. Dealing with resistance in temporary agency nurses. The role of fear in identity-building processes.

    PubMed

    Cicellin, Mariavittoria; Pezzillo Iacono, Mario; Berni, Alessia; Esposito, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to interpret employees' resistance using the perspective of a Foucaultian/post-structuralist approach in critical management studies. The authors examine the relationship between management of diversity, based on employment contract, emotional construction of identity and processes of resistance. The authors explore the ways in which temporary agency nurses understand and experience their contract, respond to tensions regarding temporary employment, develop collective emotions and show processes of resistance. The study adopted an interpretive and qualitative approach. The authors analysed empirical material collected in the Haematology Department of a hospital in Naples, Italy, to illustrate actual experiences in the workplace. Fear turns out to be the discursive resource through which resistance is actually exerted. Through emotions, temporary nurses build a community of coping and enhance their collective identity. They use fear to develop solidarity and to mobilize collective resistance in the workplace. Although no traditional resistance behaviours are reported, they aim to undermine the reputation of top managers and challenge and re-write the prevailing discourses of the organization. The paper contributes to the critical literature because the authors analysed a relationship that is rarely theoretically and empirically examined in literature, that between employment contract, collective identity-building dynamics and processes of resistance. We showed that the creation of a community of coping enabled minorities to voice their distance from and opposition to management.

  1. A semi-active H∞ control strategy with application to the vibration suppression of nonlinear high-rise building under earthquake excitations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings.

  2. [Comment on “Should Memphis build for California's earthquakes?”] from S.E. Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, Susan E.

    The recent article by Seth Stein, Joseph Tomasello, and Andrew Newman raised thought-provoking questions about one of the most vexing open issues in hazard assessment in the United States: the hazard posed by ostensibly infrequent, large, mid-continental earthquakes. Many of the technical issues raised by this article are addressed by A. D. Frankel in the accompanying comment. I concur with this, and will only address and/or elaborate on a few additional issues here: (1) Detailed paleoseismic investigations have shown that the New Madrid region experienced sequences of large earthquakes around 900 and 1450 A.D.in addition to the historic events in 1811-1812. With a repeat time on the order of 400-500 years, these cannot be considered infrequent events. Paleoseismic investigations also reveal evidence that the prehistoric “events” were also sequences of two to three large earthquakes with a similar overall distribution of liquefaction in the greater New Madrid region as produced by the 1811-1812 sequence [Tuttle et al., 2002]. And if, as evidence suggests, the zone produces characteristic earthquakes, one will not see a commensurate rate of moderate events, as would be the case if seismicity followed the Gutenburg-Richter distribution.

  3. Assessment of environmental and nondestructive earthquake effects on modal parameters of an office building based on long-term vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Hwa; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chou; Lai, Gwolong

    2017-05-01

    Identification for the modal parameters of an instrumented office building using ambient vibration measurements is conducted in this study based on a recently developed stochastic subspace identification methodology equipped with an alternative stabilization diagram and a hierarchical sifting process. The identified results are then deliberately examined to recognize the dynamic features for quite a few dominant modes of this building structure including three pairs of closely-spaced modes. Making use of the collected three-month data including three seismic events, the analyzed results show that the root-mean-square vibration response is directly related to the wind speed and indirectly related to the air temperature under a specific condition. More importantly, it is discovered that the root-mean-square response is the dominant factor to induce the variation of modal parameters. Except for the torsional modes, all the other modal frequencies are highly correlated with the root-mean-square acceleration in a negative manner and the corresponding damping ratios also clearly display a positive correlation. Another crucial observation from this assessment is that the percentages of frequency variation in three months for most of the identified modes go beyond 10%. The effects of three nondestructive earthquakes are further traced to observe the tendencies of reducing the modal frequencies and raising the damping ratios, both with a variation level possibly increasing with the seismic intensity. But different from the effects of environmental factors, the changes in modal parameters caused by nondestructive earthquakes will vanish right after the seismic events.

  4. Reply to “Comment on “Should Memphis build for California's earthquakes?” From A.D. Frankel”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Seth; Tomasello, Joseph; Newman, Andrew

    Carl Sagan observed that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” In our view, A.D. Frankel's arguments (see accompanying Comment piece) do not reach the level required to demonstrate the counter-intuitive propositions that the earthquake hazard in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is comparable to that in coastal California, and that buildings should be built to similar standards.This interchange is the latest in an ongoing debate beginning with Newman et al.'s [1999a] recommendation, based on analysis of Global Positioning System and earthquake data, that Frankel et al.'s [1996] estimate of California-level seismic hazard for the NMSZ should be reduced. Most points at issue, except for those related to the costs and benefits of the proposed new International Building Code 2000, have already been argued at length by both sides in the literature [e.g.,Schweig et al., 1999; Newman et al., 1999b, 2001; Cramer, 2001]. Hence,rather than rehash these points, we will try here to provide readers not enmeshed in this morass with an overview of the primary differences between our view and that of Frankel.

  5. Scoring Methods for Building Genotypic Scores: An Application to Didanosine Resistance in a Large Derivation Set

    PubMed Central

    Houssaini, Allal; Assoumou, Lambert; Miller, Veronica; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Several attempts have been made to determine HIV-1 resistance from genotype resistance testing. We compare scoring methods for building weighted genotyping scores and commonly used systems to determine whether the virus of a HIV-infected patient is resistant. Methods and Principal Findings Three statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine and logistic regression) are used to determine the weight of mutations involved in HIV resistance. We compared these weighted scores with known interpretation systems (ANRS, REGA and Stanford HIV-db) to classify patients as resistant or not. Our methodology is illustrated on the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research didanosine database (N = 1453). The database was divided into four samples according to the country of enrolment (France, USA/Canada, Italy and Spain/UK/Switzerland). The total sample and the four country-based samples allow external validation (one sample is used to estimate a score and the other samples are used to validate it). We used the observed precision to compare the performance of newly derived scores with other interpretation systems. Our results show that newly derived scores performed better than or similar to existing interpretation systems, even with external validation sets. No difference was found between the three methods investigated. Our analysis identified four new mutations associated with didanosine resistance: D123S, Q207K, H208Y and K223Q. Conclusions We explored the potential of three statistical methods to construct weighted scores for didanosine resistance. Our proposed scores performed at least as well as already existing interpretation systems and previously unrecognized didanosine-resistance associated mutations were identified. This approach could be used for building scores of genotypic resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. PMID:23555613

  6. Development of an Earthquake Impact Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Marano, K. D.; Jaiswal, K. S.

    2009-12-01

    With the advent of the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, domestic (U.S.) and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels as well as their response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and proportionate earthquake response, we propose and describe an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) founded on two alerting criteria. One, based on the estimated cost of damage, is most suitable for domestic events; the other, based on estimated ranges of fatalities, is more appropriate for most global events. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and response levels, turn out to be quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response level of an event, characterized by alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (major disaster, necessitating international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses exceeding 1M, 10M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness dominate in countries where vernacular building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and it is these impacts that set prioritization for international response. In contrast, it is often financial and overall societal impacts that trigger the level of response in regions or countries where prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and associated fatalities. Any newly devised alert protocols, whether financial or casualty based, must be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. In this analysis, we make an attempt

  7. Investigation of the seismic resistance of interior building partitions, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. W.; Yee, Y. C.; Savulian, G.; Barclay, B.; Lee, G.

    1981-02-01

    The effective participation of wood-framed interior shear wall partitions when determining the ultimate resistance capacity of two- and three-story masonry apartment buildings to seismic loading was investigated. Load vs. deflection tests were performed on 8 ft by 8 ft wall panel specimens constructed of four different facing materials, including wood lath and plaster, gypsum lath and plaster, and gypsum wallboard with joints placed either horizontally or vertically. The wood lath and plaster construction is found to be significantly stronger and stiffer than the other three specimens. Analyses of the test panels using finite element methods to predict their static resistance characteristics indicates that the facing material acts as the primary shear-resisting structural element. Resistance of shear wall partitions to lateral loads was assessed.

  8. Response of Olive View Hospital to Northridge and Whittier earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the response of the conventionally designed new Olive View Medical Center (OVMC) building at 16 km from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Ms = 6.8). OVMC is on an alluvial deposit. The building was subjected to design level peak accelerations during the earthquake and suffered only limited structural and nonstructural damage. The recorded motions at different levels of the OVMC building as well as its associated free-field sites are analyzed using spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The new OVMC building was conservatively designed in 1976 with very high lateral load resisting capability - particularly as a reaction to the detrimental fate of the original Olive View Hospital that was heavily damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The original hospital building was later razed. The replacement structure, the new cross-shaped OVMC building, experienced peak acceleration of 2.31g at the roof while its peak ground floor acceleration was 0.82g. The free-field peak acceleration was 0.91g. The lateral load resisting system of the OVMC building consists of concrete shear walls in the lower two stories and steel shear walls at the perimeter of the upper four stories. Spectral analysis shows that this stiff structure was not affected by the long duration pulses of the motions recorded at this site.

  9. Randomized trial of a peer resistance skill-building game for Hispanic early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Norris, Anne E; Hughes, Charles; Hecht, Michael; Peragallo, Nilda; Nickerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents can use peer resistance skills to avoid being pressured into risky behavior, such as early sexual behavior. Avatar-based virtual reality technology offers a novel way to help build these skills. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of an avatar-based virtual reality peer resistance skill building game (DRAMA-RAMA), to explore the impact of game play on peer resistance self-efficacy, and to assess how positively the game was perceived. Forty-four low-income early adolescent Hispanic girls were assigned randomly to either the intervention (DRAMA-RAMA) or attention control game (Wii Dancing With the Stars) condition. All participants were offered a five-session curriculum that included peer resistance skill content before playing their respective game for 15 minutes, once a week, for 2 weeks. Participants completed electronic surveys at baseline, after game play, and at 2 months to assess demographics, peer resistance self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. They also completed a paper-pencil game experience questionnaire immediately after game play. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square, and analyses of covariance. Separate analyses of covariance showed a significant game effect at posttest for the peer resistance self-efficacy measure (F = 4.21, p < .05), but not at follow-up (F = 0.01, p = .92). DRAMA-RAMA was rated as positively as the Wii Dancing With the Stars (p > .26). This randomized control trial provides preliminary support for the hypothesis that playing an avatar-based virtual reality technology game can strengthen peer resistance skills, and early adolescent Hispanic girls will have a positive response to this game.

  10. The development of damage identification methods for buildings with image recognition and machine learning techniques utilizing aerial photographs of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohei, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Naoichi, M.; Hiromitsu, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to get schematic information of the damage situation immediately after the earthquake utilizing photographs shot from an airplane in terms of the investigation and the decision-making for authorities. In case of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, we have acquired more than 1,800 orthographic projection photographs adjacent to damaged areas. These photos have taken between April 16th and 19th by airplanes, then we have distinguished damages of all buildings with 4 levels, and organized as approximately 296,000 GIS data corresponding to the fundamental Geospatial data published by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. These data have organized by effort of hundreds of engineers. However, it is not considered practical for more extensive disasters like the Nankai Trough earthquake by only human powers. So, we have been developing the automatic damage identification method utilizing image recognition and machine learning techniques. First, we have extracted training data of more than 10,000 buildings which have equally damage levels divided in 4 grades. With these training data, we have been raster scanning in each scanning ranges of entire images, then clipping patch images which represents damage levels each. By utilizing these patch images, we have been developing discriminant models by two ways. One is a model using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). First, extract a feature quantity of each patch images. Then, with these vector values, calculate the histogram density as a method of Bag of Visual Words (BoVW), then classify borders with each damage grades by SVM. The other one is a model using the multi-layered Neural Network. First, design a multi-layered Neural Network. Second, input patch images and damage levels based on a visual judgement, and then, optimize learning parameters with error backpropagation method. By use of both discriminant models, we are going to discriminate damage levels in each patches, then create the image that shows

  11. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Strauss, J. A.; Given, D. D.; Cochran, E. S.; Burkett, E. R.; Long, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing an EEW system for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, EEW engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education efforts. Our presentation outlines how the USGS and its partners will approach this effort in the context of the EEW system through the work of a multistate and multiagency committee that participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a portfolio of programs and products. This committee, referred to as the ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (ShakeAlert CEO), is working to identify, develop, and cultivate partnerships with EEW stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on EEW, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the EEW alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive an EEW warning. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of EEW is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of stakeholders committed to ensuring public accessibility.

  12. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.

    2005-01-01

    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  13. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  14. Performance evaluation of setback buildings with open ground storey on plain and sloping ground under earthquake loadings and mitigation of failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Rahul; Debbarma, Rama

    2017-06-01

    Setback structures are highly vulnerable during earthquakes due to its vertical geometrical and mass irregularity, but the vulnerability becomes higher if the structures also have stiffness irregularity in elevation. The risk factor of such structure may increase, if the structure rests on sloping ground. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic performance of setback structures resting on plain ground as well as in the slope of a hill, with soft storey configuration. The analysis has been performed in three individual methods, equivalent static force method, response spectrum method and time history method and extreme responses have been recorded for open ground storeyed setback building. To mitigate this soft storey effect and the extreme responses, three individual mitigation techniques have been adopted and the best solution among these three techniques is presented.

  15. Fracture resistance of five pin-retained core build-up materials on teeth with and without extracoronal preparation.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J; Shaglouf, A G; Combe, E C; Wilson, N H

    2000-01-01

    Core build-ups should provide satisfactory strength and resistance to fracture both before and after crown preparation. This paper examines the resistance to fracture of core build-ups in different materials and the fracture resistance of core build-ups when these have been reduced for full crown preparation. Standardized core build-ups were made on groups of extracted molar teeth of similar size, with 10 teeth per group. Three resin-composite (prisma APH: Dentsply, Weybridge, UK; Ti-Core, Essential Dental Systems, NJ, US and Coradent, Vivadent, Liechtenstein), one cermet (Ketac-Silver, ESPE GmbH, Seefeld, Germany) and one amalgam material (Duralloy, Degussa Ltd, Cheshire, UK). These specimens were subjected to compressive force on a universal testing machine and the force at fracture noted. Standardized full crown preparations were made on a further five groups of core build-up specimens using the same materials as above. These prepared specimens were subjected to compressive force on a universal testing machine and the force to fracture noted. The results indicated that amalgam core build-ups demonstrated higher fracture resistance than the other materials examined. There was a general decrease in the fracture strength of the specimens following crown preparation, with the teeth restored with the amalgam core build-ups showing a greater percentage reduction in fracture strength than the other materials tested. Prepared core build-ups in a hybrid composite material provided the highest fracture resistance. The cermet material used provided the lowest resistance to fracture in both the core build-up and crown preparation specimens. In terms of fracture resistance, no advantage was apparent in using the two composite materials designated as being specifically appropriate for core build-ups.

  16. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

  17. High-resolution electrical resistivity and aeromagnetic imaging reveal the causative fault of the 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolawole, F.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R.; Salima, J.; Kalindekafe, L.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic events of varying magnitudes have been associated with ruptures along unknown or incompletely mapped buried faults. The 2009 Mw 6.0 Karonga, Malawi earthquake caused a surface rupture length of 14-18 km along a single W-dipping fault [St. Mary Fault (SMF)] on the hanging wall of the North Basin of the Malawi Rift. Prior to this earthquake, there was no known surface expression or knowledge of the presence of this fault. Although the earthquake damage zone is characterized by surface ruptures and coseismic liquefaction-induced sand blows, the origin of the causative fault and the near-surface structure of the rupture zone are not known. We used high-resolution aeromagnetic and electrical resistivity data to elucidate the relationship between surface rupture locations and buried basement structures. We also acquired electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles along and across the surface rupture zone to image the near-surface structure of the damaged zone. We applied mathematical derivative filters to the aeromagnetic data to enhance basement structures underlying the rupture zone and surrounding areas. Although several magnetic lineaments are visible in the basement, mapped surface ruptures align with a single 37 km long, 148°-162°—striking magnetic lineament, and is interpreted as the ruptured normal fault. Inverted ERT profiles reveal three regional geoelectric layers which consist of 15 m thick layer of discontinuous zones of high and low resistivity values, underlain by a 27 m thick zone of high electrical resistivity (up to 100 Ω m) and a basal layer of lower resistivity (1.0-6.0 Ω m) extending from 42 m depth downwards (the maximum achieved depth of investigation). The geoelectric layers are truncated by a zone of electrical disturbance (electrical mélange) coinciding with areas of coseismic surface rupturing and sediment liquefaction along the ruptured. Our study shows that the 2009 Karonga earthquake was associated with the partial

  18. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work shows the result of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) earthquake that occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno River in the urban areas of San Carlo and Mirabello (southwestern portion of Ferrara Province). In total, six electrical resistivity tomographies were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory boreholes and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of first applications of the electrical resistivity tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  19. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work shows the result of an Electrical Resistivity Tomography survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (North Italy) earthquake occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno river in the urban areas of San Carlo, a hamlet of Sant'Agostino municipality, and of Mirabello (south-western portion of the Ferrara Province). Totally, six Electrical Resistivity Tomography were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory borehole and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of the first applications of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  20. Effects of strong mining tremors, and assessment of the buildings' resistance to the dynamic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryt-Nitarska, Izabela

    2018-04-01

    A particularly important element in the assessment of the actual state of the threats which is caused by conducting the mining exploitation of seams bumping under the urban areas is to diagnose the condition of the land development after hard shocks. In the buildings, for which the impact of the mining activities, including the tremors, is not taken into account at the stage of design and formulation of the strength and use conditions, conclusions from the structure behaviour under the tremor influence are an essential part of the assessment of the possibility for transferring the further dynamic impacts. The use of conclusions from the in situ research has its role in anticipating the behaviour of the buildings in case of the forecast of the mining tremors effects in the regions of their impacts. These conclusions should also provide ground for the assumptions to the scope of the building prevention necessary to be taken in case of forecasting the tremors with big intensity. Based on the analysis of effects which occurred in the land development after the highenergy mining tremors, the elements of the dynamic resistance assessment for the buildings with traditional structure were discussed.

  1. Kinds of damage that could result from a great earthquake in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, M.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    The first four photographs show damage caused by intensity VIII and above. None of the damage shown in the photographs in this report occurred in earthquakes larger than the 1811-12 New Madrid shocks, and most of the examples are from considerably smaller shocks. The first two photos show damage to masonry buildings, mostly old and unreinforced, none designed to be earthquake resistant. How many such buildings are in use in your community? The second pair of photos show damage to modern structures close to the epicenter of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake, a small shock compared to the magnitudes (8.4-8.7) of the New Madrid earthquakes

  2. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  3. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  4. Building clinical trial capacity to develop a new treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tupasi, Thelma; Gupta, Rajesh; Danilovits, Manfred; Cirule, Andra; Sanchez-Garavito, Epifanio; Xiao, Heping; Cabrera-Rivero, Jose L; Vargas-Vasquez, Dante E; Gao, Mengqiu; Awad, Mohamed; Gentry, Leesa M; Geiter, Lawrence J; Wells, Charles D

    2016-02-01

    New drugs for infectious diseases often need to be evaluated in low-resource settings. While people working in such settings often provide high-quality care and perform operational research activities, they generally have less experience in conducting clinical trials designed for drug approval by stringent regulatory authorities. We carried out a capacity-building programme during a multi-centre randomized controlled trial of delamanid, a new drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The programme included: (i) site identification and needs assessment; (ii) achieving International Conference on Harmonization - Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) standards; (iii) establishing trial management; and (iv) increasing knowledge of global and local regulatory issues. Trials were conducted at 17 sites in nine countries (China, Egypt, Estonia, Japan, Latvia, Peru, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America). Eight of the 10 sites in low-resource settings had no experience in conducting the requisite clinical trials. Extensive capacity-building was done in all 10 sites. The programme resulted in improved local capacity in key areas such as trial design, data safety and monitoring, trial conduct and laboratory services. Clinical trials designed to generate data for regulatory approval require additional efforts beyond traditional research-capacity strengthening. Such capacity-building approaches provide an opportunity for product development partnerships to improve health systems beyond the direct conduct of the specific trial.

  5. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  6. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  7. Efficient Risk Determination of Risk of Road Blocking by Means of MMS and Data of Buildings and Their Surrounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Kazuhito; Hatake, Shuhei

    2016-06-01

    Massive earthquake named "Tonankai Massive earthquake" is predicted to occur in the near future and is feared to cause severe damage in Kinki District . "Hanshin-Awaji Massive Earthquake" in 1995 destroyed most of the buildings constructed before 1981 and not complying with the latest earthquake resistance standards. Collapsed buildings blocked roads, obstructed evacuation, rescue and firefighting operations and inflicted further damages.To alleviate the damages, it is important to predict the points where collapsed buildings are likely block the roads and to take precautions in advance. But big cities have an expanse of urban areas with densely-distributed buildings, and it requires time and cost to check each and every building whether or not it will block the road. In order to reduce blocked roads when a disaster strikes, we made a study and confirmed that the risk of road blocking can be determined easily by means of the latest technologies of survey and geographical information.

  8. Crustal deformation in great California earthquake cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Victor C.; Rice, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Periodic crustal deformation associated with repeated strike slip earthquakes is computed for the following model: A depth L (less than or similiar to H) extending downward from the Earth's surface at a transform boundary between uniform elastic lithospheric plates of thickness H is locked between earthquakes. It slips an amount consistent with remote plate velocity V sub pl after each lapse of earthquake cycle time T sub cy. Lower portions of the fault zone at the boundary slip continuously so as to maintain constant resistive shear stress. The plates are coupled at their base to a Maxwellian viscoelastic asthenosphere through which steady deep seated mantle motions, compatible with plate velocity, are transmitted to the surface plates. The coupling is described approximately through a generalized Elsasser model. It is argued that the model gives a more realistic physical description of tectonic loading, including the time dependence of deep slip and crustal stress build up throughout the earthquake cycle, than do simpler kinematic models in which loading is represented as imposed uniform dislocation slip on the fault below the locked zone.

  9. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

    2009-04-01

    Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

  10. Building and Rebuilding: The National Public Health Laboratory Systems and Services Before and After the Earthquake and Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Jean Louis, Frantz; Buteau, Josiane; Boncy, Jacques; Anselme, Renette; Stanislas, Magalie; Nagel, Mary C; Juin, Stanley; Charles, Macarthur; Burris, Robert; Antoine, Eva; Yang, Chunfu; Kalou, Mireille; Vertefeuille, John; Marston, Barbara J; Lowrance, David W; Deyde, Varough

    2017-10-01

    Before the 2010 devastating earthquake and cholera outbreak, Haiti's public health laboratory systems were weak and services were limited. There was no national laboratory strategic plan and only minimal coordination across the laboratory network. Laboratory capacity was further weakened by the destruction of over 25 laboratories and testing sites at the departmental and peripheral levels and the loss of life among the laboratory health-care workers. However, since 2010, tremendous progress has been made in building stronger laboratory infrastructure and training a qualified public health laboratory workforce across the country, allowing for decentralization of access to quality-assured services. Major achievements include development and implementation of a national laboratory strategic plan with a formalized and strengthened laboratory network; introduction of automation of testing to ensure better quality of results and diversify the menu of tests to effectively respond to outbreaks; expansion of molecular testing for tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, diarrheal and respiratory diseases; establishment of laboratory-based surveillance of epidemic-prone diseases; and improvement of the overall quality of testing. Nonetheless, the progress and gains made remain fragile and require the full ownership and continuous investment from the Haitian government to sustain these successes and achievements.

  11. Building and Rebuilding: The National Public Health Laboratory Systems and Services Before and After the Earthquake and Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Jean Louis, Frantz; Buteau, Josiane; Boncy, Jacques; Anselme, Renette; Stanislas, Magalie; Nagel, Mary C.; Juin, Stanley; Charles, Macarthur; Burris, Robert; Antoine, Eva; Yang, Chunfu; Kalou, Mireille; Vertefeuille, John; Marston, Barbara J.; Lowrance, David W.; Deyde, Varough

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Before the 2010 devastating earthquake and cholera outbreak, Haiti’s public health laboratory systems were weak and services were limited. There was no national laboratory strategic plan and only minimal coordination across the laboratory network. Laboratory capacity was further weakened by the destruction of over 25 laboratories and testing sites at the departmental and peripheral levels and the loss of life among the laboratory health-care workers. However, since 2010, tremendous progress has been made in building stronger laboratory infrastructure and training a qualified public health laboratory workforce across the country, allowing for decentralization of access to quality-assured services. Major achievements include development and implementation of a national laboratory strategic plan with a formalized and strengthened laboratory network; introduction of automation of testing to ensure better quality of results and diversify the menu of tests to effectively respond to outbreaks; expansion of molecular testing for tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, diarrheal and respiratory diseases; establishment of laboratory-based surveillance of epidemic-prone diseases; and improvement of the overall quality of testing. Nonetheless, the progress and gains made remain fragile and require the full ownership and continuous investment from the Haitian government to sustain these successes and achievements. PMID:29064354

  12. QuakeCaster, an earthquake physics demonstration and exploration tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linton, K.; Stein, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental riddle of earthquake occurrence is that tectonic motions at plate interiors are steady, changing only subtly over millions of years, but at plate boundary faults, the plates are stuck for hundreds of years and then suddenly jerk forward in earthquakes. Why does this happen? The answer, as formulated by Harry F. Reid (Reid 1910, 192) is that the Earth’s crust is elastic, behaving like a very stiff slab of rubber sliding over a substrate of “honey”-like asthenosphere, and that faults are restrained by friction. The crust near the faults—zones of weakness that separate the plates—slowly deforms, building up stress until frictional resistance on the fault is overcome and the fault suddenly slips. For the past century, scientists have sought ways to use this knowledge to forecast earthquakes.

  13. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  14. Daytime distribution of DDT-resistant houseflies inside DDT-sprayed buildings*†

    PubMed Central

    Mer, G. G.

    1953-01-01

    The development of DDT resistance in houseflies makes necessary the use of an additional or substitute insecticide in fly control. For the sake of economy, and to prevent the rapid production of new resistant strains, spraying of this insecticide should be restricted as far as possible to those surfaces known to be the most frequented by flies. Between July and October 1952, an investigation into the day-time distribution and resting habits of flies inside a number of different buildings sprayed bi-monthly with 5% DDT in kerosene was carried out by the author. The results showed that walls and ceilings were the least frequented, windows and doors highly frequented, and furniture the most frequented. These data indicate the desirability of developing an insecticidal preparation adaptable to the residual treatment of furniture, and, in the absence of such a preparation, of restricting treatment to doors and windows and such night-time resting-places as are to be found inside rooms. PMID:13066986

  15. Identifying the dynamic characteristics of a dual core-wall and frame building in Chile using aftershocks of the 27 February 2010 (Mw=8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Sereci, Mark; Boroschek, Ruben; Carreño, Rodrigo; Bonelli, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Following the 27 February 2010 (Mw = 8.8) Offshore Maule, Chile earthquake, a temporary, 16-channel, real-time data streaming array was installed in a recently constructed building in Viña del Mar to capture its responses to aftershocks. The cast-in-place, reinforced concrete building is 16 stories high, with 3 additional basement levels, and has dual system comprising multiple structural walls and perimeter frames. This building was not damaged during the main-shock, but other buildings of similar design in Viña del Mar and other parts of Chile were damaged, although none collapsed. Dynamic characteristics of the building identified from the low-amplitude (PGA of about 2 Gal) response recordings of aftershocks are found to compare well with those determined from modal analyses using a design level FEM model. Distinct “major-axes” translational and torsional fundamental frequencies, as well as frequencies of secondary modes, are identified. Evidence of beating is consistently observed in the response data for each earthquake. Results do not match well with U.S. code formulas.

  16. RESISTANCE OF EARTH BANK AGAINST TSUNAMI AND STRUCTURE OF DUG POOL FORMED BY TSUNAMI IN THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Tanimoto, Ryusuke

    In the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, very huge damages of civil engineering structures etc. occurred by tsunami strikes along the rias coast and plane coast of the Pacific Ocean. For the urgent repair and the future reconstruction of these structures, the fundamental damage characteristics of these structures should be clarified by the field surveys from which effective lessons can be expected. In this paper, several important lessons on the resistance characteristics of 13 earth structures such as river dykes and sand banks which are obtained from the field surveys conducted by the authors are indicated. Because many dug pools were formed by the tsunami overflow at the backside of earth embankments and sea walls in this earthquake, the fundamental characteristics of the 10 dug pools are investigated thorough the field survey to estimate the effects of the dug pools quantitatively in the future. Furthermore through the field survey conducted at the representative site named Idoura, the scale and waterbed conditions of the natural canals and the strength characteristics of the river dykes and the base ground neighboring the natural canals are measured in detail and discussed. These fundamental lessons and data on the earth banks and dug pools will be able to be used to simulate the effects of the dug pools and to discuss the artificial canals as one of the hard countermeasures to reduce the tsunami height and/or force.

  17. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  18. Responses of a tall building with U.S. code-type instrumentation in Tokyo, Japan, to events before, during and after the Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Kashima, Toshihide; Ghahari, S. Farid; Abazarsa, Fariba; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected tall buildings in urban areas several hundred kilometers from the epicenter of the main shock. Recorded responses show that tall buildings were affected by long-period motions. This study presents the behavior and performance of a 37-story building in the Tsukuda area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from modal analyses of records retrieved for a time interval covering a few days before, during, and for several months after the main shock. The U.S. “code-type” array comprises three triaxial accelerometers deployed at three levels in the superstructure. Such a sparse array in a tall structure limits a reliable assessment, because its performance must be based on only the average drift ratios. Based on the inferred values of this parameter, the subject building was not structurally damaged.

  19. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  20. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  1. Post earthquake recovery in natural gas systems--1971 San Fernando Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a concise summary of the post earthquake investigations for the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake is presented. The effects of the earthquake upon building and other above ground structures are briefly discussed. Then the damages and subsequent repairs in the natural gas systems are reported.

  2. Slope topography-induced spatial variation correlation with observed building damages in Corso during the May 21, 2003, M w 6.8, Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, Akila; Laouami, Nasser; Mezouar, Nourredine

    2017-07-01

    During the May 21, 2003 M w 6.8 Boumerdes earthquake, in the "Cité des 102 Logements" built on a hilltop, in Corso, heavy damages were observed: near the crest, a four-story RC building collapsed while others experienced severe structural damage and far from the crest, slight damage was observed. In the present paper, we perform a 2D slope topography seismic analysis and investigate its effects on the response at the plateau as well as the correlation with the observed damage distribution. A site-specific seismic scenario is used involving seismological, geological, and geotechnical data. 2D finite element numerical seismic study of the idealized Corso site subjected to vertical SV wave propagation is carried out by the universal code FLUSH. The results highlighted the main factors that explain the causes of block collapse, located 8-26 m far from the crest. These are as follows: (i) a significant spatial variation of ground response along the plateau due to the topographic effect, (ii) this spatial variation presents high loss of coherence, (iii) the seismic ground responses (PGA and response spectra) reach their maxima, and (iv) the fundamental frequency of the collapsed blocks coincides with the frequency content of the topographic component. For distances far from the crest where slight damages were observed, the topographic contribution is found negligible. On the basis of these results, it is important to take into account the topographic effect and the induced spatial variability in the seismic design of structures sited near the crest of slope.

  3. Earthquakes in Virginia and vicinity 1774 - 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Wheeler, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Virginia and parts of adjacent States. Moderate earthquakes cause slight local damage somewhere in the map area about twice a decade on the average. Additionally, many buildings in the map area were constructed before earthquake protection was added to local building codes. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1774 through 2004.

  4. Probabilistic seismic hazard zonation for the Cuban building code update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Llanes-Buron, C.

    2013-05-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed in response to a revision and update of the Cuban building code (NC-46-99) for earthquake-resistant building construction. The hazard assessment have been done according to the standard probabilistic approach (Cornell, 1968) and importing the procedures adopted by other nations dealing with the problem of revising and updating theirs national building codes. Problems of earthquake catalogue treatment, attenuation of peak and spectral ground acceleration, as well as seismic source definition have been rigorously analyzed and a logic-tree approach was used to represent the inevitable uncertainties encountered through the whole seismic hazard estimation process. The seismic zonation proposed here, is formed by a map where it is reflected the behaviour of the spectral acceleration values for short (0.2 seconds) and large (1.0 seconds) periods on rock conditions with a 1642 -year return period, which being considered as maximum credible earthquake (ASCE 07-05). In addition, other three design levels are proposed (severe earthquake: with a 808 -year return period, ordinary earthquake: with a 475 -year return period and minimum earthquake: with a 225 -year return period). The seismic zonation proposed here fulfils the international standards (IBC-ICC) as well as the world tendencies in this thematic.

  5. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    stylistically the "national style" flourished), - the time 1920-1940 for the type with reinforced concrete skeleton for gravitational loads only (in which the "interwar style" or Romanian Modernism flourished), - the time immediately after 1940 (when a strong earthquake struck Bucharest), somehow 1940-1947, when the former structural type was continued, but with some improvements, for which a type with reinforced concrete diagonals was considered, - the time 1947-1977, before the strong earthquake from 1977, when cast-in-situ reinforced concrete structural wall buildings were spread. Two types are considered, one which displayed low earthquake vulnerability and one which displayed high earthquake vulnerability, - the time 1977-1989, after the strong earthquake from 1977 and before the fall on the communist regime, when taking as a reason the strong earthquake the regime started to implement another type of buildings, which structurally often were still reinforced concrete structural wall type, but prefabricated, - the time after 1989, when for more flexibility moment resisting frame was built, and also some of the unfinished moment resisting frame buildings were completed. To have such a complete description of all the building type in a country is not common for the World Housing Encyclopedia, and having them for Romania was due to a particular effort of the author. At the same time the database allows finding similar types in other parts of the world. Broadly speaking, each report included two sections, the first one more extended, on the vulnerability of buildings and the second on the seismic retrofit. The reports contain completed check lists, descriptions of the structural system, photographs and drawings. The accent in this presentation will be on the identification of seismic deficiencies and earthquake resilient features, and the connected typical damages, which all describe the vulnerability.

  6. Building damage concentrated in Longtoushan town during the 2014 Ms. 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China: examination of cause and implications based on ground motion and vulnerability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Kurahashi, Susumu; Wu, Hao; Si, Hongjun; Ma, Qiang; Dang, Ji; Tao, Dongwang; Feng, Jiwei; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Though the 2014 Ludian Earthquake had only a moderate magnitude (Ms 6.5), high-level ground motions of almost 1 g occurred at Longtoushan Town (seismic station 53LLT), which located near the intersection of a conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault. The building damages on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan was clearly different. In order to examine the generation of the large acceleration at 53LLT, the focal mechanisms and the rupture processes of the conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault were determined. We found that there were two continuous impulsive waves in the records of 53LLT that were generated from two different faults, the Baogunao fault and the Xiaohe fault, respectively. Site effects on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan Town and their relations to different building damages were examined. We found that the predominant period at the pluvial fan was about 0.25 s, close to the fundamental natural period of multi-story confined masonry buildings. Ground motions on the pluvial fan and the river terrace were simulated through convolving synthesized bedrock motions with the transfer functions, which were analyzed using the one-dimensional underground velocity structures identified from H/V spectral ratios of ambient noise. Building collapse ratios (CRs) are estimated based on the vulnerability function of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and are compared with the observed values. We found that the observed building CRs on the pluvial fan are much higher than the estimated values. High-level ground shaking that is far beyond the design level was a reason for serious building damage.

  7. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  8. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    California?s 35 million people live among some of the most active earthquake faults in the United States. Public safety demands credible assessments of the earthquake hazard to maintain appropriate building codes for safe construction and earthquake insurance for loss protection. Seismic hazard analysis begins with an earthquake rupture forecast?a model of probabilities that earthquakes of specified magnitudes, locations, and faulting types will occur during a specified time interval. This report describes a new earthquake rupture forecast for California developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP 2007).

  9. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  10. Earthquake damage to schools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    These unusual slides show earthquake damage to school and university buildings around the world. They graphically illustrate the potential danger to our schools, and to the welfare of our children, that results from major earthquakes. The slides range from Algeria, where a collapsed school roof is held up only by students' desks; to Anchorage, Alaska, where an elementary school structure has split in half; to California and other areas, where school buildings have sustained damage to walls, roofs, and chimneys. Interestingly, all the United States earthquakes depicted in this set of slides occurred either on a holiday or before or after school hours, except the 1935 tremor in Helena, Montana, which occurred at 11:35 am. It undoubtedly would have caused casualties had the schools not been closed days earlier by Helena city officials because of a damaging foreshock. Students in Algeria, the People's Republic of China, Armenia, and other stricken countries were not so fortunate. This set of slides represents 17 destructive earthquakes that occurred in 9 countries, and covers more than a century--from 1886 to 1988. Two of the tremors, both of which occurred in the United States, were magnitude 8+ on the Richter Scale, and four were magnitude 7-7.9. The events represented by the slides (see table below) claimed more than a quarter of a million lives.

  11. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  12. PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BUINESS CONTINUITY PLAN (BCP) BASED ON THE LESSONS OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruya, Hiroaki

    For most Japanese companies and organizations, the enormous damage of the Great East Japan Earthquake was more than expected. In addition to great tsunami and earthquake motion, the lack of electricity and fuel disturbed to business activities seriously, and they should be considered important constraint factors in future earthquakes. Furthermore, disruption of supply chains also led considerable decline of production in many industries across Japan and foreign countries. Therefore it becomes urgent need for Japanese government and industries to utilize the lessons of the Great Earthquake and execute effective countermeasures, considering great earthquakes such as Tonankai & Nankai earthquakes and Tokyo Inland Earthquakes. Obviously most basic step is improving earthquake-resistant ability of buildings and facilities. In addition the spread of BCP and BCM to enterprises and organizations is indispensable. Based on the lessons, the BCM should include the point of view of the supply chain management more clearly, and emphasize "substitute strategy" more explicitly because a company should survive even if it completely loses its present production base. The central and local governments are requested, in addition to develop their own BCP, to improve related systematic conditions for BCM of the private sectors.

  13. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed.more » A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.« less

  14. Exploration of a Buried Building Foundation and a Septic Tank Plume Dispersion Using a Laboratory-fabricated Resistivity Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Stepanik, N.; Booterbaugh, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the following study, an electrical resistivity device was built and used in both a laboratory setup and in the field to accurately identify the location of a septic tank and the foundation of Gustavus Adolphus (GA); a building that was burned at Susquehanna University in 1964. The entire apparatus, which costs a fraction of the price of a typical electrical resistivity device, was tested for accuracy in the laboratory prior to its use in the field. The electrical resistivity apparatus consists of a deep-cycle twelve volt battery, an AC to DC inverter and two multimeters to measure the potential and the current intensity from four linear electrodes via a wireless data transmission system. This apparatus was constructed by using basic inexpensive electrical and electronic equipments. The recorded potential and current values were used to calculate the apparent resistivity of different materials adopting the Wenner array for both investigations. Several tests were performed on the tabletop bench, producing consistent results when applied to find small bricks structures with different geometrical arrangement buried under a mixed sand-soil formation. The apparatus was also used to investigate a subsurface salty water plume in the same formation. The horizontal resistivity profile obtained over the vertical small brick wall matched the theoretical apparent resistivity of resistivity versus displacement on a vertical dike in a homogeneous material. In addition, the two-dimensional resistivity profile replicate the salty plume size conformably. Following the success on the small-scale laboratory tabletop bench, the electrical resistivity apparatus was implemented in the field to explore the foundation of GA in one location and the septic tank in another. An array of transects were performed, analyzed and plotted using MATLAB. The three dimensional contours of apparent resistivity depicted exactly the locations of the buried foundation walls, the septic tank and the

  15. Performance of Single Friction Pendulum bearing for isolated buildings subjected to seismic actions in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, N. V.; Nguyen, C. H.; Hoang, H. P.; Huong, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Using structural control technology in earthquake resistant design of buildings in Vietnam is very limited. In this paper, a performance evaluation of using Single Friction Pendulum (SFP) bearing for seismically isolated buildings with earthquake conditions in Vietnam is presented. A two-dimensional (2-D) model of the 5-storey building subjected to earthquakes is analyzed in time domain. Accordingly, the model is analyzed for 2 cases: with and without SFP bearing. The ground acceleration data is selected and scaled to suit the design acceleration in Hanoi followed by the Standard TCVN 9386:2012. It is shown that the seismically isolated buildings gets the performance objectives while achieving an 91% reduction in the base shear, a significant decrease in the inter-story drift and absolute acceleration of each story.

  16. Simulation and monitoring tools to protect disaster management facilities against earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    The earthquakes that hit Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan on April 14 and 16, 2016 severely damaged over 180,000 houses, including over 8,000 that were completely destroyed and others that were partially damaged according to the Cabinet Office's report as of November 14, 2016 [1]. Following these earthquakes, other parts of the world have been struck by earthquakes including Italy and New Zealand as well as the central part of Tottori Prefecture in October, where the earthquake-induced collapse of buildings has led to severe damage and casualties. The earthquakes in Kumamoto Prefecture, in fact, damaged various disaster management facilities including Uto City Hall, which significantly hindered the city's evacuation and recovery operations. One of the most crucial issues in times of disaster is securing the functions of disaster management facilities such as city halls, hospitals and fire stations. To address this issue, seismic simulations are conducted on the East and the West buildings of Toyohashi City Hall using the analysis tool developed by the author, STERA_3D, with the data of the ground motion waveform prediction for the Nankai Trough earthquake provided by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. As the result, it was found that the buildings have sufficient earthquake resistance. It turned out, however, that the west building is at risk for wall cracks or ceiling panel's collapse while in the east building, people would not be able to stand through the strong quakes of 7 on the seismic intensity scale and cabinets not secured to the floors or walls would fall over. Additionally, three IT strong-motion seismometers were installed in the city hall to continuously monitor vibrations. Every five minutes, the vibration data obtained by the seismometers are sent to the computers in Toyohashi University of Technology via the Internet for the analysis tools to run simulations in the cloud. If an earthquake strikes, it is able to use the results

  17. Rapport-Building with Resistant Children: Re-Conceptualizing Relational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews existing conceptualizations of resistance in counseling children. The author posits that resistance is an "expected" aspect of all counseling and offers an alternative orientation toward client resistance based on exploring the child's "helping narratives." Two case studies illustrate the implementation of this…

  18. Study on vulnerability matrices of masonry buildings of mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Guixin

    2018-04-01

    The degree and distribution of damage to buildings subjected to earthquakes is a concern of the Chinese Government and the public. Seismic damage data indicates that seismic capacities of different types of building structures in various regions throughout mainland China are different. Furthermore, the seismic capacities of the same type of structure in different regions may vary. The contributions of this research are summarized as follows: 1) Vulnerability matrices and earthquake damage matrices of masonry structures in mainland China were chosen as research samples. The aim was to analyze the differences in seismic capacities of sample matrices and to present general rules for categorizing seismic resistance. 2) Curves relating the percentage of damaged masonry structures with different seismic resistances subjected to seismic demand in different regions of seismic intensity (VI to X) have been developed. 3) A method has been proposed to build vulnerability matrices of masonry structures. The damage ratio for masonry structures under high-intensity events such as the Ms 6.1 Panzhihua earthquake in Sichuan province on 30 August 2008, was calculated to verify the applicability of this method. This research offers a significant theoretical basis for predicting seismic damage and direct loss assessment of groups of buildings, as well as for earthquake disaster insurance.

  19. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  20. Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in Oceano, California, during the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Boatwright, John; Tinsley, John C.; Sell, Russell W.; Rosenberg, Lewis I.

    2004-01-01

    the 2003 damage was caused by lateral spreading in two separate areas, one near Norswing Drive and the other near Juanita Avenue. The areas coincided with areas with the highest liquefaction potential found in Oceano. Areas with site amplification conditions similar to those in Oceano are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. Site amplification may cause shaking from distant earthquakes, which normally would not cause damage, to increase locally to damaging levels. The vulnerability in Oceano is compounded by the widespread distribution of highly liquefiable soils that will reliquefy when ground shaking is amplified as it was during the San Simeon earthquake. The experience in Oceano can be expected to repeat because the region has many active faults capable of generating large earthquakes. In addition, liquefaction and lateral spreading will be more extensive for moderate-size earthquakes that are closer to Oceano than was the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. Site amplification and liquefaction can be mitigated. Shaking is typically mitigated in California by adopting and enforcing up-to-date building codes. Although not a guarantee of safety, application of these codes ensures that the best practice is used in construction. Building codes, however, do not always require the upgrading of older structures to new code requirements. Consequently, many older structures may not be as resistant to earthquake shaking as new ones. For older structures, retrofitting is required to bring them up to code. Seismic provisions in codes also generally do not apply to nonstructural elements such as drywall, heating systems, and shelving. Frequently, nonstructural damage dominates the earthquake loss. Mitigation of potential liquefaction in Oceano presently is voluntary for existing buildings, but required by San Luis Obispo County for new construction. Multiple mitigation procedures are available to individual property owners. These procedures typically involve either

  1. Sensing the earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  2. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  3. Building an 18 000-year-long paleo-earthquake record from detailed deep-sea turbidite characterisation in Poverty Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouderoux, H.; Lamarche, G.; Proust, J.-N.

    2012-06-01

    Two ~20 m-long sedimentary cores collected in two neighbouring mid-slope basins of the Paritu Turbidite System in Poverty Bay, east of New Zealand, show a high concentration of turbidites (5 to 6 turbidites per meter), interlaid with hemipelagites, tephras and a few debrites. Turbidites occur as both stacked and single, and exhibit a range of facies from muddy to sandy turbidites. The age of each turbidite is estimated using the statistical approach developed in the OxCal software from an exceptionally dense set of tephrochronology and radiocarbon ages (~1 age per meter). The age, together with the facies and the petrophysical properties of the sediment (density, magnetic susceptibility and P-wave velocity), allows the correlation of turbidites across the continental slope (1400-2300 m water depth). We identify 73 synchronous turbidites, named basin events, across the two cores between 819 ± 191 and 17 729 ± 701 yr BP. Compositional, foraminiferal and geochemical signatures of the turbidites are used to characterise the source area of the sediment, the origin of the turbidity currents, and their triggering mechanism. Sixty-seven basin events are interpreted as originated from slope failures on the upper continental slope in water depth ranging from 150 to 1200 m. Their earthquake trigger is inferred from the heavily gullied morphology of the source area and the water depth at which slope failures originated. We derive an earthquake mean return time of ~230 yr, with a 90% probability range from 10 to 570 yr. The earthquake chronology indicates cycles of progressive decrease of earthquake return times from ~400 yr to ~150 yr at 0-7 kyr, 8.2-13.5 kyr, 14.7-18 kyr. The two 1.2 kyr-long intervals in between (7-8.2 kyr and 13.5-14.7 kyr) correspond to basin-wide reorganisations with anomalous turbidite deposition (finer deposits and/or non deposition) reflecting the emplacement of two large mass transport deposits much more voluminous than the "classical" earthquake

  4. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... recordings of large earthquakes, scientists built large spring-pendulum seismometers in an attempt to record the long- ... are moving away from one another. The first “pendulum seismoscope” to measure the shaking of the ground ...

  5. Earthquake watch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.

    1976-01-01

     When the time comes that earthquakes can be predicted accurately, what shall we do with the knowledge? This was the theme of a November 1975 conference on earthquake warning and response held in San Francisco called by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Jack W. Carlson. Invited were officials of State and local governments from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, utah, Washington, and Wyoming and representatives of the news media. 

  6. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  7. COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON RESISTANT FEATURES IN NEW SCHOOL BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes initial results of a study of several schools with radon resistant features that were recently constructed in the northeastern U. S. hese designs generally are based on experience with radon mitigation in existing houses and schools and radon- resistant new co...

  8. People’s perspectives and expectations on preparedness against earthquakes: Tehran case study

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Katayoun; Izadkhah, Yasamin O; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseini, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Public education is one of the most important elements of earthquake preparedness. The present study identifies methods and appropriate strategies for public awareness and education on preparedness for earthquakes based on people's opinions in the city of Tehran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and a door-to-door survey of residents from 22 municipal districts in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. It involved a total of 1 211 individuals aged 15 and above. People were asked about different methods of public information and education, as well as the type of information needed for earthquake preparedness. Results: "Enforcing the building contractors' compliance with the construction codes and regulations" was ranked as the first priority by 33.4% of the respondents. Over 70% of the participants (71.7%) regarded TV as the most appropriate means of media communication to prepare people for an earthquake. This was followed by "radio" which was selected by 51.6% of respondents. Slightly over 95% of the respondents believed that there would soon be an earthquake in the country, and 80% reported that they obtained this information from "the general public". Seventy percent of the study population felt that news of an earthquake should be communicated through the media. However, over fifty (58%) of the participants believed that governmental officials and agencies are best qualified to disseminate information about the risk of an imminent earthquake. Just over half (50.8%) of the respondents argued that the authorities do not usually provide enough information to people about earthquakes and the probability of their occurrence. Besides seismologists, respondents thought astronauts (32%), fortunetellers (32.3%), religious figures (34%), meteorologists (23%), and paleontologists (2%) can correctly predict the occurrence of an earthquake. Furthermore, 88.6% listed aid centers, mosques, newspapers and TV as the most important sources of

  9. People's perspectives and expectations on preparedness against earthquakes: Tehran case study.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Katayoun; Izadkhah, Yasamin Ostovar; Montazeri, Ali; Hosseinip, Mahmood

    2010-06-01

    Public education is one of the most important elements of earthquake preparedness. The present study identifies methods and appropriate strategies for public awareness and education on preparedness for earthquakes based on people's opinions in the city of Tehran. This was a cross-sectional study and a door-to-door survey of residents from 22 municipal districts in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. It involved a total of 1 211 individuals aged 15 and above. People were asked about different methods of public information and education, as well as the type of information needed for earthquake preparedness. "Enforcing the building contractors' compliance with the construction codes and regulations" was ranked as the first priority by 33.4% of the respondents. Over 70% of the participants (71.7%) regarded TV as the most appropriate means of media communication to prepare people for an earthquake. This was followed by "radio" which was selected by 51.6% of respondents. Slightly over 95% of the respondents believed that there would soon be an earthquake in the country, and 80% reported that they obtained this information from "the general public". Seventy percent of the study population felt that news of an earthquake should be communicated through the media. However, over fifty (58%) of the participants believed that governmental officials and agencies are best qualified to disseminate information about the risk of an imminent earthquake. Just over half (50.8%) of the respondents argued that the authorities do not usually provide enough information to people about earthquakes and the probability of their occurrence. Besides seismologists, respondents thought astronauts (32%), fortunetellers (32.3%), religious figures (34%), meteorologists (23%), and paleontologists (2%) can correctly predict the occurrence of an earthquake. Furthermore, 88.6% listed aid centers, mosques, newspapers and TV as the most important sources of information during the aftermath of an earthquake

  10. Earthquakes for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... across a fault to learn about past earthquakes. Science Fair Projects A GPS instrument measures slow movements of the ground. Become an Earthquake Scientist Cool Earthquake Facts Today in Earthquake History A scientist stands in ...

  11. Lessons learned from the total evacuation of a hospital after the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okawa, Takashi; Ochi, Fumio

    The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes were a series of earthquakes that included a foreshock earthquake (magnitude 6.2) on April 14 and a main shock (magnitude 7.0) on April 16, 2016. A number of hospitals in Kumamoto were severely damaged by the two major earthquakes and required total evacuation. The authors retrospectively analyzed the activity data of the Disaster Medical Assistance Teams using the Emergency Medical Information System records to investigate the cases in which the total evacuation of a hospital was attempted following the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. Total evacuation was attempted at 17 hospitals. The evacuation of one of these hospitals was canceled. Most of the hospital buildings were more than 20 years old. The danger of collapse was the most frequent reason for evacuation. Various transportation methods were employed, some of which involved the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force; no preventable deaths occurred during transportation. The hospitals must now be renovated to improve their earthquake resistance. The coordinated and combined use of military and civilian resources is beneficial and can significantly reduce human suffering in large-scale disasters.

  12. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  13. Damage to urban buildings in zones of intensities VIII and VII during the Wenchuan earthquake and discussion on some typical damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingjiang; Tang, Yuhong; Zheng, Chao; Shi, Hongbin; Lin, Lin; Sun, Zhongxian

    2009-04-01

    The outline and typical characteristics of damages to building in Jiangyou city and Anxian county (intensity VIII), Mianyang city and Deyang city (intensity VII) are introduced in the paper. The damage ratios, based on the sample statistics of multi-story brick buildings together with multi-story brick buildings with RC frame at first story (BBF), are presented. Then some typical damages, such as horizontal cricks of brick masonry buildings, X-shaped cricks on the walls under windows, the damages to columns, beams and infill walls of frame buildings and the damage to half circle-shaped masonry walls, are discussed.

  14. Infill Walls Contribution on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of a Typical Mid-rise RC Framed Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besoiu, Teodora; Popa, Anca

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of the autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls on the progressive collapse resistance of a typical RC framed structure. The 13-storey building located in Brăila (a zone with high seismic risk in Romania) was designed according to the former Romanian seismic code P13-70 (1970). Two models of the structure are generated in the Extreme Loading® for Structures computer software: a model with infill walls and a model without infill walls. Following GSA (2003) Guidelines, a nonlinear dynamic procedure is used to determine the progressive collapse risk of the building when a first-storey corner column is suddenly removed. It was found that, the structure is not expected to fail under the standard GSA loading: DL+0.25LL. Moreover, if the infill walls are introduced in the model, the maximum vertical displacement of the node above the removed column is reduced by about 48%.

  15. Geoelectric precursors to strong earthquakes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulin, Zhao; Fuye, Qian

    1994-05-01

    The main results of searching for electrical precursors to strong earthquakes in China for the last 25 yr are presented. This comprises: the continuous twenty-year resistivity record before and after the great Tangshan earthquake of 1976; spatial and temporal variations in resistivity anomalies observed at more than 6 stations within 150 km of the Tangshan earthquake epicenter; the travel-time curve for the front of the resistivity precursor; and a method of intersection for predicting the epicenter location. These results reveal a number of interesting facts: (1) Resistivity measurements with accuracies of 0.5% or better for over 20 yr show that resistivity decreases of several percent, which began approximately 3 yr prior to the Tangshan earthquake, were larger than the background fluctuations and hence statistically significant. An outstanding example of an intermediate-term resistivity precursor is given. (2) The intermediate-term resistivity precursor decrease before Tangshan earthquake is such a pervasive phenomenon that the mean decrease, in percent, can be contoured on a map of the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region. This shows the maximum decrease centered over the epicenter. (3) The anomalies in resistivity and self-potential, which began 2-0.5 months before the Tangshan main shock, had periods equal to that of the tidal waves M 2 and MS f, respectively, so that the associated anomalies can be identified as impending-earthquake precursors and a modal related to stress-displacement weakening is proposed.

  16. Earthquake insurance pricing: a risk-based approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeng-Hsiang

    2018-04-01

    Flat earthquake premiums are 'uniformly' set for a variety of buildings in many countries, neglecting the fact that the risk of damage to buildings by earthquakes is based on a wide range of factors. How these factors influence the insurance premiums is worth being studied further. Proposed herein is a risk-based approach to estimate the earthquake insurance rates of buildings. Examples of application of the approach to buildings located in Taipei city of Taiwan were examined. Then, the earthquake insurance rates for the buildings investigated were calculated and tabulated. To fulfil insurance rating, the buildings were classified into 15 model building types according to their construction materials and building height. Seismic design levels were also considered in insurance rating in response to the effect of seismic zone and construction years of buildings. This paper may be of interest to insurers, actuaries, and private and public sectors of insurance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  17. Building Support for Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education and Responding to Resistance in Conservative Contexts: Cases From Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Plesons, Marina; Hadi, Sheena; Baig, Qadeer; Lang, Iliana

    2018-03-21

    Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students. This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan work to understand Pakistani society and culture and shape their programs to build community support? (2) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan overcome resistance to their efforts? We reviewed program documents and publications, synthesized key themes, identified questions of interest, and engaged key informants from Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan's leadership. The success of Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan was grounded in their readiness to understand the nuanced context within the communities, collaborate with groups of stakeholders-including parents, school officials, religious leaders, media personnel, and adolescents themselves-to ensure support, and stand up to forces of resistance to pursue their goals. Specific strategies included working with communities to select content, tactfully selecting and framing issues with careful consideration for sensitivities, engaging adolescents' influencers, strengthening media presence, showcasing school programs to increase understanding and transparency, and choosing opportune times to introduce messages. The successful strategies used by Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health through sexuality education can inform programs worldwide. Additionally, the programmatic weaknesses identified can guide future

  18. Building Support for Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education and Responding to Resistance in Conservative Contexts: Cases From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Plesons, Marina; Hadi, Sheena; Baig, Qadeer; Lang, Iliana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. Objectives: This article reviews the work of 2 organizations—Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan—that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students. This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan work to understand Pakistani society and culture and shape their programs to build community support? (2) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan overcome resistance to their efforts? Methods: We reviewed program documents and publications, synthesized key themes, identified questions of interest, and engaged key informants from Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan's leadership. Results: The success of Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan was grounded in their readiness to understand the nuanced context within the communities, collaborate with groups of stakeholders—including parents, school officials, religious leaders, media personnel, and adolescents themselves—to ensure support, and stand up to forces of resistance to pursue their goals. Specific strategies included working with communities to select content, tactfully selecting and framing issues with careful consideration for sensitivities, engaging adolescents' influencers, strengthening media presence, showcasing school programs to increase understanding and transparency, and choosing opportune times to introduce messages. Conclusion: The successful strategies used by Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health through sexuality education can inform programs worldwide. Additionally

  19. Proposed Assessment of Dynamic Resistance of the Existing Industrial Portal Frame Building Structures to the Impact of Mining Tremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusek, Janusz; Kocot, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the method for assessing dynamic resistance of the existing industrial portal frame building structures subjected to mining tremors. The study was performed on two industrial halls of a reinforced concrete structure and a steel structure. In order to determine the dynamic resistances of these objects, static and dynamic numerical analysis in the FEA environment was carried out. The scope of numerical calculations was adapted to the guidelines contained in the former and current design standards. This allowed to formulate the criteria, on the basis of which the maximum permissible value of the horizontal ground acceleration was obtained, constituting resistance of the analyzed objects. The permissible range of structural behaviour was determined by comparing the effects of load combinations adopted at the design stage with a seismic combination recognized in Eurocode 8. The response spectrum method was used in the field of dynamic analysis, taking into account the guidelines contained in Eurocode 8 and the guidelines of National. Finally, in accordance with the established procedure, calculations were carried out and the results for the two model portal frame buildings of reinforced concrete and steel structures were presented. The results allowed for the comparison of the dynamic resistance of two different types of material and design, and a sensitivity analysis with respect to their constituent bearing elements. The conclusions drawn from these analyses helped to formulate the thesis for the next stage of the research, in which it is expected to analyze a greater number of objects using a parametric approach, in relation to the geometry and material properties.

  20. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County

  1. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes. PMID:27999820

  2. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  3. The mechanism of earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kunquan; Cao, Zexian; Hou, Meiying; Jiang, Zehui; Shen, Rong; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Liu, Jixing

    2018-03-01

    strength of crust rocks: The gravitational pressure can initiate the elasticity-plasticity transition in crust rocks. By calculating the depth dependence of elasticity-plasticity transition and according to the actual situation analysis, the behaviors of crust rocks can be categorized in three typical zones: elastic, partially plastic and fully plastic. As the proportion of plastic portion reaches about 10% in the partially plastic zone, plastic interconnection may occur and the variation of shear strength in rocks is mainly characterized by plastic behavior. The equivalent coefficient of friction for the plastic slip is smaller by an order of magnitude, or even less than that for brittle fracture, thus the shear strength of rocks by plastic sliding is much less than that by brittle breaking. Moreover, with increasing depth a number of other factors can further reduce the shear yield strength of rocks. On the other hand, since earthquake is a large-scale damage, the rock breaking must occur along the weakest path. Therefore, the actual fracture strength of rocks in a shallow earthquake is assuredly lower than the average shear strength of rocks as generally observed. The typical distributions of the average strength and actual fracture strength in crustal rocks varying with depth are schematically illustrated. (3) The conditions for earthquake occurrence and mechanisms of earthquake: An earthquake will lead to volume expansion, and volume expansion must break through the obstacle. The condition for an earthquake to occur is as follows: the tectonic force exceeds the sum of the fracture strength of rock, the friction force of fault boundary and the resistance from obstacles. Therefore, the shallow earthquake is characterized by plastic sliding of rocks that break through the obstacles. Accordingly, four possible patterns for shallow earthquakes are put forward. Deep-focus earthquakes are believed to result from a wide-range rock flow that breaks the jam. Both shallow

  4. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluations (ESTE): Verification of Microbial Resistant Building Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an ESTE project summary brief. Many of the finished interior surfaces of homes and buildings are composed of materials that are prone to mold growth. These surfaces include gypsum board, wood flooring, insulation, and components of the heating and air conditioning system...

  5. Building bridges to operationalise one health - A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cars, Otto; Xiao, Yonghong; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Nilsson, Lennart E; Shen, Jianzhong; Sun, Qiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Börjesson, Stefan; Greko, Christina; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yuqing; Ottoson, Jakob; Li, Xuewen; Nilsson, Maud; Yin, Hong; Bi, Zhenwang; Zheng, Beiwen; Xia, Xi; Chen, Baoli; Ding, Lilu; Sun, Pan; Dyar, Oliver James; Hulth, Anette; Tomson, Göran

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions. Our research project is investigating antibiotic use and resistance in a rural area of China through a combination of epidemiological, health systems and laboratory investigations. We reflect here on the challenges inherent in conducting long distance cross-disciplinary collaborations, having now completed data and sample collection for a baseline situation analysis. In particular, we recognise the importance of investing in aspects such as effective communication, shared conceptual frameworks and leadership. We suggest that our experiences will be instructive to others planning to develop similar international One Health collaborations.

  6. Identification and calibration of the structural model of historical masonry building damaged during the 2016 Italian earthquakes: The case study of Palazzo del Podestà in Montelupone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinari, Federico; Pierdicca, Alessio; Clementi, Francesco; Lenci, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    The results of an ambient-vibration based investigation conducted on the "Palazzo del Podesta" in Montelupone (Italy) is presented. The case study was damaged during the 20I6 Italian earthquakes that stroke the central part of the Italy. The assessment procedure includes full-scale ambient vibration testing, modal identification from ambient vibration responses, finite element modeling and dynamic-based identification of the uncertain structural parameters of the model. A very good match between theoretical and experimental modal parameters was reached and the model updating has been performed identifying some structural parameters.

  7. Building a viable decollement geometry for the Central Nepal Himalaya through integrating surface geology, thermochronology and data from the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Robinson, D. M.; Olree, E.; Valentino, C.; Olsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent field mapping in the Central Himalaya revealed a marked change in the location and orientation of exposed Greater Himalayan rocks around the epicenter of the April 2015 Gorkha earthquake, arguing for a lateral structure in the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The earthquake provided new insight into the geometry of the MHT, but left the position and depth of the mid-crustal ramp in dispute. Combining new field data with existing thermochronometric data from the region emphasizes that both the mapped geology and young cooling ages step abruptly southward from east to west, immediately adjacent to the earthquake epicenter. The distribution of cooling ages is strongly influenced by the location of ramps in the decollement surface, as the vertical component of uplift concentrates exhumation over the ramp, producing the youngest ages there. We propose that the existence and location of frontal and lateral ramps can be evaluated using the regional distribution of thermochronometric ages. Sequentially deformed cross-sections present a model of how structurally induced uplift varies in time and space, as well as a predicted geometry of the active, modern fault. We created new balanced cross-sections, constrained by surface geology and the proposed decollement geometries. For an accurate representation of the subsurface, the geometries must reproduce cooling ages measured at the surface. Each cross section was sequentially deformed, allowing for flexure and erosion. The resulting displacement field was used to predict cooling ages for muscovite 40Ar/39Ar, zircon (U-Th)/He, and apatite fission-track, using the thermokinematic model Pecube. The different closure temperatures for these systems allow them to represent different times and locations of exhumation driven by evolving fault geometries. The modeled cooling ages are the cumulative effect of the entire deformational sequence. However, the ages are particularly sensitive to the modern active decollement fault

  8. Understanding Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Amanda; Gray, Ron

    2018-01-01

    December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest days in modern history, when a 9.3 magnitude earthquake--the third largest ever recorded--struck off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia (National Centers for Environmental Information 2014). The massive quake lasted at least 10 minutes and devastated the Indian Ocean. The quake displaced an estimated…

  9. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  10. C8-Linked Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Monomers with Inverted Building Blocks Show Selective Activity against Multidrug Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andriollo, Paolo; Hind, Charlotte K; Picconi, Pietro; Nahar, Kazi S; Jamshidi, Shirin; Varsha, Amrit; Clifford, Melanie; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz

    2018-02-09

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global concern. Development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is an urgent priority. Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a promising class of antibacterial agents initially discovered and isolated from natural sources. Recently, C8-linked PBD biaryl conjugates have been shown to be active against some MDR Gram-positive strains. To explore the role of building block orientations on antibacterial activity and obtain structure activity relationship (SAR) information, four novel structures were synthesized in which the building blocks of previously reported compounds were inverted, and their antibacterial activity was studied. The compounds showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 0.125-32 μg/mL against MDR Gram-positive strains with a bactericidal mode of action. The results showed that a single inversion of amide bonds reduces the activity while the double inversion restores the activity against MDR pathogens. All inverted compounds did not stabilize DNA and lacked eukaryotic toxicity. The compounds inhibit DNA gyrase in vitro, and the most potent compound was equally active against both wild-type and mutant DNA gyrase in a biochemical assay. The observed activity of the compounds against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with equivalent gyrase mutations is consistent with gyrase inhibition being the mechanism of action in vivo, although this has not been definitively confirmed in whole cells. This conclusion is supported by a molecular modeling study showing interaction of the compounds with wild-type and mutant gyrases. This study provides important SAR information about this new class of antibacterial agents.

  11. Revisiting the 1872 Owens Valley, California, Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Hutton, K.

    2008-01-01

    The 26 March 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is among the largest historical earthquakes in California. The felt area and maximum fault displacements have long been regarded as comparable to, if not greater than, those of the great San Andreas fault earthquakes of 1857 and 1906, but mapped surface ruptures of the latter two events were 2-3 times longer than that inferred for the 1872 rupture. The preferred magnitude estimate of the Owens Valley earthquake has thus been 7.4, based largely on the geological evidence. Reinterpreting macroseismic accounts of the Owens Valley earthquake, we infer generally lower intensity values than those estimated in earlier studies. Nonetheless, as recognized in the early twentieth century, the effects of this earthquake were still generally more dramatic at regional distances than the macroseismic effects from the 1906 earthquake, with light damage to masonry buildings at (nearest-fault) distances as large as 400 km. Macroseismic observations thus suggest a magnitude greater than that of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which appears to be at odds with geological observations. However, while the mapped rupture length of the Owens Valley earthquake is relatively low, the average slip was high. The surface rupture was also complex and extended over multiple fault segments. It was first mapped in detail over a century after the earthquake occurred, and recent evidence suggests it might have been longer than earlier studies indicated. Our preferred magnitude estimate is Mw 7.8-7.9, values that we show are consistent with the geological observations. The results of our study suggest that either the Owens Valley earthquake was larger than the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or that, by virtue of source properties and/or propagation effects, it produced systematically higher ground motions at regional distances. The latter possibility implies that some large earthquakes in California will generate significantly larger ground motions than San

  12. Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners' Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Marti, Michèle; Stauffacher, Michael; Matthes, Jörg; Wiemer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Despite global efforts to reduce seismic risk, actual preparedness levels remain universally low. Although earthquake-resistant building design is the most efficient way to decrease potential losses, its application is not a legal requirement across all earthquake-prone countries and even if, often not strictly enforced. Risk communication encouraging homeowners to take precautionary measures is therefore an important means to enhance a country's earthquake resilience. Our study illustrates that specific interactions of mood, perceived risk, and frame type significantly affect homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The interdependencies of the variables mood, risk information, and frame type were tested in an experimental 2 × 2 × 2 design (N = 156). Only in combination and not on their own, these variables effectively influence attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The control variables gender, "trait anxiety" index, and alteration of perceived risk adjust the effect. Overall, the group with the strongest attitudes toward general precautionary actions for earthquakes are homeowners with induced negative mood who process high-risk information and gain-framed messages. However, the conditions comprising induced negative mood, low-risk information and loss-frame and induced positive mood, low-risk information and gain-framed messages both also significantly influence homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. These results mostly confirm previous findings in the field of health communication. For practitioners, our study emphasizes that carefully compiled communication measures are a powerful means to encourage precautionary attitudes among homeowners, especially for those with an elevated perceived risk. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Building in efficacy: developing solutions to combat drug-resistant S. pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M R

    2004-04-01

    The development of our understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) principles that determine antimicrobial efficacy has advanced substantially over the last 10 years. We are now in a position to use PK/PD principles to set targets for antimicrobial design and optimisation so that we can predict eradication of specific pathogens or resistant variants when agents are used clinically. Optimisation of PK/PD parameters to enable the treatment of resistant pathogens with oral agents may not be possible with many current agents, such as some cephalosporins, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Aminopenicillins, however, such as amoxicillin, have linear PK and have a good safety profile even at high doses. The new pharmacokinetically enhanced oral formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg twice daily, was designed using PK/PD principles to be able to eradicate Streptococcus pneumoniae with amoxicillin MICs of up to and including 4 mg/L, which includes most penicillin-resistant isolates. For amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate, a time above MIC (T > MIC) of 35-40% of the dosing interval (based on blood levels) is predictive of high bacteriological efficacy. This target was met by the design of a unique bilayer tablet incorporating 437.5 mg of sustained-release sodium amoxicillin in one layer plus 562.5 mg of immediate-release amoxicillin trihydrate and 62.5 mg of clavulanate potassium in the second layer, with two tablets administered for each dose. This unique design extends the bacterial killing time by increasing the T > MIC to 49% of the dosing interval against pathogens with MICs of 4 mg/L, and 60% of the dosing interval against pathogens with MICs of 2 mg/L. Based on these results, this new amoxicillin/clavulanate formulation should be highly effective in treating respiratory tract infections due to drug-resistant S. pneumoniae as well as beta-lactamase-producing pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  14. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  15. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  16. Earth science: lasting earthquake legacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    On 31 August 1886, a magnitude-7 shock struck Charleston, South Carolina; low-level activity continues there today. One view of seismic hazard is that large earthquakes will return to New Madrid and Charleston at intervals of about 500 years. With expected ground motions that would be stronger than average, that prospect produces estimates of earthquake hazard that rival those at the plate boundaries marked by the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone. The result is two large 'bull's-eyes' on the US National Seismic Hazard Maps — which, for example, influence regional building codes and perceptions of public safety.

  17. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  18. Mental health response in Haiti in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake: a case study for building long-term solutions.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Belkin, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    Significant challenges exist in providing safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health and psychosocial services when an unforeseen disaster strikes in a low-resource setting. We present here a case study describing the experience of a transnational team in expanding mental health and psychosocial services delivered by two health care organizations, one local (Zanmi Lasante) and one international (Partners in Health), acting collaboratively as part of the emergency response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In the year and a half following the earthquake, Zanmi Lasante and Partners in Health provided 20,000 documented individual and group appointments for mental health and psychosocial needs. During the delivery of disaster response services, the collaboration led to the development of a model to guide the expansion and scaling up of community-based mental health services in the Zanmi Lasante health care system over the long-term, with potential for broader scale-up in Haiti. This model identifies key skill packages and implementation rules for developing evidence-based pathways and algorithms for treating common mental disorders. Throughout the collaboration, efforts were made to coordinate planning with multiple organizations interested in supporting the development of mental health programs following the disaster, including national governmental bodies, nongovernmental organizations, universities, foreign academic medical centers, and corporations. The collaborative interventions are framed here in terms of four overarching categories of action: direct service delivery, research, training, and advocacy. This case study exemplifies the role of psychiatrists working in low-resource settings as public health program implementers and as members of multidisciplinary teams.

  19. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  20. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  1. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The MW 7.0 Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010: USGS/EERI Advance Reconnaissance Team Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhard, Marc O.; Baldridge, Steven; Marshall, Justin; Mooney, Walter; Rix, Glenn J.

    2010-01-01

    soils (for example, lithology, stiffness, density, and thickness) made it difficult for us to quantitatively assess the role of ground-motion amplification in the widespread damage. Buildings The Haitian Ministry of Statistics and Informatics reported that one-story buildings represent 73 percent of the building inventory. Most ordinary, one-story houses have roofs made of sheet metal (82 percent), whereas most multistory houses and apartments have roofs made of concrete (71 percent). Walls made of concrete/block/stone predominate both in ordinary houses and apartments. It appears that the widespread damage to residences and commercial and government buildings was attributable to a great extent to the lack of earthquake-resistant design. In many cases, the structural types, member dimensions, and detailing practices were inadequate to resist strong ground motions. These vulnerabilities may have been exacerbated by poor construction practices. Reinforced concrete frames with concrete block masonry infill appeared to perform particularly poorly. Structures with light (timber or sheet metal) roofs performed better compared to structures with concrete roofs and slabs. The seismic performance of some buildings was adequate, and some of the damaged buildings appeared to have had low deformation demands. These observations suggest that structures designed and constructed with adequate stiffness and reinforcing details would have resisted the earthquake without being damaged severely. A damage survey of 107 buildings in downtown Port-au-Prince indicated that 28 percent had collapsed and another 33 percent were damaged enough to require repairs. A similar survey of 52 buildings in Leogane found that 62 percent had collapsed and another 31 percent required repairs. Bridges There was no evidence of bridge collapses attributable to the earthquake. Most bridges in Port-au-Prince are simple box culverts consisting of box girders 2.0 to 2.

  4. Building a resistance to ignition testing device for sunglasses and analysing data: a continuing study for sunglasses standards.

    PubMed

    Magri, Renan; Masili, Mauro; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Ventura, Liliane

    2017-09-21

    Sunglasses popularity skyrocketed since its advent. The ongoing trend led to the creation of standards to protect consumers from injuries and secondary hazards due to spectacles use. In Brazil, the corresponding standard is NBR ISO 12312-1:2015 and since there is no mandatory testing, evaluating sunglasses performance provides an insight into compliance with the standard. In a continuing revision of sunglasses standards requirements, resistance to ignition is one of the concerns, since sunglasses should be protected from burning into flames at a pre-determined temperature, which may protect user of getting their sunglasses into flames if some, cigarette sparks reaches the spectacles, as an example. This paper describes the building of a resistance to ignition system and the results of 410 samples that have been tested accordingly to ISO 12312-1. The procedure is in accordance with the resistance to ignition test. It consists of heating a steel rod to 650 °C and pressing it against the sample surface for 5 s, with a force equivalent to the rod weight. For carrying out the assessments, we have build resistance to ignition testing system and assured the testing requirements of the standard. The apparatus has an electrical furnace with a temperature acquisition circuit and electronic control that maintains the temperature of the steel rod at 650 °C. A linear actuator was designed for the project to drive the steel rod vertically and pressing it against the sunglasses samples. The control system is composed by a Freescale development board FRDM-KL25Z with an ARM Cortex-M0 embedded. We have also provided a LabView PC interface for acquiring, displaying, and storing data as well as added a physical control panel to the equipment for performing the evaluations. We assessed 410 sunglasses frames at the built apparatus, where the 410 lenses came out to be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the ignition to resistance test. Out of the 410 tested frames, 50

  5. Building a Morbidostat: An automated continuous-culture device for studying bacterial drug resistance under dynamically sustained drug inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Erdal; Veres, Adrian; Yildiz, Sadik; Pedraza, Juan M.; Chait, Remy; Paulsson, Johan; Kishony, Roy

    2013-01-01

    We present a protocol for building and operating an automated fluidic system for continuous culture that we call the “morbidostat”. The morbidostat is used to follow evolution of microbial drug resistance in real time. Instead of exposing bacteria to predetermined drug environments, the morbidostat constantly measures the growth rates of evolving microbial populations and dynamically adjusts drug concentrations inside culture vials in order to maintain a constant drug induced inhibition. The growth rate measurements are done using an optical detection system that is based on measuring the intensity of back-scattered light from bacterial cells suspended in the liquid culture. The morbidostat can additionally be used as a chemostat or a turbidostat. The whole system can be built from readily available components within two to three weeks, by biologists with some electronics experience or engineers familiar with basic microbiology. PMID:23429717

  6. Multilocus adaptation associated with heat resistance in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Bay, Rachael A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of tolerance to future climate change depends on the standing stock of genetic variation for resistance to climate-related impacts, but genes contributing to climate tolerance in wild populations are poorly described in number and effect. Physiology and gene expression patterns have shown that corals living in naturally high-temperature microclimates are more resistant to bleaching because of both acclimation and fixed effects, including adaptation. To search for potential genetic correlates of these fixed effects, we genotyped 15,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 individual tabletop corals, Acropora hyacinthus, within a natural temperature mosaic in backreef lagoons on Ofu Island, American Samoa. Despite overall lack of population substructure, we identified 114 highly divergent SNPs as candidates for environmental selection, via multiple stringent outlier tests, and correlations with temperature. Corals from the warmest reef location had higher minor allele frequencies across these candidate SNPs, a pattern not seen for noncandidate loci. Furthermore, within backreef pools, colonies in the warmest microclimates had a higher number and frequency of alternative alleles at candidate loci. These data suggest mild selection for alternate alleles at many loci in these corals during high heat episodes and possible maintenance of extensive polymorphism through multilocus balancing selection in a heterogeneous environment. In this case, a natural population harbors a reservoir of alleles preadapted to high temperatures, suggesting potential for future evolutionary response to climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The global distribution of magnitude 9 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, R.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake once again caught some in the earthquake community by surprise. The expectation of these massive quakes has been driven in the past by the over-reliance on our short, incomplete history of earthquakes and causal relationships derived from it. The logic applied is that if a great earthquake has not happened in the past, that we know of, one cannot happen in the future. Using the ~100-year global earthquake history, seismologists have promoted relationships between maximum earthquake sizes and other properties of subduction zones, leading to the notion that some subduction zones, like the Japan Trench, would never produce a magnitude ~9 event. The 2004 Andaman Mw = 9.2 earthquake, that occurred where there is slow subduction of old crust and a history of only moderate-sized earthquakes, seriously undermined such ideas. Given multi-century return times of the greatest earthquakes, ignorance of those return times and our very limited observation span, I suggest that we cannot yet make such determinations. Alternatively, using the length of a subduction zone that is available for slip as the predominant factor in determining maximum earthquake size, we cannot rule out that any subduction zone of a few hundred kilometers or more in length may be capable of producing a magnitude 9 or larger earthquake. Based on this method, the expected maximum size for the Japan Trench was 9.0 (McCaffrey, Geology, p. 263, 2008). The same approach portends a M > 9 for Java, with twice the population density as Honshu and much lower building standards. The Java Trench, and others where old crust subducts (Hikurangi, Marianas, Tonga, Kermadec), require increased awareness of the possibility for a great earthquake.

  8. Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    which affect taller , multi-story buildings. Ground motion that affects shorter buildings of a few stories, called short-period seismic waves, is...places in a single fault, or jump between connected faults. Earthquakes that occur along the Sierra Madre fault in southern California, for example

  9. Estimating Casualties for Large Earthquakes Worldwide Using an Empirical Approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Hearne, Mike

    2009-01-01

    We developed an empirical country- and region-specific earthquake vulnerability model to be used as a candidate for post-earthquake fatality estimation by the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is based on past fatal earthquakes (earthquakes causing one or more deaths) in individual countries where at least four fatal earthquakes occurred during the catalog period (since 1973). Because only a few dozen countries have experienced four or more fatal earthquakes since 1973, we propose a new global regionalization scheme based on idealization of countries that are expected to have similar susceptibility to future earthquake losses given the existing building stock, its vulnerability, and other socioeconomic characteristics. The fatality estimates obtained using an empirical country- or region-specific model will be used along with other selected engineering risk-based loss models for generation of automated earthquake alerts. These alerts could potentially benefit the rapid-earthquake-response agencies and governments for better response to reduce earthquake fatalities. Fatality estimates are also useful to stimulate earthquake preparedness planning and disaster mitigation. The proposed model has several advantages as compared with other candidate methods, and the country- or region-specific fatality rates can be readily updated when new data become available.

  10. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  11. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  12. Active fault databases: building a bridge between earthquake geologists and seismic hazard practitioners, the case of the QAFI v.3 database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Mayordomo, Julián; Martín-Banda, Raquel; Insua-Arévalo, Juan M.; Álvarez-Gómez, José A.; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Cabral, João

    2017-08-01

    Active fault databases are a very powerful and useful tool in seismic hazard assessment, particularly when singular faults are considered seismogenic sources. Active fault databases are also a very relevant source of information for earth scientists, earthquake engineers and even teachers or journalists. Hence, active fault databases should be updated and thoroughly reviewed on a regular basis in order to keep a standard quality and uniformed criteria. Desirably, active fault databases should somehow indicate the quality of the geological data and, particularly, the reliability attributed to crucial fault-seismic parameters, such as maximum magnitude and recurrence interval. In this paper we explain how we tackled these issues during the process of updating and reviewing the Quaternary Active Fault Database of Iberia (QAFI) to its current version 3. We devote particular attention to describing the scheme devised for classifying the quality and representativeness of the geological evidence of Quaternary activity and the accuracy of the slip rate estimation in the database. Subsequently, we use this information as input for a straightforward rating of the level of reliability of maximum magnitude and recurrence interval fault seismic parameters. We conclude that QAFI v.3 is a much better database than version 2 either for proper use in seismic hazard applications or as an informative source for non-specialized users. However, we already envision new improvements for a future update.

  13. Magnetic Skyrmion as a Nonlinear Resistive Element: A Potential Building Block for Reservoir Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prychynenko, Diana; Sitte, Matthias; Litzius, Kai; Krüger, Benjamin; Bourianoff, George; Kläui, Mathias; Sinova, Jairo; Everschor-Sitte, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the human brain, there is a strong effort to find alternative models of information processing capable of imitating the high energy efficiency of neuromorphic information processing. One possible realization of cognitive computing involves reservoir computing networks. These networks are built out of nonlinear resistive elements which are recursively connected. We propose that a Skyrmion network embedded in magnetic films may provide a suitable physical implementation for reservoir computing applications. The significant key ingredient of such a network is a two-terminal device with nonlinear voltage characteristics originating from magnetoresistive effects, such as the anisotropic magnetoresistance or the recently discovered noncollinear magnetoresistance. The most basic element for a reservoir computing network built from "Skyrmion fabrics" is a single Skyrmion embedded in a ferromagnetic ribbon. In order to pave the way towards reservoir computing systems based on Skyrmion fabrics, we simulate and analyze (i) the current flow through a single magnetic Skyrmion due to the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect and (ii) the combined physics of local pinning and the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect.

  14. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  15. Meteorite Impact "Earthquake" Features (Rock Liquefaction, Surface Wave Deformations, Seismites) from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geoelectric Complex Resistivity/Induced Polarization (IP) Measurements, Chiemgau (Alpine Foreland, Southeast Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstson, K.; Poßekel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Densely spaced GPR and complex resistivity measurements on a 30,000 square meters site in a region of enigmatic sinkhole occurrences in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments have featured unexpected and highlighting results from both a meteorite impact research and an engineering geology point of view. The GPR measurements and a complex resistivity/IP electrical imaging revealed extended subrosion depressions related with a uniformly but in various degrees of intensity deformed loamy and gravelly ground down to at least 10 m depth. Two principle observations could be made from both the GPR high-resolution measurements and the more integrating resistivity and IP soundings with both petrophysical evidences in good complement. Subrosion can be shown to be the result of prominent sandy-gravelly intrusions and extrusions typical of rock liquefaction processes well known to occur during strong earthquakes. Funnel-shaped structures with diameters up to 25 m near the surface and reaching down to the floating ground water level at 10 m depth were measured. GPR radargrams could trace prominent gravelly-material transport bottom-up within the funnels. Seen in both GPR tomography and resistivity/IP sections more or less the whole investigated area is overprinted by wavy deformations of the unconsolidated sediments with wavelengths of the order of 5 - 10 m and amplitudes up to half a meter, likewise down to 10 m depth. Substantial earthquakes are not known in this region. Hence, the observed heavy underground disorder is considered the result of the prominent earthquake shattering that must have occurred during the Holocene (Bronze Age/Celtic era) Chiemgau meteorite impact event that produced a 60 km x 30 km sized crater strewn field directly hosting the investigated site. Depending on depth and size of floating aquifers local concentrations of rock liquefaction and seismic surface waves (probably LOVE waves) to produce the wavy deformations could develop, when the big

  16. Seismic vulnerability assessment to earthquake at urban scale: A case of Mostaganem city in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Benanane, Abdelkader; Boutaraa, Zohra

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this study was the seismic vulnerability assessment of buildings constituting Mostaganem city in Algeria. Situated 320 km to the west of Algiers, Mostaganem city encompasses a valuable cultural and architectural built heritage. The city has suffered several moderate earthquakes in recent years; this has led to extensive structural damage to old structures, especially unreinforced historical buildings. This study was divided into two essential steps, the first step being to establish fragility curves based on a non-linear static pushover analysis for each typology and height of buildings. Twenty-seven pushover analyses were performed by means of SAP2000 software (three analyses for each type of building). The second step was to adopt the US HAZUS software and to modify it to suit the typical setting and parameters of the city of Mostaganem. A seismic vulnerability analysis of Mostaganem city was conducted using HAZUS software after inputting the new parameters of the fragility curves established within the first step. The results indicated that the number of poor-quality buildings expected to be totally destroyed under a 5.5 Mw earthquake scenario could reach more than 28 buildings. Three percent of unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings were completely damaged and 10% were extensively damaged. Of the concrete frame buildings, 6% were extensively damaged and 19% were moderately damaged. According to the built year, 6% of both concrete frame and URM buildings built before 1980 are estimated to be collapsing. Buildings constructed between 1980 and 1999 are more resistant; 8% of those structures were extensively damaged and 18% were moderately damaged. Only 10% of buildings constructed after 1999 were moderately damaged. The results also show that the main hospital of the city, built before 1960, will be extensively damaged during an earthquake of 5.5 Mw. The number of human casualties could reach several hundreds – 10.5% of residents of URM buildings are

  17. Protecting your family from earthquakes: The seven steps to earthquake safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Developed by American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    This book is provided here because of the importance of preparing for earthquakes before they happen. Experts say it is very likely there will be a damaging San Francisco Bay Area earthquake in the next 30 years and that it will strike without warning. It may be hard to find the supplies and services we need after this earthquake. For example, hospitals may have more patients than they can treat, and grocery stores may be closed for weeks. You will need to provide for your family until help arrives. To keep our loved ones and our community safe, we must prepare now. Some of us come from places where earthquakes are also common. However, the dangers of earthquakes in our homelands may be very different than in the Bay Area. For example, many people in Asian countries die in major earthquakes when buildings collapse or from big sea waves called tsunami. In the Bay Area, the main danger is from objects inside buildings falling on people. Take action now to make sure your family will be safe in an earthquake. The first step is to read this book carefully and follow its advice. By making your home safer, you help make our community safer. Preparing for earthquakes is important, and together we can make sure our families and community are ready. English version p. 3-13 Chinese version p. 14-24 Vietnamese version p. 25-36 Korean version p. 37-48

  18. Identification of Deep Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    discriminants that will reliably separate small, crustal earthquakes (magnitudes less than about 4 and depths less than about 40 to 50 km) from small...characteristics on discrimination plots designed to separate nuclear explosions from crustal earthquakes. Thus, reliably flagging these small, deep events is...Further, reliably identifying subcrustal earthquakes will allow us to eliminate deep events (previously misidentified as crustal earthquakes) from

  19. NRIAG's Effort to Mitigate Earthquake Disasters in Egypt Using GPS and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    It has been estimated that, during historical time more than 50 million people have lost their lives in earthquakes during ground shaking, such as soil amplification and/or liquefaction, landslides and tsunamis or its immediate aftereffects, as fires. The distribution of population takes generally no account of earthquake risk, at least on a large scale. An earthquake may be large but not destructive, on the other hand, an earthquake may be destructive but not large. The absence of correlation is due to the fact that, great number of other factors entering into consideration: first of all, the location of the earthquake in relation to populated areas, also soil conditions and building constructions. Soil liquefaction has been identified as the underlying phenomenon for many ground failures, settlements and lateral spreads, which are a major cause of damage to soil structures and building foundations in many events. Egypt is suffered a numerous of destructive earthquakes as well as Kalabsha earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near Aswan city and the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks at, Aswan, Hurghada, Aqaba, Abu Dabbab and Dabbaa. On the other hand the soil condition, soil amplification, soil structure interaction, liquefaction and seismic hazard are carried out in particular the urbanized areas and the region near the source zones. All these parameters are integrated to obtain the Egyptian building code which is valid to construct buildings resist damages and consequently mitigate the earthquake

  20. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  1. Adaptive vibration control of structures under earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    techniques, for structural vibration suppression under earthquakes. Various control strategies have been developed to protect structures from natural hazards and improve the comfort of occupants in buildings. However, there has been little development of adaptive building control with the integration of real-time system identification and control design. Generalized predictive control, which combines the process of real-time system identification and the process of predictive control design, has received widespread acceptance and has been successfully applied to various test-beds. This paper presents a formulation of the predictive control scheme for adaptive vibration control of structures under earthquakes. Comprehensive simulations are performed to demonstrate and validate the proposed adaptive control technique for earthquake-induced vibration of a building.

  2. Earthquake risk assessment of Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Gaber, Hanan; Ibrahim, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Throughout historical and recent times, Alexandria has suffered great damage due to earthquakes from both near- and far-field sources. Sometimes, the sources of such damages are not well known. During the twentieth century, the city was shaken by several earthquakes generated from inland dislocations (e.g., 29 Apr. 1974, 12 Oct. 1992, and 28 Dec. 1999) and the African continental margin (e.g., 12 Sept. 1955 and 28 May 1998). Therefore, this study estimates the earthquake ground shaking and the consequent impacts in Alexandria on the basis of two earthquake scenarios. The simulation results show that Alexandria affected by both earthquakes scenarios relatively in the same manner despite the number of casualties during the first scenario (inland dislocation) is twice larger than the second one (African continental margin). An expected percentage of 2.27 from Alexandria's total constructions (12.9 millions, 2006 Census) will be affected, 0.19 % injuries and 0.01 % deaths of the total population (4.1 millions, 2006 Census) estimated by running the first scenario. The earthquake risk profile reveals that three districts (Al-Montazah, Al-Amriya, and Shark) lie in high seismic risks, two districts (Gharb and Wasat) are in moderate, and two districts (Al-Gomrok and Burg El-Arab) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Al-Montazah is the highest vulnerable district whereas 73 % of expected damages were reported there. The undertaken analysis shows that the Alexandria urban area faces high risk. Informal areas and deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated earthquake risks (buildings damages) are concentrated at the most densely populated (Al-Montazah, Al-Amriya, and Shark) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts.

  3. Nowcasting Earthquakes: A Comparison of Induced Earthquakes in Oklahoma and at the Geysers, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginbuhl, Molly; Rundle, John B.; Hawkins, Angela; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowcasting is a new method of statistically classifying seismicity and seismic risk (Rundle et al. 2016). In this paper, the method is applied to the induced seismicity at the Geysers geothermal region in California and the induced seismicity due to fluid injection in Oklahoma. Nowcasting utilizes the catalogs of seismicity in these regions. Two earthquake magnitudes are selected, one large say M_{λ } ≥ 4, and one small say M_{σ } ≥ 2. The method utilizes the number of small earthquakes that occurs between pairs of large earthquakes. The cumulative probability distribution of these values is obtained. The earthquake potential score (EPS) is defined by the number of small earthquakes that has occurred since the last large earthquake, the point where this number falls on the cumulative probability distribution of interevent counts defines the EPS. A major advantage of nowcasting is that it utilizes "natural time", earthquake counts, between events rather than clock time. Thus, it is not necessary to decluster aftershocks and the results are applicable if the level of induced seismicity varies in time. The application of natural time to the accumulation of the seismic hazard depends on the applicability of Gutenberg-Richter (GR) scaling. The increasing number of small earthquakes that occur after a large earthquake can be scaled to give the risk of a large earthquake occurring. To illustrate our approach, we utilize the number of M_{σ } ≥ 2.75 earthquakes in Oklahoma to nowcast the number of M_{λ } ≥ 4.0 earthquakes in Oklahoma. The applicability of the scaling is illustrated during the rapid build-up of injection-induced seismicity between 2012 and 2016, and the subsequent reduction in seismicity associated with a reduction in fluid injections. The same method is applied to the geothermal-induced seismicity at the Geysers, California, for comparison.

  4. 77 FR 64314 - Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... is to discuss engineering needs for existing buildings, to review the National Earthquake Hazards... Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the NEHRP Web site at http://nehrp.gov/ . DATES: The... assesses: Trends and developments in the science and engineering of earthquake hazards reduction; The...

  5. Are you prepared for the next big earthquake in Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have long recognized that Alaska has more earthquakes than any other region of the United States and is, in fact, one of the most seismically active areas of the world. The second-largest earthquake ever recorded shook the heart of southern Alaska on March 27th, 1964. The largest strike-slip slip earthquake in North America in almost 150 years occurred on the Denali Fault in central Alaska on November 3rd, 2002. “Great” earthquakes (larger than magnitude 8) have rocked the state on an average of once every 13 years since 1900. It is only a matter of time before another major earthquake will impact a large number of Alaskans.Alaska has changed significantly since the damaging 1964 earthquake, and the population has more than doubled. Many new buildings are designed to withstand intense shaking, some older buildings have been reinforced, and development has been discouraged in some particularly hazardous areas. Despite these precautions, future earthquakes may still cause damage to buildings, displace items within buildings, and disrupt the basic utilities that we take for granted. We must take every reasonable action to prepare for damaging earthquakes in order to lower these risks.

  6. Defining "Acceptable Risk" for Earthquakes Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B.

    2001-05-01

    The greatest and most rapidly growing earthquake risk for mortality is in developing countries. Further, earthquake risk management actions of the last 50 years have reduced the average lethality of earthquakes in earthquake-threatened industrialized countries. (This is separate from the trend of the increasing fiscal cost of earthquakes there.) Despite these clear trends, every new earthquake in developing countries is described in the media as a "wake up" call, announcing the risk these countries face. GeoHazards International (GHI) works at both the community and the policy levels to try to reduce earthquake risk. GHI reduces death and injury by helping vulnerable communities recognize their risk and the methods to manage it, by raising awareness of its risk, building local institutions to manage that risk, and strengthening schools to protect and train the community's future generations. At the policy level, GHI, in collaboration with research partners, is examining whether "acceptance" of these large risks by people in these countries and by international aid and development organizations explains the lack of activity in reducing these risks. The goal of this pilot project - The Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) - is to develop and evaluate a means of measuring the risk and the effectiveness of risk mitigation actions in the world's largest, most vulnerable cities: in short, to develop an earthquake risk index. One application of this index is to compare the risk and the risk mitigation effort of "comparable" cities. By this means, Lima, for example, can compare the risk of its citizens dying due to earthquakes with the risk of citizens in Santiago and Guayaquil. The authorities of Delhi and Islamabad can compare the relative risk from earthquakes of their school children. This index can be used to measure the effectiveness of alternate mitigation projects, to set goals for mitigation projects, and to plot progress meeting those goals. The preliminary

  7. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making.

  8. Plotting Inequalities, Building Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Adam; Brew, Bridget; Proctor, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Media depictions of San Francisco show idyllic images of fog pouring under the Golden Gate Bridge or happy tourists riding cable cars, but rarely the mostly nonwhite neighborhoods of the east side. San Francisco public schools have a bad track record of mimicking this masquerade, with very low numbers of African American and Latina/o students…

  9. Factors influencing to earthquake caused economical losses on urban territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.

    2005-12-01

    Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of

  10. Emotional resistance building: how family members of loved ones undergoing chemotherapy treatment process their fear of emotional collapse.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bridie; Andrews, Tom; Hegarty, Josephine

    2015-04-01

    To explore family members' experiences when their loved one is undergoing chemotherapy treatment as an outpatient for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and to develop an explanatory theory of how they process their main concern. Most individuals with cancer are now treated as outpatients and cared for by family members. International research highlights the many side effects of chemotherapy, which in the absence of specific information and/or experience can be difficult for family members to deal with. Unmet needs can have an impact on the health of both patients and family members. Classic grounded theory methodology was used for this study. Using classic grounded theory methodology, family members (n = 35) of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer were interviewed (June 2010-July 2011). Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The main concern that emerged for participants was fear of emotional collapse. This fear was dealt with through a process conceptualized as 'Emotional Resistance Building'. This is a basic social process with three phases: 'Figuring out', 'Getting on with it' and 'Uncertainty adjustment'. The phases are not linear, but interrelated as participants can be in any one or more of the phases at any one time. This theory has the potential to be used by healthcare professionals working in oncology to support family members of patients undergoing chemotherapy. New ways of supporting family members through this most difficult and challenging period are articulated within this theory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul S.; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  12. Notes about the Armenia earthquake, 7 December 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Whenever the plates moving beneath Armenia interlock, pressure builds. The stress increases, the pressure continues to climb and finally there is a fracture-a sudden release of energy we know as an earthquake.  

  13. Intensity earthquake scenario (scenario event - a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence) for the city of Sofia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Irena; Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Popova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic risk to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that a prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The earthquake scenarios are intended as a basic input for developing detailed earthquake damage scenarios for the cities and can be used in earthquake-safe town and infrastructure planning. The city of Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. It is situated in the centre of the Sofia area that is the most populated (the population is of more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. The available historical documents prove the occurrence of destructive earthquakes during the 15th-18th centuries in the Sofia zone. In 19th century the city of Sofia has experienced two strong earthquakes: the 1818 earthquake with epicentral intensity I0=8-9 MSK and the 1858 earthquake with I0=9-10 MSK. During the 20th century the strongest event occurred in the vicinity of the city of Sofia is the 1917 earthquake with MS=5.3 (I0=7-8 MSK). Almost a century later (95 years) an earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 (I0=7-8 MSK) hit the city of Sofia, on May 22nd, 2012. In the present study as a deterministic scenario event is considered a damaging earthquake with higher probability of occurrence that could affect the city with intensity less than or equal to VIII

  14. A randomized trial of a peer resistance skill building game for Hispanic early adolescent girls: Impact and feasibility of DRAMA-RAMA™

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Hughes, Charles; Hecht, Michael; Peragallo, Nilda; Nickerson, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research suggests that adolescents can use peer resistance skills to avoid being pressured into risky behavior, such as early sexual behavior. Avatar-based Virtual Reality (AVR) technology offers a novel way to build these skills. OBJECTIVES Study aims were to: evaluate the feasibility of an AVR peer resistance skill building game (DRAMA-RAMA™); explore the impact of game play on peer resistance self-efficacy; and assess how positively the game was perceived. METHOD 45 low income early adolescent Hispanic girls were randomly assigned to either the intervention (DRAMA-RAMA™) or comparison game (Wii Dancing with the Stars™ [Wii DWTS™]) condition. All participants were offered a 5 session curriculum that included peer resistance skill content before playing their respective game for 15 minutes, once a week, for two weeks. Participants completed electronic surveys assessing demographics, peer resistance self-efficacy, and sexual behavior at baseline, after game play, and at 2 months. They also completed a paper-pencil game experience questionnaire immediately after playing their game. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and analyses of covariance. RESULTS The separate analyses of covariance showed a significant game effect at post-test for the peer resistance self-efficacy measure (F = 4.21, p < 0.05), but not at follow-up (F = 0.01, p = 0.92). DRAMA-RAMA™ was rated as positively as the Wii DWTS™ (p ≥ .26). DISCUSSION This randomized control trial provides initial support for the hypothesis that playing an AVR technology game can strengthen peer resistance skills, and early adolescent Hispanic girls will have a positive response to this game. PMID:23150043

  15. Earthquakes: Predicting the unpredictable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    The earthquake prediction pendulum has swung from optimism in the 1970s to rather extreme pessimism in the 1990s. Earlier work revealed evidence of possible earthquake precursors: physical changes in the planet that signal that a large earthquake is on the way. Some respected earthquake scientists argued that earthquakes are likewise fundamentally unpredictable. The fate of the Parkfield prediction experiment appeared to support their arguments: A moderate earthquake had been predicted along a specified segment of the central San Andreas fault within five years of 1988, but had failed to materialize on schedule. At some point, however, the pendulum began to swing back. Reputable scientists began using the "P-word" in not only polite company, but also at meetings and even in print. If the optimism regarding earthquake prediction can be attributed to any single cause, it might be scientists' burgeoning understanding of the earthquake cycle.

  16. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  17. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  18. Automatic Earthquake Detection by Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K.; Beroza, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, advances in machine learning have transformed fields such as image recognition, natural language processing and recommender systems. Many of these performance gains have relied on the availability of large, labeled data sets to train high-accuracy models; labeled data sets are those for which each sample includes a target class label, such as waveforms tagged as either earthquakes or noise. Earthquake seismologists are increasingly leveraging machine learning and data mining techniques to detect and analyze weak earthquake signals in large seismic data sets. One of the challenges in applying machine learning to seismic data sets is the limited labeled data problem; learning algorithms need to be given examples of earthquake waveforms, but the number of known events, taken from earthquake catalogs, may be insufficient to build an accurate detector. Furthermore, earthquake catalogs are known to be incomplete, resulting in training data that may be biased towards larger events and contain inaccurate labels. This challenge is compounded by the class imbalance problem; the events of interest, earthquakes, are infrequent relative to noise in continuous data sets, and many learning algorithms perform poorly on rare classes. In this work, we investigate the use of active learning for automatic earthquake detection. Active learning is a type of semi-supervised machine learning that uses a human-in-the-loop approach to strategically supplement a small initial training set. The learning algorithm incorporates domain expertise through interaction between a human expert and the algorithm, with the algorithm actively posing queries to the user to improve detection performance. We demonstrate the potential of active machine learning to improve earthquake detection performance with limited available training data.

  19. Earthquake Early Warning: A Prospective User's Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishenko, S. P.; Savage, W. U.; Johnson, T.

    2009-12-01

    With more than 25 million people at risk from high hazard faults in California alone, Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) presents a promising public safety and emergency response tool. EEW represents the real-time end of an earthquake information spectrum which also includes near real-time notifications of earthquake location, magnitude, and shaking levels; as well as geographic information system (GIS)-based products for compiling and visually displaying processed earthquake data such as ShakeMap and ShakeCast. Improvements to and increased multi-national implementation of EEW have stimulated interest in how such information products could be used in the future. Lifeline organizations, consisting of utilities and transportation systems, can use both onsite and regional EEW information as part of their risk management and public safety programs. Regional EEW information can provide improved situational awareness to system operators before automatic system protection devices activate, and allow trained personnel to take precautionary measures. On-site EEW is used for earthquake-actuated automatic gas shutoff valves, triggered garage door openers at fire stations, system controls, etc. While there is no public policy framework for preemptive, precautionary electricity or gas service shutdowns by utilities in the United States, gas shut-off devices are being required at the building owner level by some local governments. In the transportation sector, high-speed rail systems have already demonstrated the ‘proof of concept’ for EEW in several countries, and more EEW systems are being installed. Recently the Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) began collaborating with the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and others to assess the potential benefits of EEW technology to mass transit operations and emergency response in the San Francisco Bay region. A key issue in this assessment is that significant earthquakes are likely to occur close to or within the BART

  20. Structural building screening and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawandy, Alex; Nakazawa, Shoji; Hendry, Andy; Ridwan, Firdaus, Rahmatul

    2017-10-01

    An earthquake is a disaster that can be harmful to the community, such as financial loss and also dead injuries. Pekanbaru is a city that located in the middle of Sumatera Island. Even though the city of Pekanbaru is a city that rarely occurs earthquake, but Pekanbaru has ever felt the impact of the big earthquake that occurred in West Sumatera on September 2009. As we know, Indonesia located between Eurasia plate, Pacific plate, and Indo-Australian plate. Particularly the Sumatera Island, It has the Semangko fault or the great Sumatra fault along the island from north to south due to the shift of Eurasia and Indo-Australian Plates. An earthquake is not killing people but the building around the people that could be killing them. The failure of the building can be early prevented by doing an evaluation. In this research, the methods of evaluation have used a guideline for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) P-154 and Applied Technology Council (ATC) 40. FEMA P-154 is a rapid visual screening of buildings for potential seismic hazards and ATC-40 is seismic evaluation and retrofit of Concrete Buildings. ATC-40 is a more complex evaluation rather than FEMA P-154. The samples to be evaluated are taken in the surroundings of Universitas Riau facility in Pekanbaru. There are four buildings as case study such as the rent student building, the building of mathematics and natural science faculty, the building teacher training and education faculty and the buildings in the faculty of Social political sciences. Vulnerability for every building facing an earthquake is different, this is depending on structural and non-structural components of the building. Among all of the samples, only the building of mathematics and the natural science faculty is in critical condition according to the FEMA P-154 evaluation. Furthermore, the results of evaluation using ATC-40 for the teacher training building are in damage control conditions, despite the other three buildings are

  1. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  2. 2016 update on induced earthquakes in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade people living in numerous locations across the central U.S. experienced many more small to moderate sized earthquakes than ever before. This earthquake activity began increasing about 2009 and peaked during 2015 and into early 2016. For example, prior to 2009 Oklahoma typically experienced 1 or 2 small earthquakes per year with magnitude greater than 3.0 but by 2015 this number rose to over 900 earthquakes per year of that size and over 30 earthquakes greater than 4.0. These earthquakes can cause damage. In 2011 a magnitude 5.6 earthquake struck near the town of Prague, Oklahoma on a preexisting fault and caused severe damage to several houses and school buildings. During the past 6 years more than 1500 reports of damaging shaking levels were reported in areas of induced seismicity. This rapid increase and the potential for damaging ground shaking from induced earthquakes caused alarm to about 8 million people living nearby and officials responsible for public safety. They wanted to understand why earthquakes were increasing and the potential threats to society and buildings located nearby.

  3. Important Earthquake Engineering Resources

    Science.gov Websites

    PEER logo Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center home about peer news events research Engineering Resources Site Map Search Important Earthquake Engineering Resources - American Concrete Institute Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) - Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering

  4. Can We Predict Earthquakes?

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2018-01-16

    The only thing we know for sure about earthquakes is that one will happen again very soon. Earthquakes pose a vital yet puzzling set of research questions that have confounded scientists for decades, but new ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes — and when.

  5. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  6. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  7. Strong ground motions generated by earthquakes on creeping faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ruth A.; Abrahamson, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    A tenet of earthquake science is that faults are locked in position until they abruptly slip during the sudden strain-relieving events that are earthquakes. Whereas it is expected that locked faults when they finally do slip will produce noticeable ground shaking, what is uncertain is how the ground shakes during earthquakes on creeping faults. Creeping faults are rare throughout much of the Earth's continental crust, but there is a group of them in the San Andreas fault system. Here we evaluate the strongest ground motions from the largest well-recorded earthquakes on creeping faults. We find that the peak ground motions generated by the creeping fault earthquakes are similar to the peak ground motions generated by earthquakes on locked faults. Our findings imply that buildings near creeping faults need to be designed to withstand the same level of shaking as those constructed near locked faults.

  8. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters.

  9. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-25

    This image from NASA Terra satellite shows the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities.

  10. "Earthquake!"--A Cooperative Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodder, A. Peter W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an exercise designed as a team building experience for managers that can be used to demonstrate to science students the potential benefit of group decision-making. Involves the ranking of options for surviving a large earthquake. Yields quantitative measures of individual student knowledge and how well the groups function. (Author/YDS)

  11. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  12. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing. PMID:26601167

  13. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning.

    PubMed

    Minson, Sarah E; Brooks, Benjamin A; Glennie, Craig L; Murray, Jessica R; Langbein, John O; Owen, Susan E; Heaton, Thomas H; Iannucci, Robert A; Hauser, Darren L

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an M w (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California's Hayward fault, and real data from the M w 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  14. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  15. Post-Earthquake Reconstruction — in Context of Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Comprehensive rescue and relief operations are always launched with no loss of time with active participation of the Army, Governmental agencies, Donor agencies, NGOs, and other Voluntary organizations after each Natural Disaster. There are several natural disasters occurring throughout the world round the year and one of them is Earthquake. More than any other natural catastrophe, an earthquake represents the undoing of our most basic pre-conceptions of the earth as the source of stability or the first distressing factor due to earthquake is the collapse of our dwelling units. Earthquake has affected buildings since people began constructing them. So after each earthquake a reconstruction of housing program is very much essential since housing is referred to as shelter satisfying one of the so-called basic needs next to food and clothing. It is a well-known fact that resettlement (after an earthquake) is often accompanied by the creation of ghettos and ensuing problems in the provision of infrastructure and employment. In fact a housing project after Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, illustrates all the negative aspects of resettlement in the context of reconstruction. The main theme of this paper is to consider few issues associated with post-earthquake reconstruction in context of housing, all of which are significant to communities that have had to rebuild after catastrophe or that will face such a need in the future. Few of them are as follows: (1) Why rebuilding opportunities are time consuming? (2) What are the causes of failure in post-earthquake resettlement? (3) How can holistic planning after an earthquake be planned? (4) What are the criteria to be checked for sustainable building materials? (5) What are the criteria for success in post-earthquake resettlement? (6) How mitigation in post-earthquake housing can be made using appropriate repair, restoration, and strengthening concepts?

  16. Earthquake damage orientation to infer seismic parameters in archaeological sites and historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-González, Fidel

    2018-01-01

    Studies to provide information concerning seismic parameters and seismic sources of historical and archaeological seismic events are used to better evaluate the seismic hazard of a region. This is of especial interest when no surface rupture is recorded or the seismogenic fault cannot be identified. The orientation pattern of the earthquake damage (ED) (e.g., fallen columns, dropped key stones) that affected architectonic elements of cities after earthquakes has been traditionally used in historical and archaeoseismological studies to infer seismic parameters. However, in the literature depending on the authors, the parameters that can be obtained are contradictory (it has been proposed: the epicenter location, the orientation of the P-waves, the orientation of the compressional strain and the fault kinematics) and authors even question these relations with the earthquake damage. The earthquakes of Lorca in 2011, Christchurch in 2011 and Emilia Romagna in 2012 present an opportunity to measure systematically a large number and wide variety of earthquake damage in historical buildings (the same structures that are used in historical and archaeological studies). The damage pattern orientation has been compared with modern instrumental data, which is not possible in historical and archaeoseismological studies. From measurements and quantification of the orientation patterns in the studied earthquakes, it is observed that there is a systematic pattern of the earthquake damage orientation (EDO) in the proximity of the seismic source (fault trace) (<10 km). The EDO in these earthquakes is normal to the fault trend (±15°). This orientation can be generated by a pulse of motion that in the near fault region has a distinguishable acceleration normal to the fault due to the polarization of the S-waves. Therefore, the earthquake damage orientation could be used to estimate the seismogenic fault trend of historical earthquakes studies where no instrumental data are available.

  17. Urban Earthquake Shaking and Loss Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancilar, U.; Tuzun, C.; Yenidogan, C.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Level 2 analysis of the ELER Software (similar to HAZUS and SELENA) is essentially intended for earthquake risk assessment (building damage, consequential human casualties and macro economic loss quantifiers) in urban areas. The basic Shake Mapping is similar to the Level 0 and Level 1 analysis however, options are available for more sophisticated treatment of site response through externally entered data and improvement of the shake map through incorporation

  18. A Case Study of Geologic Hazards Affecting School Buildings: Evaluating Seismic Structural Vulnerability and Landslide Hazards at Schools in Aizawl, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, M. M.; Guo, J.

    2016-12-01

    India's National School Safety Program (NSSP) aims to assess all government schools in earthquake prone regions of the country. To supplement the Mizoram State Government's recent survey of 141 government schools, we screened an additional 16 private and 4 government schools for structural vulnerabilities due to earthquakes, as well as landslide hazards, in Mizoram's capital of Aizawl. We developed a geomorphologically derived landslide susceptibility matrix, which was cross-checked with Aizawl Municipal Corporation's landslide hazard map (provided by Lettis Consultants International), to determine the geologic hazards at each school. Our research indicates that only 7% of the 22 assessed school buildings are located within low landslide hazard zones; 64% of the school buildings, with approximately 9,500 students, are located within very high or high landslide hazard zones. Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) was used to determine the structural earthquake vulnerability of each school building. RVS is an initial vulnerability assessment procedure used to inventory and rank buildings that may be hazardous during an earthquake. Our study indicates that all of the 22 assessed school buildings have a damageability rating of Grade 3 or higher on the 5-grade EMS scale, suggesting a significant vulnerability and potential for damage in buildings, ranging from widespread cracking of columns and beam column joints to collapse. Additionally, 86% of the schools we visited had reinforced concrete buildings constructed before Aizawl's building regulations were passed in 2007, which can be assumed to lack appropriate seismic reinforcement. Using our findings, we will give recommendations to the Government of Mizoram to prevent unnecessary loss of life by minimizing each school's landslide risk and ensuring schools are earthquake-resistant.

  19. The Changing Challenges of Transformational Resistance. A Response to "Building the Dream: Transformational Resistance, Community-Based Organizations, and the Civic Engagement of Latinos in the New South"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    A long-time researcher of "education in the New Latino Diaspora" considers how ephemeral the demographic and sociopolitical contexts were for the endeavors captured in "Building the Dream" but concurs with the aptness of considering the five focal students' participation in a local Spanish radio program as acts of…

  20. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 371 EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL. BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 371 EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION WAS HARDENED TO WITHSTAND THE FORCES IMPOSED BY A DESIGN-BASIS EARTHQUAKE OR TORNADO. (7/1/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Missing great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) greater than 8.8 and six earthquakes larger than Mw 8.5, since 2004, has raised interest in the long-term global rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on the analysis of earthquakes since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era in seismology. Before this time, the catalog is less complete and magnitude estimates are more uncertain. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes before 1900, and the catalog of historical events is being used increasingly to improve hazard assessment. Here I consider the catalog of historical earthquakes and show that approximately half of all Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes are likely missing or underestimated in the 19th century. I further present a reconsideration of the felt effects of the 8 February 1843, Lesser Antilles earthquake, including a first thorough assessment of felt reports from the United States, and show it is an example of a known historical earthquake that was significantly larger than initially estimated. The results suggest that incorporation of best available catalogs of historical earthquakes will likely lead to a significant underestimation of seismic hazard and/or the maximum possible magnitude in many regions, including parts of the Caribbean.

  2. Public participation in reconstruction after the earthquakes in Friuli (Italy) and the Upper Soca Valley (Slovenia) in 1976, 1998, and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, P.

    2012-04-01

    Northern Friuli (in northeast Italy) and the Upper Soča Valley (in northwest Slovenia) are extremely seismically active. The earthquakes of 6 May and 15 September 1976, with an epicenter in the Venzone area, claimed 939 lives in Italy and 157,000 people were left homeless. The same two earthquakes affected northwest Slovenia, which was still part of communist Yugoslavia at the time; they did not claim any lives, but they damaged 12,000 buildings and 13,000 people were left homeless. The "Easter Earthquake" of 12 April 1998, with an epicenter in the Krn Mountains, damaged 4,000 structures in Slovenia, among which nearly 1,500 had to be completely rebuilt. Even though there was noticeably less damage than in the 1976 earthquakes, in some settlements more than 80% of the houses were damaged. The same area was hit by another earthquake on 12 July 2004, which damaged nearly 2,000 structures, including some that had already been repaired after the 1998 earthquake. More than three decades after the 1976 earthquakes, a qualitative study was carried out on public participation in rebuilding after these earthquakes and public influence on the success of rebuilding. The research is based on studies of cases of individual settlements in Italy and Slovenia, where in-depth interviews were conducted with relevant persons that had been directly involved in the post-earthquake rebuilding efforts. This article highlights six case studies ranked on Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation. Examples from Italy include Venzone, Portis, and Resia for the 1976 earthquakes, and examples from Slovenia include Breginj for the 1976 earthquakes, Drežni\\vske Ravne for the 1998 earthquake, and Čezsoča for the 1998 and 2004 earthquakes. Alongside various political, legislative, and administrative circumstances, a responsible citizenry was also an important factor. In the case of Venzone, the majority of the residents and stakeholders had a positive influence on the preservation of

  3. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  4. Prototype operational earthquake prediction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1986-01-01

    An objective if the U.S. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 is to introduce into all regions of the country that are subject to large and moderate earthquakes, systems for predicting earthquakes and assessing earthquake risk. In 1985, the USGS developed for the Secretary of the Interior a program for implementation of a prototype operational earthquake prediction system in southern California.

  5. The 2012 Earthquake: AN Abacus of Surveys and Interventions in Mantua Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fregonese, L.; Campera, A.; Scala, B.; Adami, A.

    2017-05-01

    building to resist the seismic stress because badly maintained. These two possibilities conditioned the repair choices applied on the churches. The interventions regard different techniques which were optimized not only to be applied on buildings damaged by the earthquake but also on those that gradually show the necessity of accommodation measures. It is important, in order not to miss the operational experience gained in these years, to maximize the economic resources deployed by focusing the results achieved and verify if the followed path has been consistent and, if not, adjust the direction followed. In summary, the solutions adopted are for example: ties and anchor elements, repair works on vaults with mesh and plaster, repair works on vaults with addiction of lightweight ribs; repair works on cracked vaults with wood, steel wedges and injections of natural hydraulic lime, filling in the gaps of the masonry structure to reduce vulnerabilities.

  6. Using safety inspection data to estimate shaking intensity for the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thywissen, K.; Boatwright, J.

    1998-01-01

    We map the shaking intensity suffered in Los Angeles County during the 17 January 1994, Northridge earthquake using municipal safety inspection data. The intensity is estimated from the number of buildings given red, yellow, or green tags, aggregated by census tract. Census tracts contain from 200 to 4000 residential buildings and have an average area of 6 km2 but are as small as 2 and 1 km2 in the most densely populated areas of the San Fernando Valley and downtown Los Angeles, respectively. In comparison, the zip code areas on which standard MMI intensity estimates are based are six times larger, on average, than the census tracts. We group the buildings by age (before and after 1940 and 1976), by number of housing units (one, two to four, and five or more), and by construction type, and we normalize the tags by the total number of similar buildings in each census tract. We analyze the seven most abundant building categories. The fragilities (the fraction of buildings in each category tagged within each intensity level) for these seven building categories are adjusted so that the intensity estimates agree. We calibrate the shaking intensity to correspond with the modified Mercalli intensities (MMI) estimated and compiled by Dewey et al. (1995); the shapes of the resulting isoseismals are similar, although we underestimate the extent of the MMI = 6 and 7 areas. The fragility varies significantly between different building categories (by factors of 10 to 20) and building ages (by factors of 2 to 6). The post-1940 wood-frame multi-family (???5 units) dwellings make up the most fragile building category, and the post-1940 wood-frame single-family dwellings make up the most resistant building category.

  7. Protecting Your Family From Earthquakes-The Seven Steps to Earthquake Safety (in Spanish and English)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Developed by American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    This book is provided here to share an important message on emergency preparedness. Historically, we have suffered earthquakes here in the San Francisco Bay Area that have caused severe hardship for residents and incredible damage to our cities. It is likely we will experience a severe earthquake within the next 30 years. Many of us come from other countries where we have experienced earth- quakes, so we believe that we understand them. However, the way we prepare for earthquakes in our home country may be different from the way it is necessary to prepare for earthquakes here. Very f w people die from collapsing buildings in the Bay Area because most structures are built to stand up to the shaking. But it is quite possible that your family will be without medical care or grocery stores and separated from one another for several days to weeks. It will ultimately be up to you to keep your family safe until help arrives, so we are asking you to join us in learning to take care of your family before, during, and after an earthquake. The first step is to read this book. Everyone in your family, children and adults, can learn how to prepare for an earthquake. Then take advantage of the American Red Cross Earthquake Preparedness training courses offered in your community. These preparedness courses are free, and also offered in Spanish and available to everyone in the community regardless of family history, leg al status, gender, or age. We encourage you to take one of these free training workshops. Look on the back cover for more information. Remember that an earthquake can occur without warning, and the only way that we can reduce the harm caused by earthquakes is to be prepared. Get Prepared!

  8. Earthquakes in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Plafker, George

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake risk is high in much of the southern half of Alaska, but it is not the same everywhere. This map shows the overall geologic setting in Alaska that produces earthquakes. The Pacific plate (darker blue) is sliding northwestward past southeastern Alaska and then dives beneath the North American plate (light blue, green, and brown) in southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Most earthquakes are produced where these two plates come into contact and slide past each other. Major earthquakes also occur throughout much of interior Alaska as a result of collision of a piece of crust with the southern margin.

  9. Earthquakes, November-December 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Other parts of the world suffered fatalities and significant damage from earthquakes. In Iran, an earthquake killed one person, injured many, and destroyed a number of homes. Earthquake fatalities also occurred in the Azores and in Algeria. 

  10. Earthquakes, Accounting Theory and the Art of Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosslamber, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday, 22 February was the second day of the University of Canterbury (UC) in Christchurch, New Zealand 2011 academic year and the author was preparing lectures for Accounting Theory (ACCT311) in his sixth-floor office of the Commerce building when a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck. Although no university buildings collapsed, it soon became…

  11. Don't forget about the Christchurch earthquake: Lessons learned from this disaster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating magnitude-9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck the Tohoku region of Japan on March 11, attention quickly turned away from a much smaller, but also highly destructive earthquake that struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, just a few weeks earlier, on Feb. 22. Both events are stark reminders of human vulnerability to natural disasters and provide a harsh reality check: Even technologically advanced countries with modern building codes are not immune from earthquake disasters. The Christchurch earthquake carried an additional message: Urban devastation can be triggered even by moderate-sized earthquakes.

  12. Shear-lag effect and its effect on the design of high-rise buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Dat, Bui; Traykov, Alexander; Traykova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    For super high-rise buildings, the analysis and selection of suitable structural solutions are very important. The structure has not only to carry the gravity loads (self-weight, live load, etc.), but also to resist lateral loads (wind and earthquake loads). As the buildings become taller, the demand on different structural systems dramatically increases. The article considers the division of the structural systems of tall buildings into two main categories - interior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located within the interior of the building, and exterior structures for which the major part of the lateral load resisting system is located at the building perimeter. The basic types of each of the main structural categories are described. In particular, the framed tube structures, which belong to the second main category of exterior structures, seem to be very efficient. That type of structure system allows tall buildings resist the lateral loads. However, those tube systems are affected by shear lag effect - a nonlinear distribution of stresses across the sides of the section, which is commonly found in box girders under lateral loads. Based on a numerical example, some general conclusions for the influence of the shear-lag effect on frequencies, periods, distribution and variation of the magnitude of the internal forces in the structure are presented.

  13. Seismic performance of low-rise wood buildings

    Treesearch

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert H. Falk

    1992-01-01

    This article updates a previous literature review paper on the performance of woodframe buildings during earthquakes and summarizes recent research related to understanding seismic behavior of low-rise wood buildings.

  14. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  15. Combining indoors thermo-hygric survey, thermal imaging and Electrical Resistivity Tomography through GIS for the characterization of moisture in historic buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Garcia-Morales, Soledad; Lopez-Gonzalez, Laura; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the combination, through a GIS, of environmental indoors thermo-hygric parameters and Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the hermit of "Humilladero", a small historic building in the city of Avila (Spain). The Hermit of "humilladero" was built 1548 - 1550 and it underwent several refurbishment works throughout its history until the present day. The hermit is formed by two rooms and a basement: The hermit per se, a sacristy which was added at a later stage towards the east of the hermit and the basement excavated under the sacristy in 1990. The south wall is nowadays half buried by the adjacent street pavement and a staircase attached to the east wall. The walls are built with granite ashlars and the whole building displays severe moisture-related damage, including granular disaggregation of mortars and some ashlars. The most affected areas are the ones buried under the street towards the south and the staircase towards the east where liquid water appears from time to time due to infiltrations through the ground. A mesh of thermo-hygric measurements of the indoors environment of the hermit was carried out to detect the humidity focal points, in addition to Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Infrared thermography on the walls. All these data was uploaded to a GIS (ArcGIS) together with a photogrammetric model of the decayed areas. The combination of the information in the GIS improved decay maps and allowed a better diagnosis of the building moisture distribution and causes. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914 and CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the equipment from RedLAbPAt Network

  16. Deviant Earthquakes: Data-driven Constraints on the Variability in Earthquake Source Properties and Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, Daniel Taylor

    southern California seismicity. Chapter 6 builds upon these results and applies the same spectral decomposition technique to examine the source properties of several thousand recent earthquakes in southern Kansas that are likely human-induced by massive oil and gas operations in the region. Chapter 7 studies the connection between source spectral properties and earthquake hazard, focusing on spatial variations in dynamic stress drop and its influence on ground motion amplitudes. Finally, Chapter 8 provides a summary of the key findings of and relations between these studies, and outlines potential avenues of future research.

  17. Building the Dream: Transformational Resistance, Community-Based Organizations, and the Civic Engagement of Latinos in the New South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrone, Eleanor A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how a group of Latino youth living in the Southeast experienced, adapted to, and resisted oppressive social structures within their community through their involvement with youth media. Through the content analysis of a teen radio show produced by and for Latino youth, in conjunction with semistructured interviews and…

  18. Impact of earthquake-induced tsunamis on public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis are caused by rapid sea floor displacement during earthquakes, landslides and large explosive eruptions in marine environment setting. Massive amounts of sea water in the form of devastating surface waves travelling hundreds of kilometers per hour have the potential to cause extensive damage to coastal infrastructures, considerable loss of life and injury and emergence of infectious diseases (ID). This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 50 research publications related to public health impact of the three most devastating tsunamis of the last 12 years induced by great earthquakes, namely the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (moment magnitude Mw 9.2), the 2009 Samoa earthquake (Mw 8.1) and the 2011 Tōhoku (Japan) earthquake (Mw 9.0) in the Indian, Western Pacific and South Pacific Oceans respectively. The inclusion criteria were literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, natural disaster type including tsunamis induced only by earthquakes, population type including humans, and outcome measure characterized by disease incidence increase. The potential post-tsunami ID are classified into 11 groups including respiratory, pulmonary, wound-related, water-borne, skin, vector-borne, eye, fecal-oral, food-borne, fungal and mite-borne ID. Respiratory infections were detected after all the above mentioned tsunamis. Wound-related, skin and water-borne ID were observed after the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis, while vector-borne, fecal-oral and eye ID were observed only after the 2004 tsunami and pulmonary, food-borne and mite-borne ID were diagnosed only after the 2011 tsunami. Based on available age and genre data, it is concluded that the most vulnerable population groups are males, children (age ≤ 15 years) and adults (age ≥ 65 years). Tetanus and pneumonia are the deadliest post-tsunami ID. The detected risk factors include (1) lowest socioeconomic conditions, poorly constructed buildings and lack of prevention

  19. Earthquake Loading Assessment to Evaluate Liquefaction Potential in Emilia-Romagna Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Marcellini, A.; Tento, A.

    2016-12-01

    The May-June 2012 seismic sequence that struck Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna consisted of seven main events of magnitude greater than 5 followed by numerous aftershocks. The strongest earthquakes occurred on May 20 (M=5.9) and May 29 (M=5.8). The widespread soil liquefaction, unexpected because of the moderate magnitude of the events, pushed the local authorities to issue research projects aimed to define the earthquake loading to evaluate the liquefaction safety factor. The reasons explained below led us to adopt a deterministic hazard approach to evaluate the seismic parameters relevant to liquefaction assessment, despite the fact that the Italian Seismic Building Code (NTC08) is based on probabilistic hazard analysis. For urban planning and building design geologists generally adopt the CRR/CSR technique to assess liquefaction potential; therefore we considered PGA and a design magnitude to be representative of the seismic loading. The procedure adopted consists: a) identification of seismic source zones and characterization of each zone by the maximum magnitude; b) evaluation of the source to site distance and c) adoption of a suitable attenuation law to compute the expected PGA at the site, given the site condition and the design magnitude. The design magnitude can be: the maximum magnitude; the magnitude that causes the largest PGA, or both. The PGA values obtained are larger with respect to the 474 years return period PGA prescribed by NTC08 for the seismic design for ordinary buildings. We conducted a CPTU resistance test intended to define the CRR at the village of Cavezzo, situated in the epicentral area of the 2012 earthquake. The CRR/CSR ratio led to an elevated liquefaction risk at the analysed site. On the contrary the adoption of the 474 years return period PGA of the NTCO8 prescribed for Cavezzo site led to a negligible liquefaction risk. Note that very close to the investigated site several liquefaction phenomena were observed.

  20. Earthquake Loading Assessment to Evaluate Liquefaction Potential in Emilia-Romagna Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The May-June 2012 seismic sequence that struck Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna consisted of seven main events of magnitude greater than 5 followed by numerous aftershocks. The strongest earthquakes occurred on May 20 (M=5.9) and May 29 (M=5.8). The widespread soil liquefaction, unexpected because of the moderate magnitude of the events, pushed the local authorities to issue research projects aimed to define the earthquake loading to evaluate the liquefaction safety factor. The reasons explained below led us to adopt a deterministic hazard approach to evaluate the seismic parameters relevant to liquefaction assessment, despite the fact that the Italian Seismic Building Code (NTC08) is based on probabilistic hazard analysis. For urban planning and building design geologists generally adopt the CRR/CSR technique to assess liquefaction potential; therefore we considered PGA and a design magnitude to be representative of the seismic loading. The procedure adopted consists: a) identification of seismic source zones and characterization of each zone by the maximum magnitude; b) evaluation of the source to site distance and c) adoption of a suitable attenuation law to compute the expected PGA at the site, given the site condition and the design magnitude. The design magnitude can be: the maximum magnitude; the magnitude that causes the largest PGA, or both. The PGA values obtained are larger with respect to the 474 years return period PGA prescribed by NTC08 for the seismic design for ordinary buildings. We conducted a CPTU resistance test intended to define the CRR at the village of Cavezzo, situated in the epicentral area of the 2012 earthquake. The CRR/CSR ratio led to an elevated liquefaction risk at the analysed site. On the contrary the adoption of the 474 years return period PGA of the NTCO8 prescribed for Cavezzo site led to a negligible liquefaction risk. Note that very close to the investigated site several liquefaction phenomena were observed.

  1. Quantification of social contributions to earthquake mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, I. G.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; McCloskey, J.; Pelling, M.; Naylor, M.

    2013-12-01

    Death tolls in earthquakes, which continue to grow rapidly, are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as strong shaking, and the resilience of exposed populations and supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. While it is clear that the social context in which the earthquake occurs has a strong effect on the outcome, the influence of this context can only be exposed if we first decouple, as much as we can, the physical causes of mortality from our consideration. (Our modelling assumes that building resilience to shaking is a social factor governed by national wealth, legislation and enforcement and governance leading to reduced levels of corruption.) Here we attempt to remove these causes by statistically modelling published mortality, shaking intensity and population exposure data; unexplained variance from this physical model illuminates the contribution of socio-economic factors to increasing earthquake mortality. We find that this variance partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures and allows the definition of a national vulnerability index identifying both anomalously resilient and anomalously vulnerable countries. In many cases resilience is well correlated with GDP; people in the richest countries are unsurprisingly safe from even the worst shaking. However some low-GDP countries rival even the richest in resilience, showing that relatively low cost interventions can have a positive impact on earthquake resilience and that social learning between these countries might facilitate resilience building in the absence of expensive engineering interventions.

  2. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  3. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    /7/8/IRRE9/10/RSH3+RWO211/FW12/13/ which can be read as (1) Direction = [DX or DY] (the building has the same lateral load-resisting system in both directions); (2) Material = [Unreinforced Masonry + solid fired clay bricks + cement: lime mortar]; (3) Lateral Load-Resisting System = [Wall]; (4) Date of construction = [pre-1939]; (5) Heaight = [exactly 2 storeys]; (6) Occupancy = [residential, unknown type]; (7) Building Position = [unknown = no entry]; (8) Shape of building plan = [unknown = no entry]; (9) Structural irregularity = [regular]; (10) Exterior walls = [unknown = no entry]; (11) Roof = [Shape: pitched and hipped, Roof covering: clay tiles, Roof system material: wood, Roof system type: wood trusses]; (12) Floor = [Floor system: Wood, unknown]; (13) Foundation = [unknown = no entry]. Mapping of GEM Building Taxonomy to selected taxonomies is included in the report -- for example, the above building would be referenced by previous structural taxonomies as: PAGER-STR as UFB or UFB4, by the World Housing Encyclopedia as 7 or 8 and by the European Macroseismic Scale (98) as M5. The Building Taxonomy data model is highly flexible and has been incorporated within a relational database architecture. Due to its ability to represent building typologies using a shorthand form, it is also possible to use the taxonomy for non-database applications, and we discuss possible application of adaptation for Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems, and for the insurance industry. The GEM Building Taxonomy was independently evaluated and tested by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), which received 217 TaxT reports from 49 countries, representing a wide range of building typologies, including single and multi-storey buildings, reinforced and unreinforced masonry, confined masonry, concrete, steel, wood, and earthern buildings used for residential, commercial, industrial, and educational occupancy. Based on these submissions and other feedback, the EERI

  4. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  5. Two examples of earthquake- hazard reduction in southern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, W.J.; Campbell, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Because California is seismically active, planners and decisionmakers must try to anticipate earthquake hazards there and, where possible, to reduce the hazards. Geologic and seismologic information provides the basis for the necessary plans and actions. Two examples of how such information is used are presented. The first involves assessing the impact of a major earthquake on critical facilities in southern California, and the second involves strengthening or removing unsafe masonry buildings in the Los Angeles area. -from Authors

  6. Shock Absorbers Save Structures and Lives during Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    With NASA funding, North Tonawanda, New York-based Taylor Devices Inc. developed fluidic shock absorbers to safely remove the fuel and electrical connectors from the space shuttles during launch. The company is now employing the technology as seismic dampers to protect structures from earthquakes. To date, 550 buildings and bridges have the dampers, and not a single one has suffered damage in the wake of an earthquake.

  7. Study on Earthquake Emergency Evacuation Drill Trainer Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChangJiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    With the improvement of China's urbanization, to ensure people survive the earthquake needs scientific routine emergency evacuation drills. Drawing on cellular automaton, shortest path algorithm and collision avoidance, we designed a model of earthquake emergency evacuation drill for school scenes. Based on this model, we made simulation software for earthquake emergency evacuation drill. The software is able to perform the simulation of earthquake emergency evacuation drill by building spatial structural model and selecting the information of people's location grounds on actual conditions of constructions. Based on the data of simulation, we can operate drilling in the same building. RFID technology could be used here for drill data collection which read personal information and send it to the evacuation simulation software via WIFI. Then the simulation software would contrast simulative data with the information of actual evacuation process, such as evacuation time, evacuation path, congestion nodes and so on. In the end, it would provide a contrastive analysis report to report assessment result and optimum proposal. We hope the earthquake emergency evacuation drill software and trainer can provide overall process disposal concept for earthquake emergency evacuation drill in assembly occupancies. The trainer can make the earthquake emergency evacuation more orderly, efficient, reasonable and scientific to fulfill the increase in coping capacity of urban hazard.

  8. Analysis of the Earthquake Impact towards water-based fire extinguishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Hur, M.; Lee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, extinguishing system installed in the building when the earthquake occurred at a separate performance requirements. Before the building collapsed during the earthquake, as a function to maintain a fire extinguishing. In particular, the automatic sprinkler fire extinguishing equipment, such as after a massive earthquake without damage to piping also must maintain confidentiality. In this study, an experiment installed in the building during the earthquake, the water-based fire extinguishing saw grasp the impact of the pipe. Experimental structures for water-based fire extinguishing seismic construction step by step, and then applied to the seismic experiment, the building appears in the extinguishing of the earthquake response of the pipe was measured. Construction of acceleration caused by vibration being added to the size and the size of the displacement is measured and compared with the data response of the pipe from the table, thereby extinguishing water piping need to enhance the seismic analysis. Define the seismic design category (SDC) for the four groups in the building structure with seismic criteria (KBC2009) designed according to the importance of the group and earthquake seismic intensity. The event of a real earthquake seismic analysis of Category A and Category B for the seismic design of buildings, the current fire-fighting facilities could have also determined that the seismic performance. In the case of seismic design categories C and D are installed in buildings to preserve the function of extinguishing the required level of seismic retrofit design is determined.

  9. Human casualties in earthquakes: Modelling and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  10. Chilean megathrust earthquake recurrence linked to frictional contrast at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M.; Li, S.; Melnick, D.; Bedford, J. R.; Baez, J. C.; Motagh, M.; Metzger, S.; Vajedian, S.; Sippl, C.; Gutknecht, B. D.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Deng, Z.; Tassara, A.; Oncken, O.

    2018-04-01

    Fundamental processes of the seismic cycle in subduction zones, including those controlling the recurrence and size of great earthquakes, are still poorly understood. Here, by studying the 2016 earthquake in southern Chile—the first large event within the rupture zone of the 1960 earthquake (moment magnitude (Mw) = 9.5)—we show that the frictional zonation of the plate interface fault at depth mechanically controls the timing of more frequent, moderate-size deep events (Mw < 8) and less frequent, tsunamigenic great shallow earthquakes (Mw > 8.5). We model the evolution of stress build-up for a seismogenic zone with heterogeneous friction to examine the link between the 2016 and 1960 earthquakes. Our results suggest that the deeper segments of the seismogenic megathrust are weaker and interseismically loaded by a more strongly coupled, shallower asperity. Deeper segments fail earlier ( 60 yr recurrence), producing moderate-size events that precede the failure of the shallower region, which fails in a great earthquake (recurrence >110 yr). We interpret the contrasting frictional strength and lag time between deeper and shallower earthquakes to be controlled by variations in pore fluid pressure. Our integrated analysis strengthens understanding of the mechanics and timing of great megathrust earthquakes, and therefore could aid in the seismic hazard assessment of other subduction zones.

  11. Simulating Earthquake Early Warning Systems in the Classroom as a New Approach to Teaching Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    . The culminating activity is for students to "design" an early warning system that will protect their school from nearby earthquakes. The better they design the system, the safer they will be. Each team of students receives a map of faults in the area and possible sites for real-time seismometer installation. Given a fixed budget, they must select the best sites for detecting a likely earthquake. After selecting their locations, teams face-off two-by-two in a tournament of simulated earthquakes. We created animations of a few simulated earthquakes for our institution and have plans to build a web-based version that will allow others to customize the location to their own location and facilitate the competition between teams. Earthquake early warning is both cutting-edge and has huge societal benefits. Instead of teaching our students how to locate epicenters after an earthquake has occurred, we can teach the same content standards while showing them that earthquake science can really save lives.

  12. Earthquakes; January-February 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In the United States, a number of earthquakes occurred, but only minor damage was reported. Arkansas experienced a swarm of earthquakes beginning on January 12. Canada experienced one of its strongest earthquakes in a number of years on January 9; this earthquake caused slight damage in Maine. 

  13. Earthquakes; July-August, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Earthquake activity during this period was about normal. Deaths from earthquakes were reported from Greece and Guatemala. Three major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) occurred in Taiwan, Chile, and Costa Rica. In the United States, the most significant earthquake was a magnitude 5.6 on August 13 in southern California. 

  14. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  15. Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): A System for Rapidly Determining the Impact of Earthquakes Worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Allen, Trevor I.; Hearne, Michael G.; Marano, Kristin D.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Fee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Within minutes of a significant earthquake anywhere on the globe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system assesses its potential societal impact. PAGER automatically estimates the number of people exposed to severe ground shaking and the shaking intensity at affected cities. Accompanying maps of the epicentral region show the population distribution and estimated ground-shaking intensity. A regionally specific comment describes the inferred vulnerability of the regional building inventory and, when available, lists recent nearby earthquakes and their effects. PAGER's results are posted on the USGS Earthquake Program Web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/), consolidated in a concise one-page report, and sent in near real-time to emergency responders, government agencies, and the media. Both rapid and accurate results are obtained through manual and automatic updates of PAGER's content in the hours following significant earthquakes. These updates incorporate the most recent estimates of earthquake location, magnitude, faulting geometry, and first-hand accounts of shaking. PAGER relies on a rich set of earthquake analysis and assessment tools operated by the USGS and contributing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks. A focused research effort is underway to extend PAGER's near real-time capabilities beyond population exposure to quantitative estimates of fatalities, injuries, and displaced population.

  16. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  17. Capacity building and predictors of success for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Land, Sally; Zhou, Julian; Cunningham, Philip; Sohn, Annette H; Singtoroj, Thida; Katzenstein, David; Mann, Marita; Sayer, David; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Background The TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) was developed as a quality assessment programme through expert education and training, for laboratories in the Asia-Pacific and Africa that perform HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. We evaluated the programme performance and factors associated with high-quality HIVDR genotyping. Methods Laboratories used their standard protocols to test panels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive plasma samples or electropherograms. Protocols were documented and performance was evaluated according to a newly developed scoring system, agreement with panel-specific consensus sequence, and detection of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) and mixtures of wild-type and resistant virus (mixtures). High-quality performance was defined as detection of ≥95% DRMs. Results Over 4.5 years, 23 participating laboratories in 13 countries tested 45 samples (30 HIV-1 subtype B; 15 non-B subtypes) in nine panels. Median detection of DRMs was 88–98% in plasma panels and 90–97% in electropherogram panels. Laboratories were supported to amend and improve their test outcomes as appropriate. Three laboratories that detected <80% DRMs in early panels demonstrated subsequent improvement. Sample complexity factors – number of DRMs (p<0.001) and number of DRMs as mixtures (p<0.001); and laboratory performance factors – detection of mixtures (p<0.001) and agreement with consensus sequence (p<0.001), were associated with high performance; sample format (plasma or electropherogram), subtype and genotyping protocol were not. Conclusion High-quality HIVDR genotyping was achieved in the TAQAS collaborative laboratory network. Sample complexity and detection of mixtures were associated with performance quality. Laboratories conducting HIVDR genotyping are encouraged to participate in quality assessment programmes. PMID:23845227

  18. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  19. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  20. Source time function properties indicate a strain drop independent of earthquake depth and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The movement of tectonic plates leads to strain build-up in the Earth, which can be released during earthquakes when one side of a seismic fault suddenly slips with respect to the other. The amount of seismic strain release (or 'strain drop') is thus a direct measurement of a basic earthquake property, that is, the ratio of seismic slip over the dimension of the ruptured fault. Here the analysis of a new global catalogue, containing ~1,700 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 6, suggests that strain drop is independent of earthquake depth and magnitude. This invariance implies that deep earthquakes are even more similar to their shallow counterparts than previously thought, a puzzling finding as shallow and deep earthquakes are believed to originate from different physical mechanisms. More practically, this property contributes to our ability to predict the damaging waves generated by future earthquakes.

  1. A quick earthquake disaster loss assessment method supported by dasymetric data for emergency response in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghai; An, Jiwen; Nie, Gaozong

    2016-04-01

    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of the key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has several stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding damage probability matrices, calculating building damage and calculating human losses. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of losses from the pre-calculated estimation data. Thus, the final loss estimation results are obtained. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significantly improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation but also provides the spatial distribution of the losses, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes occur. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  2. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  3. Plasma-chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes to create frost-resistant composite building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. P.; Smirnyagina, N. N.; Tsyrenov, B. O.; Dasheev, D. E.; Khaltarov, Z. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers a method of synthesis fullerenes and carbon nanotubes at atmospheric pressure. Carbon evaporates into the plasma arc. The paper discusses the method of synthesis of helium at a pressure of 105 Pa. We show the dependence yield of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes from the buffer gas pressure. It has been found that the fullerene yield increased with increasing pressure. The obtained fullerenes and nanotubes find their application in the modification of construction materials. The use of carbon nanomodifiers in the modification of the construction is promising since their introduction significantly improves the physico-mechanical properties using a small quantity of additives. With the introduction of the carbon nanomodifier decrease the porosity of cement stone, which leads to high strength and frost-resistant indicators of the modified cement.

  4. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  5. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  6. A stochastic risk assessment for Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Toro, Joaquin; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Simpson, Alanna; Saito, Keiko; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    This systematic assessment of earthquake risk for 33 countries in the ECA region was motivated by the interest of the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) in supporting Disaster Risk Management (DRM) efforts. They envisaged an exposure-based analysis that looked at the potential economic and/or social exposure of the populations of various countries to earthquake risk. Using a stochastic earthquake hazard model and historical catalogues, a unified earthquake catalogue was created for the 33 countries. A combined fault and background source model was created using data from many authors. The maximum magnitude and seismotectonic source zone discretization was undertaken using logic tree approaches. Site effects were taken into account on the basis of local topography and tectonic regime. Two approaches were used to calculate local ground motion - intensity prediction equations for MMI and a combination of GMPEs for stable and active settings. A 1km grid was used for analysis with aggregations of exposure quantified in terms of GDP and capital stock using disaggregated provincial analysis from CATDAT, as well as population data from Deltares. Vulnerability functions were calculated using socio-economic empirical functions derived by Daniell (2014) for the countries taking into account historical losses, seismic resistant code implementation and building typologies in each country. PML curves were created for each province in the 33 nations, through 3 methods; the 1st using direct historical values via the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database; the 2nd using normalization procedures in order to provide a quick estimate of the historical record quantified in today's terms filling in gaps; and the 3rd being a traditional stochastic modelling approach over a period of 10,000 years taking all uncertainties into account. SSP projections of growth from the OECD were used to quantify the risk in 2010, 2030 and 2080 in order to examine

  7. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Performance of the Built Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Professional Paper 1552 focuses on the response of buildings, lifelines, highway systems, and earth structures to the earthquake. Losses to these systems totaled approximated $5.9 billion. The earthquake displaced many residents from their homes and severely disrupted transportation systems. Some significant findings were: * Approximately 16,000 housing units were uninhabitable after the earthquake including 13,000 in the San Francisco Bay region. Another 30,000-35,000 units were moderately damaged in the earthquake. Renters and low-income residents were particularly hard hit. * Failure of highway systems was the single largest cause of loss of life during the earthquake. Forty-two of the 63 earthquake fatalities died when the Cypress Viaduct in Oakland collapsed. The cost to repair and replace highways damaged by the earthquake was $2 billion, about half of which was to replace the Cypress Viaduct. * Major bridge failures were the result of antiquated designs and inadequate anticipation of seismic loading. * Twenty one kilometers (13 mi) of gas-distribution lines had to be replaced in several communities and more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections had to be excavated and repaired. At least 5 electrical substations were badly damaged, overwhelming the designed redundancy of the electrical system. * Instruments in 28 buildings recorded their response to earthquake shaking that provided opportunities to understand how different types of buildings responded, the importance of site amplification, and how buildings interact with their foundation when shaken (soil structure interaction).

  8. Support Needs of the Survivors of the August 17, 1999 Earthquake in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ecevit, Yildiz; Ecevit, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to present a sociological analysis of social support related to disaster sociology in general and earthquakes specifically. The analysis is based on field research conducted a year after the 17 August 1999 East Marmara earthquake where 18,000 people died; 50,000 people injured; 5000 buildings collapsed and 340,000 of them damaged;…

  9. The Global Earthquake Model - Past, Present, Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Anselm; Schneider, John; Stein, Ross

    2014-05-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a unique collaborative effort that aims to provide organizations and individuals with tools and resources for transparent assessment of earthquake risk anywhere in the world. By pooling data, knowledge and people, GEM acts as an international forum for collaboration and exchange. Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe are key to assessing risk more effectively. Through consortium driven global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are developing unique global datasets, best practice, open tools and models for seismic hazard and risk assessment. The year 2013 has seen the completion of ten global data sets or components addressing various aspects of earthquake hazard and risk, as well as two GEM-related, but independently managed regional projects SHARE and EMME. Notably, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) led the development of a new ISC-GEM global instrumental earthquake catalogue, which was made publicly available in early 2013. It has set a new standard for global earthquake catalogues and has found widespread acceptance and application in the global earthquake community. By the end of 2014, GEM's OpenQuake computational platform will provide the OpenQuake hazard/risk assessment software and integrate all GEM data and information products. The public release of OpenQuake is planned for the end of this 2014, and will comprise the following datasets and models: • ISC-GEM Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (released January 2013) • Global Earthquake History Catalogue [1000-1903] • Global Geodetic Strain Rate Database and Model • Global Active Fault Database • Tectonic Regionalisation Model • Global Exposure Database • Buildings and Population Database • Earthquake Consequences Database • Physical Vulnerabilities Database • Socio-Economic Vulnerability and Resilience Indicators • Seismic

  10. The 2007 Mentawai earthquake sequence on the Sumatra megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konca, A.; Avouac, J.; Sladen, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Kositsky, A. P.; Sieh, K.; Fang, P.; Li, Z.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J.; Chlieh, M.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Bock, Y.; Fielding, E. J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9.15, Aceh earthquake of 2004. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array (SuGAr), which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements. The most recent of these major earthquakes, an Mw 8.4 earthquake and an Mw 7.9 earthquake twelve hours later, occurred in the Mentawai islands area where devastating historical earthquakes had happened in 1797 and 1833. The 2007 earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the variability of the earthquakes along megathrusts and their relation to interseismic coupling. The InSAR, GPS and teleseismic modeling shows that 2007 earthquakes ruptured a fraction of the strongly coupled Mentawai patch of the megathrust, which is also only a fraction of the 1833 rupture area. It also released a much smaller moment than the one released in 1833, or than the deficit of moment that has accumulated since. Both earthquakes of 2007 consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to 100 km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8.4 and southern slip patch of 7.9 earthquakes abut each other, but they ruptured 12 hours apart. Sunda megathrust earthquakes of recent years include a rupture of a strongly coupled patch that closely mimics a prior rupture of that patch and which is well correlated with the interseismic coupling pattern (Nias-Simeulue section), as well as a rupture sequence of a strongly coupled patch that differs substantially in the details from its most recent predecessors (Mentawai section). We conclude that (1) seismic asperities are probably persistent features which arise form heterogeneous strain build up in the interseismic period; and (2) the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different ways depending on whether asperities break as isolated events or cooperate to produce

  11. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-06-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM) intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  12. Improving the seismic torsional behavior of plan-asymmetric, single-storey, concrete moment resisting buildings with fluid viscous dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofooei, Fayaz Rahimzadeh; Mohammadzadeh, Sahar

    2016-03-01

    The optimal distribution of fluid viscous dampers (FVD) in controlling the seismic response of eccentric, single-storey, moment resisting concrete structures is investigated using the previously defined center of damping constant (CDC). For this purpose, a number of structural models with different one-way stiffness and strength eccentricities are considered. Extensive nonlinear time history analyses are carried out for various arrangements of FVDs. It is shown that the arrangement of FVDs for controlling the torsional behavior due to asymmetry in the concrete structures is very dependent on the intensity of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the extent of the structural stiffness and strength eccentricities. The results indicate that, in the linear range of structural behavior the stiffness eccentricity es which is the main parameter in determining the location of optimal CDC, is found to be less or smaller than the optimal damping constant eccentricity e*d, i.e., |e*d| > |es|. But, in the nonlinear range of structural behavior where the strength eccentricity er is the dominant factor in determining the location of optimal CDC, |e*d| > |er|. It is also concluded that for the majority of the plan-asymmetric, concrete structures considered in this study with er ≠ 0, the optimal CDC approaches the center of mass as er decreases.

  13. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) answers the need for an openly accessible risk management tool. GEM is an internationally sanctioned public private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which will establish an authoritative standard for calculating and communicating earthquake hazard and risk, and will be designed to serve as the critical instrument to support decisions and actions that reduce earthquake losses worldwide. GEM will integrate developments on the forefront of scientific and engineering knowledge of earthquakes, at global, regional and local scale. The work is organized in three modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic impact. The hazard module calculates probabilities of earthquake occurrence and resulting shaking at any given location. The risk module calculates fatalities, injuries, and damage based on expected shaking, building vulnerability, and the distribution of population and of exposed values and facilities. The socio-economic impact module delivers tools for making educated decisions to mitigate and manage risk. GEM will be a versatile online tool, with open source code and a map-based graphical interface. The underlying data will be open wherever possible, and its modular input and output will be adapted to multiple user groups: scientists and engineers, risk managers and decision makers in the public and private sectors, and the public-at- large. GEM will be the first global model for seismic risk assessment at a national and regional scale, and aims to achieve broad scientific participation and independence. Its development will occur in a

  14. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  15. Nowcasting Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The term "nowcasting" refers to the estimation of the current uncertain state of a dynamical system, whereas "forecasting" is a calculation of probabilities of future state(s). Nowcasting is a term that originated in economics and finance, referring to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or market indicators such as GDP at the current time by indirect means. We have applied this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of a system of faults, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EA000185/full). Advantages of our nowcasting method over forecasting models include: 1) Nowcasting is simply data analysis and does not involve a model having parameters that must be fit to data; 2) We use only earthquake catalog data which generally has known errors and characteristics; and 3) We use area-based analysis rather than fault-based analysis, meaning that the methods work equally well on land and in subduction zones. To use the nowcast method to estimate how far the fault system has progressed through the "cycle" of large recurring earthquakes, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. We select a "small" region in which the nowcast is to be made, and compute the statistics of a much larger region around the small region. The statistics of the large region are then applied to the small region. For an application, we can define a small region around major global cities, for example a "small" circle of radius 150 km and a depth of 100 km, as well as a "large" earthquake magnitude, for example M6.0. The region of influence of such earthquakes is roughly 150 km radius x 100 km depth, which is the reason these values were selected. We can then compute and rank the seismic risk of the world's major cities in terms of their relative seismic risk

  16. a Collaborative Cyberinfrastructure for Earthquake Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Lefebvre, S.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the challenges in real time seismology is the prediction of earthquake's impact. It is particularly true for moderate earthquake (around magnitude 6) located close to urbanised areas, where the slightest uncertainty in event location, depth, magnitude estimates, and/or misevaluation of propagation characteristics, site effects and buildings vulnerability can dramatically change impact scenario. The Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) has developed a cyberinfrastructure to collect observations from eyewitnesses in order to provide in-situ constraints on actual damages. This cyberinfrastructure takes benefit of the natural convergence of earthquake's eyewitnesses on EMSC website (www.emsc-csem.org), the second global earthquake information website within tens of seconds of the occurrence of a felt event. It includes classical crowdsourcing tools such as online questionnaires available in 39 languages, and tools to collect geolocated pics. It also comprises information derived from the real time analysis of the traffic on EMSC website, a method named flashsourcing; In case of a felt earthquake, eyewitnesses reach EMSC website within tens of seconds to find out the cause of the shaking they have just been through. By analysing their geographical origin through their IP address, we automatically detect felt earthquakes and in some cases map the damaged areas through the loss of Internet visitors. We recently implemented a Quake Catcher Network (QCN) server in collaboration with Stanford University and the USGS, to collect ground motion records performed by volunteers and are also involved in a project to detect earthquakes from ground motions sensors from smartphones. Strategies have been developed for several social media (Facebook, Twitter...) not only to distribute earthquake information, but also to engage with the Citizens and optimise data collection. A smartphone application is currently under development. We will present an overview of this

  17. Earthquake Safety Tips in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, M. O.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Marques, G.; Gonçalves, M.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The catastrophes induced by earthquakes are among the most devastating ones, causing an elevated number of human losses and economic damages. But, we have to keep in mind that earthquakes don't kill people, buildings do. Earthquakes can't be predicted and the only way of dealing with their effects is to teach the society how to be prepared for them, and how to deal with their consequences. In spite of being exposed to moderate and large earthquakes, most of the Portuguese are little aware of seismic risk, mainly due to the long recurrence intervals between strong events. The acquisition of safe and correct attitudes before, during and after an earthquake is relevant for human security. Children play a determinant role in the establishment of a real and long-lasting "culture of prevention", both through action and new attitudes. On the other hand, when children assume correct behaviors, their relatives often change their incorrect behaviors to mimic the correct behaviors of their kids. In the framework of a Parents-in-Science initiative, we started with bi-monthly sessions for children aged 5 - 6 years old and 9 - 10 years old. These sessions, in which parents, teachers and high-school students participate, became part of the school's permanent activities. We start by a short introduction to the Earth and to earthquakes by story telling and by using simple science activities to trigger children curiosity. With safety purposes, we focus on how crucial it is to know basic information about themselves and to define, with their families, an emergency communications plan, in case family members are separated. Using a shaking table we teach them how to protect themselves during an earthquake. We then finish with the preparation on an individual emergency kit. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging preventive actions in order to reduce the impact of earthquakes on society. This project is developed by science high-school students and teachers, in

  18. Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.

    PubMed

    Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

    2008-02-22

    Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions.

  19. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California (ver. 2.0, January 2018)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-06-30

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and also for preparing emergency response plans.The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault Zone to the east of the study area.In this report, an earthquake scenario is intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. A scenario earthquake is not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquake possible on a recognized fault. Rather it is both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider it in regional emergency response plans. In particular, the ground motion predicted for a given scenario earthquake does not represent a full probabilistic hazard assessment, and thus it does not provide the basis for hazard zoning and earthquake-resistant building design.Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM). Alternatives

  20. Defining Community Disaster Preparedness as a Resilience Factor for Earthquake Risk Assessment in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungay, B.; Durukal, E.; Kilic, O.; Konukcu, B.; Basmaci, A. E.; Khazai, B.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The natural events such as earthquakes turn out to be disasters as a result of not only the poor conditions of the built area and infrastructure, but also affected by the socioeconomic fragility and lack of resilience of the community exposed. Likewise, resilience factors play role in increasing the ability of people to cope with hazards. Social resilience is the capacity of social groups and communities to recover from, or respond positively to, crises. Emergency management plans must recognize and build on this capacity, and that improved indicators of social resilience should receive priority consideration in the application of these plans. The physical risk factors and their damage assessment have been pointed out in previous earthquake risk assessment and scenario studies conducted by Bogazici University and OYO International. A rational assessment of the risk aggravating factors is essential in order to reach to a more complete coverage of the overall risk. It would also introduce the social factors that need to be reduced or strengthened through public policies and actions in order to increase the resilience of the community. With experience from several social studies conducted under CENDIM, Kandilli Observatory & Earthquake Research Institute's Disaster Preparedness Education Unit, and research of the studies conducted by several other national and international institutions, we are defining the community disaster preparedness as an indicator for resilience. Social resilience is understood to have two important properties: resistance, recovery. Resistance relates to a community's efforts to withstand a disaster and its consequences whereas recovery relates to a community's ability to coming back to its pre-disaster level of "normalcy". Researches also indicate that the need for local-level and community-based approaches is recognized in achieving sustainable hazard risk reduction. We will conceptually discuss the description and assessment of the community

  1. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  2. Earthquakes in Ohio and Vicinity 1776-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Hansen, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Ohio and parts of adjacent States. Ohio has experienced more than 160 felt earthquakes since 1776. Most of these events caused no damage or injuries. However, 15 Ohio earthquakes resulted in property damage and some minor injuries. The largest historic earthquake in the state occurred in 1937. This event had an estimated magnitude of 5.4 and caused considerable damage in the town of Anna and in several other western Ohio communities. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1776 through 2007.

  3. The Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttli, O.W.

    1974-01-01

    Shortly after 2 o'clock on the morning of December 16, 1811, the Mississippi River valley was convulsed by an earthquake so severe that it awakened people in cities as distant as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Norfolk, Virginia. This shock inaugurated what must have been the most frightening sequence of earthquakes ever to occur in the United States. Intermittent strong shaking continued through March 1812 and aftershocks strong enough to be felt occurred through the year 1817. The initial earthquake of December 16 was followed by other principal shocks, one on January 23, 1812, and the other on February 7, 182. Judging from newspaper accounts of damage to buildings, the February 7 earthquake was the biggest of the three. 

  4. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Mooney, W.D.; Afnimar,; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A.I.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2007-01-01

    A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

  5. Earthquake Loss Scenarios: Warnings about the Extent of Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Tolis, S.; Rosset, P.

    2016-12-01

    It is imperative that losses expected due to future earthquakes be estimated. Officials and the public need to be aware of what disaster is likely in store for them in order to reduce the fatalities and efficiently help the injured. Scenarios for earthquake parameters can be constructed to a reasonable accuracy in highly active earthquake belts, based on knowledge of seismotectonics and history. Because of the inherent uncertainties of loss estimates however, it would be desirable that more than one group calculate an estimate for the same area. By discussing these estimates, one may find a consensus of the range of the potential disasters and persuade officials and residents of the reality of the earthquake threat. To model a scenario and estimate earthquake losses requires data sets that are sufficiently accurate of the number of people present, the built environment, and if possible the transmission of seismic waves. As examples we use loss estimates for possible repeats of historic earthquakes in Greece that occurred between -464 and 700. We model future large Greek earthquakes as having M6.8 and rupture lengths of 60 km. In four locations where historic earthquakes with serious losses have occurred, we estimate that 1,000 to 1,500 people might perish, with an additional factor of four people injured. Defining the area of influence of these earthquakes as that with shaking intensities larger and equal to V, we estimate that 1.0 to 2.2 million people in about 2,000 settlements may be affected. We calibrate the QLARM tool for calculating intensities and losses in Greece, using the M6, 1999 Athens earthquake and matching the isoseismal information for six earthquakes, which occurred in Greece during the last 140 years. Comparing fatality numbers that would occur theoretically today with the numbers reported, and correcting for the increase in population, we estimate that the improvement of the building stock has reduced the mortality and injury rate in Greek

  6. Mapping individuals' earthquake preparedness in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guochun; Han, Ziqiang; Xu, Weijin; Gong, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Disaster preparedness is critical for reducing potential impact. This paper contributes to current knowledge of disaster preparedness using representative national sample data from China, which faces high earthquake risks in many areas of the country. The adoption of earthquake preparedness activities by the general public, including five indicators of material preparedness and five indicators of awareness preparedness, were surveyed and 3245 respondents from all 31 provinces of Mainland China participated in the survey. Linear regression models and logit regression models were used to analyze the effects of potential influencing factors. Overall, the preparedness levels are not satisfied, with a material preparation score of 3.02 (1-5), and awareness preparation score of 2.79 (1-5), nationally. Meanwhile, residents from western China, which has higher earthquake risk, have higher degrees of preparedness. The concern for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and the concern for building safety and participation in public affairs are consistent positive predictors of both material and awareness preparedness. The demographic and socioeconomic variables' effects, such as gender, age, education, income, urban/rural division, and building size, vary according to different preparedness activities. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical contribution and potential implementation.

  7. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  8. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  9. Earthquake scenarios based on lessons from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stella; Aleksandrova, Irena; Popova, Iliana

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are the most deadly of the natural disasters affecting the human environment; indeed catastrophic earthquakes have marked the whole human history. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. Additionally, the uncontrolled growth of mega cities in highly seismic areas around the world is often associated with the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, and undertaken with an insufficient knowledge of the regional seismicity peculiarities and seismic hazard. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. The implementation of the earthquake scenarios into the policies for seismic risk reduction will allow focusing on the prevention of earthquake effects rather than on intervention following the disasters. The territory of Bulgaria (situated in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula) represents a typical example of high seismic risk area. Over the centuries, Bulgaria has experienced strong earthquakes. At the beginning of the 20-the century (from 1901 to 1928) five earthquakes with magnitude larger than or equal to MS=7.0 occurred in Bulgaria. However, no such large earthquakes occurred in Bulgaria since 1928, which may induce non-professionals to underestimate the earthquake risk. The 1986 earthquake of magnitude MS=5.7 occurred in the central northern Bulgaria (near the town of Strazhitsa) is the strongest quake after 1928. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. In the present study deterministic scenarios (expressed in seismic intensity) for two Bulgarian cities (Rouse and Plovdiv) are presented. The work on

  10. Automated Radar Image of Deformation for Amatrice, Italy Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-31

    Amatrice earthquake in central Italy, which caused widespread building damage to several towns throughout the region. This earthquake was the strongest in that area since the 2009 earthquake that destroyed the city of L'Aquila. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) data system, a collaborative project between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, automatically generated interferometric synthetic aperture radar images from the Copernicus Sentinel 1A satellite operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the European Commission to calculate a map of the deformation of Earth's surface caused by the quake. This false-color map shows the amount of permanent surface movement, as viewed by the satellite, during a 12-day interval between two Sentinel 1 images acquired on Aug. 15, 2016, and Aug. 27, 2016. The movement was caused almost entirely by the earthquake. In this map, the colors of the surface displacements are proportional to the surface motion. The red and pink tones show the areas where the land moved toward the satellite by up to 2 inches (5 centimeters). The area with various shades of blue moved away from the satellite, mostly downward, by as much as 8 inches (20 centimeters). Contours on the surface motion are 2 inches (5 centimeters) The green star shows the epicenter where the earthquake started as located by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. Black dots show town locations. Scientists use these maps to build detailed models of the fault slip at depth and associated land movements to better understand the impact on future earthquake activity. The map shows the fault or faults that moved in the earthquake is about 14 miles (22 kilometers) long between Amatrice and Norcia and slopes to the west beneath the area that moved downward. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20896

  11. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  12. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    UENISHI, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  13. The HayWired earthquake scenario—Engineering implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2018-04-18

    The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Engineering Implications is the second volume of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5013, which describes the HayWired scenario, developed by USGS and its partners. The scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after a magnitude-7 earthquake (mainshock) on the Hayward Fault and its aftershocks.Analyses in this volume suggest that (1) 800 deaths and 16,000 nonfatal injuries result from shaking alone, plus property and direct business interruption losses of more than $82 billion from shaking, liquefaction, and landslides; (2) the building code is designed to protect lives, but even if all buildings in the region complied with current building codes, 0.4 percent could collapse, 5 percent could be unsafe to occupy, and 19 percent could have restricted use; (3) people expect, prefer, and would be willing to pay for greater resilience of buildings; (4) more than 22,000 people could require extrication from stalled elevators, and more than 2,400 people could require rescue from collapsed buildings; (5) the average east-bay resident could lose water service for 6 weeks, some for as long as 6 months; (6) older steel-frame high-rise office buildings and new reinforced-concrete residential buildings in downtown San Francisco and Oakland could be unusable for as long as 10 months; (7) about 450 large fires could result in a loss of residential and commercial building floor area equivalent to more than 52,000 single-family homes and cause property (building and content) losses approaching $30 billion; and (8) combining earthquake early warning (ShakeAlert) with “drop, cover, and hold on” actions could prevent as many as 1,500 nonfatal injuries out of 18,000 total estimated nonfatal injuries from shaking and liquefaction hazards.

  14. What should be considered if you decide to build your own mathematical model for predicting the development of bacterial resistance? Recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arepeva, Maria; Kolbin, Alexey; Kurylev, Alexey; Balykina, Julia; Sidorenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Acquired bacterial resistance is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. Mathematical modeling allows us to predict the spread of resistance and to some extent to control its dynamics. The purpose of this review was to examine existing mathematical models in order to understand the pros and cons of currently used approaches and to build our own model. During the analysis, seven articles on mathematical approaches to studying resistance that satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria were selected. All models were classified according to the approach used to study resistance in the presence of an antibiotic and were analyzed in terms of our research. Some models require modifications due to the specifics of the research. The plan for further work on model building is as follows: modify some models, according to our research, check all obtained models against our data, and select the optimal model or models with the best quality of prediction. After that we would be able to build a model for the development of resistance using the obtained results. PMID:25972847

  15. Odua Weston Jambi Hotel’s Structural Building Design with Prestressed Concrete Slab System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Rofiq, M. A.; Santoso, S. E.; Hardiyanto, E.

    2017-11-01

    Odua Weston Jambi Hotel is an eight-floor hotel and located in a prone to earth-quake area. This building used conventional concrete to its structural beam and column. This research’s purpose was to maximize the second-floor’s function by modifing its architectural design. Special Moment Resisting Frame System (SMRFS) approach was used in the structural design, referred to SNI 03-2847-2013 dan SNI 1726-2012 and to compensate the needs of a spacious hall without any column in the centre of the hall, so therefore, prestressed concrete plate is used to solve this problem.

  16. Earthquakes, September-October 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, Wyoming experienced a couple of moderate earthquakes, and off the coast of northern California, a strong earthquake shook much of the northern coast of California and parts of the Oregon coast. 

  17. Earthquakes, July-August 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There was one major earthquake during this reporting period-a magnitude 7.1 shock off the coast of Northern California on August 17. Earthquake-related deaths were reported from Indonesia, Romania, Peru, and Iraq. 

  18. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  19. Limits on great earthquake size at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, R.

    2012-12-01

    building standards, is possible. The Java Trench, and others that are considered of the low-coupling type (i.e., Hikurangi, Marianas, Tonga, Kermadec), require increased awareness of the possibility for a great earthquake and tsunami.

  20. Strong ground motion from the November 12, 2017, M 7.3 Kermanshah earthquake in western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie Mahani, Alireza; Kazemian, Javad

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the strong ground motion from the November 12, 2017, Kermanshah earthquake in western Iran with moment magnitude (M) of 7.3. Nonlinear and linear amplification of ground motion amplitudes were observed at stations with soft soil condition at hypocentral distances below and above 100 km, respectively. Observation of large ground motion amplitudes dominated with long-period pulses on the strike-normal component of the velocity time series suggests a right-lateral component of movement and propagation of rupture towards southeast. Comparison of the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the M 7.3 earthquake with global PGA values showed a similar decay in ground motion amplitudes, although it seems that PGA from the M 7.3 Kermanshah earthquake is higher than global values for NEHRP site class B. We also found that the bracketed duration (D b) was higher in the velocity domain than in the acceleration domain for the same modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) threshold. For example, D b reached 30 s at the maximum PGA while it was 50 s at the maximum peak ground velocity above the threshold of MMI = 5. Although the standard design spectrum from Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings (standard No. 2800) seems to include appropriate values for the design of structures with fundamental period of 1 s and higher, it is underestimated for near-field ground motions at lower periods.

  1. PERFORMANCE OF AN EARTHQUAKE EXCITED ROOF DIAPHRAGM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Brady, G.; Safak, E.; Converse, A.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the earthquake performance of the roof diaphragm of the West Valley College gymnasium in Saratoga, California through a complete set of acceleration records obtained during the 24 April 1984 Morgan Hill Earthquake (M equals 6. 1). The roof diaphragm of the 112 ft. multiplied by 144 ft. rectangular, symmetric gymnasium consists of 3/8 in. plywood over tongue-and-groove sheathing attached to steel trusses supported by reinforced concrete columns and walls. Three sensors placed in the direction of each of the axes of the diaphragm facilitate the evaluation of in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. Other sensors placed at ground level measure vertical and horizontal motion of the building floor, and consequently allow the calculation of the relative motion of the diaphragm with respect to the ground level.

  2. Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Enuma, Y.; Kisohara, N.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of earthquake and tsunami on JSFR has been analyzed. For seismic design, safety components are confirmed to maintain their functions even against recent strong earthquakes. As for Tsunami, some parts of reactor building might be submerged including component cooling water system whose final heat sink is sea water. However, in the JSFR design, safety grade components are independent from component cooling water system (CCWS). The JSFR emergency power supply adopts a gas turbine system with air cooling, since JSFR does not basically require quick start-up of the emergency power supply thanks to the natural convection DHRS. Even in casemore » of long station blackout, the DHRS could be activated by emergency batteries or manually and be operated continuously by natural convection. (authors)« less

  3. The Landers earthquake; preliminary instrumental results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L.; Mori, J.; Hauksson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Early on the morning of June 28, 1992, millions of people in southern California were awakened by the largest earthquake to occur in the western United States in the past 40 yrs. At 4:58 a.m PDT (local time), faulting associated with the magnitude 7.3 earthquake broke through to earth's surface near the town of Landers, California. the surface rupture then propagated 70km (45 mi) to the north and northwest along a band of faults passing through the middle of the Mojave Desert. Fortunately, the strongest shaking occurred in uninhabited regions of the Mojave Desert. Still one child was killed in Yucca Valley, and about 400 people were injured in the surrounding area. the desert communities of Landers, Yucca Valley, and Joshua Tree in San Bernardino Country suffered considerable damage to buildings and roads. Damage to water and power lines caused problems in many areas. 

  4. Earthquakes; January-February, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The first major earthquake (magnitude 7.0 to 7.9) of the year struck in southeastern Alaska in a sparsely populated area on February 28. On January 16, Iran experienced the first destructive earthquake of the year causing a number of casualties and considerable damage. Peru was hit by a destructive earthquake on February 16 that left casualties and damage. A number of earthquakes were experienced in parts of the Untied States, but only minor damage was reported. 

  5. Damaging earthquakes: A scientific laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the principal lessons learned from multidisciplinary postearthquake investigations of damaging earthquakes throughout the world during the past 15 years. The unique laboratory provided by a damaging earthquake in culturally different but tectonically similar regions of the world has increased fundamental understanding of earthquake processes, added perishable scientific, technical, and socioeconomic data to the knowledge base, and led to changes in public policies and professional practices for earthquake loss reduction.

  6. Hotspots, Lifelines, and the Safrr Haywired Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, J. L.; Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Though California has experienced many large earthquakes (San Francisco, 1906; Loma Prieta, 1989; Northridge, 1994), the San Francisco Bay Area has not had a damaging earthquake for 25 years. Earthquake risk and surging reliance on smartphones and the Internet to handle everyday tasks raise the question: is an increasingly technology-reliant Bay Area prepared for potential infrastructure impacts caused by a major earthquake? How will a major earthquake on the Hayward Fault affect lifelines (roads, power, water, communication, etc.)? The U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) program's Haywired disaster scenario, a hypothetical two-year earthquake sequence triggered by a M7.05 mainshock on the Hayward Fault, addresses these and other questions. We explore four geographic aspects of lifeline damage from earthquakes: (1) geographic lifeline concentrations, (2) areas where lifelines pass through high shaking or potential ground-failure zones, (3) areas with diminished lifeline service demand due to severe building damage, and (4) areas with increased lifeline service demand due to displaced residents and businesses. Potential mainshock lifeline vulnerability and spatial demand changes will be discerned by superimposing earthquake shaking, liquefaction probability, and landslide probability damage thresholds with lifeline concentrations and with large-capacity shelters. Intersecting high hazard levels and lifeline clusters represent potential lifeline susceptibility hotspots. We will also analyze possible temporal vulnerability and demand changes using an aftershock shaking threshold. The results of this analysis will inform regional lifeline resilience initiatives and response and recovery planning, as well as reveal potential redundancies and weaknesses for Bay Area lifelines. Identified spatial and temporal hotspots can provide stakeholders with a reference for possible systemic vulnerability resulting from an earthquake sequence.

  7. Earthquakes, September-October 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The months of September and October were somewhat quiet seismically speaking. One major earthquake, magnitude (M) 7.7 occurred in Iran on September 16. In Germany, a magntidue 5.0 earthquake caused damage and considerable alarm to many people in parts of that country. In the United States, the largest earthquake occurred along the California-Nevada border region. 

  8. Earthquakes, March-April, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Waverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide, only one major earthquake (7.0earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 shock, struck the Santa Cruz Islands region in the South Pacific on March 6. Earthquake-related deaths occurred in the Fiji Islands, China, and Peru.

  9. Earthquakes, September-October 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) during this reporting period. the first was in the Solomon Islands on October 14 and the second was in India on October 19. Earthquake-related deaths were reported in Guatemala and India. Htere were no significant earthquakes in the United States during the period covered in this report. 

  10. Earthquakes, September-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The fatalities in the United States were caused by two earthquakes in southern Oregon on September 21. These earthquakes, both with magnitude 6.0 and separated in time by about 2 hrs, led to the deaths of two people. One of these deaths was apparently due to a heart attack induced by the earthquake

  11. Earthquakes, March-April 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) occurred during this reporting period: a magnitude 7.6 in Costa Rica on April 22 and a magntidue 7.0 in the USSR on April 29. Destructive earthquakes hit northern Peru on April 4 and 5. There were no destructive earthquakes in the United States during this period. 

  12. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  13. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  14. Earthquakes, May-June 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, a magnitude 5.8 earthquake in southern California on June 28 killed two people and caused considerable damage. Strong earthquakes hit Alaska on May 1 and May 30; the May 1 earthquake caused some minor damage. 

  15. [Earthquakes in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    de Ville de Goyet, C

    2001-02-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has 25 years of experience dealing with major natural disasters. This piece provides a preliminary review of the events taking place in the weeks following the major earthquakes in El Salvador on 13 January and 13 February 2001. It also describes the lessons that have been learned over the last 25 years and the impact that the El Salvador earthquakes and other disasters have had on the health of the affected populations. Topics covered include mass-casualties management, communicable diseases, water supply, managing donations and international assistance, damages to the health-facilities infrastructure, mental health, and PAHO's role in disasters.

  16. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  17. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN DISASTER RESTORATION ACTIVITY AFTER SOME MAJOR EARTHQUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Yasuo; Itoh, Kazuya; Kikkawa, Naotaka

    Occupational safety and health in disaster restoration activity following the Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995), Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004), Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) Great East Japan Earthquake (2011) were analyzed and characterized in order to raise awareness on the risks and hazards in such work. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall" which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides were prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring during geotechnical works rather than in buildings construction works. In the abnormal conditions that characterize recovery activities, when safety and health measures have a tendency to be neglected, it is important to reinstate adequate measures as soon as possible by carrying out the usial risk assessments.

  19. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.

    2016-12-01

    The M6 central Italy earthquake occurred on the seismic backbone of the Italy, just in the middle of the highest hazard belt. The shock hit suddenly during the night of August 24, when people were asleep; no foreshocks occurred before the main event. The earthquake ruptured from 10 km to the surface, and produced a more than 17,000 aftershocks (Oct. 19) spread on a 40x20 km2 area elongated NW-SE. It is geologically very similar to previous recent events of the Apennines. Both the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to the south and the 1997 Colfiorito to the north, were characterized by the activation of adjacent fault segments. Despite its magnitude and the well known seismic hazard of the region, the earthquake produced extensive damage and 297 fatalities. The town of Amatrice, that paid the highest toll, was classified in zone 1 (the highest) since 1915, but the buildings in this and other villages revealed highly vulnerable. In contrast, in the town of Norcia, that also experienced strong ground shaking, no collapses occurred, most likely due to the retrofitting carried out after an earthquake in 1979. Soon after the quake, the INGV Crisis Unit convened at night in the Rome headquarters, in order to coordinate the activities. The first field teams reached the epicentral area at 7 am with the portable seismic stations installed to monitor the aftershocks; other teams followed to map surface faults, damage, to measure GPS sites, to install instruments for site response studies, and so on. The INGV Crisis Unit includes the Press office and the INGVterremoti team, in order to manage and coordinate the communication towards the Civil Protection Dept. (DPC), the media and the web. Several tens of reports and updates have been delivered in the first month of the sequence to DPC. Also due to the controversial situation arisen from the L'Aquila earthquake and trials, particular attention was given to the communication: continuous and timely information has been released to

  20. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  1. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  2. A review of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-induced landslides; from a remote sensing prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Muhammad; van der Meijde, Mark; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-03-01

    The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, supported with field observations, to develop inventories of the earthquake-triggered landslides, analyzed their spatial distribution and subsequently developed landslide-susceptibility maps. Earthquake causative fault rupture, geology, anthropogenic activities and remote sensing derived topographic attributes were observed to have major influence on the spatial distribution of landslides. These were subsequently used to develop a landslide susceptibility map, thereby demarcating the areas prone to landsliding. Temporal studies monitoring the earthquake-induced landslides shows that the earthquake-induced landslides are stabilized, contrary to earlier belief, directly after the earthquake. The biggest landslide induced dam, as a result of the massive Hattian Bala landslide, is still posing a threat to the surrounding communities. It is observed that remote sensing data is effectively and efficiently used to assess the landslides triggered by the Kashmir earthquake, however, there is still a need of more research to understand the mechanism of intensity and distribution of landslides; and their continuous monitoring using remote sensing data at a regional scale. This paper, provides an overview of remote sensing and GIS applications, for the Kashmir-earthquake triggered landslides, derived outputs and discusses the lessons learnt, advantages, limitations and recommendations for future research.

  3. Earthquakes; March-April 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    There were no major earthquakes (magnitude 7.0-7.9) in March or April; however, there were earthquake fatalities in Chile, Iran, and Venezuela and approximately 35 earthquake-related injuries were reported around the world. In the United States a magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck the Idaho-Utah border region. Damage was estimated at about a million dollars. The shock was felt over a wide area and was the largest to hit the continental Untied States since the San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. 

  4. Earthquakes, November-December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during the last two months of the year, a magntidue 7.5 earthquake on December 12 in the Flores region, Indonesia, and a magnitude 7.0 earthquake on December 20 in the Banda Sea. Earthquakes caused fatalities in China and Indonesia. The greatest number of deaths (2,500) for the year occurred in Indonesia. In Switzerland, six people were killed by an accidental explosion recoreded by seismographs. In teh United States, a magnitude 5.3 earthquake caused slight damage at Big Bear in southern California. 

  5. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L.; Aki, K.; Boore, D.; Celebi, M.; Donnellan, A.; Hall, J.; Harris, R.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hough, S.; Hudnut, K.; Hutton, K.; Johnston, M.; Joyner, W.; Kanamori, H.; Marshall, G.; Michael, A.; Mori, J.; Murray, M.; Ponti, D.; Reasenberg, P.; Schwartz, D.; Seeber, L.; Shakal, A.; Simpson, R.; Thio, H.; Tinsley, J.; Todorovska, M.; Trifunac, M.; Wald, D.; Zoback, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The most costly American earthquake since 1906 struck Los Angeles on 17 January 1994. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake resulted from more than 3 meters of reverse slip on a 15-kilometer-long south-dipping thrust fault that raised the Santa Susana mountains by as much as 70 centimeters. The fault appears to be truncated by the fault that broke in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake at a depth of 8 kilometers. Of these two events, the Northridge earthquake caused many times more damage, primarily because its causative fault is directly under the city. Many types of structures were damaged, but the fracture of welds in steel-frame buildings was the greatest surprise. The Northridge earthquake emphasizes the hazard posed to Los Angeles by concealed thrust faults and the potential for strong ground shaking in moderate earthquakes.The most costly American earthquake since 1906 struck Los Angeles on 17 January 1994. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake resulted from more than 3 meters of reverse slip on a 15-kilometer-long south-dipping thrust fault that raised the Santa Susana mountains by as much as 70 centimeters. The fault appears to be truncated by the fault that broke in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake at a depth of 8 kilometers. Of these two events, the Northridge earthquake caused many times more damage, primarily because its causative fault is directly under the city. Many types of structures were damaged, but the fracture of welds in steel-frame buildings was the greatest surprise. The Northridge earthquake emphasizes the hazard posed to Los Angeles by concealed thrust faults and the potential for strong ground shaking in moderate earthquakes.

  6. The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better

  7. Earthquake Prediction is Coming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes (1) several methods used in earthquake research, including P:S ratio velocity studies, dilatancy models; and (2) techniques for gathering base-line data for prediction using seismographs, tiltmeters, laser beams, magnetic field changes, folklore, animal behavior. The mysterious Palmdale (California) bulge is discussed. (CS)

  8. Fractal dynamics of earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, P.; Chen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function ofmore » time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).« less

  9. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

  10. Baja Earthquake Perspective View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-05

    The topography surrounding the Laguna Salada Fault in the Mexican state of Baja, California, is shown in this combined radar image and topographic view with data from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission where a 7.2 earthquake struck on April 4, 2010.

  11. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: distribution of hospital damage in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Lewis, James; Hodgson, Susan; Murray, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    In catastrophic events, a key to reducing health risks is to maintain functioning of local health facilities. However, little research has been conducted on what types and levels of care are the most likely to be affected by catastrophic events. Problem The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) was one of a few "mega disasters" that have occurred in an industrialized society. This research aimed to develop an analytical framework for the holistic understanding of hospital damage due to the disaster. Hospital damage data in Miyagi Prefecture at the time of the GEJED were collected retrospectively. Due to the low response rate of questionnaire-based surveillance (7.7%), publications of the national and local governments, medical associations, other nonprofit organizations, and home web pages of hospitals were used, as well as literature and news sources. The data included information on building damage, electricity and water supply, and functional status after the earthquake. Geographical data for hospitals, coastline, local boundaries, and the in undated areas, as well as population size and seismic intensity were collected from public databases. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for hospitals ceasing inpatient and outpatient services. The impact was displayed on maps to show the geographical distribution of damage. Data for 143 out of 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (97%) were obtained. Building damage was significantly associated with closure of both inpatient and outpatient wards. Hospitals offering tertiary care were more resistant to damage than those offering primary care, while those with a higher proportion of psychiatric care beds were more likely to cease functioning, even after controlling for hospital size, seismic intensity, and distance from the coastline. Implementation of building regulations is vital for all health care facilities, irrespective of function. Additionally, securing electricity and water supplies

  12. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  13. WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felzer, Karen R.; Cao, Tianqing

    2008-01-01

    This appendix provides an earthquake catalog for California and the surrounding area. Our goal is to provide a listing for all known M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred from 1850-1932 and all known M > 4.0 earthquakes that occurred from 1932-2006 within the region of 31.0 to 43.0 degrees North and -126.0 to -114.0 degrees West. Some pre-1932 earthquakes 4 5, before the Northern California network was online. Some earthquakes from 1900-1932, and particularly from 1910-1932 are also based on instrumental readings, but the quality of the instrumental record and the resulting analysis are much less precise than for later listings. A partial exception is for some of the largest earthquakes, such as the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, for which global teleseismic records (Wald et al. 1993) and geodetic measurements (Thatcher et al. 1906) have been used to help determine magnitudes.

  14. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  15. Near-real-time and scenario earthquake loss estimates for Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Zuñiga, R.

    2017-12-01

    The large earthquakes of 8 September 2017, M8.1, and 19 September 2017, M7.1 have focused attention on the dangers of Mexican seismicity. The near-real-time alerts by QLARM estimated 10 to 300 fatalities and 0 to 200 fatalities, respectively. At the time of this submission the reported death tolls are 96 and 226, respectively. These alerts were issued within 96 and 57 minutes of the occurrence times. For the M8.1 earthquake the losses due to a line model could be calculated. The line with length L=110 km extended from the initial epicenter to the NE, where the USGS had reported aftershocks. On September 19, no aftershocks were available in near-real-time, so a point source had to be used for the quick calculation of likely casualties. In both cases, the casualties were at least an order of magnitude smaller than what they could have been because on 8 September the source was relatively far offshore and on 19 September the hypocenter was relatively deep. The largest historic earthquake in Mexico occurred on 28 March 1787 and likely had a rupture length of 450 km and M8.6. Based on this event, and after verifying our tool for Mexico, we estimated the order of magnitude of a disaster, given the current population, in a maximum credible earthquake along the Pacific coast. In the countryside along the coast we expect approximately 27,000 fatalities and 480,000 injured. In the special case of Mexico City the casualties in a worst possible earthquake along the Pacific plate boundary would likely be counted as five digit numbers. The large agglomerate of the capital with its lake bed soil attracts most attention. Nevertheless, one should pay attention to the fact that the poor, rural segment of society, living in buildings of weak resistance to shaking, are likely to sustain a mortality rate about 20% larger than the population in cities on average soil.

  16. April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. Multisensor approach for the seismic rehabilitation of monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Cifani, Giandomenico; Gabellone, Francesco; Geraldi, Edoardo; Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Domenico; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Pignatti, Stefano; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    methods have been used: i) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) used for obtaining 2D and 3D high-resolution images of subsurface geological structures; ii) laser scanner survey to obtain a digital model of the monument and to study deformations and collapse mechanisms; iii) infrared thermography for the survey of detachments and cracks on frescoed walls; iv) hyperspectral VNIR imagery for discriminating materials and for detecting moisture, organic content and salinity; v) georadar prospections and sonic tests to survey the inner structure of masonries and to detect cracks and voids; vi) finally, the analysis concerning the fundamental frequency peak of the foundation soil derived from microtremor data, which allowed to obtain insights about possible soil-structure resonance by comparing the dynamic features of the soil with the main building frequency.

  17. The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

    2008-12-01

    Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion

  18. 56. Neg. No. F161, Mar 18, 1933, INTERIOROFFICE BUILDING, LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Neg. No. F-161, Mar 18, 1933, INTERIOR-OFFICE BUILDING, LOBBY AND STAIRWELL, SHOWING DAMAGE AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Altai-Sayan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Nekrasova, A.

    2017-12-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on morphostructural analysis, pattern recognition, and the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter relationship making use of naturally fractal distribution of earthquake sources of different size in a seismic region. The USLE stands for an empirical relationship log10N(M, L) = A + B·(5 - M) + C·log10L, where N(M, L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. We use parameters A, B, and C of USLE to estimate, first, the expected maximum credible magnitude in a time interval at seismically prone nodes of the morphostructural scheme of the region under study, then map the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters (e.g. peak ground acceleration, PGA, or macro-seismic intensity etc.). After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (usually, the observed instrumental PGA or the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures (e.g., those based on census of population, buildings inventory, etc.). This, USLE based, methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment is applied to the territory of Altai-Sayan Region, of Russia. The study supported by the Russian Science Foundation Grant No. 15-17-30020.

  20. Earthquake hazard and risk assessment based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Greater Caucasus and Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Nekrasova, Anastasia K.

    2018-05-01

    We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on morphostructural analysis, pattern recognition, and the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter relationship making use of naturally fractal distribution of earthquake sources of different size in a seismic region. The USLE stands for an empirical relationship log10 N(M, L) = A + B·(5 - M) + C·log10 L, where N(M, L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within a seismically prone area of linear dimension L. We use parameters A, B, and C of USLE to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at seismically prone nodes of the morphostructural scheme of the region under study, then map the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters (e.g., peak ground acceleration, PGA, or macro-seismic intensity). After a rigorous verification against the available seismic evidences in the past (usually, the observed instrumental PGA or the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks for population, cities, and infrastructures (e.g., those based on census of population, buildings inventory). The methodology of seismic hazard and risk assessment is illustrated by application to the territory of Greater Caucasus and Crimea.

  1. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  2. Earthquake Complex Network Analysis Before and After the Mw 8.2 Earthquake in Iquique, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, D.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake complex networks have shown that they are abble to find specific features in seismic data set. In space, this networkshave shown a scale-free behavior for the probability distribution of connectivity, in directed networks and theyhave shown a small-world behavior, for the undirected networks.In this work, we present an earthquake complex network analysis for the large earthquake Mw 8.2 in the north ofChile (near to Iquique) in April, 2014. An earthquake complex network is made dividing the three dimensional space intocubic cells, if one of this cells contain an hypocenter, we name this cell like a node. The connections between nodes aregenerated in time. We follow the time sequence of seismic events and we are making the connections betweennodes. Now, we have two different networks: a directed and an undirected network. Thedirected network takes in consideration the time-direction of the connections, that is very important for the connectivityof the network: we are considering the connectivity, ki of the i-th node, like the number of connections going out ofthe node i plus the self-connections (if two seismic events occurred successive in time in the same cubic cell, we havea self-connection). The undirected network is made removing the direction of the connections and the self-connectionsfrom the directed network. For undirected networks, we are considering only if two nodes are or not connected.We have built a directed complex network and an undirected complex network, before and after the large earthquake in Iquique. We have used magnitudes greater than Mw = 1.0 and Mw = 3.0. We found that this method can recognize the influence of thissmall seismic events in the behavior of the network and we found that the size of the cell used to build the network isanother important factor to recognize the influence of the large earthquake in this complex system. This method alsoshows a difference in the values of the critical exponent γ (for the probability

  3. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  4. The effect of earthquake on architecture geometry with non-parallel system irregularity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teddy, Livian; Hardiman, Gagoek; Nuroji; Tudjono, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is an area prone to earthquake that may cause casualties and damage to buildings. The fatalities or the injured are not largely caused by the earthquake, but by building collapse. The collapse of the building is resulted from the building behaviour against the earthquake, and it depends on many factors, such as architectural design, geometry configuration of structural elements in horizontal and vertical plans, earthquake zone, geographical location (distance to earthquake center), soil type, material quality, and construction quality. One of the geometry configurations that may lead to the collapse of the building is irregular configuration of non-parallel system. In accordance with FEMA-451B, irregular configuration in non-parallel system is defined to have existed if the vertical lateral force-retaining elements are neither parallel nor symmetric with main orthogonal axes of the earthquake-retaining axis system. Such configuration may lead to torque, diagonal translation and local damage to buildings. It does not mean that non-parallel irregular configuration should not be formed on architectural design; however the designer must know the consequence of earthquake behaviour against buildings with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research has the objective to identify earthquake behaviour in architectural geometry with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research was quantitative with simulation experimental method. It consisted of 5 models, where architectural data and model structure data were inputted and analyzed using the software SAP2000 in order to find out its performance, and ETAB2015 to determine the eccentricity occurred. The output of the software analysis was tabulated, graphed, compared and analyzed with relevant theories. For areas of strong earthquake zones, avoid designing buildings which wholly form irregular configuration of non-parallel system. If it is inevitable to design a

  5. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  6. April 25, 2015, Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal and Sequence of Aftershocks: Key Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guragain, R.; Dixit, A. M.; Shrestha, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Gorkha Earthquake of M7.8 hit Nepal on April 25, 2015 at 11:56 am local time. The epicenter of this earthquake was Barpak, Gorkha, 80 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley. The main shock was followed by hundreds of aftershocks including M6.6 and M6.7 within 48 hours and M7.3 on May 12, 2015. According to the Government of Nepal, a total of 8,686 people lost their lives, 16,808 people injured, over 500,000 buildings completely collapsed and more than 250,000 building partially damaged. The National Society for Earthquake Technology - Nepal (NSET), a not-for-profit civil society organization that has been focused on earthquake risk reduction in Nepal for past 21 years, conducted various activities to support people and the government in responding to the earthquake disaster. The activities included: i) assisting people and critical facility institutions to conduct rapid visual building damage assessment including the training; ii) information campaign to provide proper information regarding earthquake safety; iii) support rescue organizations on search and rescue operations; and iv) provide technical support to common people on repair, retrofit of damaged houses. NSET is also involved in carrying out studies related to earthquake damage, geotechnical problems, and causes of building damages. Additionally, NSET has done post-earthquake detail damage assessment of buildings throughout the affected areas. Prior to the earthquake, NSET has been working with several institutions to improve seismic performance of school buildings, private residential houses, and other critical structures. Such activities implemented during the past decade have shown the effectiveness of risk reduction. Retrofitted school buildings performed very well during the earthquake. Preparedness activities implemented at community levels have helped communities to respond immediately and save lives. Higher level of earthquake awareness achieved including safe behavior, better understanding of

  7. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in rapid earthquake impact models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary cases. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different impact scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall impact is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and impact assessment requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual impact provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce impact models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then

  8. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2nd major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented. PMID:27683676

  9. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  10. Christchurch earthquakes: how did former refugees cope?

    PubMed

    Osman, Mohamud; Hornblow, Andrew; Macleod, Sandy; Coope, Pat

    2012-06-29

    This study investigated how former refugees now living in Christchurch (Canterbury Province, New Zealand) communities coped after the 4 September 2010 and subsequent earthquakes. A systematic sample of one in three former refugees from five ethnic groupings (Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Bhutan) was selected from a list of 317 refugees provided by the Canterbury Refugee Council and invited to participate in the study. Seventy-two out of 105 potential participants completed a 26 item questionnaire regarding the impact of the quakes, their concerns and anxieties, coping strategies and social supports. The methodology was complicated by ongoing aftershocks, particularly that of 22 February 2011. Three-quarters of participants reported that they had coped well, spirituality and religious practice being an important support for many, despite less then 20% receiving support from mainstream agencies. Most participants (72%) had not experienced a traumatic event or natural disaster before. Older participants and married couples with children were more likely to worry about the earthquakes and their impact than single individuals. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between males and females. Those who completed the questionnaire after the 22 February 2011 quake were more worried overall than those interviewed before this. Overall, the former refugees reported they had coped well despite most of them not experiencing an earthquake before and few receiving support from statutory relief agencies. More engagement from local services is needed in order to build trust and cooperation between the refugee and local communities.

  11. Earthquakes: Recurrence and Interoccurrence Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaimov, S. G.; Turcotte, D. L.; Shcherbakov, R.; Rundle, J. B.; Yakovlev, G.; Goltz, C.; Newman, W. I.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the statistical distributions of recurrence times of earthquakes. Recurrence times are the time intervals between successive earthquakes at a specified location on a specified fault. Although a number of statistical distributions have been proposed for recurrence times, we argue in favor of the Weibull distribution. The Weibull distribution is the only distribution that has a scale-invariant hazard function. We consider three sets of characteristic earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: (1) The Parkfield earthquakes, (2) the sequence of earthquakes identified by paleoseismic studies at the Wrightwood site, and (3) an example of a sequence of micro-repeating earthquakes at a site near San Juan Bautista. In each case we make a comparison with the applicable Weibull distribution. The number of earthquakes in each of these sequences is too small to make definitive conclusions. To overcome this difficulty we consider a sequence of earthquakes obtained from a one million year “Virtual California” simulation of San Andreas earthquakes. Very good agreement with a Weibull distribution is found. We also obtain recurrence statistics for two other model studies. The first is a modified forest-fire model and the second is a slider-block model. In both cases good agreements with Weibull distributions are obtained. Our conclusion is that the Weibull distribution is the preferred distribution for estimating the risk of future earthquakes on the San Andreas fault and elsewhere.

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical Society Original: 1868 (Painting) Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM WEST (AFTER EARTHQUAKE OF 1868) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  13. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a

  14. Seismic performance of the typical RC beam-column joint subjected to repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanshahi, Omid; Majid, Taksiah A.; Lau, Tze Liang; Yousefi, Ali; Tahara, R. M. K.

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a building experience repeated earthquakes throughout its lifetime. Such earthquake is capable of creating severe damage in primary elements of the building due to accumulation of inelastic displacement from repetition. The present study focuses on the influence of repeated earthquakes on a typical Reinforced Concrete (RC) beam-column joint, especially on the maximum inelastic displacement demand and maximum residual displacement. For this purpose, the capability of nonlinear modelling in simulating the hysteretic behaviour of the prototype experimental specimen is first determined using RUAUMOKO. A nonlinear Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) on the verified model is then carried out in order to estimate with maximum accuracy the ultimate load bearing capacity to progressive collapse of the RC joint under investigation. Twenty ground motions are selected, and single (C1), double (C2), and triple (C3) event of synthetic repeated earthquakes are then considered. The results show that the repeated earthquakes significantly increase the inelastic demand of the RC joint. On average, relative increment of maximum inelastic displacement demand is experienced about 28.9% and 39.4% when C2 and C3 events of repeated earthquakes are induced, respectively. Residual displacements for repeated earthquakes are also significantly higher than that for single earthquakes.

  15. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  16. Urban Policies and Earthquake Risk Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlo, Antonella

    2008-07-01

    The paper aims at proposing some considerations about some recent experiences of research carried out on the theme of earthquake risk mitigation and combining policies and actions of mitigation with urban development strategies. The objective was to go beyond the classical methodological approach aiming at defining a "technical" evaluation of the earthquake risk through a procedure which can correlate the three "components" of danger, exposure and vulnerability. These researches experiment, in terms of methodology and application, with a new category of interpretation and strategy: the so-called Struttura Urbana Minima (Minimum urban structure). Actually, the introduction of the Struttura Urbana Minima establishes a different approach towards the theme of safety in the field of earthquake risk, since it leads to a wider viewpoint, combining the building aspect of the issue with the purely urban one, involving not only town planning, but also social and managerial implications. In this sense the constituent logic of these researches is strengthened by two fundamental issues: - The social awareness of earthquake; - The inclusion of mitigation policies in the ordinary strategies for town and territory management. Three main aspects of the first point, that is of the "social awareness of earthquake", characterize this issue and demand to be considered within a prevention policy: - The central role of the risk as a social production, - The central role of the local community consent, - The central role of the local community capability to plan Therefore, consent, considered not only as acceptance, but above all as participation in the elaboration and implementation of choices, plays a crucial role in the wider issue of prevention policies. As far as the second point is concerned, the inclusion of preventive mitigation policies in ordinary strategies for the town and territory management demands the identification of criteria of choice and priorities of intervention and

  17. Regional Earthquake Shaking and Loss Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses in the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Both Level 0 (similar to PAGER system of USGS) and Level 1 analyses of the ELER routine are based on obtaining intensity distributions analytically and estimating total number of casualties and their geographic distribution either using regionally adjusted intensity-casualty or magnitude-casualty correlations (Level 0) of using regional building inventory data bases (Level 1). Level 0 analysis is similar to the PAGER system being developed by USGS. For given

  18. A Virtual Tour of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake in Google EarthTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H. G.; Blair, J. L.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 1868 Hayward earthquake has been overshadowed by the subsequent 1906 San Francisco earthquake that destroyed much of San Francisco. Nonetheless, a modern recurrence of the 1868 earthquake would cause widespread damage to the densely populated Bay Area, particularly in the east Bay communities that have grown up virtually on top of the Hayward fault. Our concern is heightened by paleoseismic studies suggesting that the recurrence interval for the past five earthquakes on the southern Hayward fault is 140 to 170 years. Our objective is to build an educational web site that illustrates the cause and effect of the 1868 earthquake drawing on scientific and historic information. We will use Google EarthTM software to visually illustrate complex scientific concepts in a way that is understandable to a non-scientific audience. This web site will lead the viewer from a regional summary of the plate tectonics and faulting system of western North America, to more specific information about the 1868 Hayward earthquake itself. Text and Google EarthTM layers will include modeled shaking of the earthquake, relocations of historic photographs, reconstruction of damaged buildings as 3-D models, and additional scientific data that may come from the many scientific studies conducted for the 140th anniversary of the event. Earthquake engineering concerns will be stressed, including population density, vulnerable infrastructure, and lifelines. We will also present detailed maps of the Hayward fault, measurements of fault creep, and geologic evidence of its recurrence. Understanding the science behind earthquake hazards is an important step in preparing for the next significant earthquake. We hope to communicate to the public and students of all ages, through visualizations, not only the cause and effect of the 1868 earthquake, but also modern seismic hazards of the San Francisco Bay region.

  19. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  20. Earthquake technology fights crime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.; Ward, Peter L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey have adapted their methods for quickly finding the exact source of an earthquake to the problem of locating gunshots. On the basis of this work, a private company is now testing an automated gunshot-locating system in a San Francisco Bay area community. This system allows police to rapidly pinpoint and respond to illegal gunfire, helping to reduce crime in our neighborhoods.

  1. The Earthquake Closet: Making Early-Warning Useful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Trendafiloski, G.

    2009-12-01

    Early-warning of approaching strong shaking that could have fatal consequences is a research field that has made great progress. It makes it possible to reduce the impact on dangerous processes in critical facilities and on trains. However, its potential to save lives has a serious Achilles heel: The time for getting to safety is five to 10 seconds only, in many cities. Occupants of upper floors cannot get out of their buildings and narrow streets are not a safe place in strong earthquakes for people who might be able to exit. Thus, only about 10% of a city’s population can benefit from early-warnings, unless they have access to their own earthquake closet that is strong enough to remain intact in a collapsing building. Such an Earthquake Protection Unit (EPU) may be installed in the structurally strongest part of an existing apartment at low cost. In new constructions, we propose that an earthquake shelter be constructed for each floor, large enough to accommodate all occupants of that floor. These types of EPU should be constructed on top of each other, forming a strong tower, next to the elevator shaft and the staircase, at the center of the building. If an EPU with structural properties equivalent to an E-class building is placed into a building of B-class in South America, for example, we estimate that the chances of surviving shaking of intensity VII is about 30,000 times better inside the closet. The probability of escaping injury inside compared to outside we estimate as about 1,500 times better. Educating the population regarding the usefulness of EPUs will be essential, and P-waves can be used as the early warning signal. The owner of an earthquake closet can easily be motivated to take protective measures, when these involve simply to step into his closet, rather than attempting to exit from the building by running down many flights of stairs. Our intention is to start a discussion how best to construct EPUs and how to introduce legislation that will

  2. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  3. Earthquake Potential in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, Hla Hla

    Myanmar region is generally believed to be an area of high earthquake potential from the point of view of seismic activity which has been low compared to the surrounding regions like Indonesia, China, and Pakistan. Geoscientists and seismologists predicted earthquakes to occur in the area north of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands, i.e. the southwest and west part of Myanmar. Myanmar tectonic setting relative to East and SE Asia is rather peculiar and unique with different plate tectonic models but similar to the setting of western part of North America. Myanmar crustal blocks are caught within two lithospheric plates of India and Indochina experiencing oblique subduction with major dextral strike-slip faulting of the Sagaing fault. Seismic tomography and thermal structure of India plate along the Sunda subduction zone vary from south to north. Strong partitioning in central Andaman basin where crustal fragmentation and northward dispersion of Burma plate by back-arc spreading mechanism has been operating since Neogene. Northward motion of Burma plate relative to SE Asia would dock against the major continent further north and might have caused the accumulation of strain which in turn will be released as earthquakes in the future.

  4. Earthquake Source Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The past 2 decades have seen substantial progress in our understanding of the nature of the earthquake faulting process, but increasingly, the subject has become an interdisciplinary one. Thus, although the observation of radiated seismic waves remains the primary tool for studying earthquakes (and has been increasingly focused on extracting the physical processes occurring in the “source”), geological studies have also begun to play a more important role in understanding the faulting process. Additionally, defining the physical underpinning for these phenomena has come to be an important subject in experimental and theoretical rock mechanics.In recognition of this, a Maurice Ewing Symposium was held at Arden House, Harriman, N.Y. (the former home of the great American statesman Averill Harriman), May 20-23, 1985. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the international community of experimentalists, theoreticians, and observationalists who are engaged in the study of various aspects of earthquake source mechanics. The conference was attended by more than 60 scientists from nine countries (France, Italy, Japan, Poland, China, the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and the Federal Republic of Germany).

  5. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  6. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  7. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  8. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M.; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics. PMID:26933682

  9. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics.