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Sample records for eases traditional hurdles

  1. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  2. A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Students and Their Ease of Interactivity between Telnet and Web-Based Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Darnell L.

    This study compared the familiarity of text-only/Telnet and graphical/Web-based online library catalogs of 83 traditional to 17 nontraditional students who were new to Kent State University (Ohio) as of the spring semester of 2000. A questionnaire was distributed to all students prior to any formal library instruction provided by the university.…

  3. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christina J; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  4. Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project: Science Angels (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuki, Kotoe; Watanabe, Mayuko

    2009-04-01

    Tohoku University was the first National University to admit three women students in Japan in 1913. To support the university's traditional ``open-door'' policy, various projects have been promoted throughout the university since its foundation. A government plan, the Third-Stage Basic Plan for Science and Technology, aims to increase the women scientist ratio up to 25% nationwide. In order to achieve this goal, the Tohoku Women's Hurdling Project, funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), was adopted in 2006. This project is threefold: support for child/family, improvement of facilities, and support for the next generation, which includes our Science Angels program. ``Science Angels'' are women PhD students appointed by the university president, with the mission to form a strong support system among each other and to become role-models to inspire younger students who want to become researchers. Currently, 50 women graduate students of the natural sciences are Science Angels and are encouraged to design and deliver lectures in their areas of specialty at their alma maters. Up to now, 12 lectures have been delivered and science events for children in our community have been held-all with great success.

  5. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  6. Occupational exposure modelling with ease.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Domine, D; Bintein, S; Karcher, W

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a validation exercise performed from eight practical case studies on EASE (version 2.0), a knowledge-based system allowing to estimate the workplace exposure to chemicals. Our results show that EASE represents a valuable simulation tool in occupational hygiene. However, it requires to be refined and extended to more realistic and precise situations to be easily used in practice.

  7. Yoga May Help Ease Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167586.html Yoga May Help Ease Depression It's not a cure- ... HealthDay News) -- If you've ever taken a yoga class, you probably know that it can help ...

  8. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  9. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, W; Van Robays, J

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today's common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones.

  10. Examining Teachers' Hurdles to `Science for All'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southerland, Sherry; Gallard, Alejandro; Callihan, Laurie

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this research is to identify science teachers' beliefs and conceptions that play an important role in shaping their understandings of and attempts to enact inclusive science teaching practices. We examined the work products, both informal (online discussions, email exchanges) and formal (papers, unit plans, peer reviews), of 14 teachers enrolled in a master's degree course focused on diversity in science teaching and learning. These emerging understandings were member-checked via a series of interviews with a subset of these teachers. Our analysis was conducted in two stages: (1) describing the difficulties the teachers identified for themselves in their attempts to teach science to a wide range of students in their classes and (2) analyzing these self-identified barriers for underlying beliefs and conceptions that serve to prohibit or allow for the teachers' understanding and enactment of equitable science instruction. The teachers' self-identified barriers were grouped into three categories: students, broader social infrastructure, and self. The more fundamental barriers identified included teacher beliefs about the ethnocentrism of the mainstream, essentialism/individualism, and beliefs about the meritocracy of schooling. The implications of these hurdles for science teacher education are discussed.

  11. Hurdles in bacteriophage therapy: deconstructing the parameters.

    PubMed

    Tsonos, Jessica; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Briers, Yves; De Greve, Henri; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre; Lavigne, Rob

    2014-07-16

    Bacterial infections in animals impact our food production, leading to economic losses due to food rejection and the need for preventive and curative measures. Since the onset of the antibiotic era, the rise of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is causing scares in health care and food producing facilities worldwide. In the search of new therapeutics, re-evaluation of bacteriophage (phage) therapy, using naturally occurring bacterial viruses to tackle infections, is gaining interest. Many studies report about phage therapy success, showing the value and power of these natural viruses. Although phages carry some interesting traits and their basic biology is now well understood, this review argues that phage therapy has not revealed all of its secrets and many parameters remain understudied, making the outcome of phage therapy highly variable depending on the disease incidence. These difficulties include poorly understood mechanisms of phage penetration and distribution throughout the body, the variable expression and accessibility of phage receptors on the bacterial host in in vivo conditions and the unusual (non-linear) phage pharmacokinetics. These parameters are not easily measured in realistic in vivo settings, but are nevertheless important hurdles to overcome the high variability of phage therapy trials. This critical approach is in accordance with Goethe's statement; "Difficulties increase the nearer we get to the goal". However, since the importance of the goal itself also rises, both difficulties and goal justify the need for additional in depth research in this domain.

  12. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  13. Ease of articulation: A replication.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Linda I; Cottrill, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Researchers, as well as the lay public and the popular press, have become increasingly concerned about the lack of reproducibility of research findings. Despite this concern, research has shown that replications of previously published work comprise a very small proportion of published studies. Moreover, there are fewer published direct replications of research studies by independent investigators, and this type of replication is much less likely to confirm the results of the original research than are replications by the original investigator or conceptual replications. A search of the communication disorders research literature reveals that direct replications by independent investigators are virtually non-existent. The purpose of this project was to describe the major issues related to research reproducibility and report the results of a direct replication of a study by Locke (1972) regarding ease of articulation. Two methods for rating ease of articulation were employed. We were able to reproduce the results of the original study for the first method, obtaining a moderate positive correlation between our rankings of phoneme difficulty and Locke's rankings. We obtained a very high positive correlation between our phoneme rankings and rankings obtained in the original study for the second method. Moreover, we found a higher correlation between difficulty rankings and order of speech sound acquisition for American English than was found in the original study. Direct replication is not necessary for all studies in communication disorders, but should be considered for high impact studies, treatment studies, and those that provide data to support models and theories. The reader will be able to: (1) describe the major concerns related to the replicability of research findings; (2) describe the status of research replications in communication disorders; (3) describe how ease of articulation may relate to the order of speech sound acquisition in children; (4) list some

  14. Easing Students' Transition to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, students learn arithmetic throughout their primary schooling, and this is seen as the ideal preparation for the learning of algebra in the junior secondary school. The four operations are taught and rehearsed in the early years and from this, it is assumed, "children will induce the fundamental structure of arithmetic" (Warren &…

  15. Managing with A/E Ease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    provides a very good foundation on which to build the EASE programs. EASE application programs are a supplementary menu system to Enable’s own menus...mainframe computer systems. Other Peripherals Plotters provide the color graphics output necessary for A/E drawings , which is far superior to that of...for interactive drawing on the display. The EASE program was not designed to be driven by a mouse, but this possibility is currently being studied

  16. Flat, hurdle and steeple racing: risk factors for musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C J; Reid, S W; Hodgson, D R; Bourke, J M; Rose, R J

    1998-11-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify and quantify risk factors for serious musculoskeletal injury sustained at 4 Australian metropolitan racetracks. During the period of study (August 1988-July 1995) there were 196 cases from flat racing, 52 cases from hurdle racing and 53 cases from steeplechases. The incidences of fatal musculoskeletal injuries per start for flat, hurdle and steeple races were 0.06, 0.63 and 1.43% respectively. Logistic regression identified harder track surfaces, horses being older than age 3 years, one racecourse (Flemington) and jumping races as significant risk factors which increased the risk of musculoskeletal breakdown. The incidence of fatal musculoskeletal injuries for flat races at the 4 study tracks was similar to that reported in the UK but less than the USA. Death rates for hurdle and steeple races in the study population were higher than in the UK. Strategies to reduce the incidence of serious musculoskeletal injuries may include avoidance of excessively hard track surfaces through closer regulation of track moisture content; implementation of more rigorous prerace lameness examinations of horses, particularly older horses; and altering the design and number of jumps in hurdle and steeple races. The quantification of risk, as we have reported here, is the first step towards addressing the causes of musculoskeletal breakdown and should help in applying a reasoned approach to intervention measures that may be effective in reducing racing injuries.

  17. External effects in the 400-m hurdles race.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Mike D

    2010-05-01

    A mathematical model based on a differential equation of motion is used to simulate the 400-m hurdles race for men and women. The model takes into account the hurdler's stride pattern, the hurdle clearance, and aerobic and anaerobic components of the propulsive force of the athlete, as well as the effects of wind resistance, altitude of the venue, and curvature of the track. The model is used to predict the effect on race times of different wind conditions and altitudes. The effect on race performance of the lane allocation and the efficiency of the hurdle clearance is also predicted. The most favorable wind conditions are shown to be a wind speed no greater than 2 m/s assisting the athlete in the back straight and around the second bend. The outside lane (lane 8) is shown to be considerably faster than the favored center lanes. In windless conditions, the advantage can be as much as 0.15 s for men and 0.12 s for women. It is shown that these values are greatly affected by the wind conditions.

  18. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  19. Deep Brain Stimulation May Ease Tourette 'Tics'

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164573.html Deep Brain Stimulation May Ease Tourette 'Tics' But neurology experts ... may benefit from having electrodes implanted in the brain, a small study suggests. The procedure, known as ...

  20. Hurdles to health: immigrant and refugee health care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sally B; Skull, Sue A

    2005-02-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers face a number of barriers to accessing health care and improved health status. These include language difficulties, financial need and unemployment, cultural differences, legal barriers and a health workforce with generally low awareness of issues specific to refugees. Importantly, current Australian government migration and settlement policy also impacts on access to health and health status. An adequate understanding of these 'hurdles to health' is a prerequisite for health providers and health service managers if they are to tailor health care and services appropriately. We include tables of available resources and entitlements to health care according to visa category to assist providers and managers.

  1. Hurdles in anticancer drug development from a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Bertil; Bergh, Jonas

    2012-02-21

    Between January 2001 and January 2012, 48 new medicinal products for cancer treatment were licensed within the EU, and 77 new indications were granted for products already licensed. In some cases, a major improvement to existing therapies was achieved, for example, trastuzumab in breast cancer. In other cases, new fields for effective drug therapy opened up, such as in chronic myeloid leukemia, and renal-cell carcinoma. In most cases, however, the benefit-risk balance was considered to be only borderline favorable. Based on our assessment of advice procedures for marketing authorization, 'need for speed' seems to be the guiding principle in anticancer drug development. Although, for drugs that make a difference, early licensure is of obvious importance to patients, this is less evident in the case of borderline drugs. Without proper incentives and with hurdles inside and outside companies, a change in drug development cannot be expected; drugs improving benefit-risk modestly over available therapies will be brought forward towards licensure. In this Perspectives article, we discuss some hurdles to biomarker-driven drug development and provide some suggestions to overcome them.

  2. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines – mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets – I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science. PMID:22328796

  3. Ease Kids into Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, John

    1986-01-01

    To ease students' transition to junior high school, Edwards Junior High School (South Carolina) devised a special orientation program for sixth graders at three elementary schools. The program features a principal's visit and slide show, band concerts, school visits, a special orientation day, a first-day assembly, tours, counseling, and an…

  4. Technological hurdles to the application of intercalated graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Before intercalated graphite fibers can be developed as an effective power material, there are several technological hurdles which must be overcome. These include the environmental stability, homogeneity and bulk properties, connection procedures, and costs. Strides were made within the last several years in stability and homogeneity of intercalated graphite fibers. Bulk properties and connection procedures are areas of active research now. Costs are still prohibitive for all but the most demanding applications. None of these problems, however, appear to be unsolvable, and their solution may result in wide spread GOC application. The development of a relatively simple technology application, such as EMI shielding, would stimulate the solution of scale-up problems. Once this technology is developed, then more demanding applications, such as power bus bars, may be possible.

  5. COMBATXXI, JDAFS, and LBC Integration Requirements for EASE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-06

    JDAFS, and LBC Integration Requirements for the Executable Architecture Systems Engineering (EASE) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Sensors (JDAFS) with a cloud-based simulation manager called the Executable Architecture for Systems Engineering (EASE). Using EASE will give an analyst...Engineered Resilient Systems (ERS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Executable Architecture Systems Engineering (EASE) . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  6. The development of the EASE model.

    PubMed

    Tickner, John; Friar, Jeff; Creely, Karen S; Cherrie, John W; Pryde, D Eric; Kingston, John

    2005-03-01

    The estimation and assessment of substance exposure (EASE) model has been under development and in use since the early 1990s. It is a general model that can be used to predict workplace exposure to any substance hazardous to health. The current EASE model (version 2.0) has been used widely in the risk assessment of new and existing chemicals by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and other regulatory agencies. EASE has also been distributed globally to over 200 users and therefore may have been used for many other purposes. Despite widespread use of the model, neither the development of its structure nor its underlying concepts and principles have been published in the open literature. Using surviving documentary evidence and discussions with key personnel, the creation and development of the model from 1992 to 2002 is described. The role of the HSE's National Exposure Database (NEDB) as the principal data source for the development of the model output exposure ranges is described. A number of problems and limitations of the model have been identified and the description of the model's development provides some explanation of their presence.

  7. Enabling Ease of Access for Earth-Gridded Data with EASE-Grid 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodzik, M.; Billingsley, B. W.; Haran, T. M.; Raup, B. H.; Savoie, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) has been used for distribution of a variety of global gridded satellite data sets. It is conceptually easy to understand, but over time has been shown to suffer from some limitations that make it awkward for non-mapping experts to use properly. Most importantly, it is impossible to format in the widely popular GeoTIFF convention without reprojection. Based on many years of user comments and feedback, we have developed an improved EASE-Grid 2.0 definition, as an incremental set of changes to the original definition. EASE-Grid 2.0 has been adopted for use by the NASA MEaSUREs Northern Hemisphere terrestrial, sea ice and Greenland ice sheet snow data products, the Soil-Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) soil moisture and freeze/thaw data sets, and the recently funded NASA MEaSUREs gridded passive microwave products. We describe how the new EASE-Grid 2.0 definition improves ease of access for users of the new data sets and ensures uncomplicated interoperability with modern, commonly used software tools. EASE-Grid 2.0 standard projections, Northern and Southern Azimuthal and Global Cylindrical

  8. Therapeutic Antisense Oligonucleotides against Cancer: Hurdling to the Clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Pedro; Pêgo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Under clinical development since the early 90’s and with two successfully approved drugs (Fomivirsen and Mipomersen), oligonucleotide-based therapeutics have not yet delivered a clinical drug to the market in the cancer field. Whilst many pre-clinical data has been generated, a lack of understanding still exists on how to efficiently tackle all the different challenges presented for cancer targeting in a clinical setting. Namely, effective drug vectorization, careful choice of target gene or synergistic multi-gene targeting are surely decisive, while caution must be exerted to avoid potential toxic, often misleading off-target-effects. Here a brief overview will be given on the nucleic acid chemistry advances that established oligonucleotide technologies as a promising therapeutic alternative and ongoing cancer related clinical trials. Special attention will be given towards a perspective on the hurdles encountered specifically in the cancer field by this class of therapeutic oligonucleotides and a view on possible avenues for success is presented, with particular focus on the contribution from nanotechnology to the field.

  9. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  10. Progress and prospects: hurdles to cardiovascular gene therapy clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hedman, M; Hartikainen, J; Ylä-Herttuala, S

    2011-08-01

    Several gene therapy approaches have been designed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A positive finding is that the safety of cardiovascular gene therapy has been excellent even in long-term follow-up. However, several hurdles to this field are still present. A major disappointing feature of the trials is that while preclinical and uncontrolled phase-I gene therapy trials have been positive, none of the randomized controlled phase-II/III cardiovascular gene therapy trials have shown clinically relevant positive effects. Low gene transfer efficiency seems to be associated with several trials. A sophisticated efficient delivery method for cardiovascular applications is still lacking and only low concentrations of the gene product are produced in the target tissues. Only a few gene therapy vectors can be produced in large scale. In addition, inflammatory reactions against vectors and inability to regulate gene expression are still present. Furthermore, a strong placebo effect is affecting the results in gene therapy trials, and long-term trials have become more difficult to conduct because of the multiplicity of therapies applied simultaneously on the patients. This review summarizes advances and obstacles of current cardiovascular clinical gene therapy trials.

  11. Chronopharmaceutical Drug Delivery Systems: Hurdles, Hype or Hope?⊗

    PubMed Central

    Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2010-01-01

    The current advances in chronobiology and the knowledge gained from chronotherapy of selected diseases strongly suggest that “the one size fits all at all times” approach to drug delivery is no longer substantiated, at least for selected bioactive agents and disease therapy or prevention. Thus, there is a critical and urgent need for chronopharmaceutical research (e.g., design and evaluation of robust, spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery systems that would be clinically intended for chronotherapy by different routes of administration). This review provides a brief overview of current delivery system intended for chronotherapy. In theory, such an ideal “magic pill” preferably with affordable cost, would improve the safety, efficacy and patient compliance of old and new drugs. However, currently, there are three major hurdles for the successful transition of such system from laboratory to patient bedside. These include the challenges to identify adequate (i) rhythmic biomaterials and systems, (ii) rhythm engineering modeling, perhaps using system biology and (iii) regulatory guidance. PMID:20438781

  12. Low Temperature and Modified Atmosphere: Hurdles for Antibiotic Resistance Transfer?

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Boon, Nico; Herman, Lieve; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Food is an important dissemination route for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Factors used during food production and preservation may contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, but research on this subject is scarce. In this study, the effect of temperature (7 to 37°C) and modified atmosphere packaging (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) on antibiotic resistance transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. Filter mating was performed on nonselective agar plates with high-density inocula. A more realistic setup was created by performing modified atmosphere experiments on cooked ham using high-density and low-density inocula. Plasmid transfer was observed between 10 and 37°C, with plasmid transfer also observed at 7°C during a prolonged incubation period. When high-density inocula were used, transconjugants were detected, both on agar plates and cooked ham, under the three atmospheres (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) at 7°C. This yielded a median transfer ratio (number of transconjugants/number of recipients) with an order of magnitude of 10(-4) to 10(-6). With low-density inocula, transfer was only detected under the 100% N2 atmosphere after 10-day incubation at 7°C, yielding a transfer ratio of 10(-5). Under this condition, the highest bacterial density was obtained. The results indicate that low temperature and modified atmosphere packaging, two important hurdles in the food industry, do not necessarily prevent plasmid transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes.

  13. Performance and ease influence perceived speed.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Sugovic, Mila

    2010-01-01

    According to the action-specific perception account, perception is a function of optical information and the perceiver's ability to perform the intended action. While most of the evidence for the action-specific perception account is on spatial perception, in the current experiments we examined similar effects in the perception of speed. Tennis players reproduced the time the ball traveled from the feeder machine to when they hit it. The players judged the ball to be moving faster on trials when they hit the ball out-of-bounds than on trials where they successfully hit the ball in-bounds. Follow-up experiments in the laboratory showed that participants judged virtual balls to be moving slower when they played with a bigger paddle in a modified version of Pong. These studies suggest that performance and task ease influence perceived speed.

  14. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - EASE Project (NB32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Pictured is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) student working in a spacesuit on the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) project which was developed as a joint effort between MFSC and MIT. The EASE experiment required that crew members assemble small components to form larger components, working from the payload bay of the space shuttle. The MIT student in this photo is assembling two six-beam tetrahedrons.

  15. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  16. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p <0.05) reduced the rate of deterioration of quality characteristics of pork sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  17. Comprehensive Software Eases Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    To help air traffic control centers improve the safety and the efficiency of the National Airspace System, Ames Research Center developed the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) software, which won NASA's 2006 "Software of the Year" competition. In 2005, Ames licensed FACET to Flight Explorer Inc., for integration into its Flight Explorer (version 6.0) software. The primary FACET features incorporated in the Flight Explorer software system alert airspace users to forecasted demand and capacity imbalances. Advance access to this information helps dispatchers anticipate congested sectors (airspace) and delays at airports, and decide if they need to reroute flights. FACET is now a fully integrated feature in the Flight Explorer Professional Edition (version 7.0). Flight Explorer Professional offers end-users other benefits, including ease of operation; automatic alerts to inform users of important events such as weather conditions and potential airport delays; and international, real-time flight coverage over Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and sections of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Flight Explorer Inc. recently broadened coverage by partnering with Honeywell International Inc.'s Global Data Center, Blue Sky Network, Sky Connect LLC, SITA, ARINC Incorporated, Latitude Technologies Corporation, and Wingspeed Corporation, to track their aircraft anywhere in the world.

  18. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect

    Greek, B.F. )

    1988-10-03

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  19. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  20. BEACON: A Summary Framework to Overcome Potential Reimbursement Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, William C N; Mullins, C Daniel; Pirk, Olaf; Goeree, Ron; Postma, Maarten J; Enstone, Ashley; Heron, Louise

    2016-10-01

    To provide a framework for addressing payers' criteria during the development of pharmaceuticals. A conceptual framework was presented to an international health economic expert panel for discussion. A structured literature search (from 2010 to May 2015), using the following databases in Ovid: Medline(®) and Medline(®) In-Process (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), EconLit (EBSCOhost) and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and a 'grey literature' search, were conducted to identify existing criteria from the payer perspective. The criteria assessed by existing frameworks and guidelines were collated; the most commonly reported criteria were considered for inclusion in the framework. A mnemonic was conceived as a memory aide to summarise these criteria. Overall, 41 publications were identified as potentially relevant to the objective. Following further screening, 26 were excluded upon full-text review on the basis of no framework presented (n = 13), redundancy (n = 11) or abstract only (n = 2). Frameworks that captured criteria developed for or utilised by the pharmaceutical industry (n = 5) and reimbursement guidance (n = 10) were reviewed. The most commonly identified criteria-unmet need/patient burden, safety, efficacy, quality-of-life outcomes, environment, evidence quality, budget impact and comparator-were incorporated into the summary framework. For ease of communication, the following mnemonic was developed: BEACON (Burden/target population, Environment, Affordability/value, Comparator, Outcomes, Number of studies/quality of evidence). The BEACON framework aims to capture the 'essence' of payer requirements by addressing the most commonly described criteria requested by payers regarding the introduction of a new pharmaceutical.

  1. Censored Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression (Case Study: Neonatorum Tetanus Case in Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuli Rusdiana, Riza; Zain, Ismaini; Wulan Purnami, Santi

    2017-06-01

    Hurdle negative binomial model regression is a method that can be used for discreate dependent variable, excess zero and under- and overdispersion. It uses two parts approach. The first part estimates zero elements from dependent variable is zero hurdle model and the second part estimates not zero elements (non-negative integer) from dependent variable is called truncated negative binomial models. The discrete dependent variable in such cases is censored for some values. The type of censor that will be studied in this research is right censored. This study aims to obtain the parameter estimator hurdle negative binomial regression for right censored dependent variable. In the assessment of parameter estimation methods used Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). Hurdle negative binomial model regression for right censored dependent variable is applied on the number of neonatorum tetanus cases in Indonesia. The type data is count data which contains zero values in some observations and other variety value. This study also aims to obtain the parameter estimator and test statistic censored hurdle negative binomial model. Based on the regression results, the factors that influence neonatorum tetanus case in Indonesia is the percentage of baby health care coverage and neonatal visits.

  2. Hurdles and opportunities for newborn care in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Byaruhanga, Romano N; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Kiguli, Juliet; Balyeku, Andrew; Nsabagasani, Xavier; Peterson, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    A set of evidence-based delivery and neonatal practices have the potential to reduce neonatal mortality substantially. However, resistance to the acceptance and adoption of these practices may still be a problem and challenge in the rural community in Uganda. To explore the acceptability and feasibility of the newborn care practices at household and family level in the rural communities in different regions of Uganda with regards to birth asphyxia, thermo-protection and cord care. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. Participants were purposively selected from rural communities in three districts. Six in-depth interviews targeting traditional birth attendants and nine focus group discussions composed of 10-15 participants among post childbirth mothers, elderly caregivers and partners or fathers of recently delivered mothers were conducted. All the mothers involved has had normal vaginal deliveries in the rural community with unskilled birth attendants. Latent content analysis was used. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: 'Barriers to change' and 'Windows of opportunities'. Some of the recommended newborn practices were deemed to conflict with traditional and cultural practices. Promotion of delayed bathing as a thermo-protection measure, dry cord care were unlikely to be accepted and spiritual beliefs were attached to use of local herbs for bathing or smearing of the baby's skin. However, several aspects of thermo-protection of the newborn, breast feeding, taking newborns for immunisation were in agreement with biomedical recommendations, and positive aspects of newborn care were noticed with the traditional birth attendants. Some of the evidence based practices may be accepted after modification. Behaviour change communication messages need to address the community norms in the country. The involvement of other newborn caregivers than the mother at the household and the community early during pregnancy may

  3. Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters.

  4. Evaluation and further development of EASE model 2.0.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Tickner, J; Soutar, A J; Hughson, G W; Pryde, D E; Warren, N D; Rae, R; Money, C; Phillips, A; Cherrie, J W

    2005-03-01

    EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure) is a general model that may be used to predict workplace exposure to a wide range of substances hazardous to health. First developed in the early 1990s, it is now in its second Windows version. This paper provides a critical assessment of the utility and performance of the EASE model, and on the basis of this review, recommendations for the structure of a revised model are outlined. Twenty-seven stakeholders were interviewed about their previous use of EASE, perceived advantages and limitations of the model and suggestions for improvement. A subset of stakeholders was contacted on a second occasion to determine their views on the preferred outputs for an ideal exposure assessment model. Overall, stakeholders felt that the model should be updated to provide more accurate and precise exposure assessments. However, users also expressed the view that the simplicity and usability of the software model should not be compromised. Six studies investigating the validity of the inhalation exposure assessment section of EASE were identified. These showed that the model generally either predicted close to the measured exposures or overestimated exposure; though performance was highly variable. Two studies investigated the validity of the dermal exposure assessment and found that EASE produced considerable overestimates of actual dermal exposure (the amount of a substance that actually lands on the skin). A conceptual model of exposure was developed to investigate whether the structure of the EASE model is appropriate. Although EASE has a number of characteristics that describe exposure, it is a greatly simplified model and does not include all the important exposure determinants. More importantly, EASE can produce estimates of exposure that are ambiguous or incomplete. Our conceptual model may provide a rational basis for developing an improved version of EASE but further consultation is needed to decide the purpose and

  5. Compulsory Hurdle Literacy and Numeracy Requirements for Senior Secondary Students: What Do the Stakeholders Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Griffin, Patrick; Care, Esther; McPherson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    As a policy initiative to improve student achievement, a number of jurisdictions have introduced compulsory literacy and numeracy standards for senior secondary students, the meeting of which forms a hurdle requirement for the award of the senior secondary exit certificate. While such a requirement is sometimes justified by policymakers as a…

  6. Hurdles in clinical implementation of academic advanced therapy medicinal products: A national evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Sofieke; Veltrop-Duits, Louise; Hoozemans-Strik, Merel; Ras, Thirza; Blom-Veenman, Janine; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Zandvliet, Maarten; Meij, Pauline

    2016-06-01

    Since the implementation of the European Union (EU) regulation for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in 2009, only six ATMPs achieved marketing authorization approval in the EU. Recognizing the major developments in the ATMP field, starting mostly in academic institutions, we investigated which hurdles were experienced in the whole pathway of ATMP development towards clinical care. Quality interviews were executed with different stakeholders in The Netherlands involved in the ATMP development field, e.g. academic research groups, national authorities and patient organizations. Based on the hurdles mentioned in the interviews, questionnaires were subsequently sent to the academic principal investigators (PIs) and ATMP good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility managers to quantify these hurdles. Besides the familiar regulatory routes of marketing authorization (MA) and hospital exemption (HE), a part of the academic PIs perceived that ATMPs should become available by the Tissues and Cells Directive or did not anticipate on the next development steps towards implementation of their ATMP towards regular clinical care. The main hurdles identified were: inadequate financial support, rapidly evolving field, study-related problems, lacking regulatory knowledge, lack of collaborations and responsibility issues. Creating an academic environment stimulating and planning ATMP development and licensing as well as investing in expanding the relevant regulatory knowledge in academic institutions seems a prerequisite to develop ATMPs from bench to patient. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. College Education and the Poor in China: Documenting the Hurdles to Educational Attainment and College Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Glauben, Thomas; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to…

  8. Compulsory Hurdle Literacy and Numeracy Requirements for Senior Secondary Students: What Do the Stakeholders Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne; Griffin, Patrick; Care, Esther; McPherson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    As a policy initiative to improve student achievement, a number of jurisdictions have introduced compulsory literacy and numeracy standards for senior secondary students, the meeting of which forms a hurdle requirement for the award of the senior secondary exit certificate. While such a requirement is sometimes justified by policymakers as a…

  9. The insights of health and welfare professionals on hurdles that impede economic evaluations of welfare interventions.

    PubMed

    Schepers, J; Plaete, J; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Annemans, L; Simoens, S

    2017-08-01

    Four hurdles associated with economic evaluations in welfare interventions were identified and discussed in a previous published literature review. These hurdles include (i) 'Ignoring the impact of condition-specific outcomes', (ii) 'Ignoring the impact of QoL externalities', (iii) 'Calculation of costs from a too narrow perspective' and (iv) 'The lack of well-described & standardized interventions'. This study aims to determine how healthcare providers and social workers experience and deal with these hurdles in practice and what solutions or new insights they would suggest. Twenty-two professionals of welfare interventions carried out in Flanders, were interviewed about the four described hurdles using a semi-structured interview. A thematic framework was developed to enable the qualitative analysis. The analysis of the semi-structured interviews was facilitated through the use of the software program QRS NVivo 10. The interviews revealed a clear need to tackle these hurdles. The interviewees confirmed that further study of condition-specific outcomes in economic evaluations are needed, especially in the field of mental health and stress. The proposed dimensions for the condition-specific questionnaires varied however between the groups of interviewees (i.e. general practitioners vs social workers). With respect to QoL externalities, the interviewees confirmed that welfare interventions have an impact on the social environment of the patient (friends and family). There was however no consensus on how this impact of QoL externalities should be taken into account in welfare interventions. Professionals also suggested that besides health care costs, the impact of welfare interventions on work productivity, the patients' social life and other items should be incorporated. Standardization appears to be of limited added value for most of the interviewees because they need a certain degree of freedom to interpret the intervention. Furthermore, the target population of

  10. Easing Opioid Dose May Improve Pain and Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Easing Opioid Dose May Improve Pain and Quality of Life Slowly lowering the drug amount also ... at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City. He said, "Identifying effective non-opioid approaches to ...

  11. Yoga, Meditation May Ease Some Breast Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_165746.html Yoga, Meditation May Ease Some Breast Cancer Symptoms But study into alternative therapies didn't ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can come with a lot of anxiety, depression ...

  12. Specially Designed Video Game Might Ease 'Phantom Limb' Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162316.html Specially Designed Video Game Might Ease 'Phantom Limb' Pain Study finds exercising ... effect. In addition, they noted that the treatment's design may prevent it from helping all amputees with ...

  13. Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162876.html Weight Loss May Ease Psoriasis Symptoms, Study Finds Quality-of-life boost seen ... 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Could weight loss combat psoriasis? Danish researchers are reporting that obese people with ...

  14. Compound in Pot Eases Severe Form of Epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Compound in Pot Eases Severe Form of Epilepsy Cannabidiol not associated with the 'high' of marijuana, ... children with a rare and devastating form of epilepsy. Cannabidiol -- a non-intoxicating chemical -- reduced seizure frequency ...

  15. The validity of the EASE expert system for inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, John W; Hughson, Graeme W

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is a computerized expert system developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive to facilitate exposure assessments in the absence of exposure measurements. The system uses a number of rules to predict a range of likely exposures or an 'end-point' for a given work situation. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of inhalation exposure measurements covering a wide range of end-points in the EASE system to compare with the predicted exposures. Occupational exposure data sets were identified from previous research projects or from consultancy work. Available information for each set of measurements was retrieved from archive storage and reviewed to ensure that it was adequate to enable EASE (version 2) predictions to be obtained. Exposure measurements and other relevant contextual data were abstracted and entered into a computer spreadsheet. EASE predictions were then obtained for each task or job and entered into the spreadsheet. In addition, we generated a random exposure range for each data set for comparison with the EASE predictions. Finally, we produced exposure assessments for a subset of the data using a structured subjective assessment method. We were able to identify approximately 4000 inhalation exposure measurements covering 52 different scenarios and 28 EASE end-points. The data included measurements of solvent vapours, non-fibrous dusts and fibres. In 62% of the end-points the EASE predictions were generally greater than the exposure measurements and in 30% of the end-points the EASE estimates were comparable with the measurements. The random allocation of exposure ranges was, as expected, less reliable than EASE, although there were still about one-third of the cases where the randomly generated exposure ranges generally agreed with the measurements. The structured subjective assessments undertaken by a human expert produced exposure estimates in better agreement with the measurements

  16. Do EASE scenarios fit workplace reality? A validation study of the EASE model. Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bredendiek-Kämper, S

    2001-02-01

    Within the framework of European risk assessment of new and existing substances, the EASE model (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure) is often applied to assess inhalative exposure at workplaces. To contribute to the validation of this model, single EASE scenarios were compared with independent measurement data on inhalative exposure to vapors and dusts. For this purpose, workplace measurements obtained in the areas of production, textile printing and coating, screen printing and offset printing, the rubber industry, and the plastics processing industry as well as flame spraying were used. A good correspondence between model estimates and measurement data was found in the case of exposure to vapors for the production of chemical substances in closed systems (EASE scenario: closed system without breaching) and for procedural control works at mainly automated printing workplaces (EASE scenarios: non dispersive use, segregation, low/medium volatility). For the handling of powdery substances measurement results obtained during weighing and filling works, in part semiautomatic, were compared with the EASE estimates for the scenario: dry manipulation, with/without local exhaust ventilation. Good correspondence was estimated if approx. 1 t to 200 t powdery substances were handled per shift. For the EASE scenarios "direct handling with natural ventilation/with local exhaust ventilation," high discrepancies exist between model prediction and measurement results obtained during manual screen printing or the preparation of printing inks.

  17. Prayer and the Registered Nurse (PRN): nurses' reports of ease and dis-ease with patient-initiated prayer request.

    PubMed

    Minton, Mary E; Isaacson, Mary; Banik, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    To explore nurse comfort with patient-initiated prayer request scenarios. Spiritual care is fundamental to patient care evidenced by Joint Commission requirement of a spiritual assessment on a patient's hospital admission. Prayer is an assessment component. Patients may seek solace and support by requesting prayer from the bedside nurse, the nurse may lack confidence in responding. Absent in the literature are reports specific to nurses' comfort when patients initiate prayer requests. Cross-sectional mixed methods study. Data were collected in early 2014 from 134 nurses in the USA via an online survey using QuestionPro. The qualitative results reported here were collated by scenario and analysed using thematic analysis. The scenario responses revealed patterns of ease and dis-ease in response to patient requests for prayer. The pattern of ease of prayer with patients revealed three themes: open to voice of calm or silence; physical or spiritual; can I call the chaplain. For these nurses, prayer is a natural component of nursing care, as the majority of responses to all scenarios demonstrated an overwhelming ease in response and capacity to pray with patients on request. The pattern of dis-ease of prayer with patients distinguished two themes: cautious hesitancy and whose God. These nurses experienced dis-ease with the patient's request no matter the situation. Educators and administrators must nurture opportunities for students and nurses to learn about and engage in the reflective preparation needed to respond to patient prayer requests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Difficult OptEase filter retrievals after prolonged indwelling times.

    PubMed

    Van Ha, Thuong G; Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure. There were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology. Unconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  19. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ha, Thuong G. Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  20. EASE vectors for rapid stable expression of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Teri L; Viaje, Aurora; Morris, Arvia E

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments have become an increasingly important source of therapeutic molecules in the biotechnology industry. Drug development strategies rely on screening large numbers of candidate molecules in search of an optimized drug candidate. This strategy requires efficient production of ten to a few hundred milligrams of candidate molecules for screening in bioassays and animal models. Typically, this amount of recombinant protein expression involves large numbers of transient transfections or cloning of a recombinant cell line. Both of these approaches are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this report, we describe the application of an EASE vector system that is capable of generating stable pools of transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. These pooled populations of cells produce high quantities of antibody candidates without labor-intensive cloning in a 3-5 week time frame. When an optimal drug candidate has been selected, pools generated with EASE-containing vectors can also be used in subsequent cloning steps to make cell lines with improved expression levels. We demonstrate that EASE increases expression in nonamplified pools in addition to increasing amplification and viability of clonal cell lines generated with the EASE-containing vectors compared with pools and cell lines generated without EASE.

  1. Solid anaerobic digestion: State-of-art, scientific and technological hurdles.

    PubMed

    André, Laura; Pauss, André; Ribeiro, Thierry

    2017-09-05

    In this paper, a state-of-art about solid anaerobic digestion (AD), focused on recent progress and trends of research is proposed. Solid anaerobic digestion should be the most appropriate process for degradation of by-products with high total solid (TS) content, especially lignocellulosic materials like agricultural waste (straw, manure), household waste and food waste. Solid AD is already widely used in waste water treatment plant for treating plant for sewage sludge but could be more developed for lignocellulosic materials with high TS content. Many research works were carried out in Europe on solid AD, focused on current hurdles (BMP, codigestion, inhibition, microbial population, rheology, water transfers, inoculum, etc.) in order to optimize the solid AD process. In conclusion, hurdles of solid AD process should and must be solved in order to propose better productivity and profitability of such system operating with high TS content (>15%), favouring reliable industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering of human hepatocyte lines for cell therapies in humans: prospects and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashit, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  3. Engineering of Human Hepatocyte Lines for Cell Therapies in Humans: Prospects and Remaining Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-07-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  4. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.

  5. Hurdles to the introduction of new therapies for immune-mediated kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Anders, Hans-Joachim; Jayne, David R W; Rovin, Brad H

    2016-04-01

    Innovative immunotherapies continue to markedly benefit many disciplines in clinical medicine but disappointingly, these benefits have not translated to the treatment of kidney diseases despite encouraging findings from preclinical models of kidney dysfunction. This lack of progress in nephrology might relate to the unique biology of the kidney. More likely, this lack of progress relates to conceptual hurdles in the application of newer therapies to renal disease. In this Review we discuss seven hurdles that must be addressed in order to appropriately assess and introduce immunologic therapies for immune-mediated kidney disease: the use of appropriate criteria to define disease categories; issues relating to the heterogeneity of kidney diseases and how this heterogeneity affects approaches to treatment; issues related to the rarity of most kidney diseases; the paucity of good animal models of human kidney disease; issues relating to trial design; problems with current approaches to the identification and use of appropriate and feasible study end points; and a lack of adequate biomarkers of intrarenal inflammation and parenchymal injury. We suggest that overcoming these hurdles, in addition to searching for better therapeutic targets, will be necessary to progress the treatment of immune-mediated kidney disease into a new age of drug therapy.

  6. An overview of the EASE/ACCESS space construction demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, George M.; Ross, Jerry L.; Spring, Sherwood C.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS) space construction demonstration, which was performed during Space Shuttle mission 61-B. The mission equipment is described and illustrated and the EASE/ACCESS mission management structure is outlined. Simulations of the assembly and disassembly in the NASA neutral buoyancy simulators were used to test the mission plans. In addition, EVA training and crew performance for the mission are discussed.

  7. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  8. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  9. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  10. Help Children Move from Preschool to Elementary School with Ease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappel, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Each year, families across the country take the leap from an early-childhood learning program to elementary school. Prepared families take a poised step forward, confident and knowledgeable about how their child will ease into the school system and develop along his or her learning path. Unprepared families anxiously tiptoe ahead, unsure of what…

  11. A Guide to Easing Writing's Rigors: Having Fun with Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda, Ed.; And Others

    Noting that having fun with language engenders a love of language and an understanding of its power and vitality, and that students with this awareness of and respect for language will likely be more successful writers, this guide offers suggestions that will help teachers ease the rigors of writing for their students and create a "language…

  12. Divorce Aftermath: Empowering Parents...Easing the Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Wanda L.

    The increase in divorce rates following the American adoption of no-fault divorce is correlated with radical changes in the lives of many parents and children. However, the dissolution of a marriage does not mean the end of a family. Family ties are forever, and family therapists can assist by easing the pain of divorce and empowering parents to…

  13. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  14. Easing East-West Tensions in the Third World,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Tisi document has beenap8it. for public release and 5ale; distribution is unlimited. U SPEIA SERE EASING EAST-WEST TENSIONS IN THE THIRD WORLD MARCH 1986...WORLD I.C _GENRA -L PAGE BOOKS .................................. 3 PERIODICAL ARTICLES ..................... 14 GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS ...32 GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS .................36 REPORT LITERATURE ...................... 40 BOOKS ................................. 41

  15. Clothing Fasteners: Ease of Manipulation and Preference among Arthritic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forcese, Valeria L.; Shannon, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a study that determined type of clothing fastener preferred by arthritic women when both function and aesthetics were considered. Results revealed appearance was more important than ease of manipulation, and clothing fastener types must be considered when selecting or modifying garments for arthritics. (Availability: CHEA National…

  16. Understanding the adaptive response in vertebrates: the phenomenon of ease and ease response during post-stress acclimation.

    PubMed

    Subhash Peter, M C

    2013-01-15

    Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to perceive stressors that arise either from their body or from the environment. Consequently, a state of stress and stress response occur in fish which is characterized by a disturbed physiological homeostasis. The pattern of stress response becomes complex as a result of neuroendocrine involvement and shows varied magnitudes in fishes depending on the nature and the severity of stressors. The integrated and compensatory physiological modifications in fishes during their early phase of adaptive response favor them to accommodate the imposed stressor through the process of stress acclimation. In contrast, with the direction of neuroendocrine signals, a phase of recovery often called post-stress acclimation occurs if the animal gets away from the stressor exposure. During this late phase of adaptive response, physiological modifications operate in favor of the animal that reduces the magnitude of stress response and finally to a phase of normality as animals possess the urge to correct its disrupted homeostasis. The phenomenon of ease and its response thus reduces the allostatic load, resets the homeostatic state through physiologic processes and corrects the stress-induced homeostatic disturbance with the aid of neuroendocrine signals. Ample evidences are now available to support this novel concept of ease and ease response where mitigation of the intensity of stress response occurs physiologically. Treatment of fish with melatonin or serotonin precursor tryptophan can modify the magnitude of stress response as evident in the pattern of tested physiological indices. In addition to cortisol, thyroid hormone as a major stress modifier hormone is involved in the regulation of ease response in fish probably due to the mechanisms involving inter-hormonal interference. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive responses in vertebrates thus warranties more studies on the physiology of ease and its response.

  17. Space construction results: The EASE/ACCESS flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    This paper describes NASA ground and flight test activities in the development of in-space construction techniques for the assembly of Space-Station-sized structures. In November 1985, the first experiments on space construction using EVA astronauts were flown aboard the Space Shuttle, with spectacular and highly visible results. The EASE and ACCESS flight experiments are described and the ground and water tank test program and operations in-flight including instrumentation are presented, together with illustrations of assembly and disassembly of both the EASE and ACCESS experiments. The flight test results are presented and learning and productivity curves are discussed, with differences between free EVA vs EVA using foot restraints compared. Two weeks after the flights, the Space Station structural assembly technique was selected to be EVA astronaut assembly of the truss, based on the flight experiment results.

  18. Stakeholder Analysis of an Executable Achitecture Systems Engineering (EASE) Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-21

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORISI 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Mr. Gene Lesinski Mr. Chris Gaughan COL Daniel McCarthy 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...The FCR tables and stakeholder feedback are then used as the foundation of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis. Finally...the SWOT analysis and stakeholder feedback arc translated into an EASE future development strategy; a series of recommendations regarding

  19. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  20. Crash Frequency Analysis Using Hurdle Models with Random Effects Considering Short-Term Panel Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Suren; Yang, Lin

    2016-10-26

    Random effect panel data hurdle models are established to research the daily crash frequency on a mountainous section of highway I-70 in Colorado. Road Weather Information System (RWIS) real-time traffic and weather and road surface conditions are merged into the models incorporating road characteristics. The random effect hurdle negative binomial (REHNB) model is developed to study the daily crash frequency along with three other competing models. The proposed model considers the serial correlation of observations, the unbalanced panel-data structure, and dominating zeroes. Based on several statistical tests, the REHNB model is identified as the most appropriate one among four candidate models for a typical mountainous highway. The results show that: (1) the presence of over-dispersion in the short-term crash frequency data is due to both excess zeros and unobserved heterogeneity in the crash data; and (2) the REHNB model is suitable for this type of data. Moreover, time-varying variables including weather conditions, road surface conditions and traffic conditions are found to play importation roles in crash frequency. Besides the methodological advancements, the proposed technology bears great potential for engineering applications to develop short-term crash frequency models by utilizing detailed data from field monitoring data such as RWIS, which is becoming more accessible around the world.

  1. Crash Frequency Analysis Using Hurdle Models with Random Effects Considering Short-Term Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Suren; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Random effect panel data hurdle models are established to research the daily crash frequency on a mountainous section of highway I-70 in Colorado. Road Weather Information System (RWIS) real-time traffic and weather and road surface conditions are merged into the models incorporating road characteristics. The random effect hurdle negative binomial (REHNB) model is developed to study the daily crash frequency along with three other competing models. The proposed model considers the serial correlation of observations, the unbalanced panel-data structure, and dominating zeroes. Based on several statistical tests, the REHNB model is identified as the most appropriate one among four candidate models for a typical mountainous highway. The results show that: (1) the presence of over-dispersion in the short-term crash frequency data is due to both excess zeros and unobserved heterogeneity in the crash data; and (2) the REHNB model is suitable for this type of data. Moreover, time-varying variables including weather conditions, road surface conditions and traffic conditions are found to play importation roles in crash frequency. Besides the methodological advancements, the proposed technology bears great potential for engineering applications to develop short-term crash frequency models by utilizing detailed data from field monitoring data such as RWIS, which is becoming more accessible around the world. PMID:27792209

  2. Point-of-care diagnostics: will the hurdles be overcome this time?

    PubMed

    Huckle, David

    2006-07-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics have been proposed as the latest development in clinical diagnostics several times in the last 30 years; however, they have not yet fully developed into a business sector to match the projections. This perspective examines the reasons for past failures and the failure of technology to meet user needs. Advances have taken place in the last few years that effectively remove technology as a barrier to the development of point-of-care testing. Even regulatory issues regarding how products are developed and claims supported have been absorbed, understood and now accepted. The emphasis here is on the possible favorable aspects that are novel this time around. These changes have arisen as a result of the situation with global healthcare economics and the pressure from patients to be treated more like customers. The final hurdles relate to the conflict between diagnosis with the patient present and treated as soon as the point-of-care result is available and the entrenched positions of the central laboratory, the suppliers and their established distribution chains, and the way in which healthcare budgets are allocated. The ultimate hurdle that encapsulates all of these issues is reimbursement, which is the final barrier to a significant point-of-care diagnostics market--without reimbursement there will be no market.

  3. The Number of Trials Required to Obtain a Representative Movement Pattern During a Hurdle Hop Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gore, Shane J; Marshall, Brendan M; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew D; Falvey, Eanna C; Moran, Kieran A

    2016-06-01

    When reporting a subject's mean movement pattern, it is important to ensure that reported values are representative of the subject's typical movement. While previous studies have used the mean of 3 trials, scientific justification of this number is lacking. One approach is to determine statistically how many trials are required to achieve a representative mean. This study compared 4 methods of calculating the number of trials required in a hopping movement to achieve a representative mean. Fifteen males completed 15 trials of a lateral hurdle hop. Range of motion at the trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle, in addition to peak moments for the latter 3 joints were examined. The number of trials required was computed using a peak intraclass correlation coefficient method, sequential analysis with a bandwidth of acceptable variance in the mean, and a novel method based on the standard error of measurement (SEMind). The number of trials required across all variables ranged from 2 to 12 depending on method, joint, and anatomical plane. The authors advocate the SEMind method as it demonstrated fewer limitations than the other methods. Using the SEMind, the required number of trials for a representative mean during the lateral hurdle hop is 6.

  4. OptEase and TrapEase Vena Cava Filters: A Single-Center Experience in 258 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Onat, Levent Ganiyusufoglu, Ali Kursat; Mutlu, Ayhan; Sirvanci, Mustafa; Duran, Cihan; Ulusoy, Onur Levent; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2009-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the OptEase and TrapEase (both from Cordis, Roden, Netherlands) vena cava filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE). Between May 2004 and December 2008, OptEase (permanent/retrievable; n = 228) or TrapEase (permanent; n = 30) vena cava filters were placed in 258 patients (160 female and 98 male; mean age 62 years [range 22 to 97]). Indications were as follows: prophylaxis for PE (n = 239), contraindication for anticoagulation in the presence of PE or DVT (n = 10), and development of PE or DVT despite anticoagulation (n = 9). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for indications, clinical results, and procedure-related complications during placement and retrieval. Clinical PE did not develop in any of the patients. However, radiologic signs of segmental PE were seen in 6 of 66 patients with follow-up imaging data. Migration or fracture of the filter or cava perforation was not seen in any of the patients. Except for a single case of asymptomatic total cava thrombosis, no thrombotic occlusion was observed. One hundred forty-one patients were scheduled to undergo filter removal; however, 17 of them were not suitable for such based on venography evaluation. Removal was attempted in 124 patients and was successful in 115 of these (mean duration of retention 11 days [range 4 to 23]). Nine filters could not be removed. Permanent/retrievable vena cava filters are safe and effective devices for PE prophylaxis and for the management of venous thromboembolism by providing the option to be left in place.

  5. Heart rate and blood lactate in 400 m flat and 400 m hurdle running: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Goswami, A; Mukhopadhyay, S

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted on a group of male sprinters (n = 8) to compare heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La) response in 400 m flat and 400 m hurdle running during weekly trial race. Durations of the flat and hurdle races were 51.65 +/- 1.51 and 58.27 +/- 1.97 sec respectively. Peak HR attained at the end of the flat and hurdle races were 192.4 +/- 5.3 and 193.6 +/- 4.1 beats/min, whereas, average HR during the events were 173.6 +/- 22.6 and 176.7 +/- 19.6 beats/min respectively. La level following the flat event (18.84 +/- 1.57 mmol/L) was found significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the post-hurdle race (16.14 +/- 1.97 mmol/L). The study indicates that cardiovascular stress is similar in both the events although flat race impose higher anaerobic glycolytic demand than hurdle run.

  6. States leverage telepsychiatry solutions to ease ED crowding, accelerate care.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Many states are having success turning to telepsychiatry-based solutions to connect mental health patients with needed care while also decompressing crowded EDs. Just one year into a statewide telepsychiatry initiative in North Carolina (NC-STeP), administrators say the approach has saved as much as $7 million, and hospital demand for the service is higher than anticipated. In Texas, mental health emergency centers (MHEC) that use telepsychiatry to connect patients in rural areas with needed psychiatric care are freeing up EDs to focus on medical care. In just 11 months, 91 North Carolina hospitals have at least started the process to engage in NC-STeP. Much of the savings from NC-STeP come from involuntary commitment orders being overturned as a result of the telepsychiatry consults, reducing the need for expensive inpatient care. Implementing NC-STeP has involved multiple hurdles including credentialing difficulties and technical/firewall challenges. The Texas model provides 24/7 availability of psychiatrists via telemedicine through a network of MHECs. In-person staff at the MHECs perform basic screening tests and blood draws so that medical clearance can be achieved without the need for an ED visit in most cases. Funding for the MHECs comes from the state, hospitals in the region, and local governmental authorities that reap savings or benefits from the initiative.

  7. Demirjian approach of dental age estimation: Abridged for operator ease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vanshika; Kapoor, Priyanka; Miglani, Ragini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Present times have seen an alarming increase in incidence of crimes by juveniles and of mass destruction that Highlight the preponderance of individual age estimation. Of the numerous techniques employed for age assessment, dental age estimation (DAE) and its correlation with chronological age (CA) have been of great significance in the recent past. Demirjian system, considered as gold standard in DAE is a simple and convenient method for DAE, though,, although, referring to multiple tables make it cumbersome and less eco friendly due to excessive paper load. Aim: The present study was aimed to develop a comprehensive chart (DAEcc) inclusive of all Demirjian tables and developmental stages of teeth and also to as well as to test the operator ease of 50 undergraduate dental students in performing DAE using this chart. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in two stages, wherein the first stage was aimed at formulation of the comprehensive chart (DAECC) which included pictorial representation of calcification stages, the Federation Dentaire Internationale notation of the teeth, and the corresponding scores for each stage with a concluding column at the end to enter the total score. The second stage assessed the applicability of the ease of DAE by DAECC, whereby fifty 2nd year BDS students were asked to trace the calcification stages of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth on a panorex, identify the correct stage, assign the corresponding score, and to calculate the total score for subsequent dental age assessment. Results and Conclusions: showed that average time taken by the students for tracing seven mandibular teeth was 5 min and for assessment of dental age was 7 min. The total time taken for DAE was approximately 12 min, thus making the procedure less time consuming. Hence, this study proposes the use of DAEcc for age estimation due to ease in comprehension and execution of Demirjian system. PMID:28123280

  8. Space construction results - The EASE/ACCESS flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.

    1986-01-01

    NASA ground and flight test activities aimed at the development of in-space construction techniques for the assembly of Space-Station-sized structures are described. In particular, attention is given to the EASE and ACCESS flight experiments, the ground and water tank program, and operations in-flight including instrumentations. The baseline experiments demonstrate that erectable structures can be assembled effectively by astronauts in EVA. The average assembly time for a 45-foot truss was 25.5 minutes; the assembly rate was 3.6 struts per minute.

  9. Hurdles in tissue engineering/regenerative medicine product commercialization: a survey of North American academia and industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Peter C; Bertram, Timothy A; Tawil, Bill; Hellman, Kiki B

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society-North America (TERMIS-NA) Industry Committee was formed in February 2009 to address the common roadblocks (i.e., hurdles) in the commercialization of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine products for its members. A semiquantitative online opinion survey instrument that delineated potentially sensitive hurdles to commercialization in each of the TERMIS constituency groups that generally participate in the stream of technology commercialization (academia, startup companies, development-stage companies, and established companies) was developed. The survey was opened to each of the 863 members of TERMIS-NA for a period of 5 weeks from October to November 2009. By its conclusion, 215 members (25%) had responded. Their proportionate numbers were closely representative of TERMIS-NA constituencies. The resulting data delineate what each group considers to be its most difficult and also its easiest hurdles in taking a technology to full product development. In addition, each group ranked its perception of the difficult and easy hurdles for all other groups, enabling an assessment of the degree of understanding between groups. The data depict not only critical hurdles in the path to commercialization at each stage in product development but also a variable understanding of perceptions of hurdles between groups. This assessment has provided the Industry Committee with activity foci needed to assist individual groups in the technology-commercialization stream. Moreover, the analysis suggests that enhanced communication between groups engaged in commercialization will be critical to the successful development of products in the tissue engineering/regenerative medicine sector.

  10. Opportunities, hurdles, solutions, and approaches to transition military veterans into professional nursing programs.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patricia E; Armstrong, Myrna L; Saladiner, Jason E; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Conard, Patricia L

    2014-01-01

    Capitalizing on the almost 2.2 million service members returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OIF) in Iraq, and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan, baccalaureate educators are encouraged to create realistic, applicable nursing transitional programs for the health and health-related oriented military veterans. Opportunities, hurdles, and solutions related to the veteran's unique socio-economic circumstances of education, finances, and advisement are provided so the potential veteran student is successful within the university's milieu. Transitional nursing educational interventions related to assessment, didactic, and clinical used by two baccalaureate nursing curriculums, including the eLineMilitary* (ELM) Program, provide approaches of how to propel the veteran's journey toward graduation in a professional nursing program. These interventions include modular didactic, competency based education, as well as the concentrated, collegial time within the Faculty/Clinical Coach triad for essential role modeling, care, and skills.

  11. Ophthalmic Start-Up Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Development Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2017-08-26

    To identify current challenges facing ophthalmic pharmaceutical start-ups in developing new products. Surveys were distributed to the chief executive officer (CEO) or president of ophthalmic start-ups. The survey attracted 24 responses from 78 surveys distributed (31%). The CEOs stated that a lack of financial capital (n = 18, 75%), FDA regulations (n = 6, 25%), and failure to meet clinical endpoints (n = 6, 25%) were their greatest development hurdles. Risk aversion to medicines in early development (n = 18, 75%), mergers and acquisitions reducing corporate choice for licensing agreements (n = 7, 29%), the emergence of large pharmaceutical-based venture capital funding groups (n = 12, 50%), and the failure of many large pharmaceutical companies to develop their own medicines (n = 10, 42%) were noted as recent prominent trends affecting fundraising. The study suggests that development funding, regulatory burden, and meeting clinical endpoints are the greatest development challenges faced by ophthalmic start-up CEOs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. About ATMPs, SOPs and GMP: The Hurdles to Produce Novel Skin Grafts for Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Marino, Daniela; Reichmann, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of severe full-thickness skin defects represents a significant and common clinical problem worldwide. A bio-engineered autologous skin substitute would significantly reduce the problems observed with today's gold standard. Within 15 years of research, the Tissue Biology Research Unit of the University Children's Hospital Zurich has developed autologous tissue-engineered skin grafts based on collagen type I hydrogels. Those products are considered as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) and are routinely produced for clinical trials in a clean room facility following the guidelines for good manufacturing practice (GMP). This article focuses on hurdles observed for the translation of ATMPs from research into the GMP environment and clinical application. Personalized medicine in the field of rare diseases has great potential. However, ATMPs are mainly developed and promoted by academia, hospitals, and small companies, which face many obstacles such as high financial burdens.

  13. About ATMPs, SOPs and GMP: The Hurdles to Produce Novel Skin Grafts for Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Marino, Daniela; Reichmann, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of severe full-thickness skin defects represents a significant and common clinical problem worldwide. A bio-engineered autologous skin substitute would significantly reduce the problems observed with today's gold standard. Methods Within 15 years of research, the Tissue Biology Research Unit of the University Children's Hospital Zurich has developed autologous tissue-engineered skin grafts based on collagen type I hydrogels. Those products are considered as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) and are routinely produced for clinical trials in a clean room facility following the guidelines for good manufacturing practice (GMP). This article focuses on hurdles observed for the translation of ATMPs from research into the GMP environment and clinical application. Results and Conclusion Personalized medicine in the field of rare diseases has great potential. However, ATMPs are mainly developed and promoted by academia, hospitals, and small companies, which face many obstacles such as high financial burdens. PMID:27781022

  14. Hurdles and delays in access to anti-cancer drugs in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ades, F; Zardavas, D; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Eniu, A; Popescu, R; Piccart, M; Parent, F

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes in the world population will cause a significant increase in the number of new cases of cancer. To handle this challenge, societies will need to adapt how they approach cancer prevention and treatment, with changes to the development and uptake of innovative anticancer drugs playing an important role. However, there are obstacles to implementing innovative drugs in clinical practice. Prior to being incorporated into daily practice, the drug must obtain regulatory and reimbursement approval, succeed in changing the prescription habits of physicians, and ultimately gain the compliance of individual patients. Developing an anticancer drug and bringing it into clinical practice is, therefore, a lengthy and complex process involving multiple partners in several areas. To optimize patient treatment and increase the likelihood of implementing health innovation, it is essential to have an overview of the full process. This review aims to describe the process and discuss the hurdles arising at each step. PMID:25525460

  15. EASE/ACCESS ground processing at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moates, Deborah J.; Villamil, Ana M.

    1987-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Payload Management and Operations Directorate is responsible for the processing of Space Shuttle payloads. The KSC responsibilities begin prior to hardware arrival at the launch site and extend until the experiments are returned to the investigators after the flight. The KSC involvement with the integration and checkout of payloads begins with participation in experiment, Mission Peculiar Equipment (MPE), and integrated payload design reviews. This involvement also includes participation in assembly and testing of flight hardware at the appropriate design center, university, or private corporation. Once the hardware arrives at the launch site, KSC personnel install the experiments and MPE onto a carrier in the Operations and Checkout (O & C) building. Following integration, the payload is functionally tested and then installed into the orbiter. After the mission, the payload is removed from the orbiter, deintegrated in the O & C building, and the experiments are turned over to the mission manager. One of the many payloads process at KSC consisted of two space construction experiments: the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS). The details of EASE/ACCESS integration, testing, and deintegration are addressed and how this mission can serve as a guide for future space construction payloads is discussed.

  16. A new cannula to ease cement injection during vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Baroud, G; Steffen, T

    2005-06-01

    One of the main limitations of vertebroplasty is the excessive pressure required to inject a sufficient amount of cement into a vertebral body. Based on previous work that shows that approximately 95% of the injection pressure is required to deliver the cement through the cannula, we proposed a new cannula design with a larger internal diameter in the proximal section. The objective of this study is to determine whether the new cannula geometry significantly reduces the delivery pressure and eases cement injection during vertebroplasty. Two different methods were employed to examine the delivery pressure in a conventional and two redesigned cannulae: (1) analytical model: Hagen-Poisseuille's flow through a tube was used to predict the pressure drop in the cannulae; (2) experiment: first a Newtonian silicone oil and then an acrylic bone cement was injected through the cannulae at a constant rate of 4 cc/min, and the delivery pressure was recorded. Both the experimental and analytical findings confirmed that the redesigned cannula reduces the delivery pressure significantly. Specifically, when the internal diameter of the proximal section was increased by a factor of two, which is clinically feasible, the delivery pressure dropped by about 63%. The redesigned cannula appears to have the potential to improve vertebroplasty. The key benefits are that (1) it eases cement injection, (2) it can be easily integrated into the existing procedure, and (3) it is cost-effective.

  17. Ease of identifying words degraded by visual noise.

    PubMed

    Barber, P; de la Mahotière, C

    1982-08-01

    A technique is described for investigating word recognition involving the superimposition of 'noise' on the visual target word. For this task a word is printed in the form of letters made up of separate elements; noise consists of additional elements which serve to reduce the ease whereby the words may be recognized, and a threshold-like measure can be obtained in terms of the amount of noise. A word frequency effect was obtained for the noise task, and for words presented tachistoscopically but in conventional typography. For the tachistoscope task, however, the frequency effect depended on the method of presentation. A second study showed no effect of inspection interval on performance on the noise task. A word-frequency effect was also found in a third experiment with tachistoscopic exposure of the noise task stimuli in undegraded form. The question of whether common processes are drawn on by tasks entailing different ways of varying ease of recognition is addressed, and the suitability of different tasks for word recognition research is discussed.

  18. Adaptive response of bacteria: Multiple hurdles, cross-tolerance and tools to illustrate underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramythiotis, Spyridon; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle in the bacterial resistance against lethal stresses is that exposure of microbial cells to a sublethal hurdle (e.g., pH 5.0, 3% NaCl, or 48°C) may induce resistance to lethal level of the same or different stress. The latter is called "cross-tolerance" and the bacteria experiencing such situations are termed "stress-hardened". The majority of scientific reports on the adaptive responses of bacteria to stresses have recently addressed the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling bacterial stress response. This in turn, will assist in the efficient application of the multiple hurdle approach, e.g., by selecting specific sanitizers, combining stress treatments or antimicrobials, especially in mild processing, against specific cellular targets, eliminating the possibility of the development of stress adapted cells. Common scientific approaches for studying the link between phenotype (e.g., inactivation, survival, or growth) and physiology is the assessment of global transcriptional changes (up- or down-regulation) or those of certain genes, as well as of proteins involved in certain metabolic pathways, occurring during exposure to stress. This may also be performed in parallel to comparative evaluation of the phenotypic response of wild and mutant strains. The post-genomics research on foodborne pathogens has extended our knowledge beyond their phenotypic behavior and may offer mechanistic insights in the following: (i) the top-down approach (induction), which is the search of the underlying mechanisms (low level) responsible for a specific phenotype based on "-omic" studies; and (ii) the bottom-up approach (deduction), which starts from intracellular level and forms a mechanistic (functional) basis for the cellular response. All these may eventually enable the development of mechanistic microbial models and efficient strategies for controlling survival and growth of pathogens in foods.

  19. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  20. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator-EASE Project (NB32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. Construction methods had to be efficient due to the limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Pictured is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) student working in a spacesuit on the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) project which was developed as a joint effort between MFSC and MIT. The EASE experiment required that crew members assemble small components to form larger components, working from the payload bay of the space shuttle. The MIT student in this photo is assembling two six-beam tetrahedrons.

  1. Weighted hurdle regression method for joint modeling of cardiovascular events likelihood and rate in the US dialysis population.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V

    2014-11-10

    We propose a new weighted hurdle regression method for modeling count data, with particular interest in modeling cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis. Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in this population. Our aim is to jointly model the relationship/association between covariates and (i) the probability of cardiovascular events, a binary process, and (ii) the rate of events once the realization is positive-when the 'hurdle' is crossed-using a zero-truncated Poisson distribution. When the observation period or follow-up time, from the start of dialysis, varies among individuals, the estimated probability of positive cardiovascular events during the study period will be biased. Furthermore, when the model contains covariates, then the estimated relationship between the covariates and the probability of cardiovascular events will also be biased. These challenges are addressed with the proposed weighted hurdle regression method. Estimation for the weighted hurdle regression model is a weighted likelihood approach, where standard maximum likelihood estimation can be utilized. The method is illustrated with data from the United States Renal Data System. Simulation studies show the ability of proposed method to successfully adjust for differential follow-up times and incorporate the effects of covariates in the weighting.

  2. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  3. [Ease of handling of first and second generation rebound tonometers].

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, N; Termühlen, J; Alnawaiseh, M; Eter, N; Dietlein, T S; Rosentreter, A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the ease of handling of two rebound tonometers, which are designed for self-measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) in a clinical setting by untrained patients. After self-measurement of the IOP with the rebound tonometers iCare ONE and iCare HOME, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire containing different subitems concerning ease of operation using a visual analog scale (1 = very good to 5 = very poor). Moreover, the feasibility and duration of measurement were tested. A total of 147 subjects participated in this study. The mean score for general handling ability was 2.79 ± 1.01 for the iCare ONE and 1.85 ± 0.87 for the iCare HOME (p < 0.001). The evaluation of the subitems sense of safety (iCare ONE: 2.71 ± 1.03 and iCare HOME: 1.87 ± 0.81, p < 0.001) and comfort of measurement (iCare ONE: 2.07 ± 1.01 and iCare HOME: 1.66 ± 0.72, p < 0.001) also showed a significant discrepancy between the two tonometers. Participants needed significantly less time for a single valid measurement when using the iCare HOME tonometer (mean 66.14 ± 61.54 s) compared to the iCare ONE tonometer (mean 81.54 ± 69.51 s, p < 0.001). A better handling of the iCare HOME rebound tonometer in comparison to the iCare ONE tonometer can be deduced on the basis of the subjective assessments of patients and the shorter duration of measurements. Moreover, the iCare HOME received a significantly better evaluation for all subitems. The accuracy of measurements using the iCare HOME still needs to be clarified.

  4. Integrating omic technologies into aquatic ecological risk assessment and environmental monitoring: hurdles, achievements, and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Van Aggelen, Graham; Ankley, Gerald T; Baldwin, William S; Bearden, Daniel W; Benson, William H; Chipman, J Kevin; Collette, Tim W; Craft, John A; Denslow, Nancy D; Embry, Michael R; Falciani, Francesco; George, Stephen G; Helbing, Caren C; Hoekstra, Paul F; Iguchi, Taisen; Kagami, Yoshi; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kille, Peter; Liu, Li; Lord, Peter G; McIntyre, Terry; O'Neill, Anne; Osachoff, Heather; Perkins, Ed J; Santos, Eduarda M; Skirrow, Rachel C; Snape, Jason R; Tyler, Charles R; Versteeg, Don; Viant, Mark R; Volz, David C; Williams, Tim D; Yu, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (Fish Toxicogenomics-Moving into Regulation and Monitoring, held 21-23 April 2008 at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada). The consortium from government agencies, academia, and industry addressed three topics: progress in ecotoxicogenomics, regulatory perspectives on roadblocks for practical implementation of toxicogenomics into risk assessment, and dealing with variability in data sets. Participants noted that examples of successful application of omic technologies have been identified, but critical studies are needed to relate molecular changes to ecological adverse outcome. Participants made recommendations for the management of technical and biological variation. They also stressed the need for enhanced interdisciplinary training and communication as well as considerable investment into the generation and curation of appropriate reference omic data. The participants concluded that, although there are hurdles to pass on the road to regulatory acceptance, omics technologies are already useful for elucidating modes of action of toxicants and can contribute to the risk assessment process as part of a weight-of-evidence approach.

  5. Integrating Omic Technologies into Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment and Environmental Monitoring: Hurdles, Achievements, and Future Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Van Aggelen, Graham; Ankley, Gerald T.; Baldwin, William S.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Benson, William H.; Chipman, J. Kevin; Collette, Tim W.; Craft, John A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Embry, Michael R.; Falciani, Francesco; George, Stephen G.; Helbing, Caren C.; Hoekstra, Paul F.; Iguchi, Taisen; Kagami, Yoshi; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kille, Peter; Liu, Li; Lord, Peter G.; McIntyre, Terry; O’Neill, Anne; Osachoff, Heather; Perkins, Ed J.; Santos, Eduarda M.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Snape, Jason R.; Tyler, Charles R.; Versteeg, Don; Viant, Mark R.; Volz, David C.; Williams, Tim D.; Yu, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background In this commentary we present the findings from an international consortium on fish toxicogenomics sponsored by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (Fish Toxicogenomics—Moving into Regulation and Monitoring, held 21–23 April 2008 at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada). Objectives The consortium from government agencies, academia, and industry addressed three topics: progress in ecotoxicogenomics, regulatory perspectives on roadblocks for practical implementation of toxicogenomics into risk assessment, and dealing with variability in data sets. Discussion Participants noted that examples of successful application of omic technologies have been identified, but critical studies are needed to relate molecular changes to ecological adverse outcome. Participants made recommendations for the management of technical and biological variation. They also stressed the need for enhanced interdisciplinary training and communication as well as considerable investment into the generation and curation of appropriate reference omic data. Conclusions The participants concluded that, although there are hurdles to pass on the road to regulatory acceptance, omics technologies are already useful for elucidating modes of action of toxicants and can contribute to the risk assessment process as part of a weight-of-evidence approach. PMID:20056575

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles on microbiological characteristics of saffron, using hurdle technology.

    PubMed

    Hamid Sales, E; Motamedi Sedeh, F; Rajabifar, S

    2012-03-01

    Saffron, a plant from the Iridaceae family, is the world's most expensive spice. Gamma irradiation and silver nano particles whose uses are gradually increasing worldwide, have positive effects on preventing decay by sterilizing the microorganisms and by improving the safety without compromising the nutritional properties and sensory quality of the foods. In the present study combination effects of gamma irradiation and silver nano particles packaging on the microbial contamination of saffron were considered during storage. A combination of hurdles can ensure stability and microbial safety of foods. For this purpose, saffron samples were packaged by Poly Ethylene films that posses up to 300 ppm nano silver particles as antimicrobial agents and then irradiated in cobalt-60 irradiator (gamma cell PX30, dose rate 0.55 Gry/Sec) to 0, 1, 2,3 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The antimicrobial activities against Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria, Entrobacteriace, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium Perfringines were higher in the irradiated samples, demonstrating the inhibition zone for their growth. Irradiation of the saffron samples packaged by Poly Ethylene films with nano silver particles showed the best results for decreasing microbial contamination at 2 kGy and for Poly Ethylene films without silver nano particles; it was 4 kGy.

  7. Regulatory hurdles for genome editing: process- vs. product-based approaches in different regulatory contexts.

    PubMed

    Sprink, Thorben; Eriksson, Dennis; Schiemann, Joachim; Hartung, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Novel plant genome editing techniques call for an updated legislation regulating the use of plants produced by genetic engineering or genome editing, especially in the European Union. Established more than 25 years ago and based on a clear distinction between transgenic and conventionally bred plants, the current EU Directives fail to accommodate the new continuum between genetic engineering and conventional breeding. Despite the fact that the Directive 2001/18/EC contains both process- and product-related terms, it is commonly interpreted as a strictly process-based legislation. In view of several new emerging techniques which are closer to the conventional breeding than common genetic engineering, we argue that it should be actually interpreted more in relation to the resulting product. A legal guidance on how to define plants produced by exploring novel genome editing techniques in relation to the decade-old legislation is urgently needed, as private companies and public researchers are waiting impatiently with products and projects in the pipeline. We here outline the process in the EU to develop a legislation that properly matches the scientific progress. As the process is facing several hurdles, we also compare with existing frameworks in other countries and discuss ideas for an alternative regulatory system.

  8. Regression shrinkage and neural models in predicting the results of 400-metres hurdles races

    PubMed Central

    Iskra, J; Maszczyk, A; Nawrocka, M

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the application of regression shrinkage and artificial neural networks in predicting the results of 400-metres hurdles races. The regression models predict the results for suggested training loads in the selected three-month training period. The material of the research was based on training data of 21 Polish hurdlers from the Polish National Athletics Team Association. The athletes were characterized by a high level of performance. To assess the predictive ability of the constructed models a method of leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The analysis showed that the method generating the smallest prediction error was the LASSO regression extended by quadratic terms. The optimal model generated the prediction error of 0.59 s. Otherwise the optimal set of input variables (by reducing 8 of the 27 predictors) was defined. The results obtained justify the use of regression shrinkage in predicting sports outcomes. The resulting model can be used as a tool to assist the coach in planning training loads in a selected training period. PMID:28090147

  9. A Spatial Poisson Hurdle Model for Exploring Geographic Variation in Emergency Department Visits

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Brian; Ghosh, Pulak; Loebs, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We develop a spatial Poisson hurdle model to explore geographic variation in emergency department (ED) visits while accounting for zero inflation. The model consists of two components: a Bernoulli component that models the probability of any ED use (i.e., at least one ED visit per year), and a truncated Poisson component that models the number of ED visits given use. Together, these components address both the abundance of zeros and the right-skewed nature of the nonzero counts. The model has a hierarchical structure that incorporates patient- and area-level covariates, as well as spatially correlated random effects for each areal unit. Because regions with high rates of ED use are likely to have high expected counts among users, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive (CAR) prior, which introduces dependence between the components and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring regions. Using a simulation study, we show that modeling the between-component correlation reduces bias in parameter estimates. We adopt a Bayesian estimation approach, and the model can be fit using standard Bayesian software. We apply the model to a study of patient and neighborhood factors influencing emergency department use in Durham County, North Carolina. PMID:23543242

  10. Australia's 'fourth hurdle' drug review comparing costs and benefits holds lessons for the United States.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Elshaug, Adam G

    2013-04-01

    Two decades ago Australia introduced an assessment of value as a prerequisite for adding new medicines to its national drug formulary. Australia's program--a "fourth hurdle" process after a drug is assessed for safety, efficacy, and quality--stands in stark contrast to the situation in the United States, where comparing the clinical and economic value of a proposed new drug to those of existing ones only rarely plays a role in the drug coverage determination process. This article describes the role that Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, a statutory independent expert committee, plays in determining which new drugs the government will help pay for in the nation's pharmaceutical benefit program. The program does not directly control drug prices or ration prescription drugs-policy options that are widely opposed in the United States. Australia's program supports patients' access to important, innovative medications deemed to be cost-effective. The US system could benefit if policy makers examined Australia's experience and adopted a comparative clinical and value review suited to the US political and economic landscape.

  11. A Spatial Poisson Hurdle Model for Exploring Geographic Variation in Emergency Department Visits.

    PubMed

    Neelon, Brian; Ghosh, Pulak; Loebs, Patrick F

    2013-02-01

    We develop a spatial Poisson hurdle model to explore geographic variation in emergency department (ED) visits while accounting for zero inflation. The model consists of two components: a Bernoulli component that models the probability of any ED use (i.e., at least one ED visit per year), and a truncated Poisson component that models the number of ED visits given use. Together, these components address both the abundance of zeros and the right-skewed nature of the nonzero counts. The model has a hierarchical structure that incorporates patient- and area-level covariates, as well as spatially correlated random effects for each areal unit. Because regions with high rates of ED use are likely to have high expected counts among users, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive (CAR) prior, which introduces dependence between the components and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring regions. Using a simulation study, we show that modeling the between-component correlation reduces bias in parameter estimates. We adopt a Bayesian estimation approach, and the model can be fit using standard Bayesian software. We apply the model to a study of patient and neighborhood factors influencing emergency department use in Durham County, North Carolina.

  12. Psychosocial variables and time to injury onset: a hurdle regression analysis model.

    PubMed

    Sibold, Jeremy; Zizzi, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Psychological variables have been shown to be related to athletic injury and time missed from participation in sport. We are unaware of any empirical examination of the influence of psychological variables on time to onset of injury. To examine the influence of orthopaedic and psychosocial variables on time to injury in college athletes. One hundred seventy-seven (men 5 116, women 5 61; age 5 19.45 6 1.39 years) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Hurdle regression analysis (HRA) was used to determine the influence of predictor variables on days to first injury. Worry (z = 2.98, P = .003), concentration disruption (z = -3.95, P < .001), and negative life-event stress (z = 5.02, P < .001) were robust predictors of days to injury. Orthopaedic risk score was not a predictor (z = 1.28, P = .20). These findings support previous research on the stress-injury relationship, and our group is the first to use HRA in athletic injury data. These data support the addition of psychological screening as part of preseason health examinations for collegiate athletes.

  13. Psychosocial Variables and Time to Injury Onset: A Hurdle Regression Analysis Model

    PubMed Central

    Sibold, Jeremy; Zizzi, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Context: Psychological variables have been shown to be related to athletic injury and time missed from participation in sport. We are unaware of any empirical examination of the influence of psychological variables on time to onset of injury. Objective: To examine the influence of orthopaedic and psychosocial variables on time to injury in college athletes. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred seventy-seven (men  =  116, women  =  61; age  =  19.45 ± 1.39 years) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hurdle regression analysis (HRA) was used to determine the influence of predictor variables on days to first injury. Results: Worry (z  =  2.98, P  =  .003), concentration disruption (z  =  −3.95, P < .001), and negative life-event stress (z  =  5.02, P < .001) were robust predictors of days to injury. Orthopaedic risk score was not a predictor (z  =  1.28, P  =  .20). Conclusions: These findings support previous research on the stress-injury relationship, and our group is the first to use HRA in athletic injury data. These data support the addition of psychological screening as part of preseason health examinations for collegiate athletes. PMID:23068591

  14. Quantification of the ease of removal of bacteria from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Eginton, P J; Gibson, H; Holah, J; Handley, P S; Gilbert, P

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a technique which reproducibly quantifies the ease of removal of microorganisms from surfaces. Tiles (22 mm x 22 mm) of various materials were colonised with Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Escherichia coli K12 HB101 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PaWH, by submersion, for various times (2 min-48 h), in inoculated Tryptone Soya broth (37 degrees C). Colonised tiles were blotted onto a Tryptone Soya agar plate for 1 min and the process was repeated through a succession of agar plates. The final plate contained tetrazolium salts (0.05% w/v) and was incubated in situ with the tile. Tetrazolium plates indicated that very few organisms remained on the tiles after 15 successive blots. In all instances, the number of recovered colonies per plate decreased exponentially with plate succession number, according to the relationship, CFU = A.10-kN, where CFU is the number of colonies transferred, k is the removal exponent, A is the intercept and N is the plate succession number. Removal exponents differed significantly between organisms (P > 0.95), depended on the nature of the test surface, and decreased as the inital attachment and colonisation time was increased from 2 min-48 h. Intercept values (A) but not the gradients were dependent upon the initial numbers of bacteria in suspension. These data indicate that the gradients derived from counting recoverable viable cells from successive blots of test tiles onto agar is a measure of the strength of attachment of the organisms to the surface.

  15. From product line to disease management--easing the transition.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, P

    1997-01-01

    Most facilities have captured the essence of product-line management, but what is the next step? The traditional reasons for product-line management are still more than valid, but forward-thinking organizations are moving to a disease-management focus.

  16. Promise of resveratrol for easing status epilepticus and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol (RESV; 3,5,4′-tri-hydroxy stilbene), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is found at a high concentration in the skin of red grapes and red wine. RESV mediates a wide-range of biological activities, which comprise an increased life span, anti-ischemic, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-aging and anti-inflammatory properties. Studies in several animal prototypes of brain injury suggest that RESV is an effective neuroprotective compound. Ability to enter the brain after a peripheral administration and no adverse effects on the brain or body are other features that are appealing for using this compound as a therapy for brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The goal of this review is to discuss the promise of RESV for treating acute seizures, preventing the acute seizure or status epilepticus induced development of chronic epilepsy, and easing the chronic epilepsy typified by spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive dysfunction. First, the various beneficial effects of RESV on the normal brain are discussed to provide a rationale for considering RESV treatment in the management of acute seizures and epilepsy. Next, the detrimental effects of acute seizures or status epilepticus on the hippocampus and the implications of post-status epilepticus changes in the hippocampus towards the occurrence of chronic epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction are summarized. The final segment evaluates studies that have used RESV as a neuroprotective compound against seizures, and proposes studies that are critically needed prior to the clinical application of RESV as a prophylaxis against the development of chronic epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction after an episode of status epilepticus or head injury. PMID:21554899

  17. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  18. Consequences of selection for yield traits on calving ease performance.

    PubMed

    López de Maturana, E; Ugarte, E; Komen, J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-05-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the categorical nature of CE. The economic value for CE was -18.03 euros/cow per calving interval per liability unit. This value was relatively insensitive to changes in the market price of animals but was more sensitive to changes in the incidence of dystocia. Records from parities between 1995 and 2002 were used for the estimation of genetic parameters for yield (actual milk, fat, and protein yield) and CE using a multivariate model. Linear sire models for yield traits and a threshold sire-maternal grandsire model for CE were used. A Holstein population was simulated to determine the consequences of including CE in the breeding goal. Three selection strategies were considered: 1) selection only on yield traits, 2) selection on yield and direct CE (DCE), and 3) selection on yield, DCE, and maternal CE (MCE). Selection on yield traits only resulted in a slight reduction of dystocia. Selection strategies in which DCE or DCE and MCE were included in the breeding goal did not improve the genetic response for DCE and MCE obtained with the first selection strategy. Genetic responses were also calculated using the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles of posterior densities of genetic correlations between DCE and MCE and yield traits. Because responses in CE were sensitive to deviations in estimates of genetic parameters, the inclusion of CE in the monitoring scheme is recommended. Genetic evaluation of bulls for CE is of considerable value because it provides farmers with the opportunity to use assortative matings of sires with favorable estimated breeding values for DCE to primiparous cows.

  19. Overcoming hurdles in translating visual search research between the lab and the field.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kait; Cain, Matthew S; Adamo, Stephen H; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Research in visual search can be vital to improving performance in careers such as radiology and airport security screening. In these applied, or "field," searches, accuracy is critical, and misses are potentially fatal; however, despite the importance of performing optimally, radiological and airport security searches are nevertheless flawed. Extensive basic research in visual search has revealed cognitive mechanisms responsible for successful visual search as well as a variety of factors that tend to inhibit or improve performance. Ideally, the knowledge gained from such laboratory-based research could be directly applied to field searches, but several obstacles stand in the way of straightforward translation; the tightly controlled visual searches performed in the lab can be drastically different from field searches. For example, they can differ in terms of the nature of the stimuli, the environment in which the search is taking place, and the experience and characteristics of the searchers themselves. The goal of this chapter is to discuss these differences and how they can present hurdles to translating lab-based research to field-based searches. Specifically, most search tasks in the lab entail searching for only one target per trial, and the targets occur relatively frequently, but field searches may contain an unknown and unlimited number of targets, and the occurrence of targets can be rare. Additionally, participants in lab-based search experiments often perform under neutral conditions and have no formal training or experience in search tasks; conversely, career searchers may be influenced by the motivation to perform well or anxiety about missing a target, and they have undergone formal training and accumulated significant experience searching. This chapter discusses recent work that has investigated the impacts of these differences to determine how each factor can influence search performance. Knowledge gained from the scientific exploration of search

  20. Evaluating components of dental care utilization among adults with diabetes and matched controls via hurdle models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background About one-third of adults with diabetes have severe oral complications. However, limited previous research has investigated dental care utilization associated with diabetes. This project had two purposes: to develop a methodology to estimate dental care utilization using claims data and to use this methodology to compare utilization of dental care between adults with and without diabetes. Methods Data included secondary enrollment and demographic data from Washington Dental Service (WDS) and Group Health Cooperative (GH), clinical data from GH, and dental-utilization data from WDS claims during 2002–2006. Dental and medical records from WDS and GH were linked for enrolees continuously and dually insured during the study. We employed hurdle models in a quasi-experimental setting to assess differences between adults with and without diabetes in 5-year cumulative utilization of dental services. Propensity score matching adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between the two groups. Results We found that adults with diabetes had lower odds of visiting a dentist (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001). Among those with a dental visit, diabetes patients had lower odds of receiving prophylaxes (OR = 0.77), fillings (OR = 0.80) and crowns (OR = 0.84) (p < 0.005 for all) and higher odds of receiving periodontal maintenance (OR = 1.24), non-surgical periodontal procedures (OR = 1.30), extractions (OR = 1.38) and removable prosthetics (OR = 1.36) (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions Patients with diabetes are less likely to use dental services. Those who do are less likely to use preventive care and more likely to receive periodontal care and tooth-extractions. Future research should address the possible effectiveness of additional prevention in reducing subsequent severe oral disease in patients with diabetes. PMID:22776352

  1. Gene Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: Promise and Potential Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung-Rok; Natanson, Hannah; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2016-08-02

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have great therapeutic potential because of their ability to both self-renew and differentiate. It has been proposed that, given their unique properties, a small number of genetically modified HSPCs could accomplish lifelong, corrective reconstitution of the entire hematopoietic system in patients with various hematologic disorders. Scientists have demonstrated that gene addition therapies-targeted to HSPCs and using integrating retroviral vectors-possess clear clinical benefits in multiple diseases, among them immunodeficiencies, storage disorders, and hemoglobinopathies. Scientists attempting to develop clinically relevant gene therapy protocols have, however, encountered a number of unexpected hurdles because of their incomplete knowledge of target cells, genomic control, and gene transfer technologies. Targeted gene-editing technologies using engineered nucleases such as ZFN, TALEN, and/or CRISPR/Cas9 RGEN show great clinical promise, allowing for the site-specific correction of disease-causing mutations-a process with important applications in autosomal dominant or dominant-negative genetic disorders. The relative simplicity of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in particular, has sparked an exponential increase in the scientific community's interest in and use of these gene-editing technologies. In this minireview, we discuss the specific applications of gene-editing technologies in human HSPCs, as informed by prior experience with gene addition strategies. HSPCs are desirable but challenging targets; the specific mechanisms these cells evolved to protect themselves from DNA damage render them potentially more susceptible to oncogenesis, especially given their ability to self-renew and their long-term proliferative potential. We further review scientists' experience with gene-editing technologies to date, focusing on strategies to move these techniques toward implementation in safe and effective clinical trials.

  2. Quantification of hurdles: predicting the combination of effects -- Interaction vs. non-interaction.

    PubMed

    Bidlas, Eva; Lambert, Ronald J W

    2008-11-30

    Combination of disparate as well as related antimicrobial effects constitutes the concept of hurdle technology. Quantification of combined effects, including claims of synergy, can be accomplished using surface response modelling, as is frequently done and reported. The Gamma hypothesis, however, states that the relative effects of different antimicrobial factors combine independently. Studies performed using time to detection have shown that the Gamma hypothesis is an adequate foundation for the analysis of multi-factor environmental stresses placed on microorganisms, including pH, weak acids and temperature. Data from the combined action of Na acetate and pH on Aeromonas hydrophila, Na acetate/pH , K sorbate/pH and combined Na acetate/K sorbate at pH 6.5, 6.0 and 5.5 on Escherichia coli and the combined action of Na acetate/pH and temperature on Enterobacter sakazakii were examined using nominal logistic modelling, response surface modelling (RS) and by using a Gamma model. The Gamma model can be used in a predictive manner unlike the RS models and the parameters of the RS models can be approximated from the fit of the Gamma model to the observed data. The expansion of the Gamma model explains the occurrence of the statistically significant cross terms of the RS polynomials. The emphasis within the literature of seeking interactions or synergies between environmental factors should be replaced with one emphasising the falsification of the Gamma approach. This can be done by examining the relative ratios of the gamma factors when in combination, but this also requires the use of appropriate functions to do this.

  3. CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo Gene Therapy: Promise and Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei-Jing; Zhu, Li-Yao; Yan, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Yong; Wang, Qi-Long; Lu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its easy-to-use and multiplexing nature, the genome editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated nuclease 9) is revolutionizing many areas of medical research and one of the most amazing areas is its gene therapy potentials. Previous explorations into the therapeutic potentials of CRISPR-Cas9 were mainly conducted in vitro or in animal germlines, the translatability of which, however, is either limited (to tissues with adult stem cells amenable to culture and manipulation) or currently impermissible (due to ethic concerns). Recently, important progresses have been made on this regard. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo gene therapy in adult rodent models of human genetic diseases delivered by methods that are potentially translatable to human use. Although these recent advances represent a significant step forward to the eventual application of CRISPR-Cas9 to the clinic, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the off-target effects of CRISPR-Cas9, efficacy of homology-directed repair, fitness of edited cells, immunogenicity of therapeutic CRISPR-Cas9 components, as well as efficiency, specificity, and translatability of in vivo delivery methods. In this article, we introduce the mechanisms and merits of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing, briefly retrospect the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene therapy explorations and highlight recent advances, later we discuss in detail the challenges lying ahead in the way of its translatability, propose possible solutions, and future research directions. Copyright © 2016 Official journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo Gene Therapy: Promise and Hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei-Jing; Zhu, Li-Yao; Yan, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Yong; Wang, Qi-Long; Lu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its easy-to-use and multiplexing nature, the genome editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated nuclease 9) is revolutionizing many areas of medical research and one of the most amazing areas is its gene therapy potentials. Previous explorations into the therapeutic potentials of CRISPR-Cas9 were mainly conducted in vitro or in animal germlines, the translatability of which, however, is either limited (to tissues with adult stem cells amenable to culture and manipulation) or currently impermissible (due to ethic concerns). Recently, important progresses have been made on this regard. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 for in vivo gene therapy in adult rodent models of human genetic diseases delivered by methods that are potentially translatable to human use. Although these recent advances represent a significant step forward to the eventual application of CRISPR-Cas9 to the clinic, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the off-target effects of CRISPR-Cas9, efficacy of homology-directed repair, fitness of edited cells, immunogenicity of therapeutic CRISPR-Cas9 components, as well as efficiency, specificity, and translatability of in vivo delivery methods. In this article, we introduce the mechanisms and merits of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome editing, briefly retrospect the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene therapy explorations and highlight recent advances, later we discuss in detail the challenges lying ahead in the way of its translatability, propose possible solutions, and future research directions. PMID:28131272

  5. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povak, Nicholas A.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reynolds, Keith M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Salter, R. Brion

    2013-06-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially affected biota, and create resource protection strategies. In this study, we developed correlative models to predict the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of streams across the southern Appalachian Mountain region, USA. Models were developed using stream water chemistry data from 933 sampled locations and continuous maps of pertinent environmental and climatic predictors. Environmental predictors were averaged across the upslope contributing area for each sampled stream location and submitted to both statistical and machine-learning regression models. Predictor variables represented key aspects of the contributing geology, soils, climate, topography, and acidic deposition. To reduce model error rates, we employed hurdle modeling to screen out well-buffered sites and predict continuous ANC for the remainder of the stream network. Models predicted acid-sensitive streams in forested watersheds with small contributing areas, siliceous lithologies, cool and moist environments, low clay content soils, and moderate or higher dry sulfur deposition. Our results confirmed findings from other studies and further identified several influential climatic variables and variable interactions. Model predictions indicated that one quarter of the total stream network was sensitive to additional sulfur inputs (i.e., ANC < 100 µeq L-1), while <10% displayed much lower ANC (<50 µeq L-1). These methods may be readily adapted in other regions to assess stream water quality and potential biotic sensitivity to acidic inputs.

  6. Anaerobic and aerobic energy system contribution to 400-m flat and 400-m hurdles track running.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, Hasssane; Jabbour, Georges; Jacob, Christophe; Duvigneau, Dominique; Botcazou, Maïtel; Ben Abderrahaman, Abderraouf; Prioux, Jacques; Moussa, Elie

    2010-09-01

    The present study was designed to determine the aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions to 400-m Flat (400 mF) and 400-m hurdles (400 mH) using the accumulated oxygen deficit method. Six nationally ranked athletes, specializing in 400 mH and familiar with 400 mF volunteered to participate in this study. All the participants performed 3 track-running sessions. The first session determine the maximal oxygen uptake and maximal aerobic speed using lightweight ambulatory respiratory gas exchange measurements (o2000, Medical Graphics). The second and third tests consist of a 400 mF and a 400 mH performed on the track in a randomized counterbalanced order. Accumulated oxygen deficit determined during the 400 mF was significantly higher than that determined during the 400 mH (65.0 +/- 10.0 mlxkg vs. 44.1 +/- 7.4 mlxkg, p < 0.05). Thus, the aerobic contribution calculated was significantly higher during the 400 mH compared to during the 400 mF (43.0 +/- 2.0 vs. 37.4 +/- 2.7%, p < 0.05, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the aerobic contribution is greater during a 400 mH compared to during a 400 mF. Thus, this study provides a scientific rationale behind the coaches' practice and contributes to a better understanding of the differences between 400 mF and 400 mH. Then, the coaches must propose different training programs for both 400 mF and 400 mH runners.

  7. The "name-ease" effect and its dual impact on importance judgments.

    PubMed

    Labroo, Aparna A; Lambotte, Soraya; Zhang, Yan

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT- We demonstrate that merely naming a research finding elicits feelings of ease (a "name-ease" effect). These feelings of ease can reduce or enhance the finding's perceived importance depending on whether people are making inferences about how understandable or how memorable the finding is. When people assess their understanding of a finding, feelings of ease reduce the finding's perceived importance. This is because people usually invest effort to understand important information but also mistakenly infer the reverse-namely, that information that requires effort to be understood is important. In contrast, when people assess the memorability of a finding, feelings of ease increase the finding's perceived importance. Because people usually recall important information easily, in this case they equate ease with importance. Psychological effects, economic principles, math theorems, jury cases, and decisions to fund medical research can all show these effects.

  8. Weighted Hurdle Regression Method for Joint Modeling of Cardiovascular Events Likelihood and Rate in the U.S. Dialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Mu, Yi; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We propose a new weighted hurdle regression method for modeling count data, with particular interest in modeling cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis. Cardiovascular disease remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in this population. Our aim is to jointly model the relationship/association between covariates and (a) the probability of cardiovascular events, a binary process and (b) the rate of events once the realization is positive - when the ‘hurdle’ is crossed - using a zero-truncated Poisson distribution. When the observation period or follow-up time, from the start of dialysis, varies among individuals the estimated probability of positive cardiovascular events during the study period will be biased. Furthermore, when the model contains covariates, then the estimated relationship between the covariates and the probability of cardiovascular events will also be biased. These challenges are addressed with the proposed weighted hurdle regression method. Estimation for the weighted hurdle regression model is a weighted likelihood approach, where standard maximum likelihood estimation can be utilized. The method is illustrated with data from the United States Renal Data System. Simulation studies show the ability of proposed method to successfully adjust for differential follow-up times and incorporate the effects of covariates in the weighting. PMID:24930810

  9. Neutron generators with size scalability, ease of fabrication and multiple ion source functionalities

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-11-18

    A neutron generator is provided with a flat, rectilinear geometry and surface mounted metallizations. This construction provides scalability and ease of fabrication, and permits multiple ion source functionalities.

  10. Judgments of Learning Reflect Encoding Fluency: Conclusive Evidence for the Ease-of-Processing Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undorf, Monika; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    According to the ease-of-processing hypothesis, judgments of learning (JOLs) rely on the ease with which items are committed to memory during encoding--that is, encoding fluency. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis does not yet exist because encoding fluency and item difficulty have been confounded in all previous studies. To disentangle the…

  11. Evaluation of WebEase: An Epilepsy Self-Management Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiIorio, Colleen; Escoffery, Cam; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Katherine A.; Henry, Thomas R.; Koganti, Archana; Reisinger, Elizabeth L.; Wexler, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    People with epilepsy have various education needs and must adopt many self-management behaviors in order to control their condition. This study evaluates WebEase, an Internet-based, theory-driven, self-management program for adults with epilepsy. Thirty-five participants took part in a 6-week pilot implementation of WebEase. The main components of…

  12. Evaluation of WebEase: An Epilepsy Self-Management Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiIorio, Colleen; Escoffery, Cam; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Katherine A.; Henry, Thomas R.; Koganti, Archana; Reisinger, Elizabeth L.; Wexler, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    People with epilepsy have various education needs and must adopt many self-management behaviors in order to control their condition. This study evaluates WebEase, an Internet-based, theory-driven, self-management program for adults with epilepsy. Thirty-five participants took part in a 6-week pilot implementation of WebEase. The main components of…

  13. Easing the burden of rural women: a 16-hour workday.

    PubMed

    Fagley, R M

    1976-01-01

    Women are the 2nd-class citizens of the developing countries, especially in the rural areas. Not until the status of women is upgraded in these areas will the struggle for better nutrition, for smaller families, and for general social development be successful. The reasons why women have been neglected so far are discussed. Women in developing countries suffer from a lack of power. They can be helped by women in affluent societies. Information on the status of women in various Asian, African, and Latin American countries was solicited and is presented. Obstacles to improvement in the condition of women include: 1) continual childbearing 2) traditional values, 3) social pressures, and 4) the machismo philosophy. Recommendations are made for ways in which to aid the situation of women in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Some beginning efforts in this direction are mentioned.

  14. Getting nano tattoos right - a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael G; Naranja, R John

    2013-08-01

    The nano tattoo represents a nascent technology designed to be implanted in the skin to provide continuous and reliable glucose detection for diabetics. Its potential benefits are compelling not only for its ability to prevent diabetic complications and decrease related social costs, but also for its ease of use and relative patient-user comfort. This Note aims to articulate a checklist of fundamental intellectual property, bioethical and system design issues that are appropriately considered in the pre-clinical, pre-commercialization phase of nano tattoo development. Early and regular consideration of these factors can increase the odds of a societally beneficial dissemination of this device by engaging relevant researcher, medical, patient-user and patient-advocate communities concerned with its appropriate application, as well as policymaking communities focused on effectively managing diabetes-related healthcare costs. The checklist of factors includes fundamental issues and is generally applicable to nanomedical inventions. This paper presents a comprehensive list of fundamental intellectual property, bioethical, and system design issues to be considered in the pre-commercialization phase of nanomedicine development, through the specific example of nano tattoo development. Nano tattoo is designed to be implanted in the skin to provide reliable glucose monitoring for diabetics, enabling enhanced prevention of complications and decreased socioeconomic costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Strategies to Address the Major Clinical Hurdles Facing Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Neofytou, Evgenios; Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance While progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical translation still exist that have thwarted the delivery of cell therapy to the bedside. Objective The purpose of this review is to summarize the major current hurdles for the clinical implementation of stem cell therapy and discuss potential strategies to overcome them. Evidence Review Information for this review was obtained through a search of PubMed and the Cochrane database for English language studies published between January 1, 2000 and June 15, 2016. Ten randomized clinical trials and eight systematic reviews were included in this review. Findings One of the major clinical hurdles facing the routine implementation of stem cell therapy is the limited and inconsistent benefit observed thus far. Reasons for this are unclear but may be due to poor cell retention and survival, as suggested by numerous preclinical studies and a handful of human studies incorporating cell fate imaging. Additional cell fate imaging studies in humans are needed to determine how these factors contribute to limited efficacy. Treatment strategies to address poor cell retention and survival are under investigation and include the following: 1) co-administering of immunosuppressive and pro-survival agents, 2) delivering cardioprotective factors packaged in exosomes rather than the cells themselves, and 3) using tissue engineering strategies to provide structural support for cells. If larger grafts are achieved using the aforementioned strategies, it will be imperative to carefully monitor the potential risks of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and arrhythmogenicity. Conclusions and Relevance Despite important achievements to date, stem cell therapy is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. Significant research is still needed to address the clinical hurdles outlined herein before the next wave of large

  16. Exploring Hurdles to Transfer: Student Experiences of Applying Knowledge across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations -- often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the…

  17. Exploring Hurdles to Transfer: Student Experiences of Applying Knowledge across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations -- often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the…

  18. Prediction of the ease of subdivision of scored tablets from their physical parameters.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Koos C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Schipper, C Maarten A; Barends, Dirk M

    2010-03-01

    At present, the ease of subdivision of scored tablets is estimated in vivo. In order to replace such in vivo testing and to develop a surrogate test which uses in vitro techniques, the association between physical parameters of scored tablets and their ease of subdivision was studied. The physical properties of 23 brands of scored tablets of which their ease of subdivision in vivo was known were established. Statistical modeling using a logistic regression model was used to fit the data and estimate the contribution of each physical parameter to the goodness of the fit. For scored oblong tablets, the critical parameters for their ease of subdivision are: diameter; diameter/width ratio; depth of score line and resistance to crushing. Criteria for each of these parameters were derived. All criteria need to be complied with to guarantee sufficient ease of subdivision of scored oblong tablets. For scored round tablets the critical parameters, in decreasing order of importance, for their ease of subdivision, are: resistance to crushing, diameter, score mark (one- or two-sided), and shape (flat or biconvex). A five-parameter predictive model was developed, showing excellent discrimination. For development, the proposed surrogate tests are sufficiently reliable. For release testing and stability studies, resistance to crushing of a scored tablet is a reliable predictor of its ease of subdivision.

  19. Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease Past ... knees, pain plagued her every step. Living in New York City, Saisselin relied on walking and public ...

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

  1. Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives Past Issues / Spring ... pharmacists, nutritionists, and others. When do I need palliative care? Many adults and children living with serious ...

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug May Not Ease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome After All

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug May Not Ease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome After All With disappointing study results, there's still no cure ... March 6, 2017 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are written and provided ...

  3. Emergent properties define the subjective nature of health and dis-ease.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2014-08-01

    Health and dis-ease by their etymological origins refer to an evaluative, not objective, state. Health is an adaptive state, constantly reestablishing itself through interactions between the many biological, social, emotional, and cognitive factors in a person's life. Such adaptive processes define health as an emergent state. Outcomes of emergent phenomena are not precisely predictable and reside in a phase space that contains all possible states ranging from perfect to poor health states, the latter reflecting dis-ease. However, we have seen a migration of meaning from the subjective, dis-ease, to the objective, disease, referring to uniquely identifiable biomedical change. Clinical reality though teaches us that many experiences of dis-ease are not associated with any objective abnormality, an insight with important implications for clinical care and health policy.

  4. A synopsis of the EVA training conducted on EASE/ACCESS for STS-61-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Kathryn A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structure in EVA (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) training problems; photography/television coverage; training schedules; flight data file (FDF), and flight rules production are summarized.

  5. EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA) overview of selected results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) objectives, experimental protocol, neutral buoyancy simulation, task time distribution, assembly task performance, metabolic rate/biomedical readouts are summarized. This presentation is shown in charts, figures, and graphs.

  6. Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming.

    PubMed

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Bolmont, Mylène; Freydefont, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123-135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606-619, 2015).

  7. Establishing Equivalence for Microbial-Growth-Inhibitory Effects (“Iso-Hurdle Rules”) by Analyzing Disparate Listeria monocytogenes Data with a Gamma-Type Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    Kan-King-Yu, Denis; Le Marc, Yvan; Johnston, Moira D.; Rama-Heuzard, Florence; Guillou, Sandrine; McClure, Peter; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Preservative factors act as hurdles against microorganisms by inhibiting their growth; these are essential control measures for particular food-borne pathogens. Different combinations of hurdles can be quantified and compared to each other in terms of their inhibitory effect (“iso-hurdle”). We present here a methodology for establishing microbial iso-hurdle rules in three steps: (i) developing a predictive model based on existing but disparate data sets, (ii) building an experimental design focused on the iso-hurdles using the model output, and (iii) validating the model and the iso-hurdle rules with new data. The methodology is illustrated with Listeria monocytogenes. Existing data from industry, a public database, and the literature were collected and analyzed, after which a total of 650 growth rates were retained. A gamma-type model was developed for the factors temperature, pH, aw, and acetic, lactic, and sorbic acids. Three iso-hurdle rules were assessed (40 logcount curves generated): salt replacement by addition of organic acids, sorbic acid replacement by addition of acetic and lactic acid, and sorbic acid replacement by addition of lactic/acetic acid and salt. For the three rules, the growth rates were equivalent in the whole experimental domain (γ from 0.1 to 0.5). The lag times were also equivalent in the case of mild inhibitory conditions (γ ≥ 0.2), while they were longer in the presence of salt than acids under stress conditions (γ < 0.2). This methodology allows an assessment of the equivalence of inhibitory effects without intensive data generation; it could be applied to develop milder formulations which guarantee microbial safety and stability. PMID:22156426

  8. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  9. Application of a hurdle negative binomial count data model to demand for bass fishing in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Florkowski, Wojciech J

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies factors that influence the demand for a bass fishing trip taken in the southeastern United States using a hurdle negative binomial count data model. The probability of fishing for a bass is estimated in the first stage and the fishing trip frequency is estimated in the second stage for individuals reporting bass fishing trips in the Southeast. The applied approach allows the decomposition of the effects of factors responsible for the decision to take a trip and the trip number. Calculated partial and total elasticities indicate a highly inelastic demand for the number of fishing trips as trip costs increase. However, the demand can be expected to increase if anglers experience a success measured by the number of caught fish or their size. Benefit estimates based on alternative estimation methods differ substantially, suggesting the need for testing each modeling approach applied in empirical studies.

  10. Comparison of measured dermal dust exposures with predicted exposures given by the EASE expert system.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Graeme W; Cherrie, John W

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is a rule-based computer expert system used by regulatory authorities within the European Union to assist in assessing exposure for both new and existing substances. It can provide estimates of both inhalation exposure levels and dermal exposure levels to the hands and forearms. This article describes the results of a study in which measurements of workplace dermal zinc exposures were collected for an industry-wide risk assessment and also compared with the levels predicted by EASE. Measurements were obtained from subjects in seven different workplaces that were producing or working with zinc metal or zinc compounds. The work activities were grouped a priori into one of three categories used by EASE for dermal exposure assessment: 'non-dispersive use with intermittent direct handling', 'wide dispersive use with intermittent direct handling' and 'wide dispersive use with extensive direct handling'. The predicted exposure ranges for these categories are 0.1-1, 1-5 and 5-15 mg cm(-2) day(-1). Although the average measured exposure levels for each of the categories increased in line with the predictions from EASE, the model overestimated dermal exposure to the hands by a factor of approximately 50 when the mid-point of the EASE range was compared with the measured mean exposure. Furthermore, a significant additional exposure was found on other parts of the workers' bodies for which EASE does not provide any estimates. Interpretation of the dermal exposure data was complicated by the use of protective gloves, which might have limited the amount of zinc dust adhering to the workers' skin. However, observation of the work activities suggested that the pattern of glove use was such that they would not provide a consistent level of protection. This study provided an opportunity to collect a large amount of dermal zinc exposure data for risk assessment purposes and also enabled a dermal sampling method to be developed

  11. EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This concise and readable set of editorial guidelines was first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010 and is updated annually. It is freely available in more than 20 languages at http://ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines. The document is aimed to help scientists worldwide in successful presentation of their research results and in correct translation of manuscripts into English. Moreover, it draws attention to ethical issues, like authorship criteria, plagiarism, conflict of interests, etc. Eight appendices provide examples or more detailed information on selected topics (Abstracts, Ambiguity, Cohesion, Ethics, Plurals, Simplicity, Spelling, and Text-tables). Widespread use of EASE Guidelines should increase the efficiency of international scientific communication. PMID:25132718

  12. Does aging influence people's metacomprehension? Effects of processing ease on judgments of text learning.

    PubMed

    Dunlosky, John; Baker, Julie M C; Rawson, Katherine A; Hertzog, Christopher

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors investigated whether age-related differences exist in metacomprehension by evaluating predictions based on the ease-of-processing (EOP) hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, judgments of how well a text has been learned are based on how easily each text was processed; easier processing results in higher judgments. Participants read either sentence pairs or longer texts and judged their learning of each immediately afterward. Although an age-related difference in the use of processing ease in judgments was observed with sentence pairs, for longer texts older and younger adults' judgments were similarly related to processing ease. In both experiments, age equivalence was also evident in the accuracy of the judgments at predicting performance on the criterion test. The overall pattern of results suggests that judging text learning remains largely intact with aging.

  13. EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    This concise and readable set of editorial guidelines was first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010 and is updated annually. It is freely available in more than 20 languages at http://ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines. The document is aimed to help scientists worldwide in successful presentation of their research results and in correct translation of manuscripts into English. Moreover, it draws attention to ethical issues, like authorship criteria, plagiarism, conflict of interests, etc. Eight appendices provide examples or more detailed information on selected topics (Abstracts, Ambiguity, Cohesion, Ethics, Plurals, Simplicity, Spelling, and Text-tables). Widespread use of EASE Guidelines should increase the efficiency of international scientific communication.

  14. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Mancini, Giordano; Chillemi, Giovanni; Pariset, Lorraine; Valentini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV) was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs) to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  15. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  16. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access

  17. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted.

  18. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti.

  19. Hurdles in tissue engineering/regenerative medicine product commercialization: a pilot survey of governmental funding agencies and the financial industry.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Timothy A; Tentoff, Edward; Johnson, Peter C; Tawil, Bill; Van Dyke, Mark; Hellman, Kiki B

    2012-11-01

    The Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society of the Americas (TERMIS-AM) Industry Committee conducted a semiquantitative opinion survey in 2010 to delineate potential hurdles to commercialization perceived by the TERMIS constituency groups that participate in the stream of technology commercialization (academia, start-up companies, development-stage companies, and established companies). A significant hurdle identified consistently by each group was access to capital for advancing potential technologies into development pathways leading to commercialization. A follow-on survey was developed by the TERMIS-AM Industry Committee to evaluate the financial industry's perspectives on investing in regenerative medical technologies. The survey, composed of 15 questions, was developed and provided to 37 investment organizations in one of three sectors (governmental, private, and public investors). The survey was anonymous and confidential with sector designation the only identifying feature of each respondent's organization. Approximately 80% of the survey was composed of respondents from the public (n=14) and private (n=15) sectors. Each respondent represents one investment organization with the potential of multiple participants participating to form the organization's response. The remaining organizations represented governmental agencies (n=8). Results from this survey indicate that a high percentage (<60%) of respondents (governmental, private, and public) were willing to invest >$2MM into regenerative medical companies at the different stages of a company's life cycle. Investors recognized major hurdles to this emerging industry, including regulatory pathway, clinical translation, and reimbursement of these new products. Investments in regenerative technologies have been cyclical over the past 10-15 years, but investors recognized a 1-5-year investment period before the exit via Merger and Acquisition (M&A). Investors considered

  20. PEF based hurdle strategy to control Pichia fermentans, Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli k12 in orange juice.

    PubMed

    McNamee, C; Noci, F; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J; Scannell, A G M

    2010-03-31

    The combination of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and bacteriocins in a hurdle approach has been reported to enhance microbial inactivation. This study investigates the preservation of orange juice using PEF in combination with nisin (2.5 ppm), natamycin (10 ppm), benzoic acid (BA; 100 ppm), or lactic acid, (LA; 500 ppm). Pichia fermentans, a spoilage yeast frequently isolated from orange juice, Escherichia coli k12 or Listeria innocua were inoculated into sterile orange juice (OJ) with, and without, added preservatives. The antimicrobial activity over time was evaluated relative to an untreated control. The effect of PEF treatment (40 kV/cm, 100 micros; max temperature 56 degrees C) was assessed on its own, and in combination with each antimicrobial. The acidic environment of OJ inactivated E. coli k12 (1.5log reduction) and L. innocua (0.7log reduction) slightly but had no effect on P. fermentans. PEF caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the viability of P. fermentans, L. innocua and E. coli k12 achieving reductions of 4.8, 3.7 and 6.3log respectively. Nisin combined with PEF inactivated L. innocua and E. coli k12 in a synergistic manner resulting in a total reduction to 5.6 and 7.9log respectively. A similar synergy was shown between LA and PEF in the inactivation of L. innocua and P. fermentans (6.1 and 7.8log reduction), but not E. coli k12. The BA-PEF combination caused an additive inactivation of P. fermentans, whereas the natamycin-PEF combination against P. fermentans was not significantly different to the effect caused by PEF alone. This study shows that combining PEF with the chosen preservatives, at levels lower than those in current use, can provide greater than 5log reductions of E. coli k12, L. innocua and P. fermentans in OJ. These PEF-bio-preservative combination hurdles could provide the beverage industry with effective non-thermal alternatives to prevent microbial spoilage, and improve the safety of fruit juice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B

  1. Text Genre and Science Content: Ease of Reading, Comprehension, and Reader Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…

  2. Project EASE II. Workplace Education Curricula: From Teaching Basic Skills to Training the Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb.

    This curriculum guide was created to guide workplace basic skills instructors in the design of customized curricula for Project Employment Assistance and Skill Enhancement (EASE II), an on-the-job literacy and basic skills improvement project for employees of small companies in the metal working industry in the Chicago area. The guide contains…

  3. Text Genre and Science Content: Ease of Reading, Comprehension, and Reader Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…

  4. A Comparison of Readability Scores and Student Perceptions of Reading Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hear, Michael F.; Ramsey, Richard N.

    A study was conducted to determine whether there was any match between student perception of reading ease and the readability of three main line, first-year college composition texts (Daugherty; Kinneavy, McCleary, and Nakadate; Lauer, Montague, Lunsford, and Emig) as determined by five commonly used readability formulas. Two chapters (on…

  5. Results of a research study evaluating WebEase, an online epilepsy self-management program.

    PubMed

    DiIorio, Colleen; Bamps, Yvan; Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Escoffery, Cam

    2011-11-01

    WebEase (Epilepsy Awareness, Support, and Education) is an online epilepsy self-management program to assist people with taking medication, managing stress, and improving sleep quality. The primary study aims were to determine if those who participated in WebEase demonstrated improvements in medication adherence, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Participants were randomized to a treatment (T) or waitlist control (WCL) group (n=148). At follow-up, participants in the T group reported higher levels of medication adherence than those in the WLC group. Analyses were also conducted comparing those who had completed WebEase modules with those who had not. Those who had completed at least some modules within the WebEase program reported higher levels of self-efficacy and a trend toward significance was observed for the group×time interactions for medication adherence, perceived stress, self-management, and knowledge. The results highlight the usefulness of online tools to support self-management among people with epilepsy.

  6. Does Ease to Block a Ball Affect Perceived Ball Speed? Examination of Alternative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Sugovic, Mila

    2012-01-01

    According to an action-specific account of perception, the perceived speed of a ball can be a function of the ease to block the ball. Balls that are easier to stop look like they are moving slower than balls that are more difficult to stop. This was recently demonstrated with a modified version of the classic computer game Pong (Witt & Sugovic,…

  7. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  8. Children's Loneliness, Perceived Ease in Making Friends and Estimated Social Adequacy: Development and Social Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luftig, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the extent of children's loneliness, their perceived ease in making friends, their estimated social competence as a function of grade and sex, and their preferences concerning eight childhood activities. A loneliness scale and a sociometric peer nomination form were administered to 364 students in grades two, four, and six. (Author/BN)

  9. Improved mouse cage provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1969-01-01

    Mouse cage system provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice, cleaning their cages, and collecting uncontaminated metabolic test specimens. The cage, compact and free standing, contains a screened bottom and funnel channel to collect waste. The feed is in the cage top and thereby separates the food and waste.

  10. Supporting the Development of Emotional Intelligence Competencies to Ease the Transition from Primary to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, P.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.; Pope, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore (1) whether pupils with high emotional intelligence (EI) cope better with the transition to high school; and (2) whether the introduction of an intervention programme to support the development of EI competencies can increase EI and self-worth, and so ease the negative effects of transition. Results suggest that pupils…

  11. Art's False "Ease": Form, Meaning and a Problematic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that in foregoing the questions that emerge from the dialectical relationship between "form" and "meaning", an intrinsic fallacy mistakes the relationship between the arts and education for a simplistic mechanism of signification--a false "ease"--where empty forms are supposedly given meaning by…

  12. Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Steinberg, Dori M; Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B; Levine, Erica L; Goodman, Melody S; Foley, Perry B

    2013-01-01

    Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America's leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information.

  13. Availability of and Ease of Access to Calorie Information on Restaurant Websites

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary G.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B.; Levine, Erica L.; Goodman, Melody S.; Foley, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. Methods We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Results Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Conclusion Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America’s leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information. PMID:23977193

  14. Dissemination of English Culture in Chinua Achebe's "No Longer at Ease"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinjooee, Bahman; Khatar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Chinua Achebe's (1930-2013) "No Longer at Ease" (1960) which depicts the dissemination of English culture in Nigeria and its effects on the life and identity of Obi Okonkwo, the Western educated male protagonist. The focus of this paper is on the dissemination of English culture and submission of Nigerian culture in…

  15. Potential impact of easing the log export restriction on the Tongass National Forest.

    Treesearch

    David R. Darr

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher revenues in the log export market is constrained by possible reductions in prices associated with expanded supplies in the Japanese log market. Expanded log exports from the Tongass National Forest might force adjustments by existing cantmills, even under a partial easing of the export restriction.

  16. Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceived Ease of Access Before and After Recreational Marijuana Implementation in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2017-08-17

    As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.

  17. Children's Loneliness, Perceived Ease in Making Friends and Estimated Social Adequacy: Development and Social Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luftig, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the extent of children's loneliness, their perceived ease in making friends, their estimated social competence as a function of grade and sex, and their preferences concerning eight childhood activities. A loneliness scale and a sociometric peer nomination form were administered to 364 students in grades two, four, and six. (Author/BN)

  18. An e-Portfolio Design Supporting Ownership, Social Learning, and Ease of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This project attempts to improve electronic portfolio software through the creation of a design model using ownership, ease of use, and social learning variables to predict user adoption. The pilot software attempts to encourage student learning by enhancing peer interaction. The software was used by two groups of students. The first group used it…

  19. Physician attitudes on ease of use of EHR functionalities related to Meaningful Use.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Michael F; King, Jennifer; Patel, Vaishail

    2015-12-01

    To assess physician attitudes on ease of use of electronic health record (EHR) functionalities related to "Meaningful Use" (MU) and whether perceived ease of use was associated with EHR characteristics, including meeting MU criteria, technical assistance from EHR vendors or regional extension centers, and the amount of clinical staff training. A cross sectional analysis of the 2011 Physician Workflow study, nationally representative of US office-based physicians. Cross-sectional data were used to examine physician attitudes on ease of use of 14 EHR functionalities related to MU, among physicians with any EHR system. For 11 of the 14 EHR functions examined, physicians with EHRs that met MU criteria were significantly more likely than physicians that also utilized EHR systems to report that EHR functions were easy to use. For 8 of the functions examined, physicians receiving technical assistance from a vendor or regional extension center were significantly more likely to report that the EHR function was easy to use. Our study of a nationally representative survey of office-based physicians found that physicians' adoption and perceived ease of use of EHR functionalities related to MU was generally high.

  20. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  1. Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration. OECD Reviews of Migrant Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    How school systems respond to immigration has an enormous impact on the economic and social well-being of all members of the communities they serve, whether they have an immigrant background or not. "Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration" reveals some of the difficulties immigrant students encounter--and…

  2. An e-Portfolio Design Supporting Ownership, Social Learning, and Ease of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This project attempts to improve electronic portfolio software through the creation of a design model using ownership, ease of use, and social learning variables to predict user adoption. The pilot software attempts to encourage student learning by enhancing peer interaction. The software was used by two groups of students. The first group used it…

  3. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  4. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems.

  5. Do marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments? An analysis using Bayesian spatial latent factor and hurdle models.

    PubMed

    Luan, Hui; Minaker, Leia M; Law, Jane

    2016-08-22

    Findings of whether marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments (RFE) are mixed across countries, in part because inconsistent approaches have been used to characterize RFE 'healthfulness' and marginalization, and researchers have used non-spatial statistical methods to respond to this ultimately spatial issue. This study uses in-store features to categorize healthy and less healthy food outlets. Bayesian spatial hierarchical models are applied to explore the association between marginalization dimensions and RFE healthfulness (i.e., relative healthy food access that modelled via a probability distribution) at various geographical scales. Marginalization dimensions are derived from a spatial latent factor model. Zero-inflation occurring at the walkable-distance scale is accounted for with a spatial hurdle model. Neighbourhoods with higher residential instability, material deprivation, and population density are more likely to have access to healthy food outlets within a walkable distance from a binary 'have' or 'not have' access perspective. At the walkable distance scale however, materially deprived neighbourhoods are found to have less healthy RFE (lower relative healthy food access). Food intervention programs should be developed for striking the balance between healthy and less healthy food access in the study region as well as improving opportunities for residents to buy and consume foods consistent with dietary recommendations.

  6. Easing the Burden: Describing the Role of Social, Emotional and Spiritual Support in Research Families with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, June A; Kenen, Regina; Bremer, Renee; Givens, Shannon; Savage, Sharon A; Mai, Phuong L

    2016-06-01

    This study presents findings of a mixed-method descriptive exploration of the role of friends and spirituality/religiosity in easing the burden of families with the rare inherited disorder, Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS). LFS is caused by germline mutations in the TP53 gene and is associated with very high lifetime risk of developing one or more malignancies. During the first clinical visit we assessed several types of social support among a subset of study participants (N = 66) using an established interactive research tool called the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM). We performed both quantitative and qualitative analyses of social relationships with LFS family members and close non-kin. Distress scores (N = 59) were mostly low normal, with some outliers. We found that reported friendships varied widely, that the friendships were often deep and enduring, and were important sources of informational, tangible, emotional and spiritual support. Confidantes tended to be best friends and/or spouses. Organized religion was important in selected families, typically from mainstream traditions. However, a number of people identified themselves as "spiritual" and reported spiritual and humanist explorations. Our results shed preliminary light on how some people in families with LFS cope in the face of tremendous medical, social and emotional challenges.

  7. Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorsma, Daniel K.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

  8. Ease of Retrieval Effects on Relationship Commitment: The Role of Future Plans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kenneth; Agnew, Christopher R

    2016-02-01

    How do perceptions of future romantic plans affect close relationships? In three studies, we examined the effects of ease of retrieval of future plans on romantic relationship commitment. We hypothesized that greater ease of retrieval would be associated with greater relationship commitment among those who were high in need for cognition. Study 1 participants listed either two or 10 future plans and completed a measure assessing need for cognition. Results showed that high need for cognition individuals asked to list two instead of 10 future plans reported greater commitment, but those low in need for cognition showed the opposite pattern. Study 2 replicated this effect while controlling for plan substitutability. Study 3 examined the mediational role of commitment doubt. Those high in need for cognition listing more plans had more doubts and reported lower commitment. These findings suggest that perceptions of future plans can influence relationship commitment under specific conditions.

  9. As easy to move as a feather: perception of lightness as ease to move.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    When perception by touch is couched in terms of movement, perception of heaviness can be understood as perception of difficulty to move. This experiment further investigated this proposal as well as the corollary proposal that perception of lightness may be understood as perception of ease to move. Blindfolded participants wielded weighted objects and rated how heavy or light each object felt and how difficult or easy each object was to move. Ratings of heaviness and difficulty to move were analogously constrained by movement-relevant variables. Ratings of lightness and ease-to-move were also analogously constrained by such variables, but in the opposite manner. Conventional descriptors such as heaviness or lightness may be inappropriate for a principled understanding of perception by touch.

  10. Rhetorical features facilitate prosodic processing while handicapping ease of semantic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Bohrn, Isabel C; Knoop, Christine A; Kotz, Sonja A; Schlotz, Wolff; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-10-01

    Studies on rhetorical features of language have reported both enhancing and adverse effects on ease of processing. We hypothesized that two explanations may account for these inconclusive findings. First, the respective gains and losses in ease of processing may apply to different dimensions of language processing (specifically, prosodic and semantic processing) and different types of fluency (perceptual vs. conceptual) and may well allow for an integration into a more comprehensive framework. Second, the effects of rhetorical features may be sensitive to interactions with other rhetorical features; employing a feature separately or in combination with others may then predict starkly different effects. We designed a series of experiments in which we expected the same rhetorical features of the very same sentences to exert adverse effects on semantic (conceptual) fluency and enhancing effects on prosodic (perceptual) fluency. We focused on proverbs that each employ three rhetorical features: rhyme, meter, and brevitas (i.e., artful shortness). The presence of these target features decreased ease of conceptual fluency (semantic comprehension) while enhancing perceptual fluency as reflected in beauty and succinctness ratings that were mainly driven by prosodic features. The rhetorical features also predicted choices for persuasive purposes, yet only for the sentence versions featuring all three rhetorical features; the presence of only one or two rhetorical features had an adverse effect on the choices made. We suggest that the facilitating effects of a combination of rhyme, meter, and rhetorical brevitas on perceptual (prosodic) fluency overcompensated for their adverse effects on conceptual (semantic) fluency, thus resulting in a total net gain both in processing ease and in choices for persuasive purposes.

  11. Impact of three biological decontamination methods on filtering facepiece respirator fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Novak, Debra A; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Palmiero, Andrew; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), moist heat incubation (MHI), or microwave-generated steam (MGS) decontamination affects the fitting characteristics, odor, comfort, or donning ease of six N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) models. For each model, 10 experienced test subjects qualified for the study by passing a standard OSHA quantitative fit test. Once qualified, each subject performed a series of fit tests to assess respirator fit and completed surveys to evaluate odor, comfort, and donning ease with FFRs that were not decontaminated (controls) and with FFRs of the same model that had been decontaminated. Respirator fit was quantitatively measured using a multidonning protocol with the TSI PORTACOUNT Plus and the N95 Companion accessory (designed to count only particles resulting from face to face-seal leakage). Participants' subjective appraisals of the respirator's odor, comfort, and donning ease were captured using a visual analog scale survey. Wilcoxon signed rank tests compared median values for fit, odor, comfort, and donning ease for each FFR and decontamination method against their respective controls for a given model. Two of the six FFRs demonstrated a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in fit after MHI decontamination. However, for these two FFR models, post-decontamination mean fit factors were still ≥ 100. One of the other FFRs demonstrated a relatively small though statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in median odor response after MHI decontamination. These data suggest that FFR users with characteristics similar to those in this study population would be unlikely to experience a clinically meaningful reduction in fit, increase in odor, increase in discomfort, or increased difficulty in donning with the six FFRs included in this study after UVGI, MHI, or MGS decontamination. Further research is needed before decontamination of N95 FFRs for purposes of reuse can be

  12. A double-hurdle model estimation of cocoa farmers' willingness to pay for crop insurance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Adu, Derick Taylor; Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Yayra

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector in Ghana's economy, however, with high risk due to natural factors like climate change, pests and diseases and bush fires among others. Farmers in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana which is known as one of the major cocoa producing regions, face these risks which sometimes results in crop failure. The need for farmers to therefore insure their farms against crop loss is crucial. Insurance has been a measure to guard against risk. The aim of this study was to assess cocoa farmers' willingness to access crop insurance, the factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) for crop insurance scheme and insurance companies' willingness to provide crop insurance to cocoa farmers. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 240 farmers from four communities in the Dormaa West District in Brong-Ahafo Region. The double-hurdle model shows that age, marital status and education significantly and positively influenced cocoa farmer's willingness to insure their farms whiles household size and cropped area negatively influenced farmers' willingness to insure their farms. Similarly, age, household size and cropped area significantly and positively influenced the premium cocoa farmers were willing to pay whiles marital status and cocoa income negatively influenced the premium farmers were willing to pay. The contingent valuation method shows that the maximum, minimum and average amounts cocoa farmers are willing to pay for crop insurance per production cost per acre was GH¢128.40, GH¢32.10 and GH¢49.32 respectively. Insurance companies do not have crop insurance policy but willing to provide crop insurance policy to cocoa farmers on a condition that farmers adopt modern cultivation practices to reduce the level of risk. The study recommends that cocoa farmers should be well educated on crop insurance and should be involved in planning the crop insurance scheme in order to conclude on the premium to be paid by them.

  13. Implementation hurdles of an interactive, integrated, point-of-care computerised decision support system for hospital antibiotic prescription.

    PubMed

    Chow, A L; Ang, A; Chow, C Z; Ng, T M; Teng, C; Ling, L M; Ang, B S; Lye, D C

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is used to combat antimicrobial resistance. In Singapore, a tertiary hospital has integrated a computerised decision support system, called Antibiotic Resistance Utilisation and Surveillance-Control (ARUSC), into the electronic inpatient prescribing system. ARUSC is launched either by the physician to seek guidance for an infectious disease condition or via auto-trigger when restricted antibiotics are prescribed. This paper describes the implementation of ARUSC over three phases from 1 May 2011 to 30 April 2013, compared factors between ARUSC launches via auto-trigger and for guidance, examined factors associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations, and assessed user acceptability. During the study period, a monthly average of 9072 antibiotic prescriptions was made, of which 2370 (26.1%) involved ARUSC launches. Launches via auto-trigger comprised 48.1% of ARUSC launches. In phase 1, 23% of ARUSC launches were completed. This rose to 38% in phase 2, then 87% in phase 3, as escapes from the ARUSC programme were sequentially disabled. Amongst completed launches for guidance, 89% of ARUSC recommendations were accepted versus 40% amongst completed launches via auto-trigger. Amongst ARUSC launches for guidance, being from a medical department [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37] and ARUSC launch during on-call (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.61-2.05) were independently associated with acceptance of ARUSC recommendations. Junior physicians found ARUSC useful. Senior physicians found ARUSC reliable but admitted to having preferences for antibiotics that may conflict with ARUSC. Hospital-wide implementation of ARUSC encountered hurdles from physicians. With modifications, the completion rate improved.

  14. Understanding traditional African healing

    PubMed Central

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists. PMID:26594664

  15. Understanding traditional African healing.

    PubMed

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  16. On-Demand Mobility (ODM) Technical Pathway: Enabling Ease of Use and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Ken; Moore, Mark

    2015-01-01

    On-demand mobility (ODM) through aviation refers to the ability to quickly and easily move people or equivalent cargo without delays introduced by lack of, or infrequently, scheduled service. A necessary attribute of ODM is that it be easy to use, requiring a minimum of special training, skills, or workload. Fully-autonomous vehicles would provide the ultimate in ease-of-use (EU) but are currently unproven for safety-critical applications outside of a few, situationally constrained applications (e.g. automated trains operating in segregated systems). Applied to aviation, the current and near-future state of the art of full-autonomy, may entail undesirable trade-offs such as very conservative operational margins resulting in reduced trip reliability and transportation utility. Furthermore, acceptance by potential users and regulatory authorities will be challenging without confidence in autonomous systems in developed in less critical, but still challenging applications. A question for the aviation community is how we can best develop practical ease-of-use for aircraft that are sized to carry a small number of passengers (e.g. 1-9) or equivalent cargo. Such development is unlikely to be a single event, but rather a managed, evolutionary process where responsibility and authority transitions from human to automation agents as operational experience is gained with increasingly intelligent systems. This talk presents a technology road map being developed at NASA Langley, as part of an overall strategy to foster ODM, for the development of ease-of-use for ODM aviation.

  17. Source Memory for Mental Imagery: Influences of the Stimuli's Ease of Imagery.

    PubMed

    Krefeld-Schwalb, Antonia; Ellis, Andrew W; Oswald, Margit E

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how ease of imagery influences source monitoring accuracy. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how ease of imagery influences the probability of source confusions of perceived and imagined completions of natural symmetric shapes. The stimuli consisted of binary pictures of natural objects, namely symmetric pictures of birds, butterflies, insects, and leaves. The ease of imagery (indicating the similarity of the sources) and the discriminability (indicating the similarity of the items) of each stimulus were estimated in a pretest and included as predictors of the memory performance for these stimuli. It was found that confusion of the sources becomes more likely when the imagery process was relatively easy. However, if the different processes of source monitoring-item memory, source memory and guessing biases-are disentangled, both experiments support the assumption that the effect of decreased source memory for easily imagined stimuli is due to decision processes and misinformation at retrieval rather than encoding processes and memory retention. The data were modeled with a Bayesian hierarchical implementation of the one high threshold source monitoring model.

  18. The effects of retrieval ease on health issue judgments: implications for campaign strategies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of retrieving information about a health ailment on judgments of the perceived severity of the disease and self-efficacy regarding prevention and treatment. The literature on metacognition suggests that recall tasks render two types of information accessible: the retrieved content, and the subjective experience of retrieving the content. Both types of information can influence judgments. Content-based thinking models hold that the more instances of an event people can retrieve, the higher they will estimate the frequency of the event to be. In contrast, experience-based thinking models suggest that when people experience difficulty in retrieving information regarding an event, they rate the event as less likely to occur. In the first experiment, ease of retrieval was manipulated by asking participants to list either a high or low number of consequences of an ailment. As expected, retrieval difficulty resulted in lower perceived disease severity. In the second experiment, ease of retrieval was manipulated by varying the number of disease prevention or treatment measures participants attempted to list. As predicted, retrieval difficulty resulted in lower self-efficacy regarding prevention and treatment. In experiment three, when information regarding a health issue was made accessible by exposure to public service announcements (PSAs), ease-of-retrieval effects were attenuated. Finally, in experiment four, exposure to PSAs encouraged content-based judgments when the issue was of great concern.

  19. Map showing relative ease of excavation in the Salina quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.

    1972-01-01

    This map shows the relative ease (or difficulty) with which rocks and surficial deposits can be excavated. Because of rapidly changing technology of excavation and considerable local variability of many rock units, it is not practical to specifically categorize rock units according to type of equipment needed for their excavations. However, it may be stated in general that rock units classed as very easy and easy can in most places be excavated by hand tools and by light machinery such as backhoes and small bulldozers; units included in easy to difficult require blasting and (or) heavy machinery such as rippers and large bulldozers for resistant rocks, and hand tools or light power equipment for soft rocks; and units classes as difficult and very difficult probably require blasting and heavy machinery.The excavation units shown here are based on map units of the geologic map of the Salina quadrangle. Where bedrock is mantled with thin unmapped surficial deposits, ease of excavation shown is that of the bedrock, not that of the thin surficial mantle; where surficial deposits are mapped, ease of excavation shown is that of surficial deposits.

  20. The Role of Depth versus Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Success and Ease in L2 Lexical Inferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatami, Sarvenaz; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are related to L2 ease and success in lexical inferencing. To this end, two tests measuring vocabulary breadth and depth were administered to 50 participants. Two weeks later, all participants received an inferencing task and rated the degree of perceived ease in inferencing…

  1. Ease of use and patient preference injection simulation study comparing two prefilled insulin pens.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paula E; Valentine, Virginia; Bodie, Jennifer N; Sarwat, Samiha

    2010-07-01

    To determine patient ease of use and preference for the Humalog KwikPen* (prefilled insulin lispro [Humalog dagger] pen, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA) (insulin lispro pen) versus the Next Generation FlexPen double dagger (prefilled insulin aspart [NovoRapid section sign ] pen, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) (insulin aspart pen). This was a randomized, open-label, 2-period, 8-sequence crossover study in insulin pen-naïve patients with diabetes. Randomized patients (N = 367) received device training, then simulated low- (15 U) and high- (60 U) dose insulin injections with an appliance. Patients rated pens using an ease of use questionnaire and were asked separately for final pen preferences. The Insulin Device 'Ease of Use' Battery is a 10-item questionnaire with a 7-point scale (higher scores reflect greater ease of use). The primary objective was to determine pen preference for 'easy to press to inject my dose' (by comparing composite scores [low- plus high-dose]). Secondary objectives were to determine pen preference on select questionnaire items (from composite scores), final pen preference, and summary responses for all questionnaire items. On the primary endpoint, 'easy to press to inject my dose,' a statistically significant majority of patients with a preference chose the insulin lispro pen over the insulin aspart pen (68.4%, 95% CI = 62.7-73.6%). Statistically significant majorities of patients with a preference also favored the insulin lispro pen on secondary items: 'easy to hold in my hand when I inject' (64.9%, 95% CI = 58.8-70.7%), 'easy to use when I am in a public place' (67.5%, 95% CI = 61.0-73.6%), and 'overall easy to use' (69.9%, 95% CI = 63.9-75.4%). A statistically significant majority of patients had a final preference for the insulin lispro pen (67.3%, 95% CI = 62.2-72.1%). Among pen-naïve patients with diabetes who had a preference, the majority preferred the insulin lispro pen over the insulin aspart pen with regard

  2. Investigation of dairy cattle ease of movement on new methyl methacrylate resin aggregate floorings.

    PubMed

    Franco-Gendron, N; Bergeron, R; Curilla, W; Conte, S; DeVries, T; Vasseur, E

    2016-10-01

    Freestall dairy farms commonly present issues with cattle slips and falls caused by smooth flooring and manure slurry. This study examined the effect of 4 new methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin aggregate flooring types (1-4) compared with rubber (positive) and concrete (negative control) on dairy cow (n=18) ease of movement when walking on straight and right-angled corridors. Our hypothesis was that cow ease of movement when walking on the MMA surfaces would be better than when walking on traction milled concrete, and at least as good as when walking on rubber. Cattle ease of movement was measured using kinematics, accelerometers, and visual observation of gait and associated behaviors. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and hoof height were obtained from kinematic evaluation. Acceleration and asymmetry of variance were measured with accelerometers. Locomotion score and behaviors associated with lameness, such as arch back, head bob, tracking up, step asymmetry, and reluctance to bear weight were visually observed. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and the number of steps taken were the only variables affected by flooring type. Differences between flooring types for these variables were tested using a generalized linear mixed model with cow as a random effect, week as a random block factor, and flooring type as a fixed effect. Multiple comparisons with a Scheffé adjustment were done to analyze differences among flooring types. Stride length was 0.14 m longer (better) on rubber when compared with concrete, and 0.11 and 0.17 m shorter on MMA 1 and 2 compared with rubber. On MMA 3 and 4, stride length did not differ from either rubber or concrete. Swing time was 0.04 s shorter (worse) on MMA 1 than on rubber, but did not differ from any other flooring. Stance time was 0.18 s longer (worse) on MMA 2 when compared with rubber, but it did not differ from any other treatment. The number of steps was higher on MMA 4 compared with rubber (4.57 vs. 3.95 steps), but

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  4. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  5. Studying the Hurdles of Insulin Prescription (SHIP©): development, scoring and initial validation of a new self-administered questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Luc; Consoli, Silla M; Monnier, Louis; Simon, Dominique; Wong, Olivier; Yomtov, Bernard; Guéron, Béatrice; Benmedjahed, Khadra; Guillemin, Isabelle; Arnould, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Background Although insulin therapy is well-accepted by symptomatic diabetic patients, it is still often delayed in less severe patients, in whom injectable insulin remains under-used. A better understanding of patients' perception of insulin would eventually help physicians to adopt the most appropriate dialogue when having to motivate patients to initiate or to intensify insulin injection. Methods The 'Studying the Hurdles of Insulin Prescription' (SHIP) questionnaire was developed based on a list of concepts derived from three diabetic patients' focus groups, and was included into two cross-sectional studies with similar design: SHIP Oral study and SHIP Premix study. Diabetic patients treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA; n = 1,494) and patients already treated with insulin (n = 1,150) completed the questionnaire at baseline, 6- and 12 months. Psychometric properties were assessed: 1) structure analysis by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation, 2) internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha), and 3) concurrent validity (Spearman correlation coefficients with the Fear of Self-Injecting (FSI) score of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire. Reluctance/motivation towards insulin was assessed. Scores' ability to predict patients' insulin injection reluctance/motivation and initiation/intensification was evaluated with the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC). Results PCA analysis confirmed the structure of the 14 items grouped into 3 dimensions: 'acceptance and motivation', 'fear and constraints', and 'restraints and barriers' towards insulin injection. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70); concurrent validity was good. The three scores were significantly predictive of patients' reluctance/motivation towards insulin injection initiation, as they were of patients' actual switch, except for the 'restraints and barriers' dimension. 'Acceptance and

  6. Remote monitoring of CRT-ICD: the multicenter Italian CareLink evaluation--ease of use, acceptance, and organizational implications.

    PubMed

    Marzegalli, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Landolina, Maurizio; Perego, Giovanni B; Ricci, Renato P; Guenzati, Giuseppe; Schirru, Milena; Belvito, Chiara; Brambilla, Roberto; Masella, Cristina; Di Stasi, Francesca; Valsecchi, Sergio; Santini, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    The Medtronic CareLink allows remote implantable device follow-up. In this first European experience with CareLink, we assessed the ease of use of the system, the acceptance, and satisfaction of patients and clinicians. Patients implanted with biventricular defibrillators for more than 6 months received the CareLink monitor and were trained to perform home device interrogation and transmission. Patient and clinician experience and preference were evaluated through specific questionnaires. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled and were able to perform data transmissions during the 3-month study duration. The overall duration of interrogation procedure was 7 +/- 5 minutes, and frequently the procedure did not require the assistance of a caregiver. Patients reported a general preference for remote versus in-clinic follow-up and described a sense of reassurance created by the remote monitoring capability.In the centers, the review procedure was successful; its mean duration was 5 +/- 2 minutes per transmission and the users indicated that the access and navigation of the review website were easy. At the end of the evaluation, the data available for remote review were judged complete and adequate to provide almost the same standard of care as that offered in traditional in-clinic visit. In general, the remote monitoring was seen as a potential tool to improve the clinical management of patients with device. The ease of use, satisfaction, and acceptance of the CareLink Network in European clinical practice appears elevated both for patients and for clinicians.

  7. National evaluation for calving ease, gestation length and birth weight by linear and threshold model methodologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deukhwan; Misztal, Ignacy; Bertrand, J Keith; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2002-01-01

    Data included 393,097 calving ease, 129,520 gestation length, and 412,484 birth weight records on 412,484 Gelbvieh cattle. Additionally, pedigrees were available on 72,123 animals. Included in the models were effects of sex and age of dam, treated as fixed, as well as direct, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects and effects of contemporary group (herd-year-season), treated as random. In all analyses, birth weight and gestation length were treated as continuous traits. Calving ease (CE) was treated either as a continuous trait in a mixed linear model (LM), or as a categorical trait in linear-threshold models (LTM). Solutions in TM obtained by empirical Bayes (TMEB) and Monte Carlo (TMMC) methodologies were compared with those by LM. Due to the computational cost, only 10,000 samples were obtained for TMMC. For calving ease, correlations between LM and TMEB were 0.86 and 0.78 for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively. The same correlations but between TMEB and TMMC were 1.00 and 0.98, respectively. The correlations between LM and TMMC were 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. The correlations for the linear traits were above.97 between LM and TMEB but as low as 0.91 between LM and TMMC, suggesting insufficient convergence of TMMC. Computing time required was about 2 hrs, 5 hrs, and 6 days for LM, TMEB and TMMC, respectively, and memory requirements were 169, 171, and 445 megabytes, respectively. Bayesian implementation of threshold model is simple, can be extended to multiple categorical traits, and allows easy calculation of accuracies; however, computing time is prohibitively long for large models.

  8. Comparison of ease of use of three automated external defibrillators by untrained lay people.

    PubMed

    Eames, P; Larsen, P D; Galletly, D C

    2003-07-01

    The use of automated external defibrillators (AED) by lay people has the potential to markedly increase survival from community cardiac arrest. Wider public use of AEDs requires units that can be operated safely and effectively by people with minimal or no training. This study compares the use of three AEDs by untrained lay people regarding ease-of-use, safety, pad positioning and time to defibrillation. 24 subjects with no prior exposure to the use of AEDs were asked to perform simulated defibrillation on a manikin using three defibrillators: Zoll AEDPlus, Medtronic Physio-Control LifePak CR Plus and Philips/Laerdal HeartStart OnSite Defibrillator. Subjects' performance were videotaped and reviewed for time to defibrillate, pad positioning and safety. Subjects were asked to rate the three units in terms of ease-of-use. Average times to first shock were 74.8 s for the Physio-Control, 83.0 s for the Laerdal and 153.4 s for the Zoll defibrillator. Pad positioning was scored as correct in 23/24 Laerdal trials, 19/24 Physio-Control trials and 14/24 Zoll trials. 23 out of the 24 subjects rated the Zoll most difficult to use. All subjects safely stayed clear of the unit when required. The majority of subjects safely and effectively delivered defibrillating shocks without any prior training and within quite acceptable times. Untrained subjects find the Physio-Control and Laerdal Defibrillator easier to use than the Zoll device. Features of AED design that improved ease of use are discussed.

  9. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of the 'OptEase' Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kalva, Sanjeeva P.; Marentis, Theodore C.; Yeddula, Kalpana; Somarouthu, Bhanusupriya; Wicky, Stephan; Stecker, Michael S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of the OptEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study, we reviewed data of 71 patients who received an OptEase filter at our institution from 2002 to 2007. Thirty-nine (55%) patients had symptoms of venous thromboembolism before filter placement. The indications for filter included contraindication to anticoagulation in 31 (44%) patients, prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) in 29 (41%) patients, and failure of anticoagulation in 11 (15%) patients. Procedure-related complications, such as symptomatic post-filter PE, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), IVC occlusion, and incidental imaging-evident filter-related complications, were recorded. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of filter-related complications during placement and follow-up. Effectiveness was assessed by the occurrence of post-filter PE. Results: Sixty-five (92%) filters were placed under fluoroscopy, and 6 (8%) were placed using intravascular ultrasound guidance. Seventy (99%) filters were placed successfully. Seven (10%) filters were placed in the suprarenal cava. Retrieval was attempted in 14 (20%) patients, and 12 filters were successfully retrieved. Clinical follow-up was available for 20 {+-} 21 months. Symptoms of postfilter PE and DVT occurred in 15% (n = 11) and 10% (n = 7) patients, respectively. None of these patients had computed tomography (CT)-proven PE, and only one had ultrasound-proven new DVT. One patient had symptomatic IVC occlusion. Follow-up abdominal CT in 20 patients showed thrombus in the filter in two of them. There were no instances of filter migration, filter tilt, or caval wall penetration. Conclusion: The OptEase filter appears to have an acceptable long-term safety profile. The filter was effective against PE.

  10. Estimation of ancestral inbreeding effects on stillbirth, calving ease and birthweight in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, D; Bennewitz, J; Wellmann, R; Thaller, G

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of different measurements of ancestral inbreeding on birthweight, calving ease and stillbirth were analysed. Three models were used to estimate the effect of ancestral inbreeding, and the estimated regression coefficient of phenotypic data on different measurements of ancestral inbreeding was used to quantify the effect of ancestral inbreeding. The first model included only one measurement of inbreeding, whereas the second model included the classical inbreeding coefficients and one alternative inbreeding coefficient. The third model included the classical inbreeding coefficients, the interaction between classical inbreeding and ancestral inbreeding, and the classical inbreeding coefficients of the dam. Phenotypic data for this study were collected from February 1998 to December 2008 on three large commercial milk farms. During this time, 36,477 calving events were recorded. All calves were weighed after birth, and 8.08% of the calves died within 48 h after calving. Calving ease was recorded on a scale between 1 and 4 (1 = easy birth, 4 = surgery), and 69.95, 20.91, 8.92 and 0.21% of the calvings were scored with 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient of inbred animals was 0.03, and average ancestral inbreeding coefficients were 0.08 and 0.01, depending on how ancestral inbreeding was calculated. Approximately 26% of classically non-inbred animals showed ancestral inbreeding. Correlations between different inbreeding coefficients ranged between 0.46 and 0.99. No significant effect of ancestral inbreeding was found for calving ease, because the number of animals with reasonable high level of ancestral inbreeding was too low. Significant effects of ancestral inbreeding were estimated for birthweight and stillbirth. Unfavourable effects of ancestral inbreeding were observed for birthweight. However, favourable purging effects were estimated for stillbirth, indicating that purging could be partly beneficial for genetic

  11. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mahboob; Dang, Chang Gwon; Choi, Tae Jeong; Choy, Yun Ho; Lee, Jae Gu; Cho, Kwang Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Objective Calving ease (CE) is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo), gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE) and daughter calving ease (DCE) evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving). A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5) and 100% (CE1). A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2) from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE) and −0.71±0.09 (DCE). The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA) was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of calving

  12. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mahboob; Dang, Chang Gwon; Choi, Tae Jeong; Choy, Yun Ho; Lee, Jae Gu; Cho, Kwang Hyeon

    2017-09-01

    Calving ease (CE) is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo), gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE) and daughter calving ease (DCE) evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving). A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5) and 100% (CE1). A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. The estimated direct heritability (h(2)) from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h(2) estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were -0.68±0.09 (SCE) and -0.71±0.09 (DCE). The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA) was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of calving difficulty in Korean Holsteins.

  13. Ease of adoption of clinical natural language processing software: An evaluation of five systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kai; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue; Stubbs, Amber; Uzuner, Özlem; Gururaj, Anupama E; Bayer, Samuel; Aberdeen, John; Rumshisky, Anna; Pakhomov, Serguei; Liu, Hongfang; Xu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In recognition of potential barriers that may inhibit the widespread adoption of biomedical software, the 2014 i2b2 Challenge introduced a special track, Track 3 - Software Usability Assessment, in order to develop a better understanding of the adoption issues that might be associated with the state-of-the-art clinical NLP systems. This paper reports the ease of adoption assessment methods we developed for this track, and the results of evaluating five clinical NLP system submissions. A team of human evaluators performed a series of scripted adoptability test tasks with each of the participating systems. The evaluation team consisted of four "expert evaluators" with training in computer science, and eight "end user evaluators" with mixed backgrounds in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and health informatics. We assessed how easy it is to adopt the submitted systems along the following three dimensions: communication effectiveness (i.e., how effective a system is in communicating its designed objectives to intended audience), effort required to install, and effort required to use. We used a formal software usability testing tool, TURF, to record the evaluators' interactions with the systems and 'think-aloud' data revealing their thought processes when installing and using the systems and when resolving unexpected issues. Overall, the ease of adoption ratings that the five systems received are unsatisfactory. Installation of some of the systems proved to be rather difficult, and some systems failed to adequately communicate their designed objectives to intended adopters. Further, the average ratings provided by the end user evaluators on ease of use and ease of interpreting output are -0.35 and -0.53, respectively, indicating that this group of users generally deemed the systems extremely difficult to work with. While the ratings provided by the expert evaluators are higher, 0.6 and 0.45, respectively, these ratings are still low indicating that they also experienced

  14. Resident Use of Text Messaging for Patient Care: Ease of Use or Breach of Privacy?

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Micah T; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Chadaga, Amar; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-11-26

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging is an efficient form of communication and pervasive in health care, but may not securely protect patient information. It is unclear if resident providers are aware of the security concerns of SMS text messaging when communicating about patient care. We sought to compare residents' preferences for SMS text messaging compared with other forms of in-hospital communication when considering security versus ease of use. This study was a cross-sectional multi-institutional survey of internal medicine residents. Residents ranked different communication modalities based on efficiency, ease of use, and security using a Likert scale. Communication options included telephone, email, hospital paging, and SMS text messaging. Respondents also reported whether they had received confidential patient identifiers through any of these modalities. SMS text messaging was preferred by 71.7% (94/131) of respondents because of its efficiency and by 79.8% (103/129) of respondents because of its ease of use. For security, 82.5% (104/126) of respondents preferred the hospital paging system, whereas only 20.6% (26/126) of respondents preferred SMS text messaging for secure communication. In all, 70.9% (93/131) of respondents reported having received patient identifiers (first and/or last name), 81.7% (107/131) reported receiving patient initials, and 50.4% (66/131) reported receiving a patient's medical record number through SMS text messages. Residents prefer in-hospital communication through SMS text messaging because of its ease of use and efficiency. Despite security concerns, the majority of residents reported receiving confidential patient information through SMS text messaging. For providers, it is possible that the benefits of improved in-hospital communication with SMS text messaging and the presumed improvement in the coordination and delivery of patient care outweigh security concerns they may have. The tension between the security and

  15. Genistein Partly Eases Aging and Estropause-Induced Primary Cortical Neuronal Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Wen-Jay; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Gonadal hormones can modulate brain morphology and behavior. Recent studies have shown that hypogonadism could result in cortical function deficits. To this end, hormone therapy has been used to ease associated symptoms but the risk may outweigh the benefits. Here we explored whether genistein, a phytoestrogen, is effective in restoring the cognitive and central neuronal changes in late middle age and surgically estropause female rats. Both animal groups showed poorer spatial learning than young adults. The dendritic arbors and spines of the somatosensory cortical and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed with intracellular dye injection and analyzed. The results showed that dendritic spines on these neurons were significantly decreased. Remarkably, genistein treatment rescued spatial learning deficits and restored the spine density on all neurons in the surgically estropause young females. In late middle age females, genistein was as effective as estradiol in restoring spines; however, the recovery was less thorough than on young OHE rats. Neither genistein nor estradiol rectified the shortened dendritic arbors of the aging cortical pyramidal neurons suggesting that dendritic arbors and spines are differently modulated. Thus, genistein could work at central level to restore excitatory connectivity and appears to be potent alternative to estradiol for easing aging and menopausal syndromes. PMID:24587060

  16. Relationship between ease of swallowing and deglutition-related muscle activity in various postures.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Kida, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ease of swallowing and the deglutition-related muscle activity in various body and head postures by surface electromyography (EMG). Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the right suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles of nine healthy adults (19-28 years) while swallowing jelly. Ten postures per subject were examined: five body angulations (0 degrees [supine], 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees [upright] and 120 degrees from the horizontal) and two head positions (chin-up and chin-down). The duration and amplitude of suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity were measured by an electromyograph, and the ease of swallowing was subjectively determined by using a rating scale (0 = difficult to swallow, 10 = easy to swallow). The group-average duration and amplitude of muscle activity and the group-average rating scales mostly showed insignificant changes with the body angulations independent of the head positions. Interestingly, the duration and amplitude of muscle activity during swallowing were negatively correlated with the rating scales, indicating that a shorter duration and smaller activity of muscle activity corresponds to easier swallowing. Consequently, the duration and amplitude of suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity measured by surface EMG would be a useful indicator of the easy-to-swallow performance.

  17. Genistein partly eases aging and estropause-induced primary cortical neuronal changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Wang, Wen-Jay; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Gonadal hormones can modulate brain morphology and behavior. Recent studies have shown that hypogonadism could result in cortical function deficits. To this end, hormone therapy has been used to ease associated symptoms but the risk may outweigh the benefits. Here we explored whether genistein, a phytoestrogen, is effective in restoring the cognitive and central neuronal changes in late middle age and surgically estropause female rats. Both animal groups showed poorer spatial learning than young adults. The dendritic arbors and spines of the somatosensory cortical and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed with intracellular dye injection and analyzed. The results showed that dendritic spines on these neurons were significantly decreased. Remarkably, genistein treatment rescued spatial learning deficits and restored the spine density on all neurons in the surgically estropause young females. In late middle age females, genistein was as effective as estradiol in restoring spines; however, the recovery was less thorough than on young OHE rats. Neither genistein nor estradiol rectified the shortened dendritic arbors of the aging cortical pyramidal neurons suggesting that dendritic arbors and spines are differently modulated. Thus, genistein could work at central level to restore excitatory connectivity and appears to be potent alternative to estradiol for easing aging and menopausal syndromes.

  18. Ease of opening of blistered solid dosage forms in a senior citizens target group.

    PubMed

    Braun-Münker, Myriam; Ecker, Felix

    2016-10-30

    Blisters differing in design and handling are established as packaging material for solid dosage forms. The ease of opening of blisters influences application and patient's compliance. In this study the influence of visibility and movability of solid dosage forms in blister packaging on both, easy opening and patient's satisfaction, were investigated by target group testing according to ONR CEN/TS 15945. For each testing 20 participants in the age of 65-80 years were recruited randomly. They opened the blisters on realistic terms without any auxiliary devices. Video documentation of the hands' movements was recorded to analyze the opening procedure. To show the influence of visibility of the dosage form in the blister, capsules size 1 were packed in transparent and opaque blisters. A moderate influence of the visibility on both, the ease of opening and patient satisfaction, was observed. A second study dealt with the movability of solid dosage forms in blisters. Therefore, three different sizes of tablets with similar shapes were packed in identical cavities. Limited movability was found as major criterion on effectiveness and effectivity of opening as well as on satisfaction with the opening procedure.

  19. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  20. EASE-MM: Sequence-Based Prediction of Mutation-Induced Stability Changes with Feature-Based Multiple Models.

    PubMed

    Folkman, Lukas; Stantic, Bela; Sattar, Abdul; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-03-27

    Protein engineering and characterisation of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) require accurate prediction of protein stability changes (ΔΔGu) induced by single amino acid substitutions. Here, we have developed a new prediction method called Evolutionary, Amino acid, and Structural Encodings with Multiple Models (EASE-MM), which comprises five specialised support vector machine (SVM) models and makes the final prediction from a consensus of two models selected based on the predicted secondary structure and accessible surface area of the mutated residue. The new method is applicable to single-domain monomeric proteins and can predict ΔΔGu with a protein sequence and mutation as the only inputs. EASE-MM yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.53-0.59 in 10-fold cross-validation and independent testing and was able to outperform other sequence-based methods. When compared to structure-based energy functions, EASE-MM achieved a comparable or better performance. The application to a large dataset of human germline non-synonymous SNVs showed that the disease-causing variants tend to be associated with larger magnitudes of ΔΔGu predicted with EASE-MM. The EASE-MM web-server is available at http://sparks-lab.org/server/ease.

  1. Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Eldon, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own…

  2. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  3. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  4. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  5. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  6. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  7. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  8. Genetic parameters for calving ease, gestation length, and birth weight in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Crews, D H

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a 3-trait linear model was used to obtain genetic parameters for direct and maternal components of calving ease (CE), gestation length (GEST), and birth weight (BWT). Calving ease scores were transformed into Snell scores and expressed as percent unassisted calving (SC), ranging from 0 to 100% (least to greatest ease). A total of 40,420 records (n = 14,403 for CE) were obtained from the Canadian Charolais Association field database. The animal model included fixed effects of contemporary group (herd x year of birth combinations), age of heifer, and sex of calf (only for CE), whereas random effects included direct and maternal genetic effects, residual error, and permanent environmental effects (for CE). The BWT and GEST were preadjusted for age of dam and sex of calf effects. Variance components were estimated using REML. Mean SC was 83.31% (SD = 23.30) and ranged from 3.44 to 100%. Mean BWT was 46.54 kg (SD = 4.79), whereas mean GEST was 286.48 d (SD = 4.93). Direct heritability estimates for SC, BWT, and GEST were 0.14 +/- 0.02, 0.46 +/- 0.03, and 0.62 +/- 0.04, respectively, and maternal heritability estimates were 0.06 +/- 0.02, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.10 +/- 0.02, respectively. The permanent environmental effect as a proportion of SC phenotypic variance was 0.35 +/- 0.11, indicating a large influence on CE. Genetic correlations of direct SC with direct BWT and GEST were -0.93 +/- 0.04 and -0.38 +/- 0.08, respectively, whereas maternal correlations were -0.69 +/- 0.14 and -0.49 +/- 0.17, respectively, illustrating the importance of including both traits in CE evaluations. Within trait direct x maternal genetic correlations were substantial and negative. Regression of average direct and average maternal EBV on year of birth yielded significant genetic trends for the direct effects of BWT, GEST, and CE, whereas no trends were detected for maternal effects. Even though CE is routinely analyzed, no study has evaluated transformed CE scores with 2

  9. Blood transfer devices for malaria rapid diagnostic tests: evaluation of accuracy, safety and ease of use

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used by remote health personnel with minimal training in laboratory techniques. RDTs must, therefore, be as simple, safe and reliable as possible. Transfer of blood from the patient to the RDT is critical to safety and accuracy, and poses a significant challenge to many users. Blood transfer devices were evaluated for accuracy and precision of volume transferred, safety and ease of use, to identify the most appropriate devices for use with RDTs in routine clinical care. Methods Five devices, a loop, straw-pipette, calibrated pipette, glass capillary tube, and a new inverted cup device, were evaluated in Nigeria, the Philippines and Uganda. The 227 participating health workers used each device to transfer blood from a simulated finger-prick site to filter paper. For each transfer, the number of attempts required to collect and deposit blood and any spilling of blood during transfer were recorded. Perceptions of ease of use and safety of each device were recorded for each participant. Blood volume transferred was calculated from the area of blood spots deposited on filter paper. Results The overall mean volumes transferred by devices differed significantly from the target volume of 5 microliters (p < 0.001). The inverted cup (4.6 microliters) most closely approximated the target volume. The glass capillary was excluded from volume analysis as the estimation method used is not compatible with this device. The calibrated pipette accounted for the largest proportion of blood exposures (23/225, 10%); exposures ranged from 2% to 6% for the other four devices. The inverted cup was considered easiest to use in blood collection (206/226, 91%); the straw-pipette and calibrated pipette were rated lowest (143/225 [64%] and 135/225 [60%] respectively). Overall, the inverted cup was the most preferred device (72%, 163/227), followed by the loop (61%, 138/227). Conclusions The performance of blood transfer devices

  10. Subcutaneous sumatriptan delivery devices: comparative ease of use and preference among migraineurs

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Anthony D; Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Ramirez, Margarita; Munjal, Sagar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Background Several sumatriptan subcutaneous autoinjector devices for acute treatment of migraine patients are available, each device differs with respect to design and features. Determining device preference and ease of use is important because patients experiencing a migraine attack are often functionally impaired. Objective The objective of this human factors study was to compare migraine patients’ device use performance and preferences for three sumatriptan subcutaneous autoinjectors: a disposable two-step device (Zembrace® SymTouch®), a disposable three-step device (Sumavel® DosePro®), and a multistep reloadable device (Imitrex® STATdose®), using simulated injections. Methods Each study subject performed two unaided simulated injections with each of three different drug delivery devices, which were presented in counterbalanced order. The participants were then asked to rate the three devices on various subjective measures. The primary end point was overall device preference using a visual analog scale. Results A total of 54 subjects participated and each subject performed two simulated injections with each of the three devices. Most subjects preferred the two-step device (88.9%) to the three-step (13.0%) and the reloadable (1.9%). The two-step device had higher mean overall preference ratings (F (2, 159)=56.6, P<0.01) and higher ratings for ease of use, intuitiveness, convenience, portability, and control. The two-step device had a first injection full-dose delivery success rate of 44.4%, higher than both the reloadable (24.1%) and the three-step (3.7%) devices. The number of errors with the two-step device (n=3) was ~90% lower than the three-step (n=49) and reloadable (n=44) devices. Conclusion In this human factors study, 54 migraineurs used simulated injections to compare three sumatriptan subcutaneous delivery devices. Zembrace SymTouch, a two-step device, was most preferred compared with Sumavel DosePro and Imitrex STATdose. It also ranked highest

  11. An objective evaluation of the waterproofing qualities, ease of insertion and comfort of commonly available earplugs.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, E J; Kuchai, R; McPartlin, D

    2004-04-01

    Earplugs are commonly recommended to protect the middle ear from water in patients with exposed middle ears. This study assessed the waterproofing qualities, ease of insertion and comfort of six commonly available earplugs. Ten subjects (20 ears) were assessed by placing a pre-weighed neurosurgical pattie in their cleaned ear canal under microscope guidance. The subjects underwent a standardized head wetting regime. The outer ear was dried, earplug and pattie removed and pattie reweighed. The difference in weight was calculated. The subjects were also asked to score the difficulty of insertion and comfort of the earplugs on a visual analogue scale. The results show a significant difference in the waterproofing qualities of the various types of earplugs. Cotton wool with petroleum jelly was the most effective (P < 0.001). It was also the easiest to insert and the most comfortable for the subject (P < 0.001).

  12. Easing the Transition From Clinician to Nurse Educator: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Grassley, Jane S; Lambe, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Experienced clinicians who choose to become academic nurse educators bring to their new faculty role strong clinical skills and a desire to influence the next generation of nurses. However, many find themselves unprepared for the challenges they encounter. Intentional mentoring is needed to ease their transition from clinician to nurse educator. An integrative literature review was conducted to identify the essential components of a comprehensive mentoring program to facilitate a positive transition experience from expert clinician to novice nursing faculty. Searches were conducted of the ProQuest Central and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed articles. A review of 17 publications and seven Web sites identified formal preparation for teaching, guidance navigating the academic culture, and a structured mentoring program as essential to clinicians' successful transition to academic nursing faculty. Sustainable mentoring programs require recognition of mentoring as central to nursing education and administrative investment of resources. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Suppressing secrecy through metacognitive ease: cognitive fluency encourages self-disclosure.

    PubMed

    Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    Understanding when people reveal unfavorable information about themselves is both practically and theoretically important. Existing research suggests that people tend not to adopt stable disclosure strategies, and consequently disclose too much information in some situations (e.g., embarrassing personal information on Facebook) and too little in other situations (e.g., risky sexual behavior to a physician during diagnosis of a possible sexually transmitted disease). We sought to identify a domain-general cue that predicts self-disclosure patterns. We found that metacognitive ease, or fluency, promoted greater disclosure, both in tightly controlled lab studies (Studies 1a, 1b, and 3) and in an ecologically valid on-line field study (Study 4). Disfluency tended to prime thoughts and emotions associated with risk, which might be one reason why people who experience disfluency are less comfortable with self-disclosure (Studies 2 and 3). We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for theory and clinical practice.

  14. Cuff leakage, not paravalvular leakage, in the Carpentier Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease aortic bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Cho, Tomoki; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-12-01

    Though the Carpentier Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease valve is a bioprosthesis with documented excellent haemodynamics and easy implantability, this valve has a gap between the cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy stent and silicone sewing ring. This gap, which is widest just below each of the three commissural struts, lacks silicone and leaves the two-layer polytetrafluoroethylene fabric unsupported and unprotected. If the needle of a valve suture is placed in this structurally weak area of the sewing ring, the resultant fabric tear may result in a true cuff leakage, not the usual paravalvular leakage. We describe this pitfall in the context of a recent operation to alert surgeons everywhere that suture placement too close to the stent (missing the silicone sewing ring) can result in postoperative cuff leakage. We need to be very careful to include the silicone ring in each stitch to prevent injury to the valve cuff of this prosthesis and to avoid cuff leakage.

  15. Ball Bearing (BB) Guns, Ease of Purchase and Potential for Significant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grocock, C; McCarthy, R; Williams, DJ

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ball bearing guns are used in the UK for war games, but they have the potential to cause severe injury if used incorrectly. MATERIALS AND METHODS A search was made for availability of these weapons, the ease of purchase and the potential for tissue damage. RESULTS These weapons are widely available on the Internet and are easy to purchase with no security checks. Once fully charged, an electric BB gun is capable of penetrating a cadaveric animal model at distances up to 5 m (1 m = 25 mm penetration, 3 m = 20 mm penetration, 5 m = 15 mm penetration). CONCLUSIONS BB guns are not toys and have a significant potential to cause injury. PMID:16834864

  16. A cognition-based method to ease the computational load for an extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2014-12-03

    The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear model of a Kalman filter (KF). It is a useful parameter estimation method when the observation model and/or the state transition model is not a linear function. However, the computational requirements in EKF are a difficulty for the system. With the help of cognition-based designation and the Taylor expansion method, a novel algorithm is proposed to ease the computational load for EKF in azimuth predicting and localizing under a nonlinear observation model. When there are nonlinear functions and inverse calculations for matrices, this method makes use of the major components (according to current performance and the performance requirements) in the Taylor expansion. As a result, the computational load is greatly lowered and the performance is ensured. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will deliver filtering output with a similar precision compared to the regular EKF. At the same time, the computational load is substantially lowered.

  17. Humalog(®) KwikPen™: an insulin-injecting pen designed for ease of use.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sherwyn L; Ignaut, Debra A; Bodie, Jennifer N

    2010-11-01

    Insulin pens offer significant benefits over vial and syringe injections for patients with diabetes who require insulin therapy. Insulin pens are more discreet, easier for patients to hold and inject, and provide better dosing accuracy than vial and syringe injections. The Humalog(®) KwikPen™ (prefilled insulin lispro [Humalog] pen, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA) is a prefilled insulin pen highly rated by patients for ease of use in injections, and has been preferred by patients to both a comparable insulin pen and to vial and syringe injections in comparator studies. Together with an engineering study demonstrating smoother injections and reduced dosing error versus a comparator pen, recent evidence demonstrates the Humalog KwikPen device is an accurate, easy-to-use, patient-preferred insulin pen.

  18. Towards easing the configuration and new team member accommodation for open source software based portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For simple portals such as vocabulary based services, which contain small amounts of data and require only hyper-textual representation, it is often an overkill to adopt the whole software stack of database, middleware and front end, or to use a general Web development framework as the starting point of development. Directly combining open source software is a much more favorable approach. However, our experience with the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabulary (CMSPV) service portal shows that there are still issues such as system configuration and accommodating a new team member that need to be handled carefully. In this contribution, we share our experience in the context of the CMSPV portal, and focus on the tools and mechanisms we've developed to ease the configuration job and the incorporation process of new project members. We discuss the configuration issues that arise when we don't have complete control over how the software in use is configured and need to follow existing configuration styles that may not be well documented, especially when multiple pieces of such software need to work together as a combined system. As for the CMSPV portal, it is built on two pieces of open source software that are still under rapid development: a Fuseki data server and Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) front end. Both lack mature documentation and tutorials. We developed comparison and labeling tools to ease the problem of system configuration. Another problem that slowed down the project is that project members came and went during the development process, so new members needed to start with a partially configured system and incomplete documentation left by old members. We developed documentation/tutorial maintenance mechanisms based on our comparison and labeling tools to make it easier for the new members to be incorporated into the project. These tools and mechanisms also provided benefit to other projects that reused the software components from the CMSPV

  19. Comparison of intuitiveness, ease of use and preference among three prefilled, disposable growth hormone injection pens.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Tilman R; Winter, Franziska; Qvist, Marianne; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie

    2013-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) therapy is an effective treatment for growth failure in children. Adherence rates are often low, resulting in poor linear growth. Intuitive and easy-to-use injection devices may improve adherence. To determine injection time, ease of use, intuitiveness and subjects' preference for Norditropin FlexPro (FP) pen (Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark) versus Genotropin GoQuick (GQ; Pfizer Inc., USA) and Norditropin NordiFlex (NF; Novo Nordisk) pens. Subjects aged ≥ 10 to < 18 years, with GH deficiency, Turner syndrome or short stature following small-for-gestational-age birth were randomized to intuitiveness (no instruction) or instruction groups. Time taken to perform an injection, dose accuracy and errors were recorded. Intuitiveness, ease-of-learning and overall preference were assessed using questionnaires. Sixty-four subjects, randomized to intuitiveness (n = 32; mean [SD] age, 13.1 [2.1] years) and instruction (n = 32; 13.4 [2.0] years) groups, required less time to perform the injection with FP than with GQ (mean [SD], intuitiveness 39.8 s [17.0] vs. 65.6 s [42.9], p < 0.01; instruction 40.7 s [19.7] vs. 48.1 s [25.8], p < 0.05), and a similar amount of time with NF. NF and FP were more accurate than GQ (intuitiveness group only). Fewer errors were recorded with NF followed by FP and GQ. FP and NF were considered easier to learn than GQ in both groups. In the intuitiveness group, the majority of subjects (31/32) felt confident using FP without instruction. FP was the device of overall preference in both groups. FP was the device that was most intuitive, easiest to use and the device of overall preference.

  20. The Mid-Term Efficacy and Safety of a Permanent Nitinol IVC Filter (TrapEase)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei Chiang; Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young Wook; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Choo, In-Wook

    2005-01-01

    Objective 1) To evaluate the mid-term efficacy and safety of a permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter; 2) to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability and caval occlusion. Materials and Methods A prospective evaluation of the TrapEase IVC filter was performed on 42 patients (eight men, 34 women) ranging in age from 22 to 78 years (mean age 66 years). All patients were ill with a high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). Indications for filter placement were: 1) deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism; 2) and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation; and 3) complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation. Follow-up evaluations (mean: 15.4 months, range: 2 to 28 months) were performed at 6- and 12-month intervals after the procedure and included clinical histories, chart reviews, plain film, Doppler ultrasounds, and contrasted abdominal CT scans. Results In follow-up evaluations, the data analysis revealed no cases of symptomatic PE. There were no cases of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study, there was one case of filter thrombosis; early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital. Of the 42 subjects, eight died. These deaths were not related to the filter device or the implantation procedure, but to the underlying disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the TrapEase permanent IVC filter is a safe and an effective device with low complication rates and is best used in patients with thromboembolic disease with a high risk of PE. PMID:15968150

  1. Design of the exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE) trial: an endoscopic procedure for reducing hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pallav L; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Cardoso, Paulo F G; Cetti, Edward J; Sybrecht, Gerhard W; Cooper, Joel D

    2011-01-07

    Airway Bypass is a catheter-based, bronchoscopic procedure in which new passageways are created that bypass the collapsed airways, enabling trapped air to exit the lungs. The Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) Trial was designed to investigate whether Exhale® Drug-Eluting Stents, placed in new passageways in the lungs, can improve pulmonary function and reduce breathlessness in severely hyperinflated, homogeneous emphysema patients (NCT00391612). The multi-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial design was posted on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov in October 2006. Because Bayesian statistics are used for the analysis, the proposed enrollment ranged from 225 up to 450 subjects at up to 45 institutions. Inclusion criteria are: high resolution CT scan with evidence of homogeneous emphysema, post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests showing: a ratio of FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1 ≤ 50% of predicted or FEV1 < 1 liter, RV/TLC ≥ 0.65 at screening, marked dyspnea score ≥ 2 on the modified Medical Research Council scale of 0-4, a smoking history of at least 20 pack years and stopped smoking for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. Following 16 to 20 supervised pulmonary rehabilitation sessions, subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive either a treatment (Exhale® Drug-Eluting Stent) or a sham bronchoscopy. A responder analysis will evaluate the co-primary endpoints of an FVC improvement ≥ 12% of the patient baseline value and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale improvement (reduction) ≥ 1 point at the 6-month follow-up visit. If through the EASE Trial, Airway Bypass is shown to improve pulmonary function and reduce dyspnea while demonstrating an acceptable safety profile, then homogeneous patients will have a minimally invasive treatment option with meaningful clinical benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00391612.

  2. Design of the exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE) trial: an endoscopic procedure for reducing hyperinflation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Airway Bypass is a catheter-based, bronchoscopic procedure in which new passageways are created that bypass the collapsed airways, enabling trapped air to exit the lungs. The Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE) Trial was designed to investigate whether Exhale® Drug-Eluting Stents, placed in new passageways in the lungs, can improve pulmonary function and reduce breathlessness in severely hyperinflated, homogeneous emphysema patients (NCT00391612). Methods/Design The multi-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial design was posted on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov in October 2006. Because Bayesian statistics are used for the analysis, the proposed enrollment ranged from 225 up to 450 subjects at up to 45 institutions. Inclusion criteria are: high resolution CT scan with evidence of homogeneous emphysema, post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests showing: a ratio of FEV1/FVC < 70%, FEV1≤50% of predicted or FEV1 < 1 liter, RV/TLC≥0.65 at screening, marked dyspnea score ≥2 on the modified Medical Research Council scale of 0-4, a smoking history of at least 20 pack years and stopped smoking for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. Following 16 to 20 supervised pulmonary rehabilitation sessions, subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive either a treatment (Exhale® Drug-Eluting Stent) or a sham bronchoscopy. A responder analysis will evaluate the co-primary endpoints of an FVC improvement ≥12% of the patient baseline value and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale improvement (reduction) ≥1 point at the 6-month follow-up visit. Discussion If through the EASE Trial, Airway Bypass is shown to improve pulmonary function and reduce dyspnea while demonstrating an acceptable safety profile, then homogeneous patients will have a minimally invasive treatment option with meaningful clinical benefit. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00391612 PMID:21214899

  3. Dissociating perception from judgment in the action-specific effect of blocking ease on perceived speed.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Tenhundfeld, Nathan L; Bielak, Allison A M

    2017-01-01

    The action-specific approach to perception claims that a person's ability to act directly influences perceptual processes related to spatial vision. For example, a person's ability to block a moving ball impacts perceptual judgments of the ball's speed. However, an alternative explanation is that action rather than perception influences judgments. Here, we explore this distinction directly. Our method produces two distinct effects, one that is clearly a judgment-based effect and is based on the outcome of the trial (trial-outcome effect) and one that is under debate as to whether or not it is perceptual and is based on the ease with which the ball can be blocked (paddle-size effect). We explored whether these two effects would produce convergence or dissociations across various populations and manipulations. A dissociation is evidence for two separate underlying processes, whereas if the two effects did not dissociate, this would be consistent with claims that both effects were judgment-based. In Experiment 1, we examined whether older and younger adults would show a dissociation between the two effects given some precedent for older adults to show greater susceptibility to nonperceptual factors in their judgments. In Experiment 2, we used a cover story to excuse poor performance and examined its effects on both types of effects. Both experiments revealed dissociations, suggesting that while one effect is judgment-based, the other effect is not. Coupled with prior research, we conclude that the action-specific effect of ease to block a ball on estimated ball speed is perceptual.

  4. Development and preliminary validation of the EASE: a tool to measure perceived singing voice function.

    PubMed

    Phyland, Debra J; Pallant, Julie F; Benninger, Michael S; Thibeault, Susan L; Greenwood, Ken M; Smith, Julian A; Vallance, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Most voice self-rating tools are disease-specific measures and are not suitable for use with healthy voice users. There is a need for a tool that is sensitive to the subtleties of a singer's voice and to perceived physical changes in the singing voice mechanism as a function of load. The aim of this study was to devise and validate a scale to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice. Ninety-five vocal health descriptors were collected from focus group interviews of singers. These were reviewed by 25 currently performing music theater (MT) singers. Based on a consensus technique, the number of descriptors was decreased to 42 items. These were administered to a sample of 284 professional MT singers using an online survey to evaluate their perception of current singing voice status. Principal component analysis identified two subsets of items. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate and refine these sets of items to form two 10-item subscales. Both subscales demonstrated good overall fit to the Rasch model, no differential item functioning by sex or age, and good internal consistency reliability. The two subscales were strongly correlated and subsequent Rasch analysis supported their combination to form a single 20-item scale with good psychometric properties. The Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) is a concise clinical tool to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice with good measurement properties. EASE may prove a useful tool to measure changes in the singing voice as indicators of the effect of vocal load. Furthermore, it may offer a valuable means for the prediction or screening of singers "at risk" of developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound machine comparison: an evaluation of ergonomic design, data management, ease of use, and image quality.

    PubMed

    Wynd, Kimberly P; Smith, Hugh M; Jacob, Adam K; Torsher, Laurence C; Kopp, Sandra L; Hebl, James R

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrasound technology for vascular access and regional anesthesia is gaining widespread acceptance among anesthesia providers. As a result, many group practices and medical institutions are considering purchasing ultrasound equipment. Currently, comparative information regarding the ergonomic design, physical and adjustable features, data management, ease of use, cost, and image quality of various ultrasound machines is not available. The primary goal of this investigation was to develop an objective process of evaluating ultrasound equipment before purchase. The process of evaluation used in the current investigation may be used when comparing a variety of medical technologies. A randomized, side-by-side comparative evaluation of 7 different ultrasound machine models was performed. Sixteen resident physicians without prior ultrasound experience (inexperienced providers) completed a formal evaluation of each machine model after performing a standardized machine configuration and performance checklist. Inexperienced providers and 10 faculty members experienced in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia evaluated the image quality of 2 standardized images acquired from each machine model. Overall, evaluators rated questions on the machine evaluation form as "very good" or "outstanding" 70% or more of the time for all machine models. The largest, most complex ultrasound machine was rated as having the best image quality by both inexperienced and experienced providers. Ultrasound machine models with the simplest ergonomic design and user interface were rated highest by inexperienced study participants. Anesthesia providers considering an ultrasound equipment purchase should objectively evaluate machine models that have features most important to their own clinical practice. Ergonomic design, physical and adjustable features, data management, ease of use, image quality, and cost are important features to consider when evaluating an ultrasound machine.

  6. Effects of sonication and ultraviolet-C treatment as a hurdle concept on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-04-01

    The growing demand for fresh-like food products has encouraged the development of hurdle technology of non-thermal processing. In this study, freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was treated by paired combinations of sonication (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃, 40 kHz frequency) and UV-C treatment (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃). Selected physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, microbial inactivation and other quality parameters of combined treated juice were compared to conventional thermal treatment (at 90 ℃ for 60 s). After thermal and combined treatment, no significant changes occurred in physicochemical properties. A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (15%), polyphenols (37%), flavonoids (35%) and enhancement in antioxidant capacity was observed after combined treatment. Thermal and combined treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial load. Results obtained support the use of sonication and UV-C in a hurdle technology to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standards.

  7. Hurdles to the global antipolio campaign in Pakistan: an outline of the current status and future prospects to achieve a polio free world.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tariq; Qazi, Javaria

    2013-08-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio completely by the year 2000 has been successful, except for three endemic and some non-endemic countries. Pakistan, one of the three endemic polio reservoirs, is posing a serious threat to the success of the initiative. Currently, the expanded programme on immunisation has been geared to win the race over polio virus in Pakistan. After the remarkable decrease in polio cases from 198 in 2011 to only 58 in 2012, Pakistan seemed to be at the verge of success. However, hurdles continue to retard the campaign. The war against terrorism, misconceptions about polio vaccine, religious misinterpretations, frustration among vaccinators, lack of awareness, social considerations, natural calamities, inaccessibility, and inefficient vaccines and so on are continually rupturing the foundations of the worldwide initiative in the country. Weak health management is found at the hub of majority of the challenges. Stricter policies, well managed and supervised plans and strategic actions, risk analysis and enhanced communication may help giving the final punch to polio virus in the country. Analysis suggested that there is some literature available on the challenges to polio elimination, yet there is not a single publication up to date that considers all the possible hurdles in a single manuscript. This paper sorts out the breaches that hamper the goal of eliminating polio from Pakistan. We have evaluated all the possible barriers and explained them with a perspective that will help develop area specific strategies against polio virus and thus eradicate polio virus from the world.

  8. Local health traditions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, D

    1988-03-01

    A very systematic study made in Karjat, Maharasht (a tribal area in India) has found that in comparison with the official health care and primary health centers, the traditional health practices are far more comprehensive. However, although the local traditions are comprehensive in their 'scope', they nevertheless reveal several weaknesses when subjected to critical evaluation by the science of Ayurveda. For example, whereas some remedies are found to be sound, there are others that are incomplete, and some appear to be totally distorted. Similarly, the diagnostic abilities of local practitioners, while sound in some cases, are in several others found to be inadequate. As to the use of local herbs, whereas the local tradition has an amazing knowledge of local flora--the knowledge about properties of plants is in many cases incomplete. There are several reasons that may explain how and why these weaknesses have set in. 1st, the local traditions are 'oral' and in the natural course of things, oral traditions the world over have been found to decay over time. A 2nd, external, reason for the current decay of local traditions is the derision, neglect, and oppression they have suffered due to the intolerance of western scientific tradition. A 3rd reason for weaknesses in the local health stream is the breakdown of active links, during the last few centuries, with the mainstream science of Ayurveda.

  9. Traditional medicine and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    ‘Omics’ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics. PMID:21829298

  10. Black African Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslavsky, Claudia

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the traditional number systems and the origin of the number names used by several African peoples living south of the Sahara. Also included are limitations in African mathematical development, and possible topics for research. (RP)

  11. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  12. Traditional midwives in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Staugard, F

    1985-01-01

    Botswanan women tend to consciously opt for home deliveries, even in areas where modern maternity care facilities are easily accessible. Approximately 40% of deliveries in Botswana occur outside of institutions (55% in rural areas and 23% in urban areas) and are generally assisted by traditional midwives. To gain more information on this phenomenon, the 175 identified traditional midwives in 2 health regions of Botswana were interviewed. All midwives were female, the majority were over 50 years of age, and 80% were illiterate. 38% were married and 42% were widowed; 67% had 4 or more children. 59% practiced the traditional Tswana religion. 82% of the midwives interviewed indicated they had performed only 5-6 deliveries in the 1 year preceding the survey, suggesting a decline in their level of professional activity. Only 58% received a fee for their services; in most of these cases, the fee was minimal or in kind. Interestingly, 90% of traditional midwives expressed a positive attitude toward cooperation with the modern health care system. A more intensive interview with 59 of these traditional midwives indicated that 81% had no contact with their clients during the prenatal period. 95% showed a total lack of knowledge of the female reproductive system, yet all were able to identify signs of a high risk delivery and willing to refer these cases to a modern health facility. 76% were informed about family planning, although they indicated they refer clients to clinics for supplies, and all were supportive of breastfeeding for at least 1 year. As a group, Botswanan traditional midwives have specific conceptions regarding food taboos during pregnancy (e.g., avoidance of meat and eggs) that can place pregnant women at risk of protein deficiencies. Overall, these findings indicate that the traditional midwife in Tswana society cannot be regarded as a well-defined health worker, as is the case with traditional healers.

  13. Characterising smoking cessation smartphone applications in terms of behaviour change techniques, engagement and ease-of-use features.

    PubMed

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Michie, Susan; Kotz, Daniel; van Schayck, Onno C P; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether or not behaviour change techniques (BCTs) as well as engagement and ease-of-use features used in smartphone applications (apps) to aid smoking cessation can be identified reliably. Apps were coded for presence of potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features. Inter-rater reliability for this coding was assessed. Inter-rater agreement for identifying presence of potentially effective BCTs ranged from 66.8 to 95.1 % with 'prevalence and bias adjusted kappas' (PABAK) ranging from 0.35 to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The intra-class correlation coefficients between the two coders for scores denoting the proportions of (a) a set of engagement features and (b) a set of ease-of-use features, which were included, were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively (p < 0.001). Prevalence estimates for BCTs ranged from <10 % for medication advice to >50 % for rewarding abstinence. The average proportions of specified engagement and ease-of-use features included in the apps were 69 and 83 %, respectively. The study found that it is possible to identify potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features in smoking cessation apps with fair to high inter-rater reliability.

  14. Not So EASE-Y: How Often do Hospitalized Infective Endocarditis Patients Meet Criteria for Early Surgery?

    PubMed

    Amin Kashef, Mohammad; Atreya, Auras R; Hernandez-Montfort, Jaime; Frideric, Jennifer; Lagu, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) has historically caused significant morbidity and mortality. Valve surgery reduces systemic embolization and mortality, but the optimal timing is controversial. The EASE (Early Surgery Versus Conventional Treatment for Infective Endocarditis) trial, which employed strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, showed that early surgery could reduce the risk of embolic events for a subset of patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of adult IE patients seen in usual clinical practice at a single tertiary medical center that would meet EASE enrollment criteria. Over a four-year period, only 10 of 88 patients (11.3%) were found to meet EASE enrollment criteria. These results have important research implications, and highlight the differences between populations of patients used in clinical trials and patients seen in practice.

  15. Effect of InspirEase on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, S.P.; Woodman, G.; Clarke, S.W.; Sackner, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    A radiotracer technique has been used to assess the effects of a 700-ml collapsible holding chamber (InspirEase, Key Pharmaceuticals Inc.) on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in ten patients with obstructive airways disease (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 64.5 percent of predicted). Patterns of deposition obtained by patients' usual techniques with the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) were compared with those by correct MDI technique (actuation coordinated with slow deep inhalation and followed by ten seconds of breath-holding) and with those by InspirEase. Deposition of aerosol was assessed by placing Teflon particles labelled with 99mTc inside placebo canisters, and inhaling maneuvers were monitored by respiratory inductive plethysmography (Respitrace). Nine of the ten patients had imperfect technique with the MDI, the most prevalent errors being rapid inhalation and failure to hold their breath adequately. With patients' usual MDI techniques, 6.5 +/- 1.2 percent (mean +/- SE) of the dose reached the lungs. This was increased to 11.2 +/- 1.3 percent (p less than 0.02) with correct technique and increased further to 14.8 +/- 1.4 percent (p less than 0.05) with InspirEase. Oropharyngeal deposition exceeded 80 percent of the dose for the MDI alone but was only 9.5 +/- 0.9 percent with InspirEase (p less than 0.01); 59.2 +/- 2.1 percent of the dose was retained within InspirEase itself. It is concluded that InspirEase gives whole lung deposition of metered-dose aerosols greater than that from a correctly used MDI, while oropharyngeal deposition is reduced approximately nine times.

  16. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment as drivers for the user acceptance of interactive mobile maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the user perception of usefulness, ease of use and enjoyment as drivers for the users' complex interaction with map on mobile devices. TAM model was used to evaluate users' intention to use and their acceptance of interactive mobile map using the above three beliefs as antecedents. Quantitative research (survey) methodology was employed and the analysis and findings showed that all the three explanatory variables used in this study, explain the variability in the user acceptance of interactive mobile map technology. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived enjoyment each have significant positive influence on user acceptance of interactive mobile maps. This study further validates the TAM model.

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  19. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana; Sörqvist, Patrik; Danielsson, Henrik; Lyxell, Björn; Dahlström, Örjan; Signoret, Carine; Stenfelt, Stefan; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. It is based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e) listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made. PMID:23874273

  20. Validation of Modifications to the ANSR® Salmonella Method for Improved Ease of Use.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Walton, Kayla; Gray, R Lucas; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to validate minor reagent formulation and procedural changes to the ANSR® Salmonella method, AOAC Performance Tested Method™ 061203. In order to improve ease of use and diminish risk of amplicon contamination, the lyophilized reagent components were reformulated for increased solubility, thus eliminating the need to mix by pipetting. In the alternative procedure, an aliquot of the lysate is added to lyophilized ANSR reagents, immediately capped, and briefly mixed by vortex. Results of the validation study with ice cream, peanut butter, dry dog food, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, and sponge samples from a stainless steel surface showed no statistically significant differences in performance between the ANSR method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Services Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures. Results of inclusivity and exclusivity testing were unchanged from those of the original validation study; exclusivity was 100% and inclusivity was 99.1% with only a single strain of Salmonella Weslaco testing negative. Robustness testing was also conducted, with variations to lysis buffer volume, lysis time, and sample volume having no demonstrable effect on assay results.

  1. A two-year perspective: who may ease the burden of girls’ loneliness in school?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness is negatively related to good health and wellbeing, especially among girls. There is little research, however, on factors that may ease the burdens of loneliness in the school setting. Thus, we explored the relationship between girls’ loneliness and later school wellbeing adjusted for other adversities. Furthermore, we assessed the significance of having someone whom the girl trusted by investigating possible modifying influences on the addressed association. Methods Altogether, 119 girls in grades 1–8 provided baseline data and answered the same set of questions two years later. Logistic regression models including perceived academic problems, victimisation by bullying, loneliness and trusted others were tested with bad versus good school wellbeing two years later as outcome using SPSS. Results In the multivariable analysis of loneliness, academic problems, and victimisation, loneliness was the only variable showing a strong and negative contribution to later school wellbeing. Next, demonstrated in separate models; the inclusion of having a trusted class advisor fully attenuated the association of loneliness with later school wellbeing. In contrast, other trusted teachers, trusted parents, or trusted students did not affect the association. Conclusions Loneliness in girls strongly predicted school wellbeing two years later. However, having a class advisor whom the girl trusted to contact in hurtful situations clearly reduced the burden of loneliness. This finding highlights the clinical importance of stability, long-lasting relations, and trust that main teachers may represent for lonely girls. PMID:24712912

  2. Easing the transition: sSupport for the new graduate nurse in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jennifer; D'Hondt, Allison

    2007-01-01

    As our population continues to age, more nurses will be needed to enter the specialty of LTC nursing to meet the needs of our senior population. To promote this area of nursing and retain new graduate nurses in LTC, more research is required to support the specific challenges faced by LTC nurses compared with those of other areas of nursing. The authors suggest implementation of support strategies that may include a formal preceptorship program of at least one month in duration, additional clinical support on night shifts, coaching and mentoring models, learning opportunities based on a learning needs assessment, and orientation to the overall culture and environment of the home including time spent with all departments. LTC homes need to examine their approaches to leadership, providing comprehensive orientation and resource support for new graduates and developing strategies specific to their organization's mission and vision that will empower and provide support to ease the unique transition to LTC. These strategies lead to promoting positive relationships, professional development and overall positive outcomes with workplace satisfaction in the LTC setting. The authors encourage federal and provincial government officials to examine this more closely and to better support this effort with the financial resources that are greatly needed in LTC homes to provide the exemplary care that our seniors deserve.

  3. Modeling Flow Past a TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael; Henshaw, William; Wang, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    This study uses three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the efficacy of the TrapEase inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Hemodynamics of the unoccluded and partially occluded filter are examined, and the clinical implications are assessed. The IVC, which is the primary vein that drains the legs, is modeled as a straight pipe, and a geometrically accurate model of the filter is constructed using computer aided design. Blood is modeled as a homogeneous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid, and the method of overset grids is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Results are corroborated with in-vitro studies. Flow around the unoccluded filter demonstrates minimal disruption, but spherical clots in the downstream trapping position lead to regions of stagnant and recirculating flow that may promote further clotting. The volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increase with clot volume. For clots trapped in the upstream trapping position, flow is disrupted along the cava wall downstream of the clot and within the filter. The shape and location of trapped clots also effect the peak wall shear stress and may impact the efficacy of the filter.

  4. Increasing ‘ease of sliding’ also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, M. A.; Baldassarri, A.; Dalton, F.; Petri, A.; Pontuale, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium.

  5. The preferable keypad layout for ease of pressing small cell phone keys with the thumb.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Satoshi; Okabe, Keiichi; Abe, Tetsuji; Sai, Akishige

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of keypad layout on the ease of operating small cell phones with the thumb in one-handed operations by young and elderly male and female participants. Eighteen young participants (9 males and 9 females) and 12 elderly participants (6 males and 6 females) operated 9 different keypads modeled after commercially available cordless handsets. Keypads designed by using the L9 orthogonal array differed in vertical pitch (V-Pitch: 7, 8, 9 mm) between keys, horizontal pitch (H-Pitch: 10, 11, 12 mm) between keys, the margin below the bottom row of keys (B-Margin: 5, 13, 21 mm), and phone body width (P-Width: 38, 41, 44 mm). Results concerning subjective overall usability showed the lowest scores for a V-Pitch of 7 mm and a B-Margin of 5 mm in most groups. However, for the female participants, with shorter thumbs, the increase in V-pitch did not improve operability. In the elderly participants, miskeying frequently occurred at dial keys of specific numbers. These findings suggest that the preferable keypad layout differs between different age groups and between male and female participants.

  6. Comparison of the Diskus inhaler and the Handihaler regarding preference and ease of use.

    PubMed

    Van Der Palen, Job; Eijsvogel, Michiel M; Kuipers, Bart F; Schipper, Maria; Vermue, Niek A

    2007-01-01

    Many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients use their inhaler ineffectively and there is a trend towards increased inhaler resistance. We wanted to answer two questions: Is there a difference in preference and ease of use between Diskus (DK) and Handihaler (HH)? How acceptable are inhalation resistances? Sixty COPD patients, naive to DK and HH, but experienced in the use of other inhalers, had to read the instruction leaflet and demonstrate their inhalation technique. If errors were made, instruction was given and inhalation technique was checked again. Patients had to state a preference for DK or HH. Subsequently they inhaled through a range of resistances and scored the acceptability. There was no difference in the number of instructions needed for both inhalers. One third inhaled perfectly after reading the instruction leaflet, which increased to 85% after one instruction. More patients preferred the DK (43) than the HH (16). With decreasing resistance acceptability increases, but it reaches a plateau. Patients have a clear preference for the DK. There is no difference in the number of instructions needed to obtain a perfect inhalation technique, but for some patients one instruction is not enough. The trend to increase the resistance of inhalers has reached a critical point with regard to acceptability.

  7. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    PubMed Central

    Karakuş, Osman Zeki; Ulusoy, Oktay; Hakgüder, Gülce; Ateş, Oğuz; Olguner, Çimen; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza Mirac

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modifications defined to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement during minimal invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) have not been reported. We herein report our experience with MIRPE including several technical modifications. METHODS: A total of 87 patients who underwent MIRPE were evaluated retrospectively. Technical modifications are (1) a template drawn preoperatively according to the anthropometric measurements, (2) more laterally placed thoracal incisions, (3) single existing incision for multiple support bars, (4) to secure lateral stabilizers to support bar in inverted position. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 11.2 ± 3.8 years. The mean operating time was 63.7 ± 18.7 min. The mean Haller index was 5.4 ± 2.1. Eight patients necessitated two support bars. The support bars were removed in 69 patients after the completion of treatment. Support bars were left in place 26.8 ± 4.3 months. Final chest contours of the 56 patients were evaluated as 12 months passed after support bar removal and excellent repair results were determined in 84.2%. CONCLUSION: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement. PMID:27512512

  8. What's Worth Talking About? Information Theory Reveals How Children Balance Informativeness and Ease of Production.

    PubMed

    Bannard, Colin; Rosner, Marla; Matthews, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative. Using corpora of child-directed speech, we identified adjectives that varied in how informative (i.e., unexpected) they were given the noun they modified. In an initial experiment ( N = 31) and in a replication ( N = 13), 3-year-olds heard an experimenter use these adjectives to describe pictures. The children's task was then to describe the pictures to another person. As the information content of the experimenter's adjective increased, so did children's tendency to comment on the feature that adjective had encoded. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that children balance informativeness with a competing drive to ease production.

  9. Family traditions and generations.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world.

  10. Improving Anesthesiologists' Ability to Speak Up in the Operating Room: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of a Simulation-Based Intervention and a Qualitative Analysis of Hurdles and Enablers.

    PubMed

    Raemer, Daniel B; Kolbe, Michaela; Minehart, Rebecca D; Rudolph, Jenny W; Pian-Smith, May C M

    2016-04-01

    The authors addressed three questions: (1) Would a realistic simulation-based educational intervention improve speaking-up behaviors of practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists? (2) What would those speaking-up behaviors be when the issue emanated from a surgeon, a circulating nurse, or an anesthesiologist colleague? (3) What were the hurdles and enablers to speaking up in those situations? The authors conducted a simulation-based randomized controlled experiment from March 2008-February 2011 at the Center for Medical Simulation, Boston, Massachusetts. During a mandatory crisis management course for practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists from five Boston institutions, a 50-minute workshop on speaking up was conducted for intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 36) groups before or after, respectively, an experimental scenario with three events. The authors analyzed videos of the experimental scenarios and debriefing sessions. No statistically significant differences between the intervention and control group subjects with respect to speaking-up actions were observed in any of the three events. The five most frequently mentioned hurdles to speaking up were uncertainty about the issue, stereotypes of others on the team, familiarity with the individual, respect for experience, and the repercussion expected. The five most frequently mentioned enablers were realizing the speaking-up problem, having a speaking-up rubric, certainty about the consequences of speaking up, familiarity with the individual, and having a second opinion or getting help. An educational intervention alone was ineffective in improving the speaking-up behaviors of practicing nontrainee anesthesiologists. Other measures to change speaking-up behaviors could be implemented and might improve patient safety.

  11. The Search for Trust: Technology, Religion, and Society's Dis-Ease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Modern technology, and information technology in particular, has changed the nature of human interaction, which has created a certain "disease" as more and more transactions move from the familiarity of traditional community to the abstractness of modern society. This article explores two studies of trust that emerged in the past decade as a…

  12. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  13. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  14. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  15. Literacy in Traditional Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goody, Jack, Ed.

    This series of essays derives from an interest in communications, in media and their effect upon human intercourse. Primarily, this concern with the technology of the intellect centers upon the effect of literacy on human culture, especially in 'traditional' or pre-industrial societies. In most of the essays, the effects of literacy are considered…

  16. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  17. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  18. Tradition in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

  19. Musical Traditions. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the changes in musical experiences, such as live versus recorded music, as society has developed technologically. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on the traditions and musicians of baroque, classical, and romantic music each originating in Europe. Includes the clues and word list. (CMK)

  20. Non-Traditional Wraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  1. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  2. Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

    The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

  3. Traditional healers formalised?

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Jp

    2012-02-23

    Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures?

  4. Tradition and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyre, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Honors programs, like the institutions that host them, need to exercise constant re-examination to remain effective and to serve their students the best they can. As a private, liberal arts institution, in the tradition of the Irish Catholic Christian Brothers, Iona College provides many avenues to enhance student learning, and paramount to the…

  5. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  6. Exploring the Adoption of a Virtual Reality Simulation: The Role of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness and Personal Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary; Kilmon, Carol; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore students' perceptions of a virtual reality simulation that enable nursing students to learn how to use a medical emergency crash cart. Design/methodology/approach: The study was designed to explore how students' perceptions of ease of use and perceived usefulness from the technology acceptance model and the…

  7. Use of a threshold animal model to estimate calving ease and stillbirth (co)variance components for US Holsteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    (Co)variance components for calving ease and stillbirth in US Holsteins were estimated using a single-trait threshold animal model and two different sets of data edits. Six sets of approximately 250,000 records each were created by randomly selecting herd codes without replacement from the data used...

  8. Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. P.; And Others

    Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…

  9. Evaluation of the ease of taking mini-tablets compared with other tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-03-10

    "Mini-tablets" (MTs) are tablets of diameter≤3mm and have been widely studied and developed. However, reports comparing MTs with other tablet formulations are few. We wished to evaluate the ease of taking a MT quantitatively in comparison with an orally disintegrating mini-tablet (ODMT), conventional tablet (CT) and conventional orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). Four types of tablets were prepared. We prepared tablets of two diameters (3mm for MTs and ODMTs vs. 8mm for CTs and ODTs) and two formulations (MTs and CTs vs. ODMTs and ODTs). Our randomized crossover trial in 18 healthy volunteers (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 22.5years) indicated that the visual analog scale (VAS) score for the ease and amount of water required for intake of MTs was significantly lower than those of CTs. An ODMT required the least amount of water and smallest VAS score for the ease of taking a tablet. Our results showed that the advantage of MTs with regard to the ease of taking and decreased amount of water required was exerted for a unit of dosing comprising <5 tablets. These data suggested the usefulness of MTs and the importance of the number of MTs for comfortable consumption by patients.

  10. A Comparative Picture of the Ease of Use and Acceptance of Onscreen Marking by Markers across Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David; Yan, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen marking (OSM) has been used for the majority of Hong Kong public examinations since 2012. The current study compares marker reactions to OSM, ie, perceived ease of use and acceptance of OSM, against the backdrop of virtually all subject areas being marked on screen. The data were collected from three major sources: (1) survey data…

  11. Using Familiar Contexts to Ease the Transition between A-Level and First-Year Degree-Level Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    This article endeavours to define how an understanding of the context of chemical principles and processes investigated at A-level (post-16) and earlier can be continued and contribute to easing the tensions and uncertainties encountered by chemistry and chemical engineering students on entry to university. The importance of using chemistry…

  12. Using Familiar Contexts to Ease the Transition between A-Level and First-Year Degree-Level Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    This article endeavours to define how an understanding of the context of chemical principles and processes investigated at A-level (post-16) and earlier can be continued and contribute to easing the tensions and uncertainties encountered by chemistry and chemical engineering students on entry to university. The importance of using chemistry…

  13. Exploring the Adoption of a Virtual Reality Simulation: The Role of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness and Personal Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary; Kilmon, Carol; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore students' perceptions of a virtual reality simulation that enable nursing students to learn how to use a medical emergency crash cart. Design/methodology/approach: The study was designed to explore how students' perceptions of ease of use and perceived usefulness from the technology acceptance model and the…

  14. The Effects of Key Demographic Variables on Markers' Perceived Ease of Use and Acceptance of Onscreen Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Coniam, David

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the effects of three key demographic factors -- the language of marking, gender and age -- on markers' reactions to onscreen marking (OSM). A total of 1743 markers completed a post-marking questionnaire consisting of two previously validated scales, i.e. "Ease of Use in the OSM Environment" and…

  15. The Clipper Project: Exploring whether Early Engagement through Web-Based Instruction Can Help Ease High School Students' College Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, M. J.; White, Sally A.

    2008-01-01

    Colleges are under mounting pressure to increase retention rates by easing incoming students' academic and social transition to college. Finding time in first-year students' busy schedules to provide this additional support can be difficult, however. Thus, the Clipper Project set out to test whether offering online, college level courses to high…

  16. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-10-01

    Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed 'good' usability with an average score of 74/100. VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Effect of ewe and lamb genotype on gestation length, lambing ease and neonatal behaviour of lambs.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C M; Lawrence, A B; Brown, H E; Simm, G

    1996-01-01

    To distinguish between ewe and lamb breed effects on prenatal growth, ease of parturition and early lamb behaviour, an embryo-transfer study was carried out using a hill breed (Scottish Blackface; liveweight: 54.25 +/- 1.03 kg, mean +/- s.e.m.) and a lowland breed (Suffolk; 80.33 +/- 1.52 kg) to obtain the four possible combinations of ewe and lamb. Data were collected from 38 Blackface ewes (18 with Blackface lambs and 20 with Suffolk lambs) and 41 Suffolk ewes (20 with Blackface lambs and 21 with Suffolk lambs); all ewes were given single embryos. Suffolk lambs had a significantly longer gestation than Blackface lambs (1.5 days, P < 0.01), regardless of ewe breed. Suffolk lambs also had a longer labour (20 min, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to require birth assistance (17/21, 81% of all assisted deliveries; P < 0.001), as were male lambs (19/21, 90%; P < 0.01). These variables were independent of ewe breed. Blackface lambs were significantly more active than Suffolk lambs in the first 2 h after birth; ewe breed had little effect on lamb behaviour. Blackface lambs stood twice as quickly as Suffolk lambs after birth (13 min v. 24 min; P < 0.001), and were significantly more likely to suckle within the first 2 h after birth (92% v. 66%; P < 0.05). The behavioural retardation of Suffolk lambs may be a consequence of their birth difficulty which increases their likelihood of suffering birth trauma and hypoxia at parturition. Together, these factors may increase the probability of neonatal death in these lambs.

  18. Evaluation of a Lagrangian box model using field measurements from EASE (Eastern Atlantic Summer Experiment) 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. J.; Shallcross, D. E.; Law, K. S.; Wild, J. O. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; Spain, T. G.; Berrisford, P.; Methven, J.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Pilling, M. J.; Bandy, B. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Pyle, J. A.

    The Cambridge Tropospheric Trajectory model of Chemistry and Transport (CiTTyCAT), a Lagrangian chemistry model, has been evaluated using atmospheric chemical measurements collected during the East Atlantic Summer Experiment 1996 (EASE '96). This field campaign was part of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Atmospheric Chemistry Studies in the Oceanic Environment (ACSOE) programme, conducted at Mace Head, Republic of Ireland, during July and August 1996. The model includes a description of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry, and simple parameterisations for surface deposition, mixing from the free troposphere and emissions. The model generally compares well with the measurements and is used to study the production and loss of O 3 under a variety of conditions. The mean difference between the hourly O 3 concentrations calculated by the model and those measured is 0.6 ppbv with a standard deviation of 8.7 ppbv. Three specific air-flow regimes were identified during the campaign - westerly, anticyclonic (easterly) and south westerly. The westerly flow is typical of background conditions for Mace Head. However, on some occasions there was evidence of long-range transport of pollutants from North America. In periods of anticyclonic flow, air parcels had collected emissions of NO x and VOCs immediately before arriving at Mace Head, leading to O 3 production. The level of calculated O 3 depends critically on the precise details of the trajectory, and hence on the emissions into the air parcel. In several periods of south westerly flow, low concentrations of O 3 were measured which were consistent with deposition and photochemical destruction inside the tropical marine boundary layer.

  19. Comparing ease of intubation in obese and lean patients using intubation difficulty scale

    PubMed Central

    Shailaja, S.; Nichelle, S. M.; Shetty, A. Kishan; Hegde, B. Radhesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Difficult tracheal intubation contributes to significant morbidity and mortality during induction of anesthesia. There are divided opinions regarding ease of intubation in obese patients. Moreover, the definition of difficult intubation is not uniform; hence we have use the Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) to find the incidence of difficult intubation in obese patients. Aims: The primary aim of the following study is to find out the incidence of difficult intubation in obese and lean patients using IDS and secondary aim is to assess the performance of bedside screening tests to predict difficult intubation, mask ventilation and laryngoscopy in obese and lean patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational cohort study of 200 patients requiring general anesthesia were categorized into 100 each based on body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI <25 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) groups. IDS score ≥5 was termed as difficult intubation. Pre-operative airway assessment included Mallampati score, mouth opening, neck circumference (NC), upper lip bite test, thyromental distance, sternomental distance (SMD) and head neck mobility. Patients having difficulty in mask ventilation and laryngoscopy was recorded. Results: Over all in 200 patients the incidence of difficult intubation was 9%. Obese patients were slightly more difficult to intubate than lean (11% vs. 7%, P = 0.049). Age >40 years, NC >35 cm, SMD <12.5 cm and restricted head neck mobility were factors which were associated with IDS ≥5. Multivariate analysis revealed SMD <12.5 cm to predict difficult intubation in obese patients. Obese patients were difficult to mask ventilate (6% vs. 1%, P = 0.043). There was no difference regarding grading of laryngoscopy between the two groups. Conclusion: Obese patients are difficult to mask ventilate and intubate. During intubation of obese patients who is more than 40 years age and SMD <12.5 cm, it is preferable to have a second skilled

  20. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Methods Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed ‘good’ usability with an average score of 74/100. Conclusions VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. PMID:24650636

  1. How much is a word? Predicting ease of articulation planning from apraxic speech error patterns.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid

    2015-08-01

    According to intuitive concepts, 'ease of articulation' is influenced by factors like word length or the presence of consonant clusters in an utterance. Imaging studies of speech motor control use these factors to systematically tax the speech motor system. Evidence from apraxia of speech, a disorder supposed to result from speech motor planning impairment after lesions to speech motor centers in the left hemisphere, supports the relevance of these and other factors in disordered speech planning and the genesis of apraxic speech errors. Yet, there is no unified account of the structural properties rendering a word easy or difficult to pronounce. To model the motor planning demands of word articulation by a nonlinear regression model trained to predict the likelihood of accurate word production in apraxia of speech. We used a tree-structure model in which vocal tract gestures are embedded in hierarchically nested prosodic domains to derive a recursive set of terms for the computation of the likelihood of accurate word production. The model was trained with accuracy data from a set of 136 words averaged over 66 samples from apraxic speakers. In a second step, the model coefficients were used to predict a test dataset of accuracy values for 96 new words, averaged over 120 samples produced by a different group of apraxic speakers. Accurate modeling of the first dataset was achieved in the training study (R(2)adj = .71). In the cross-validation, the test dataset was predicted with a high accuracy as well (R(2)adj = .67). The model shape, as reflected by the coefficient estimates, was consistent with current phonetic theories and with clinical evidence. In accordance with phonetic and psycholinguistic work, a strong influence of word stress on articulation errors was found. The proposed model provides a unified and transparent account of the motor planning requirements of word articulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Special report: the truth about condoms. Barriers to better condom "killing people"; regulatory, political hurdles stifle development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The condom industry in the US is dominated by Carter Wallace and the London International Group. They offer very little product differentiation. Ten years ago, however, two engineers in a small California laboratory began working on a nonlatex condom which would be both stronger and more sensitive than the traditional male latex condom. Their efforts resulted in the development of the polyurethane Avanti condom currently being marketed in thirteen states of the Western US. Made by London International Group plc in Cambridge, England, Avanti should be available nationwide as of April 1995. The public, however, has received only very little information about the product and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned about the safety and efficacy of polyurethane/plastic condoms. Six other condom manufacturers are developing plastic condoms, with at least five such condoms awaiting FDA premarket clearance to be marketed. Recent delays in marketing Avanti are due to disagreements between the manufacturer and the FDA over labeling. Other delays have involved safety and efficacy concerns. Bob Kohmescher, public health analyst with the US Centers for Disease Control office of the assistant director of HIV/AIDS, notes that even his agency is moving slower than expected on the polyurethane condom and has not reached a consensus over how to describe them. In the effort to protect themselves, FDA officials have insisted upon labeling which recommends plastic condoms for use by only people who are allergic to latex. These labeling guidelines, finalized in November, are so restrictive that some manufacturers cannot take their products to market. Despite these current FDA obstacles to bringing a higher quality condom to the US market, industry experts and health officials hope that the polyurethane and other plastic condoms will expand the practice of safer sex, while providing an alternative method of barrier protection for the estimated 1-2 million American adults

  3. Traditional Chinese drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, John K

    2003-12-01

    More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. (c) 2003 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Leedam, E

    1985-09-01

    In many countries 60-80% of deliveries are assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Over the last several decades efforts have been made to regulate, upgrade through training or replace the TBA. The strength of the TBA stems from the fact that she is part of the cultural and social life of the community in which she lives. Her weakness lies in the traditional practices which may have dangers for her clients. With suitable training and supervision these dangers can be minimized and her potential used to improve the health of mothers and babies. Increasingly countries are recognizing that the TBA will represent a major resource where women do not have access to services for either cultural or geographic barriers. The effective use of this resource will require an understanding and appreciation of the TBA's role and contribution by all health authorities, flexibility in the development of training programs and the co-operation of the TBAs themselves.

  5. Expedition 18 Traditional Blessing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, participate in the traditional blessing prior to the bus ride to building 254 where the crew don their spacesuits, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan carrying Fincke, Lonchakov and Garriott. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Adapting traditional healing practices.

    PubMed

    Weiser, J

    1999-01-01

    The Aboriginal people in Canada have been noted to have low self-esteem, subsequently increasing their risk of HIV. To this effect, two traditional healing practices are being used to help these people avoid HIV infection, and to live more healthily and positively if they are infected. The first method is the Medicine Wheel, which is a traditional model used to represent the complex interrelationship among all living things and show how their immune system is physically affected by their emotions and worries. Many Aboriginal AIDS Organizations, counselors and others are now using this AIDS teaching Wheel model. Meanwhile, the second method is the Sharing Circles, which provide an environment where people feel safe to talk about HIV and give participants a sense of support and a means for expression without stigma or judgement. As a result, many people who attend HIV circles begin to take better care of themselves and of others. Overall, it is emphasized that these traditional healing practices can be effectively adapted for use in HIV counseling and education.

  7. Too little too late or enough? With the Nurse Reinvestment Act signed, the industry questions how much funding the legislation will provide to ease nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Duff, Susanna

    2002-08-05

    The long-awaited Nurse Reinvestment Act was signed into law last week by President Bush, but still the healthcare industry is in limbo about just how much help it will get at the federal level to help reverse the nation's nursing shortage. After overcoming the hurdle of creating new incentive programs, hospitals still have to persuade Congress to appropriate funding.

  8. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  9. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  10. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicola

    2006-05-01

    To experience the integration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China was 'the chance of a lifetime; thanks to the support of the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. The scale and range of TCM available in terms of health care provision, education and research is unique in the world. This holistic integrative medicine is part of Chinese culture. Regulation and training of practitioners has similarities with current structures emerging in the UK in preparation for the statutory regulation for acupuncture and herbal medicine. China's research activity is a critical component of informing the debate on evidence-based practice and now real opportunities for collaboration and dissemination are beginning to emerge.

  11. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893

  12. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  13. Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models.

    PubMed

    Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N

    2014-12-01

    Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Thinking about memories for everyday and shocking events: do people use ease-of-retrieval cues in memory judgments?

    PubMed

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Hirst, William

    2006-06-01

    Extant research shows that people use retrieval ease, a feeling-based cue, to judge how well they remember life periods. Extending this approach, we investigated the role of retrieval ease in memory judgments for single events. In Experiment 1, participants who were asked to recall many memories of an everyday event (New Year's Eve) rated retrieval as more difficult and judged their memory as worse than did participants asked to recall only a few memories. In Experiment 2, this ease-of-retrieval effect was found to interact with the shocking character of the remembered event: There was no effect when the event was highly shocking (i.e., learning about the attacks of September 11, 2001), whereas an effect was found when the event was experienced as less shocking (due either to increased distance to "9/11" or to the nonshocking nature of the event itself). Memory vividness accounted for additional variance in memory judgments, indicating an independent contribution of content-based cues in judgments of event memories.

  15. Auditory verbal cues alter the perceived flavor of beverages and ease of swallowing: a psychometric and electrophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Aya; Imaizumi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass) juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant's anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.

  16. Using endophenotypes to examine molecules related to candidate genes as novel therapeutics: The "endophenotype-associated surrogate endpoint (EASE)" concept.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2015-10-01

    In this article, a new concept of an "endophenotype-associated surrogate endpoint (EASE)" is proposed. To examine effect of a novel therapeutic molecule on a target phenotype of a genotype associated with the molecule, state-dependent aspect of an endophenotype can be used as a surrogate endpoint. Desired characteristics for EASE are (1) a close relationship to the endophenotype associated with therapeutics, (2) longitudinal changes in illness severity, while the original "endophenotype" is primarily state independent, (3) a physical sign or laboratory measurement that occurs in association with a pathological process and has putative diagnostic and/or prognostic utility, and (4) serves as a substitute for a clinically meaningful endpoint. Advantages are expected for both surrogate endpoints in drug development and endophenotypes in uncovering pathogenesis. EASE are closer to molecules than clinically meaningful endpoints and can respond to administration of the molecule in a more direct manner. Therefore, a statistically significant effect is likely to be observed in clinical trials with smaller sample sizes and shorter durations. As with endophenotypes, reduced heterogeneity might be expected especially in heterogeneous syndromes such as psychiatric disorders. Potential interactions (e.g., elucidating biological mechanisms underlying novel treatments) can be further expected.

  17. Strategies for improving adherence to second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia by increasing ease of use.

    PubMed

    Burton, Simon C

    2005-11-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia that have occurred since the introduction of the second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agents, a leading cause of suboptimal outcome is poor patient adherence to oral medication. Partial adherence can be attributed to a number of factors, including lack of insight, cognitive dysfunction, a complicated treatment regimen, drug-related side effects, patient attitude, lack of patient education, and cultural factors. A number of strategies, including psychosocial interventions, cognitive-behavioral techniques, strategies that minimize side effects, and pharmacological approaches that increase ease of medication use, can be employed to support adherence and improve long-term outcomes. This article focuses on strategies for increasing ease of use of antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. These strategies include using monotherapy rather than polypharmacy, simplifying the medication regimen, and using a long-acting antipsychotic formulation. The goal of these strategies is to improve adherence and help prevent relapse by ensuring continuous antipsychotic coverage. Strategies that optimize ease of use of medication treatment for schizophrenia and thus improve adherence to treatment are likely to promote the attainment of new treatment goals and improved patient outcomes.

  18. Auditory Verbal Cues Alter the Perceived Flavor of Beverages and Ease of Swallowing: A Psychometric and Electrophysiological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass) juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant's anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology. PMID:24066301

  19. Immediate Reduction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Viability via Membrane Destabilization following Exposure to Multiple-Hurdle Treatments with Heated, Acidified Organic Acid Salt Solutions▿†

    PubMed Central

    Milillo, S. R.; Martin, E.; Muthaiyan, A.; Ricke, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of organic acids in combination with nonchemical treatments was evaluated for inactivation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium within 1 min. It was observed that the effectiveness of the multiple-hurdle treatments was temperature (P ≤ 0.05) and pH (P ≤ 0.05) dependent and corresponded to the degree of organic acid lipophilicity (sodium acetate being least effective and sodium propionate being the most effective). This led to the hypothesis that the loss in viability was due at least in part to cell membrane disruption. Evaluation of osmotic response, potassium ion leakage, and transmission electron micrographs confirmed treatment effects on the cell membrane. Interestingly, all treatments, even those with no effect on viability, such as with sodium acetate, resulted in measurable cellular stress. Microarray experiments explored the specific response of S. Typhimurium to sodium acetate and sodium propionate, the most similar of the tested treatments in terms of pKa and ionic strength, and found little difference in the changes in gene expression following exposure to either, despite their very different effects on viability. Taken together, the results reported support our hypothesis that treatment with heated, acidified, organic acid salt solutions for 1 min causes loss of S. Typhimurium viability at least in part by membrane damage and that the degree of effectiveness can be correlated with lipophilicity of the organic acid. Overall, the data presented here indicate that a combined thermal, acidified sodium propionate treatment can provide an effective antimicrobial treatment against Salmonella. PMID:21478311

  20. Dis-ease between nursing and feminism: nurses caring for one another within a feminist framework.

    PubMed

    Keddy, B A

    1993-01-01

    Mental health professionals have the experience and skills necessary to provide care and support to colleagues and peers in these troubled and stressful times. Yet, traditionally nurses have not been supportive of one another. Not receiving much interest from the feminist movement and not willingly to embrace feminist social activism, the nursing profession has suffered as it continues to embrace racist, classist, sexist, and homophobic outdated theories and research practices. Without a collective voice which unites all nurses in a common struggle, issues related to mental health nursing will continue to be viewed in a fragmented way. Until feminist research, theory, and practice become central to the profession's ideology, nurses will continue to be divided among themselves, unable to provide the necessary caring for one another.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Gary

    2002-01-01

    According to an article by Wald in the November 2000 issue of Strategic Healthcare Marketing, through physician education, integrated medicine shall continue to be adopted by conventional medical establishments in the United States. With many leading medical schools now adding courses on alternative medicine and hospital administrators recognizing this growing trend, responding to the patients' needs and demands remains paramount. According to a study of 3200 physicians conducted by Health Products Research, physicians expect to offer and embrace therapeutic alternatives outside of the traditional pharmaceutical realm. Greater than 50% will begin or increase using alternative medicine in the next 12 months. Physicians also believe that patient acceptance is greater for alternative therapies, resulting in therapeutic compliance. Most physicians continue to be skeptical about certain treatments, citing a lack of clinical information. With these factors understood, more clinical research to be completed in a teaching hospital environment becomes paramount.

  2. Breadth of Coverage, Ease of Use, and Quality of Mobile Point-of-Care Tool Information Summaries: An Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jinma

    2016-01-01

    Background With advances in mobile technology, accessibility of clinical resources at the point of care has increased. Objective The objective of this research was to identify if six selected mobile point-of-care tools meet the needs of clinicians in internal medicine. Point-of-care tools were evaluated for breadth of coverage, ease of use, and quality. Methods Six point-of-care tools were evaluated utilizing four different devices (two smartphones and two tablets). Breadth of coverage was measured using select International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes if information on summary, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis was provided. Quality measures included treatment and diagnostic inline references and individual and application time stamping. Ease of use covered search within topic, table of contents, scrolling, affordance, connectivity, and personal accounts. Analysis of variance based on the rank of score was used. Results Breadth of coverage was similar among Medscape (mean 6.88), Uptodate (mean 6.51), DynaMedPlus (mean 6.46), and EvidencePlus (mean 6.41) (P>.05) with DynaMed (mean 5.53) and Epocrates (mean 6.12) scoring significantly lower (P<.05). Ease of use had DynaMedPlus with the highest score, and EvidencePlus was lowest (6.0 vs 4.0, respectively, P<.05). For quality, reviewers rated the same score (4.00) for all tools except for Medscape, which was rated lower (P<.05). Conclusions For breadth of coverage, most point-of-care tools were similar with the exception of DynaMed. For ease of use, only UpToDate and DynaMedPlus allow for search within a topic. All point-of-care tools have remote access with the exception of UpToDate and Essential Evidence Plus. All tools except Medscape covered criteria for quality evaluation. Overall, there was no significant difference between the point-of-care tools with regard to coverage on common topics used by internal medicine clinicians. Selection of

  3. Intraoral Digital Impressioning for Dental Implant Restorations Versus Traditional Implant Impression Techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the past two to three decades, intraoral digital impression systems have gained acceptance due to high accuracy and ease of use as they have been incorporated into the fabrication of dental implant restorations. The use of intraoral digital impressions enables the clinician to produce accurate restorations without the unpleasant aspects of traditional impression materials and techniques. This article discusses the various types of digital impression systems and their accuracy compared to traditional impression techniques. The cost, time, and patient satisfaction components of both techniques will also be reviewed.

  4. Traditional Versus Rule-Based Programming Techniques: Application To The Control Of Optional Flight Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Abbott, Kathy H.

    1987-05-01

    To the software design community, the concern over the costs associated with a program's execution time and implementation is great. It is always desirable, and sometimes imperative, that the proper programming technique is chosen which minimizes all costs for a given application or type of application. This paper describes a study that compared the cost-related factors associated with traditional programming techniques to rale-based programming techniques for a specific application. The results of this study favored the traditional approach regarding execution efficiency, but favored the rule-based approach regarding programmer productivity (implementation ease). Although this study examined a specific application, the resuli:s should be widely applicable.

  5. Research Traditions, Diversity, and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Margret; Floden, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    An assessment is provided of two papers responding to an article by P. Atkinson, S. Delamont, and M. Hammersley (1988) critiquing papers by E. Jacob (1987, 1988) on qualitative research traditions. Definitions of "tradition" and "research tradition," and the necessity to include British research in Jacob's meta-analysis are…

  6. Microbial inactivation and shelf life comparison of 'cold' hurdle processing with pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, and conventional thermal pasteurisation in skim milk.

    PubMed

    Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Rodríguez-González, O; Jayaram, S; Griffiths, M W

    2011-01-05

    Thermal pasteurisation (TP) is the established food technology for commercial processing of milk. However, degradation of valuable nutrients in milk and its sensory characteristics occurs during TP due to substantial heat exposure. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) and microfiltration (MF) both represent emerging food processing technologies allowing gentle milk preservation at lower temperatures and shorter treatment times for similar, or better, microbial inactivation and shelf stability when applied in a hurdle approach compared to TP. Incubated raw milk was used as an inoculum for the enrichment of skim milk with native microorganisms before PEF, MF, and TP processing. Inoculated milk was PEF-processed at electric field strengths between 16 and 42 kV/cm for treatment times from 612 to 2105 μs; accounting for energy densities between 407 and 815 kJ/L, while MF was applied with a transmembrane flux of 660 L/h m². Milk was TP-treated at 75°C for 24 s. Comparing PEF, MF, and TP for the reduction of the native microbial load in milk led to a 4.6 log₁₀ CFU/mL reduction in count for TP, which was similar to 3.7 log₁₀ CFU/mL obtained by MF (P≥0.05), and more effective than the 2.5 log₁₀ CFU/mL inactivation achieved by PEF inactivation (at 815 kJ/L (P<0.05)). Combined processing with MF followed by PEF (MF/PEF) produced a 4.1 (at 407 and 632 kJ/L), 4.4 (at 668 kJ/L) and 4.8 (at 815 kJ/L) log₁₀ CFU/mL reduction in count of the milk microorganisms, which was comparable to that of TP (P≥0.05). Reversed processing (PEF/MF) achieved comparable reductions of 4.9, 5.3 and 5.7 log₁₀ CFU/mL (at 407, 632 and 668 kJ/L, respectively (P≥0.05)) and a higher inactivation of 7.1 log₁₀ (at 815 kJ/mL (P<0.05)) in milk than for TP. Microbial shelf life of PEF/MF-treated (815 kJ/L) and TP-treated milk stored at 4°C was analysed over 35 days for total aerobic; enterobacteria; yeasts and moulds; lactobacilli; psychrotroph; thermoduric psychrotroph, mesophilic

  7. One more hurdle for biotech

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    On 20 March, the Monsanto Company received a long-awaited approval from the European Community's (EC) Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP) for its version of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that, when injected into cows, can increase milk production up to 20%. Under normal circumstances, the generally positive recommendation would have meant BST was headed for market. But BST is no ordinary drug. Controversies have raged on both sides of the Atlantic, not only about its safety but whether it is needed at all during a time of surplus milk production - and whether its use would drive many small farmers out of business when cheap, hormone-induced milk from agribusiness floods the market. That concern led the EC's Council of Agricultural Ministers in April 1990 to declare a moratorium on the marketing of BST. The ban, recently extended to the end of this year, is designed to allow completion of several studies - including a look at the effect BST would have on European agriculture.

  8. Neutrino facility hits new hurdle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    Just months after receiving the green light from the Indian government, the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been dealt a blow after a court writ was filed against the facility's new site by local environmentalists and politicians.

  9. Counterland Doctrine - An Integration Hurdle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    support (CAS). Recent historical analysis shows that although AI and CAS missions have been effective on the battlefield, AI and CAS do not fully describe...support (CAS). Recent historical analysis shows that although AI and CAS missions have been effective on the battlefield, AI and CAS do not fully...plan for eventual NATO advance. Follow- On Forces Attack ( FOFA ) doctrine relied heavily on the Strategic Air Command (SAC) and was viewed by many in

  10. Hot water, UV-C and superatmospheric oxygen packaging as hurdle techniques for maintaining overall quality of fresh-cut pomegranate arils.

    PubMed

    Maghoumi, Mahshad; Gómez, Perla A; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Mostofi, Younes; Zamani, Zabihalah; Artés, Francisco

    2013-03-30

    In recent years there has been increasing consumer pressure to avoid the use of agrochemicals such as chlorine on fresh plant products for extending their shelf life. The combined use of eco-sustainable techniques may be an alternative. The effect of hot water (HW), ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light and high oxygen packaging (HO) on the overall quality of fresh-cut pomegranate arils stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for up to 14 days at 5 °C was studied. Arils extracted manually, washed with chlorine (100 µL L⁻¹ NaClO, pH 6.5, 5 °C water), rinsed and drained were exposed to single or combined (double and triple) hurdle techniques. The HW treatment consisted of a 30 s immersion in water at 55 °C followed by air surface drying. A 4.54 kJ m⁻² dose was used for the UV-C treatment before packaging. Active MAP with initial 90 kPa O₂ was used in the HO treatment. The respiration rate remained relatively constant throughout shelf life, with no differences among treatments. CO₂ accumulation was higher within HO packages. HW induced a slight reduction in total soluble solids, while no changes in titratable acidity were found. HO-treated arils had the highest phenolic content, while the lowest was found in HW-treated arils. The lowest antioxidant activity was found in HW + UV-C + HO and the highest in UV-C + HO and HO treatments. HW alone or in combination with UV-C and HO inhibited mesophile, mould and yeast growth, while UV-C + HO was most effective for controlling yeast and mould growth. UV-C and HO either alone or in combination are promising techniques to preserve the quality of pomegranate arils for up to 14 days at 5 °C. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Long-Term Durability of Carpentier-Edwards Magna Ease Valve: A One Billion Cycle In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Vrishank; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Quach, Michael; Dang, Lynn; Marquez, Salvador; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2016-05-01

    Durability and hemodynamic performance are top considerations in selecting a valve for valve replacement surgery. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the long-term mechanical durability and hydrodynamic performance of the Carpentier-Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease Bioprostheses, through 1 billion cycles (equivalent to 25 years). In vitro valve hydrodynamic performance, durability, and quantitative flow visualization were conducted in accordance with ISO 5840:2005 heart valve standard. The study valves were subjected to accelerated valve cycling to an equivalent of 25 years of wear. Hydrodynamic evaluations at intervals of 100 million cycles (2.5 years) were performed on the study valves. New uncycled Magna Ease valves were used as hydrodynamic controls in this study. A quantitative assessment of the fluid motion downstream of the control and study valves was performed using particle image velocimetry. The results between the test and control valves were compared to assess valve performance after an equivalent of 25 years of wear. All study valves met the ISO 5840 requirements for effective orifice area, 1.81 ± 0.06 cm(2) and 2.06 ± 0.17 cm(2), and regurgitant fraction, 1.11% ± 0.87% and 2.5% ± 2.34%, for the 21 mm and 23 mm study valves, respectively. The flow characterization of the control valves and the billion-cycle valves demonstrated that the valves exhibited similar flow characteristics. The velocity and shear stress fields were similar between the control and study valves. The Magna Ease valves demonstrated excellent durability and hydrodynamic performance after an equivalent of 25 years of simulated in vitro wear. All study valves successfully endured 1 billion cycles of simulated wear, 5 times longer than the standard requirement for a tissue valve as stipulated in ISO 5840. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Internet-based program for depression using activity and physiological sensors: efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Moragrega, Inés; García-Palacios, Azucena; Bretón-López, Juana; Castilla, Diana; Riera López del Amo, Antonio; Soler, Carla; Molinari, Guadalupe; Quero, Soledad; Guillén-Botella, Verónica; Miralles, Ignacio; Nebot, Sara; Serrano, Berenice; Majoe, Dennis; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Moreover, CCBT can be enhanced by using physiological and activity sensors, but there is no evidence about the acceptability of all these tools. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based CCBT program for preventing depression, with and without sensors (electroencephalography, electrocardiograhpy ECG, and actigraphy), in a high-risk population (unemployed men). Patients and methods Sixty participants at risk of depression (unemployed men) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: 1) intervention program (N=22), 2) intervention program plus sensors (N=19), and 3) control group (N=19). Participants completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress measures. Furthermore, they also completed the measures for expectation, satisfaction, and the ease of use of the program. Results Results showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly more than the control group on the clinical variables, and the improvements were greater in the group that used sensors than in the group that did not use them. Furthermore, participants in both intervention groups scored high on expectations and satisfaction with the CCBT program (with and without sensors). The mean score for usability was 88 out of 100 (standard deviation =12.32). No significant differences were found between groups on any of these variables. Conclusion This is the first study to analyze the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based program using physiological and activity sensors. These results suggest that an Internet program for depression with or without physiological and activity sensors is effective, satisfactory, and easy to use. PMID:27042067

  13. Comparison of patient preference and ease of teaching inhaler technique for Pulmicort Turbuhaler versus pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Welch, Michael J; Nelson, Harold S; Shapiro, Gail; Bensch, George W; Sokol, William N; Smith, Joseph A; Parasuraman, Bhash M

    2004-01-01

    A multicenter, randomized, open-label, crossover study with two 4-week evaluation periods compared patient preference and ease of teaching correct inhaler technique for Pulmicort Turbuhaler versus pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). Patients 18 to 65 years of age with stable, mild to moderate asthma, who required or were eligible for inhaled corticosteroid therapy, were randomized to treatment sequences consisting of 4-week evaluation periods with Pulmicort Turbuhaler (budesonide inhalation powder) two puffs (400 microg) bid and one of three inhaled corticosteroids via pMDI: Aerobid-M (flunisolide) four puffs (1 mg) bid, Flovent (fluticasone propionate) two puffs (440 microg) bid, or Vanceril Double Strength (beclomethasone dipropionate) five puffs (420 microg) bid. Patients indicated device preference at study end and completed the Patient Device Experience Assessment (PDEA) questionnaire after each evaluation period. Ease of teaching, time required to master use of the device, percentage of patients demonstrating mastery on the first attempt, and the number of attempts required to demonstrate mastery were assessed. Despite previous use of pMDIs by most patients, Pulmicort Turbuhaler was significantly preferred (p < 0.001) and required significantly less time to master than pMDIs (p < 0.001). Median times to device mastery were 3.67 min for Pulmicort Turbuhaler versus 5.33 min for pMDIs. Patients rated Pulmicort Turbuhaler significantly better than pMDIs on PDEA ease of use (p = 0.0005) and overall satisfaction (p < 0.0001) single-item scales and all four multi-item scales (pharyngeal symptoms, oral sensation, operational use, and inhaler attributes; p < 0.05). Overall, patients preferred Pulmicort Turbuhaler over pMDIs and required less time to be taught how to correctly use Turbuhaler trade mark.

  14. An Internet-based program for depression using activity and physiological sensors: efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Moragrega, Inés; García-Palacios, Azucena; Bretón-López, Juana; Castilla, Diana; Riera López Del Amo, Antonio; Soler, Carla; Molinari, Guadalupe; Quero, Soledad; Guillén-Botella, Verónica; Miralles, Ignacio; Nebot, Sara; Serrano, Berenice; Majoe, Dennis; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Moreover, CCBT can be enhanced by using physiological and activity sensors, but there is no evidence about the acceptability of all these tools. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based CCBT program for preventing depression, with and without sensors (electroencephalography, electrocardiograhpy ECG, and actigraphy), in a high-risk population (unemployed men). Sixty participants at risk of depression (unemployed men) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: 1) intervention program (N=22), 2) intervention program plus sensors (N=19), and 3) control group (N=19). Participants completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress measures. Furthermore, they also completed the measures for expectation, satisfaction, and the ease of use of the program. Results showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly more than the control group on the clinical variables, and the improvements were greater in the group that used sensors than in the group that did not use them. Furthermore, participants in both intervention groups scored high on expectations and satisfaction with the CCBT program (with and without sensors). The mean score for usability was 88 out of 100 (standard deviation =12.32). No significant differences were found between groups on any of these variables. This is the first study to analyze the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based program using physiological and activity sensors. These results suggest that an Internet program for depression with or without physiological and activity sensors is effective, satisfactory, and easy to use.

  15. Traditional and new influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sook-San; Webby, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a "universal" influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets.

  16. Traditional and New Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sook-San

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The challenges in successful vaccination against influenza using conventional approaches lie in their variable efficacy in different age populations, the antigenic variability of the circulating virus, and the production and manufacturing limitations to ensure safe, timely, and adequate supply of vaccine. The conventional influenza vaccine platform is based on stimulating immunity against the major neutralizing antibody target, hemagglutinin (HA), by virus attenuation or inactivation. Improvements to this conventional system have focused primarily on improving production and immunogenicity. Cell culture, reverse genetics, and baculovirus expression technology allow for safe and scalable production, while adjuvants, dose variation, and alternate routes of delivery aim to improve vaccine immunogenicity. Fundamentally different approaches that are currently under development hope to signal new generations of influenza vaccines. Such approaches target nonvariable regions of antigenic proteins, with the idea of stimulating cross-protective antibodies and thus creating a “universal” influenza vaccine. While such approaches have obvious benefits, there are many hurdles yet to clear. Here, we discuss the process and challenges of the current influenza vaccine platform as well as new approaches that are being investigated based on the same antigenic target and newer technologies based on different antigenic targets. PMID:23824369

  17. Bibliography of Bioethics and Index Medicus: comparison of coverage, publication delay, and ease of recall for journal articles on bioethics.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, S S

    1987-01-01

    Citations selected from the bibliographies of recent texts, a specialized subject bibliography, and review articles were checked in both Cumulated Index Medicus (IM) and the Bibliography of Bioethics (BB) to compare coverage, publication delay, probable causes of indexing and retrieval failure, and the ease with which relevant citations were retrieved. The study also attempted to determine whether BB included appropriate articles from the MEDLINE database in a timely and systematic manner. While 98% of the IM citations appeared within a year of publication, 79% of the BB citations appeared two to three years after their publication dates. The average citation appeared twice as frequently in IM as in BB. PMID:3315054

  18. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  19. Modern bioinformatics meets traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining increasing attention with the emergence of integrative medicine and personalized medicine, characterized by pattern differentiation on individual variance and treatments based on natural herbal synergism. Investigating the effectiveness and safety of the potential mechanisms of TCM and the combination principles of drug therapies will bridge the cultural gap with Western medicine and improve the development of integrative medicine. Dealing with rapidly growing amounts of biomedical data and their heterogeneous nature are two important tasks among modern biomedical communities. Bioinformatics, as an emerging interdisciplinary field of computer science and biology, has become a useful tool for easing the data deluge pressure by automating the computation processes with informatics methods. Using these methods to retrieve, store and analyze the biomedical data can effectively reveal the associated knowledge hidden in the data, and thus promote the discovery of integrated information. Recently, these techniques of bioinformatics have been used for facilitating the interactional effects of both Western medicine and TCM. The analysis of TCM data using computational technologies provides biological evidence for the basic understanding of TCM mechanisms, safety and efficacy of TCM treatments. At the same time, the carrier and targets associated with TCM remedies can inspire the rethinking of modern drug development. This review summarizes the significant achievements of applying bioinformatics techniques to many aspects of the research in TCM, such as analysis of TCM-related '-omics' data and techniques for analyzing biological processes and pharmaceutical mechanisms of TCM, which have shown certain potential of bringing new thoughts to both sides. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An improved ARS2-derived nuclear reporter enhances the efficiency and ease of genetic engineering in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Hoang, Kevin T D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to pioneer genetic engineering techniques for high-value protein and biofuel production from algae. To date, most studies of transgenic Chlamydomonas have utilized the chloroplast genome due to its ease of engineering, with a sizeable suite of reporters and well-characterized expression constructs. The advanced manipulation of algal nuclear genomes has been hampered by limited strong expression cassettes, and a lack of high-throughput reporters. We have improved upon an endogenous reporter gene - the ARS2 gene encoding an arylsulfatase enzyme - that was first cloned and characterized decades ago but has not been used extensively. The new construct, derived from ARS2 cDNA, expresses significantly higher levels of reporter protein and transforms more efficiently, allowing qualitative and quantitative screening using a rapid, inexpensive 96-well assay. The improved arylsulfatase expression cassette was used to screen a new transgene promoter from the ARG7 gene, and found that the ARG7 promoter can express the ARS2 reporter as strongly as the HSP70-RBCS2 chimeric promoter that currently ranks as the best available promoter, thus adding to the list of useful nuclear promoters. This enhanced arylsulfatase reporter construct improves the efficiency and ease of genetic engineering within the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, with potential application to other algal strains.

  1. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers’ perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  2. Surgical Techniques in Penoscrotal Implantation of an Inflatable Penile Prosthesis: A Guide to Increasing Patient Satisfaction and Surgeon Ease.

    PubMed

    Henry, Gerard D; Mahle, Paul; Caso, Jorge; Eisenhart, Elizabeth; Carrion, Rafael; Kramer, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Historically, early surgical treatment for erectile dysfunction involved the placement of rigid devices outside of the corpora cavernosa. However, this practice resulted in high rates of erosion and infection. Today, most urologists in the United States place an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) with an infection-retardant coating inside the corpora cavernosa. In addition to changes in the type of implant used, surgical techniques have evolved greatly in recent years, resulting in reduced operating times, lower infection rates, and improved outcomes. This review of surgical techniques and approaches provides step-by-step guidance from pre- to postoperative patient care within the scope of uncomplicated IPP cases. The published literature is reviewed for important contributions to penile prosthesis surgical techniques. Penoscrotal IPP surgical techniques that have improved outcomes and advanced the field of prosthetic urology for the treatment of medically refractive erectile dysfunction are presented. A review of outcome analyses demonstrates that both the design and techniques of penile prostheses placement have advanced in terms of less postoperative pain, swelling, hematomas, and mechanical failures, with improved patient satisfaction and device survival rates. Penoscrotal implantation of an IPP has improved both in terms of surgeon ease in placement and patient satisfaction. Henry GD, Mahle P, Caso J, Eisenhart E, Carrion R, and Kramer A. Surgical techniques in penoscrotal implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis: A guide to increasing patient satisfaction and surgeon ease. Sex Med Rev 2015;3:36-47. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology.

  4. Headspace oxygen as a hurdle to improve the safety of in-pack pasteurized chilled food during storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nydia; Bhunia, Kanishka; Zhang, Hongchao; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-07-17

    hurdle in the production of pasteurized packaged food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Non-Traditional Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somogye, R. J.; Draheim, E. H.

    The document describes thirteen types of non-traditional students, as identified by the University of Toledo Community and Technical College (Ohio), and the student services available to them at this institution. Non-traditional student types include those who did not do well in high school, those who interrupt their education for at least one…

  6. Traditional Materials in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The five articles in this journal are related to the use of traditional materials in elementary and secondary schools in Illinois. Specific topics discussed include folk literature in secondary schools, traditional songs in elementary schools, the most frequently taught literary works (a survey of Illinois secondary schools), an approach to the…

  7. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  8. The Four Traditions of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Reprints an article from a 1964 "Journal of Geography" that defined the four traditions of geography. Proposed a basic nomenclature with associated ideas to confront the pluralism inherent in geographic thought. Claimed that the four traditions offered a pluralistic basis to maintain an alliance between professional geography and pedagogical…

  9. Optimizing senior's surgical care - Elder-friendly Approaches to the Surgical Environment (EASE) study: rationale and objectives.

    PubMed

    Khadaroo, Rachel G; Padwal, Raj S; Wagg, Adrian S; Clement, Fiona; Warkentin, Lindsey M; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna

    2015-08-21

    It is estimated that seniors (≥65 years old) account for >50% of acute inpatient hospital days and are presenting for surgical evaluation of acute illness in increasing numbers. Unfortunately, conventional acute care models rarely take into account needs of the elderly population. The failure to consider these special needs have resulted in poor outcomes, longer lengths of hospital stay and have likely increased the need for institutional care. Acute Care for the Elderly models on medical wards have demonstrated decreased cost, length of hospital stay, readmissions and improved cognition, function and patient/staff satisfaction. We hypothesize that specific Elder-friendly Approaches to the Surgical Environment (EASE) interventions will similarly improve health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. Prospective, before-after study with a concurrent control group. Four cohorts of 140 consecutively-screened older patients (≥65 years old) will be enrolled (560 patients in total). The EASE interventions involves co-locating all older surgical patients on a single unit, involving an interdisciplinary care team (including a geriatric specialist) in the development of individual care plans, implementing evidence-informed elder-friendly practices, use of a reconditioning program, and optimizing discharge planning. Subjects will be followed via chart review for their hospital stay, and will then complete in-person or telephone interviews at 6 weeks and 6 months after discharge. Measured outcomes include clinical (postoperative major in-hospital complication or death [primary composite outcome]; death or readmission within 30-days of initial discharge; length of hospital stay), humanistic (quality of life; functional, cognitive, and nutritional status) and economic (health care resource utilization and costs) endpoints. Within-site mean change scores will be computed for the composite primary outcome and the overall covariate-adjusted between-site pre-post difference will

  10. Managing risk and marginalizing identities: on the society-of-captives thesis and the harm of social dis-ease.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    This article develops the constitutive features of the society-of-captives thesis as suggested by Arrigo and Milovanovic, and Arrigo, Bersot, and Sellers. The relevance of this thesis is briefly explored in relation to the institutional and community-based treatment philosophies that currently inform the mental health and criminal justice systems. This exploration specifies how risk (being human and doing humanness differently) is managed symbolically, linguistically, materially, and culturally. The management of this risk extends to the kept as well as to their keepers, regulators, and watchers (i.e., the society of captives). This article calls for a new clinical praxis (being/doing a critical mindfulness) designed to overcome the totalizing madness (the harm of social dis-ease) that follows from managing risk fearfully and marginalizing identities desperately as reified recursively through society's captivity. The ethical underpinnings of this clinical praxis represent an emergent direction for undertaking correctional policy reform.

  11. Ease of counterfactual thought generation moderates the relationship between need for cognition and punitive responses to crime.

    PubMed

    Petrocelli, John V; Dowd, Keith

    2009-09-01

    Punitive responses to crime have been linked to a relatively low need for cognition (NFC). Sargent's (2004) findings suggest that this relationship is due to a relatively complex attributional system, employed by high-NFC individuals, which permits them to recognize potential external or situational causes of crime. However, high-NFC individuals may also be more likely to engage in counterfactual thinking, which has been linked to greater judgments of blame and responsibility. Three studies examine the relationship between trait and state NFC and punitiveness in light of counterfactual thinking. Results suggest that the ease of generating upward counterfactuals in response to an unfortunate crime moderates the NFC-punitiveness relationship, such that high-NFC individuals are less punitive than low-NFC individuals only when counterfactual thoughts are relatively difficult to generate. These findings are discussed in light of punishment theory and their possible implications with regard to the legal system.

  12. Shared Medical Appointments: A Promising Innovation to Improve Patient Engagement and Ease the Primary Care Provider Shortage.

    PubMed

    Stults, Cheryl D; McCuistion, Mary H; Frosch, Dominick L; Hung, Dorothy Y; Cheng, Peter H; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2016-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act has extended coverage for uninsured and underinsured Americans, but it could exacerbate existing problems of access to primary care. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are one way to improve access and increase practice productivity, but few studies have examined the patient's perspective on participation in SMAs. To understand patient experiences, 5 focus group sessions were conducted with a total of 30 people in the San Francisco Bay Area. The sessions revealed that most participants felt that they received numerous tangible and intangible benefits from SMAs, particularly enhanced engagement with other patients and physicians, learning, and motivation for health behavior change. Most importantly, participants noted changes in the power dynamic during SMA visits as they increasingly saw themselves empowered to impart information to the physician. Although SMAs improve access, engagement with physicians and other patients, and knowledge of patients' health, they also help to ease the workload for physicians.

  13. Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Patients' Ease of Use of a Touch-Screen (iPad) Patient Survey?

    PubMed

    Zarghom, Saman; Di Fonzo, David; Leung, Fok-Han

    2013-01-11

    Socioeconomic disparities influence the usage rate of advanced communication technologies in Canada. It is important to assess all patient interactions with computers and electronic devices based on these socioeconomic differences. This project studied the ease of use of a touch-screen interface program for collecting patient feedback. The interface collected feedback on physicians' communication skills, an important health concern that has been garnering more and more attention. A concurrent paper survey was used to gather information on the socioeconomic status and the usability of the touchscreen device. As expected, patients who were older, had lower annual household income, and had lower educational attainment were associated with more difficulty using the devices. Surprisingly, 94% of all users (representing a wide range of socioeconomic status backgrounds) rated the device as easy to use.

  14. Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)

  15. Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)

  16. [Traditional and non-traditional curricula. Definitions and terminology].

    PubMed

    Lie, N

    1995-03-30

    Differences between traditional (conventional) and innovative curricula are described. Technical terms are defined or explained. In traditional tracks, basic and clinical sciences are studied separately. The students meet the first patient after several years. The education is mainly discipline-, teacher-, lecture- and hospital-based. In innovative programmes, basic sciences are taught throughout the study parallel with clinical subjects (vertical integration), and subjects from related disciplines are often taught concurrently (horizontal integration). The students meet patients from the first day at the university, participate from the first week in courses in clinical skills, and, after some months, attend continuity clinics in the community. Teaching is student-directed, problem-based and/or community-oriented, with several electives. Many of the strategies above are also used in traditional curricula. The main difference between traditional and innovative curricula is whether basic and clinical sciences are vertically integrated or not.

  17. Acceptability and ease of use of mailed HPV self-collection among infrequently screened women in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Chelsea; Breithaupt, Lindsay; Des Marais, Andrea; Rastas, Charlotte; Richman, Alice; Barclay, Lynn; Brewer, Noel T; Smith, Jennifer S

    2017-09-02

    Self-collection of cervico-vaginal samples for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has the potential to make cervical cancer screening more accessible to underscreened women. We evaluated the acceptability and ease of use of home-based HPV self-collection within a diverse population of low-income, infrequently screened women. Participants were low-income women from North Carolina who had not received Pap testing in 4 or more years. Eligible women received a self-collection kit containing instructions and a brush for home-based sample collection. A total of 227 women returned a self-collected sample by mail and completed a questionnaire to assess their experiences with HPV self-collection. We described acceptability measures and used logistic regression to identify predictors of overall positive thoughts about the self-collection experience. Nearly all women were willing to perform HPV self-collection again (98%) and were comfortable receiving the self-collection kit in the mail (99%). Overall, 81% of participants reported positive thoughts about home-based self-collection. Women with at least some college education and those who were divorced, separated or widowed were more likely to report overall positive thoughts. Aspects of self-collection that participants most commonly reported liking included convenience (53%), ease of use (32%) and privacy (23%). The most frequently reported difficulties included uncertainty that the self-collection was done correctly (16%) and difficulty inserting the self-collection brush (16%). Home-based self-collection for HPV was a highly acceptable screening method among low-income, underscreened women and holds the promise to increase access to cervical cancer screening in this high-risk population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Madsen, Nils B; Kildegaard, Jonas; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pen needles used for subcutaneous injections have gradually become shorter, thinner and more thin walled, and thereby less robust to patient reuse. Thus, different needle sizes, alternative tip designs and needles resembling reuse were tested to explore how needle design influences ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Research design and methods 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25–35 kg/m2 were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. Results Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (p<0.05) and with a positive pain trend relation. Lack of needle lubrication and small ‘needle hooks’ increased PF and SBP (p<0.05) but did not affect pain. Short-tip, obtuse needle grinds affected PF and SBP, but pain was only significantly affected in extreme cases. PF in skin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome was dependent of SBP increase. Conclusions The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. Trial registration number NCT02531776; results. PMID:28074137

  19. Comparison of the ease of tracheal intubation by postgraduate residents of anesthesiology using Airtraq™ and Macintosh laryngoscopes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Yallapragada, Srivishnu Vardhan; Parasa, Mrunalini; Vemuri, Nagendra Nath; Shaik, Mastan Saheb

    2016-01-01

    Airtraq™ (Prodol Meditec, Vizcaya, Spain) is a recently developed laryngoscope, which facilitates easy visualization of glottis through a matrix of sequentially arranged lenses and mirrors. In this observatory study, we sought to compare the ease of tracheal intubation with Airtraq™ and Macintosh laryngoscope when performed by 2(nd) year postgraduate residents of Anesthesiology in NRI Medical College, Mangalagiri. To compare the ease of tracheal intubation by Airtraq™ laryngoscope with that by Macintosh laryngoscope among the 2(nd) year postgraduate residents of anesthesiology in terms of time taken for intubation and the rise of rate-pressure product (RPP) with intubation. Prospective randomized observational study. Eighty adult and healthy patients with an easy airway, scheduled for general anesthesia were allocated into two groups A, and M. Patients in Group A were intubated with Airtraq™ laryngoscope and those in Group M were intubated with Macintosh laryngoscope by the 2(nd) year postgraduate residents of anesthesiology. The time taken for intubation, the RPPs at baseline, after induction of general anesthesia, postintubation, at 3 and 5 min after intubation, the rise of RPP to intubation and the occurrence of a sore throat were compared between the two groups. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The mean time for intubation in Macintosh group was 28.18 s and was 40.98 s in Airtraq group. The mean rise of RPP to intubation was 4644.83 in Airtraq group and 2829.27 in Macintosh group. The incidence of a sore throat was equal in both the groups. The time for intubation and the sympathetic response to airway instrumentation were more with Airtraq™ laryngoscope than with Macintosh laryngoscope.

  20. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  1. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acknowledgments Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. ... and mental focus). TCM is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism and dates back more than ...

  3. Traditional practices, traditional spirituality, and alcohol cessation among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Stone, Rosalie A Torres; Whitbeck, Les B; Chen, Xiaojin; Johnson, Kurt; Olson, Debbie M

    2006-03-01

    The detrimental effects of alcohol misuse and dependence are well documented as an important public-health issue among American Indian adults. This preponderance of problem-centered research, however, has eclipsed some important resilience factors associated with life course patterns of American Indian alcohol use. In this study, we investigate the influence of enculturation, and each of the three component dimensions (traditional practices, traditional spirituality, and cultural identity) to provide a stringent evaluation of the specific mechanisms through which traditional culture affects alcohol cessation among American Indians. These data were collected as part of a 3-year lagged sequential study currently underway on four American Indian reservations in the upper Midwest and five Canadian First Nation reserves. The sample consisted of 980 Native American adults, with 71% women and 29% men who are parents or guardians of youth ages 10-12 years old. Logistic regression was used to assess the unique contribution of the indicators of alcohol cessation. Excluding adults who had no lifetime alcohol use, the total sample size for present analysis is 732 adult respondents. The findings show that older adults, women, and married adults were more likely to have quit using alcohol. When we examined the individual components of enculturation, two of the three components (participation in traditional activities and traditional spirituality) had significantly positive effects on alcohol cessation. Although our findings provide empirical evidence that traditional practices and traditional spirituality play an important role in alcohol cessation, the data are cross-sectional and therefore do not indicate direction of effects. Longitudinal studies are warranted, in light of the work that concludes that cultural/spiritual issues may be more important in maintaining sobriety once it is established rather than initiating it.

  4. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Smit, J J

    1994-06-01

    Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 per cent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal--"Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country. The Ministry of Health is responsible for the training and control of Traditional Birth Attendants and in 1976 opened a register in order to list all those trained. In early 1978 a training course for selected TBAs was conducted at the Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe and from 1982 the training programme evolved into a national training programme for TBAs. By February 1987, a total of 841 Traditional birth Attendants had been trained and the programme is still continuing.

  5. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K.; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4–19% error), then test strips (5.2–48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5–11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14–37 for test strips and $33–609 for titration

  6. Accuracy, Precision, Ease-Of-Use, and Cost of Methods to Test Ebola-Relevant Chlorine Solutions.

    PubMed

    Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K; Murray, Anna; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings. To ensure solution quality, testing is necessary, however test method appropriateness for these Ebola-relevant concentrations has not previously been evaluated. We identified fourteen commercially-available methods to test Ebola-relevant chlorine solution concentrations, including two titration methods, four DPD dilution methods, and six test strips. We assessed these methods by: 1) determining accuracy and precision by measuring in quintuplicate five different 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions manufactured from NaDCC, HTH, and NaOCl; 2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and, 3) determining costs. Accuracy was greatest in titration methods (reference-12.4% error compared to reference method), then DPD dilution methods (2.4-19% error), then test strips (5.2-48% error); precision followed this same trend. Two methods had an accuracy of <10% error across all five chlorine solutions with good precision: Hach digital titration for 0.05% and 0.5% solutions (recommended for contexts with trained personnel and financial resources), and Serim test strips for 0.05% solutions (recommended for contexts where rapid, inexpensive, and low-training burden testing is needed). Measurement error from test methods not including pH adjustment varied significantly across the five chlorine solutions, which had pH values 5-11. Volunteers found test strip easiest and titration hardest; costs per 100 tests were $14-37 for test strips and $33-609 for titration. Given the

  7. Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with Exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE trial): randomised, sham-controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, P L; Slebos, D-J; Cardoso, P F G; Cetti, E; Voelker, K; Levine, B; Russell, M E; Goldin, J; Brown, M; Cooper, J D; Sybrecht, G W

    2011-09-10

    Airway bypass is a bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction procedure for emphysema whereby transbronchial passages into the lung are created to release trapped air, supported with paclitaxel-coated stents to ease the mechanics of breathing. The aim of the EASE (Exhale airway stents for emphysema) trial was to evaluate safety and efficacy of airway bypass in people with severe homogeneous emphysema. We undertook a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled study in 38 specialist respiratory centres worldwide. We recruited 315 patients who had severe hyperinflation (ratio of residual volume [RV] to total lung capacity of ≥0·65). By computer using a random number generator, we randomly allocated participants (in a 2:1 ratio) to either airway bypass (n=208) or sham control (107). We divided investigators into team A (masked), who completed pre-procedure and post-procedure assessments, and team B (unmasked), who only did bronchoscopies without further interaction with patients. Participants were followed up for 12 months. The 6-month co-primary efficacy endpoint required 12% or greater improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 1 point or greater decrease in the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score from baseline. The composite primary safety endpoint incorporated five severe adverse events. We did Bayesian analysis to show the posterior probability that airway bypass was superior to sham control (success threshold, 0·965). Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391612. All recruited patients were included in the analysis. At 6 months, no difference between treatment arms was noted with respect to the co-primary efficacy endpoint (30 of 208 for airway bypass vs 12 of 107 for sham control; posterior probability 0·749, below the Bayesian success threshold of 0·965). The 6-month composite primary safety endpoint was 14·4% (30 of 208) for airway bypass versus 11·2% (12 of 107) for sham control

  8. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  9. Predicting ease of perinephric fat dissection at time of open partial nephrectomy using preoperative fat density characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yin; Espiritu, Patrick; Hakky, Tariq; Jutras, Kristin; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-12-01

    To predict the ease of perinephric fat surgical dissection at the time of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) using perinepheric fat density characteristics as measured on preoperative computed tomography (CT). In all, 41 consecutive OPN patients with available preoperative imaging and prospectively collected dissection difficulty assessment were identified. Using a scoring system that was adopted for the purposes of this study, the genitourinary surgeon quantified the difficulty of the perinephric fat dissection on the surface of the renal capsule at the time of surgery. On axial CT slice centred on the renal hilum, we measured the quantity and density of perinephric fat whose absorption coefficient was between -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. Correlation between perinephric fat surface density (PnFSD) as noted on preoperative imaging and as observed by the surgeon at time of surgery were correlated in a completely 'double-blinded' fashion. Density comparisons between fat dissection difficulties were made using an anova. Associations between covariates and perinephric fat density were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for six different predictive models were created to visualise the predictive enhancement of PnFSD. PnFSD was positively correlated with total surgical duration (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.314, P = 0.04). PnFSD significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.001) and difficulty of perinephric fat surgical dissection (P < 0.001) scores. The mean (sd) PnFSD for a dissection that was not difficult (n = 19) was 5598.32 (1367.77) surface density pixel unit (SDPU), and for a difficult dissection (n = 22) was 10272.23 (3804.67) SDPU. Univariate analysis showed gender (P = 0.002), and PnFSD were predictive of the presence of 'sticky' perinephric fat. A multivariate analysis model showed that PnFSD was the only variable that remained an independent predictor of perinephric fat

  10. Understanding the Perceived Usefulness and the Ease of Use of a Hospital Information System: the case of a French University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ologeanu-Taddei, R; Morquin, D; Bourret, R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of a Hospital Information System (HIS) for the care staff. We administrated a questionnaire composed of open-end and closed questions. As results, the perceived usefulness and ease of use are correlated with medical occupations. Content analysis of open questions highlights three factors influencing these constructs: ergonomics, errors in the documenting process and insufficient compatibility with the medical department or the occupation. While the results are consistent with literature, they show medical occupations do not report the same low rate of perceived usefulness and of ease of use. The main explanation consists in the medical risk in the prescription process for anesthesiologists, surgeons and physicians.

  11. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  12. Traditional non-Western diets.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    In traditional cultures, balancing health with a balanced lifestyle was a core belief. The diseases of modern civilization were rare. Indigenous people have patterns of illness very different from Western civilization; yet, they rapidly develop diseases once exposed to Western foods and lifestyles. Food and medicine were interwoven. All cultures used special or functional foods to prevent disease. Food could be used at different times either as food or medicine. Foods, cultivation, and cooking methods maximized community health and well-being. With methods passed down through generations, cooking processes were utilized that enhanced mineral and nutrient bioavailability. This article focuses on what researchers observed about the food traditions of indigenous people, their disease patterns, the use of specific foods, and the environmental factors that affect people who still eat traditional foods.

  13. A new single chamber implantable defibrillator with atrial sensing: a practical demonstration of sensing and ease of implantation.

    PubMed

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Schneider, Ralph; Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Cristoph A

    2012-02-28

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) terminate ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) with high efficacy and can protect patients from sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, inappropriate shocks may occur if tachycardias are misdiagnosed. Inappropriate shocks are harmful and impair patient quality of life. The risk of inappropriate therapy increases with lower detection rates programmed in the ICD. Single-chamber detection poses greater risks for misdiagnosis when compared with dual-chamber devices that have the benefit of additional atrial information. However, using a dual-chamber device merely for the sake of detection is generally not accepted, since the risks associated with the second electrode may outweigh the benefits of detection. Therefore, BIOTRONIK developed a ventricular lead called the Linox(SMART) S DX, which allows for the detection of atrial signals from two electrodes positioned at the atrial part of the ventricular electrode. This device contains two ring electrodes; one that contacts the atrial wall at the junction of the superior vena cava (SVC) and one positioned at the free floating part of the electrode in the atrium. The excellent signal quality can only be achieved by a special filter setting in the ICD (Lumax 540 and 740 VR-T DX, BIOTRONIK). Here, the ease of implantation of the system will be demonstrated.

  14. Systems modelling approaches to the design of safe healthcare delivery: ease of use and usefulness perceived by healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Ward, James; Clarkson, P John

    2010-07-01

    The UK health service, which had been diagnosed to be seriously out of step with good design practice, has been recommended to obtain knowledge of design and risk management practice from other safety-critical industries. While these other industries have benefited from a broad range of systems modelling approaches, healthcare remains a long way behind. In order to investigate the healthcare-specific applicability of systems modelling approaches, this study identified 10 distinct methods through meta-model analysis. Healthcare workers' perception on 'ease of use' and 'usefulness' was then evaluated. The characterisation of the systems modelling methods showed that each method had particular capabilities to describe specific aspects of a complex system. However, the healthcare workers found that some of the methods, although potentially very useful, would be difficult to understand, particularly without prior experience. This study provides valuable insights into a better use of the systems modelling methods in healthcare. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The findings in this study provide insights into how to make a better use of various systems modelling approaches to the design and risk management of healthcare delivery systems, which have been a growing research interest among ergonomists and human factor professionals.

  15. Association between objective measurement of the speech intelligibility of young people with dysarthria and listener ratings of ease of understanding.

    PubMed

    Landa, Sophie; Pennington, Lindsay; Miller, Nick; Robson, Sheila; Thompson, Vicki; Steen, Nick

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between listeners' ratings of how much effort it took to understand the speech of young people with cerebral palsy and the percentage of words listeners actually understood. Thirty-one young people with dysarthria and cerebral palsy (16 males, 15 females; mean age = 11 years, SD = 3) were audio recorded repeating single words and producing speech. Objective measures of intelligibility were calculated for multiple familiar and unfamiliar listeners using a forced choice paradigm for single words and verbatim orthographic transcriptions for connected speech. Listeners rated how much effort it took to understand speech in each condition using a 5-point ordinal ease of listening (EOL) scale. Agreement on EOL within rater groups was high (ICC > 0.71). An effect of listener was observed for familiar listeners, but not for unfamiliar listeners. EOL agreement between familiar and unfamiliar listeners was weak-moderate (ICC = 0.46). EOL predicted the percentage of speech actually understood by familiar and unfamiliar listeners (r > 0.56, p < 0.001 for all predictions). Strongest associations between EOL and intelligibility were observed for speakers with mild and profound impairments. The findings of this study demonstrate that listeners can judge how well they have understood dysarthric speech. EOL is associated with listener familiarity, speech task and speech impairment severity. EOL is appropriate for use in clinical practice as a measure of communication activity.

  16. Addition of a video camera system improves the ease of Airtraq(®) tracheal intubation during chest compression.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Hanako; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Itani, Motoi; Nishi, Shin-ichi; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh

    2012-04-01

    Recent resuscitation guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize that rescuers should perform tracheal intubation with minimal interruption of chest compressions. We evaluated the use of video guidance to facilitate tracheal intubation with the Airtraq (ATQ) laryngoscope during chest compression. Eighteen novice physicians in our anesthesia department performed tracheal intubation on a manikin using the ATQ with a video camera system (ATQ-V) or with no video guidance (ATQ-N) during chest compression. All participants were able to intubate the manikin using the ATQ-N without chest compression, but five failed during chest compression (P < 0.05). In contrast, all participants successfully secured the airway with the ATQ-V, with or without chest compression. Concurrent chest compression increased the time required for intubation with the ATQ-N (without chest compression 14.8 ± 4.5 s; with chest compression, 28.2 ± 10.6 s; P < 0.05), but not with the ATQ-V (without chest compression, 15.9 ± 5.8 s; with chest compression, 17.3 ± 5.3 s; P > 0.05). The ATQ video camera system improves the ease of tracheal intubation during chest compressions.

  17. The fluency of social hierarchy: the ease with which hierarchical relationships are seen, remembered, learned, and liked.

    PubMed

    Zitek, Emily M; Tiedens, Larissa Z

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that social hierarchies are fluent social stimuli; that is, they are processed more easily and therefore liked better than less hierarchical stimuli. In Study 1, pairs of people in a hierarchy based on facial dominance were identified faster than pairs of people equal in their facial dominance. In Study 2, a diagram representing hierarchy was memorized more quickly than a diagram representing equality or a comparison diagram. This faster processing led the hierarchy diagram to be liked more than the equality diagram. In Study 3, participants were best able to learn a set of relationships that represented hierarchy (asymmetry of power)--compared to relationships in which there was asymmetry of friendliness, or compared to relationships in which there was symmetry--and this processing ease led them to like the hierarchy the most. In Study 4, participants found it easier to make decisions about a company that was more hierarchical and thus thought the hierarchical organization had more positive qualities. In Study 5, familiarity as a basis for the fluency of hierarchy was demonstrated by showing greater fluency for male than female hierarchies. This study also showed that when social relationships are difficult to learn, people's preference for hierarchy increases. Taken together, these results suggest one reason people might like hierarchies--hierarchies are easy to process. This fluency for social hierarchies might contribute to the construction and maintenance of hierarchies.

  18. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice.

    PubMed

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action.

  19. Organoleptic properties, ease of use, and perceived health effects are determinants of acceptability of micronutrient supplements among poor Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera L; Blanco, Ilian; Hernandez-Cordero, Sonia; Pelto, Gretel H; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2010-03-01

    We assessed the acceptability of 3 micronutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women: micronutrient powder (Sprinkles), a fortified food (Nutrivida), and tablets. Pregnant or lactating beneficiaries of the Oportunidades program participating in a cluster randomized supplementation trial in urban Mexico were surveyed about the acceptability of 1 of 3 supplements (n = 268). Semistructured interviews (n = 40) were also conducted with a subset of women in the trial and from adjacent rural areas. Acceptability of the supplements was evaluated based on women's perceptions and experiences with organoleptic qualities, ease of use, and perceived health effects (positive and negative). The median Likert scale ranking of organoleptic and use qualities for all 3 supplements was "I liked it" (2 on a scale of 1-5). However, responses to open-ended survey questions and semistructured interviews indicated decided preferences. Tablets and Sprinkles were strongly preferred over Nutrivida. In interviews, women expressed dislike of the smell, taste, and texture of Nutrivida; they found it cumbersome to store and prepare and reported the most negative effects with it. Between tablets and Sprinkles, tablets were preferred because of the absence of perceptible taste or smell and the simplicity of use. This study provides valuable insights into our currently limited understanding of women's perceptions and preferences among supplements by broadening the concept of acceptability beyond organoleptic properties. Such an analytical approach is useful for identifying both appropriate nutritional supplements within a given sociocultural context as well as the information that should be included in nutrition education to improve adherence.

  20. Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

    2005-01-01

    An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

  1. Tenure: Traditions, Policies, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo

    1998-01-01

    Two recent books, "The Case for Tenure" (Matthew W. Finkin, ed.) and "Promotion and Tenure" (William G. Tierney, Estela Mara Bensimon) are important contributions to the dialog about college faculty tenure. Each contributes to but does not fill the professoriate's need for a defense of tenure that incorporates the tradition of principled support…

  2. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  3. Tenure: Traditions, Policies, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo

    1998-01-01

    Two recent books, "The Case for Tenure" (Matthew W. Finkin, ed.) and "Promotion and Tenure" (William G. Tierney, Estela Mara Bensimon) are important contributions to the dialog about college faculty tenure. Each contributes to but does not fill the professoriate's need for a defense of tenure that incorporates the tradition of principled support…

  4. Tribal Colleges and Traditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the recent advances of Western science to ancient views of Native American tribes. Indicates that "advances" such as chaos theory and zoopharmacognosy are long-standing elements of Native American traditional knowledge. Suggests that tribal colleges must assert themselves and become the primary symbols of authority on tribal culture. (MAB)

  5. From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Olinger, Jennifer

    The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…

  6. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  7. Contemporary Literature/Traditional Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jamieson

    An upper school English program has been experimenting with ways to reinforce its traditional literary curriculum with contemporary works. Three contemporary novels in particular (Naylor's "The Women of Brewster Place," Walker's "The Color Purple," and Miller's "A Canticle for Leibowitz") have been found to foster a sense of continuity with the…

  8. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  9. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  10. Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

  11. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  12. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional…

  13. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  14. Restored Behavior and Oral Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Kathleen Bindert

    Interest in oral traditions has benefitted the field of interpretation in two ways: a new emphasis on the social and cultural contexts of performance, and an expanded perspective on performance manifestations. In Richard Schechner's concept of "restored behavior," the interpreter engages in a reconstruction of living behavior independent…

  15. Non-traditional theorems unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of 'non-traditional' proof-related activities or theorems that can be explored through paper folding by university and high-school students. These theorems were encountered through playful acts of paper folding by the author. The author used these activities successfully with preservice teachers. The paper contains proof outlines for each theorem.

  16. Documenting Dene Traditional Environmental Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martha

    1992-01-01

    In a participatory action research project, local Dene and non-Native researchers in Fort Good Hope and Colville Lake, Northwest Territories (Canada), are documenting Dene traditional environmental knowledge and resource management systems. Problems in integrating Dene knowledge and Western science stem from incompatible world views. (SV)

  17. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  18. Open Universities: A British Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert; Tight, Malcolm

    This book challenges the notion that the open university is a recent invention and argues that in Britain there is a long and varied tradition of similar developments, and that there has been a significant 20th century reduction in the openness of universities, particularly in the period from the 1950s to the 1970s. Selected examples of open…

  19. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  20. Cancer and Mediterranean dietary traditions.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Kuper, H; Trichopoulos, D

    2000-09-01

    The incidence of cancer overall in Mediterranean countries is lower than in Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This is mostly accounted for by the lower incidence among Mediterranean countries of cancer of the large bowel, breast, endometrium, and prostate. These forms of cancer have been linked to dietary factors, particularly low consumption of vegetables and fruit, and to a certain extent, high consumption of meat. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by high consumption of foods of plant origin, relatively low consumption of red meat, and high consumption of olive oil, which in several studies has been reported to be more beneficial against cancer than other forms of added lipids. By taking into account the established or presumed nutritional causation of major forms of cancer and the composition of the traditional Mediterranean diet, estimates can be derived concerning the fraction of cancer occurrence in highly developed Western countries that could be attributed to their diets in comparison with the healthy traditional Mediterranean diet. Although estimates can only be crude, it can be calculated that up to 25% of the incidence of colorectal cancer, approximately 15% of the incidence of breast cancer, and approximately 10% of the incidence of prostate, pancreas, and endometrial cancer could be prevented if the populations of highly developed Western countries could shift to the traditional healthy Mediterranean diet.

  1. Online University Students' Satisfaction and Persistence: Examining Perceived Level of Presence, Usefulness and Ease of Use as Predictors in a Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Learners' satisfaction and persistence are considered critical success factors in online universities where all of the teaching and learning activities are carried out online. This study aims to investigate the structural relationships among perceived level of presence, perceived usefulness and ease of use of the online learning tools, learner…

  2. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafaee, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease" in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Postmodernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of…

  3. The placental growth factor (PGF)--a positional and functional candidate gene influencing calving ease and stillbirth in German dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seidenspinner, T; Tetens, J; Habier, D; Bennewitz, J; Thaller, G

    2011-02-01

    The bovine placental growth factor-encoding gene (PGF) was analysed as a positional and functional candidate gene for the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in first parity. Prominent levels of PGF expression have been reported for the whole human placenta and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Modulation of angiogenesis, vessel remodelling and vascular permeability during implantation and placentation suggest an influence on trophoblast function during pregnancy. Changes of expression or protein function may therefore be crucial to pregnancy and parturition. By comparative sequencing of bulls with extreme approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits, we identified 37 SNPs and two insertions/deletions within the PGF gene. Seventeen of the identified polymorphisms were genotyped in 368 selected bulls and tested for association with approximate daughter yield deviations for calving traits. In a single marker analysis, all SNPs were significantly associated with maternal stillbirth and calving ease first parity. The allele substitutions of the significant SNPs explain 8% to 14% and 8% to 15% of the additive genetic variance for maternal stillbirth and maternal calving ease first parity, respectively. There is no evidence that any of the polymorphisms identified within this study could be the causal mutation underlying the QTL, which is likely to be a regulatory mutation. In summary, we report polymorphisms in the bovine PGF gene significantly associated with the maternal effect on stillbirth and calving ease in animals under selection. These results should be confirmed and extended in further studies to identify the causal mutation underlying the QTL analysed.

  4. Ease of intubation with the Parker Flex-Tip or a standard Mallinckrodt endotracheal tube using a video laryngoscope (GlideScope).

    PubMed

    Radesic, Brian P; Winkelman, Chris; Einsporn, Richard; Kless, Jack

    2012-10-01

    Two endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are available for use in operative suites for intubation: the Parker Flex-Tip (PFT, Parker Medical) and the standard Mallinckrodt (Covidien). To the authors' knowledge, no study has compared these 2 ETTs with each other when the anesthesia provider uses the GlideScope video laryngoscope (Verathon) for intubation. The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences related to ease of intubation reported by anesthesia providers who use the PFT tube compared with the standard tube while using the GlideScope. The study was a randomized block intervention design. The sample consisted of 58 observed intubations in an operating room setting. Data analysis was completed with a 2-factor analysis of covariance using 2 covariates. The PFT tube in suboptimal conditions demonstrated a significantly greater ease of intubation, as measured by decreased time for ETT insertion and greater ease of ETT insertion score. The number of redirections at the glottis to intubate the trachea once the glottis was visualized was not statistically different. Based on the findings from this study, anesthesia providers may want to consider the use of the PFT tube when using the GlideScope to promote ease of intubation.

  5. Entering a New Preschool: How Service Providers and Families Can Ease the Transitions of Children Turning Three Who Have Special Needs. FACTS/LRE Information Series #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donegan, Mary; And Others

    This guide presents suggestions to minimize adjustment problems for young children with delays and disabilities as they begin preschool. Strategies to ease the transition from early intervention programs to the preschool focus on: beginning early, talking about the new setting in positive ways, encouraging the child to ask questions and express…

  6. Reflection Paper on a Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning System: Evidence of Active/Passive Attitude vs. Usefulness/Ease-of-Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    "A ubiquitous English vocabulary learning system: evidence of active/passive attitudes vs. usefulness/ease-of-use" introduces and develops "Ubiquitous English Vocabulary Learning" (UEFL) system. It introduces to the memorization using the video clips. According to their paper the video clip gives a better chance for students to…

  7. Comparing Ease-of-Processing Values of the Same Set of Words for Native English Speakers and Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takashima, Hiroomi

    2009-01-01

    Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy…

  8. Performance and ease of use evaluation of a new surgical post-operative foam island dressing in 14 patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Elaine; Stephens, Claire

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this evaluation was to investigate ease of use and clinical performance of a new post-operative foam island dressing in female patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. Women undergoing surgery have genuine concerns regarding the risk of a hospital acquired infection. The new post-operative dressing was evaluated on 14 patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery during two weeks in March 2011. Evaluators rated packaging and dressing ease of use, wear time, shower proof ability, skin blistering and ease of removal. Patients rated comfort of the dressing during wear time and removal. Nurses and Midwives rated blister prevention 100% (good), shower proof capabilities 86% (good) and ease of removal 79% (good). Patients rated comfort during wear time, skin integrity, and the importance of bathing (shower proof). No wound infections, peri wound maceration or adverse events were recorded. Ensuring best patient outcomes and meeting individual needs remains the cornerstone of nursing practice. Reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSI) remains a focus for NHS Trust throughout the UK particularly as Gynaelogical procedures require mandatory surveillance by the Health Protection Agency 1(The importance of patient comfort and ability to tend to hygiene needs is fundamental). The evaluated dressing has a flexible island pad allowing further tensile stretch and conformability when in situ. This was demonstrated in this study by both clinicians and patients in blister prevention, conformability, and patient comfort outcomes of this evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High School Students' Performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test: Art Ability, Gender, Activities, Academic Performance, Strategies, and Ease of Taking the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurny, Helen Graham

    This study tested whether mental rotation performance of 186 high school students (80 males and 106 females) in grades 9 through 12 in art and nonart classes on Vandenbergs Mental Rotations test (S. Vandenberg and Kuse, 1978) was affected by gender, visual-spatial activities, strategies used while performing the test, and the ease of test taking.…

  10. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  11. Validation of Modifications to the ANSR(®) Listeria Method for Improved Ease of Use and Performance.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Gray, R Lucas; Hosking, Edan; Pinkava, Lisa; Norton, Paul; Tolan, Jerry; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Odumeru, Joseph; Ryser, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to validate minor reagent formulation, enrichment, and procedural changes to the ANSR(®) Listeria method, Performance-Tested Method(SM) 101202. In order to improve ease of use and diminish risk of amplicon contamination, the lyophilized reagent components were reformulated for increased solubility, thus eliminating the need to mix by pipetting. In the alternative procedure, an aliquot of the lysate is added to lyophilized ANSR reagents, immediately capped, and briefly mixed by vortexing. When three foods (hot dogs, Mexican-style cheese, and cantaloupe) and sponge samples taken from a stainless steel surface were tested, significant differences in performance between the ANSR and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures were seen with hot dogs and Mexican-style cheese after 16 h enrichment, with the reference methods producing more positive results. After 24 h enrichment, however, there were no significant differences in method performance for any of the four matrixes tested. Robustness testing was also conducted, with variations to lysis buffer volume, lysis time, and sample volume having no demonstrable effect on assay results. Accelerated stability testing was carried out over a 10-week period and showed no diminishment in assay performance. A second phase of the study examined performance of the ANSR assay following enrichment in a new medium, LESS Plus broth, designed for use with all food and environmental sample types. With the alternative LESS Plus broth, there were no significant differences in performance between the ANSR method and the reference culture procedures for any of the matrixes tested after either 16 or 24 h enrichment, although 24 h enrichment is recommended for hot dogs due to higher sensitivity. Results of inclusivity and exclusivity testing using LESS Plus broth

  12. Endotracheal tubes versus laryngeal mask airways in rabbit inhalation anesthesia: ease of use and waste gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer C; Robertson, Linda D; Auhll, Ann; March, Tim J; Derring, Cheryl; Bolon, Brad

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we compared two endotracheal tubes (cuffed [Murphy Eye type] and uncuffed [Cole type]) and a pediatric laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with respect to their ease of use in rabbits and their capacities to limit waste isoflurane emissions. Animals (New Zealand White, 3.3 to 5.0 kg, n = 8) were sedated with intramuscular ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg). After 5 min, the larynx was numbed with cetocaine, an intubation device was positioned, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane (2%) in oxygen (1 liter/min). Real-time atmospheric isoflurane emissions were assessed at the rabbit's oral commissure and in the operator's breathing zone (45 cm from the rabbit's nose) by using a portable infrared spectrophotometer. The LMA was placed more easily than was either endotracheal tube, especially by novices. The cuffed tube was positioned more readily than was the uncuffed variant. All three devices emitted isoflurane. The concentrations measured at the oral commissure for the LMA (mean +/- standard error, 8.4 +/- 0.6 ppm) were modestly higher than those acquired for the cuffed (6.7 +/- 0.5 ppm) and uncuffed (6.3 +/- 0.4 ppm) endotracheal tubes; the difference between the LMA and uncuffed tube was significant (P = 0.012). Isoflurane was not detected in the operator's breathing zone. These data show that the uncuffed endotracheal tube (usually used to anesthetize birds and reptiles) and the pediatric LMA can be used in rabbits as readily as a cuffed tube. In addition, our findings indicate that tradeoffs will be required in selecting a delivery system for this species, as the easiest apparatus (the LMA) also emits the most isoflurane waste.

  13. Assessment of the safety and ease of use of the naloxone auto-injector for the reversal of opioid overdose.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Mark A; Ariyaprakai, Navin; Arshad, Faizan H

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, opioid-related deaths in the United States have increased at an alarming rate. The use of naloxone by laypersons is a newer concept and its utilization can benefit patients by rapid administration due to it being readily available immediately after an opioid overdose. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a naloxone auto-injector on April 3, 2014 for adults and pediatrics, designed for use by anyone including patients, family members, bystanders, and medical professionals. This device (EZVIO™) is the first device of its kind available on the market. The auto-injector is a battery-operated disposable 0.4 mg/0.4 mL prefilled device for use in the lateral thigh by patients, bystanders, or health care professionals. It utilizes auditory and visual commands for ease of administration and instructs patients to seek further medical care after injection. EVZIO costs about $600 for two auto-injectors and a trainer. Additionally, in August 2013, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration introduced the Opioid Overdose Toolkit, a federal resource promoting safety and prevention information. This extensive document provides information for medical professionals, first responders, patients, caregivers, and overdose survivors. It outlines many strategies for dealing with this health care crisis. Most importantly, it highlights the importance of rapid recognition and treatment of opioid overdoses as well as routine conversations with patients assessing the need for naloxone prescriptions. The auto-injector is a safe, portable device with limited instruction needed and should routinely be made available to anyone who has contact with an opioid user.

  14. Ease of Caregiving for Children: a measure of parent perceptions of the physical demands of caregiving for young children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kimberly D; Chiarello, Lisa A; Bartlett, Doreen J; Palisano, Robert J; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Avery, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    The Ease of Caregiving for Children is a parent-completed measure of how difficult it is for them to safely help their children participate in activities of daily living. The objectives of this study were to determine the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and construct validity (known groups methods) of the Ease of Caregiving for Children and create an interval-level scale. Participants included 429 parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 110 parents of children without motor delay. Children ranged in age from 18 to 60 months. Parents completed the Ease of Caregiving for Children and therapists assessed children's gross motor function. The Rasch model of item response analysis was used to create an interval-level scale. Results indicated high internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. Ease of caregiving varied by children's ages for parents of children without motor delay, however there was no significant difference by age for parents of children with CP. Parents of children with less gross motor ability reported more difficulty in caregiving than parents of children with higher gross motor ability. Rasch analysis for children with CP resulted in a hierarchical ordering of items by difficulty with good fit and logical ordering. Findings support the Ease of Caregiving for Children as a reliable and valid measure of parents' perceptions of their difficulty to safely assist their children to perform activities of daily living. The measure should enable health care providers to assess and provide interventions that address families' needs in caring for their children with CP.

  15. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  16. International classification of traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Morris, William; Gomes, Stacy; Allen, Marilyn

    2012-09-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides alphanumeric codes that have a longstanding place in the annals of contemporary medicine for epidemiology, health management, and clinical diagnoses from patient encounters to death certificates. This system is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Traditional medicine (TM) has historical usage patterns established by treating people through the centuries but has never before been included in the ICD code set. The inclusion of traditional Asian medicine in the International Family of Classifications is a new venture and scheduled to be included in the ICD-11 revision of the codes. This may enable the comparison of diagnostic, clinical outcome, and epidemiological information across medical systems. WHO recently completed a survey among member nations and discovered that 82% of the world's population uses some form of TM.(2.)

  17. International Classification of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Morris, William; Allen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides alphanumeric codes that have a longstanding place in the annals of contemporary medicine for epidemiology, health management, and clinical diagnoses from patient encounters to death certificates. This system is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Traditional medicine (TM) has historical usage patterns established by treating people through the centuries but has never before been included in the ICD code set. The inclusion of traditional Asian medicine in the International Family of Classifications is a new venture and scheduled to be included in the ICD-11 revision of the codes. This may enable the comparison of diagnostic, clinical outcome, and epidemiological information across medical systems. WHO recently completed a survey among member nations and discovered that 82% of the world's population uses some form of TM.2 PMID:24278830

  18. Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Q.

    2002-11-01

    Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

  19. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  20. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  1. The 6-F nitinol TrapEase inferior vena cava filter: results of a prospective multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, H; Perreault, P; Otal, P; Stockx, L; Golzarian, J; Oliva, V; Reynaud, P; Raat, F; Szatmari, F; Santoro, G; Emanuelli, G; Nonent, M; Hoogeveen, Y

    2001-03-01

    The authors report the first results of a new 6-F symmetrically designed permanent nitinol inferior vena cava (IVC) filter, the Cordis TrapEase, evaluated in a multicenter prospective study with 6-months of follow-up. A total of 65 patients (29 men, 36 women) who ranged in age from 37 to 96 years (mean age, 68 years) and who were at high risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) were enrolled in 12 centers in Europe and Canada. The study was approved by the institutional review boards at all centers. Study objectives were to evaluate filter effectiveness, filter stability, and caval occlusion. Indications for filter placement were deep vein thrombosis with recurrent thromboembolism and/or free-floating thrombus with contraindication to anticoagulation in 37 patients, and complications in achieving adequate anticoagulation in 28 patients. Follow-up included clinical examination, plain film, Doppler ultrasound, CT scan, and nuclear medicine. The analysis of the data revealed a technical success of 95.4% (three filter-system related implantations not at the intended site, no events of filter tilting) and a clinical success of 100% at 6 months (no cases of symptomatic PE), the study primary endpoint. There were no cases (0%) of filter migration, insertion site thrombosis, filter fracture, or vessel wall perforation. During the study period, there were two cases of filter thrombosis: one case of early symptomatic thrombosis that was successfully treated in the hospital, and one case of nonsymptomatic filter thrombosis detected at 1-month follow-up, with spontaneous recanalization at 3 months. In the latter patient, some residual thrombus was still detected at 6 months. Of the study population of 65 patients, there were 23 deaths. These deaths were not related to the device or the implantation procedure but to the underlying disease process. This study demonstrates the new nitinol permanent IVC filter to be a safe and an effective device, with a low overall complication rate, for

  2. Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James J.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

  3. [Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].

    PubMed

    Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology.

  4. Traditional gamma cameras are preferred.

    PubMed

    DePuey, E Gordon

    2016-08-01

    Although the new solid-state dedicated cardiac cameras provide excellent spatial and energy resolution and allow for markedly reduced SPECT acquisition times and/or injected radiopharmaceutical activity, they have some distinct disadvantages compared to traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras. They are expensive. Attenuation correction is not available. Cardio-focused collimation, advantageous to increase depth-dependent resolution and myocardial count density, accentuates diaphragmatic attenuation and scatter from subdiaphragmatic structures. Although supplemental prone imaging is therefore routinely advised, many patients cannot tolerate it. Moreover, very large patients cannot be accommodated in the solid-state camera gantries. Since data are acquired simultaneously with an arc of solid-state detectors around the chest, no temporally dependent "rotating" projection images are obtained. Therefore, patient motion can be neither detected nor corrected. In contrast, traditional sodium iodide SPECT cameras provide rotating projection images to allow technologists and physicians to detect and correct patient motion and to accurately detect the position of soft tissue attenuators and to anticipate associated artifacts. Very large patients are easily accommodated. Low-dose x-ray attenuation correction is widely available. Also, relatively inexpensive low-count density software is provided by many vendors, allowing shorter SPECT acquisition times and reduced injected activity approaching that achievable with solid-state cameras.

  5. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning.

  6. Elephant resource-use traditions.

    PubMed

    Fishlock, Victoria; Caldwell, Christine; Lee, Phyllis C

    2016-03-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use unusual and restricted habitats such as swampy clearings, montane outcrops and dry rivers for a variety of social and ecological reasons. Within these habitats, elephants focus on very specific areas for resource exploitation, resulting in deep caves, large forest clearings and sand pits as well as long-established and highly demarcated routes for moving between resources. We review evidence for specific habitat exploitation in elephants and suggest that this represents socially learned cultural behaviour. Although elephants show high fidelity to precise locations over the very long term, these location preferences are explained neither by resource quality nor by accessibility. Acquiring techniques for exploiting specific resource sites requires observing conspecifics and practice and is evidence for social learning. Elephants possess sophisticated cognitive capacities used to track relationships and resources over their long lifespans, and they have an extended period of juvenile dependency as a result of the need to acquire this considerable social and ecological knowledge. Thus, elephant fidelity to particular sites results in traditional behaviour over generations, with the potential to weaken relationships between resource quality and site preferences. Illustrating the evidence for such powerful traditions in a species such as elephants contributes to understanding animal cognition in natural contexts.

  7. Lead and traditional Moroccan pharmacopoeia.

    PubMed

    Lekouch, N; Sedki, A; Nejmeddine, A; Gamon, S

    2001-12-03

    The use of traditional cosmetics and remedies such as kohl and henna is very common in Morocco, especially among women, children and babies. Kohl is a dangerous eye cosmetic. It is usually mixed with other harmful substances, then applied on women's eyebrows and used in skin treatments for infants. Henna is another traditional product, with religious associations, which has been widely used over the centuries for cosmetic and medical purposes. Many people add various herbs or other substances to the henna in order to strengthen it or to give it a stronger colour. Our results were reassuring in that the concentrations of lead found in non-elaborate (henna only) samples of henna were low. However, when henna was mixed with other products (elaborate henna), these concentrations increased. Lead concentrations in kohl were very high however, unlike henna, were lower in mixed kohl as mixing with other products diluted the concentration of lead. Nevertheless, in both types of kohl, lead concentrations were very high and consequently constitute a risk for public health, particularly for children.

  8. The use of virtual reality and physical tools in the development and validation of ease of entry and exit in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Herriotts, Paul; Malcolm, Louise; Gabrecht, Katharina; Hermawati, Setia

    2015-05-01

    Ease of entry and exit is important for creating a positive first impression of a car and increasing customer satisfaction. Several methods are used within vehicle development to optimise ease of entry and exit, including CAD reviews, benchmarking and buck trials. However, there is an industry trend towards digital methods to reduce the costs and time associated with developing physical prototypes. This paper reports on a study of entry strategy in three properties (buck, car, CAVE) in which inconsistencies were demonstrated by people entering a vehicle representation in the CAVE. In a second study industry practitioners rated the CAVE as worse than physical methods for identifying entry and exit issues, and having lower perceived validity and reliability. However, the resource issues associated with building bucks were recognised. Recommendations are made for developing the CAVE and for combinations of methods for use at different stages of a vehicle's development.

  9. Ease of oral administration and owner-perceived acceptability of triglyceride oil, dissolving thin film strip, and gelatin capsule formulations to healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Traas, Anne M; Fleck, Timothy; Ellings, Andrea; Mahabir, Sean; Stuebner, Kathy; Brown, Dorothy C; Durso, Dana; DiGregorio, Michael; Bode, Lora; Kievit, Kelly I; McCall, Robert

    2010-06-01

    To compare owner-assessed ease of administration and overall acceptability of 3 chemically inactive formulations administered PO to cats. 90 healthy client-owned cats. Cats were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulations PO once daily for 14 days: medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, dissolving thin film strips (proprietary ingredients), or gelatin capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose. Owners administered the formulations and rated ease of administration daily on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). At the end of the study, owners rated overall acceptability of formulations from their own perspective and their overall perception of acceptability to their cat. Mean VAS scores for daily ease of administration of MCT oil and film strips were significantly higher than scores for gelatin capsules at all time points, except on days 2, 4, and 7. There was no difference between MCT oil and film strip formulation scores. Mean VAS scores were 8.8 (MCT oil), 8.9 (film strips), and 7.4 (gelatin capsules) for overall acceptability to owners and 8.0 (MCT oil), 8.3 (film strips), and 6.7 (gelatin capsules) for overall owner-perceived acceptability to cats. Daily ease of administration on 11 of 14 days and overall owner-perceived acceptability to cats were scored significantly higher for film strips and MCT oil, compared with scores for gelatin capsules. Overall acceptability to owners followed a similar pattern; however, the differences were not significant. Dissolving thin film strip or MCT oil vehicles may allow for easier PO administration of medication to cats than does administration of gelatin capsules.

  10. AB036. Real-life experience of COPD patients on ease and accuracy of inhaler use: the REAL survey

    PubMed Central

    Keininger, Dorothy L.; Price, David; Viswanad, Boomi; Gasser, Matthias; Walda, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) achieve incomplete benefit from their treatment, due to reasons including inadequate device training or incorrect inhaler technique. Dosing frequency has also been shown to impact COPD treatment compliance with inhaler overuse and underuse being the most common form of noncompliance. Between 28–68% of patients do not use their inhalers correctly, and 39–67% of health care professionals (HCPs) do not effectively train patients to correctly use their inhalers. This makes patients prone to committing inhaler use errors and may negatively impact treatment compliance. We conducted a computer-assisted telephonic survey in patients with COPD to evaluate patient-reported insights on real life aspects of inhaler use, training and check for correct use by HCP, device attributes and patient-reported compliance of inhaler or medication use. Methods Patients from 9 countries, diagnosed with mild to very severe COPD and using maintenance inhaled treatment (via Breezhaler®, Ellipta®, Genuair®, Respimat®) were included in this survey. Patient-reported data on correct inhaler use (training and check), inhalation pattern, and device attributes (ease of use and confidence of inhaling full dose), compliance and potential underuse or overuse was collected. Chi-square test was performed for testing significance and z-test was used for comparisons of proportions (significance level: alpha<0.05). Results A total of 764 patients (Breezhaler® =186; Ellipta® =191; Genuair® = 194; Respimat® =201) with mild to very severe COPD with a mean (±SD) age 56±9.8 years, completed the survey. Approximately, 30% of all patients reported not receiving any inhaler use training. Of the 70%, who received training on inhaler use, 83% felt that the demonstration of inhaler use was very helpful, followed by videos (58%), instructions for use (51%) and leaflets (34%), irrespective of the device used. About 29% of all

  11. Use of the Child Engagement in Daily Life and Ease of Caregiving for Children to Evaluate Change in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Palisano, Robert J; Chiarello, Lisa A; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Bartlett, Doreen; An, Mihee

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT Aims: Participation in family and recreational activities, self-care, and parent ease of caregiving are important outcomes for young children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to examine use of the Child Engagement in Daily Life and the Ease of Caregiving for Children to measure change over time. Methods: A convenience sample of 387 parents of young children with CP (18 months to 5 years of age) completed the measures twice, a mean of 12.7 months apart. Results: For the Child Engagement in Daily Life, parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and levels II-III reported more change for the Self-care domain (medium effect) than the Family and Recreational Activities domain (small effect) and the Ease of Caregiving for Children (small effect). The change reported by parents of children in levels IV-V on all three measures was less than the criterion for a small effect. Minimal detectable change for each measure varied from 12.1 to 14.1, out of a total possible score of 100. Conclusion: Further research is recommended to determine responsiveness to change following intervention.

  12. Comparison of good clinical practice compliance and readability ease of the informed consents between observational and interventional clinical studies in the Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah; Askar, Omar Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Expansion of clinical trials activity into emerging regions has raised concerns regarding participant rights and research ethics. Increasing numbers of observational studies are now conducted in developing economies, including the United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: This study compares the content of information provided, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guideline compliance, and readability of informed consent forms (ICFs) for observational compared to interventional studies. Results: GCP compliance for observational studies averaged at 79.5% + 6.8%, significantly (P < 0.001) lower than 92.2 + 5.0 percent for interventional studies. Readability ease and readability-grade level were assessed with Flesch-Kincaid scales. Results indicated higher readability grade-level 12.4 + 0.4 (P < 0.001) and lower readability Flesch-Kincaid reading ease score 35.7 + 3.6 for observational studies, as compared to 10.3 + 1.6 and 47.8 + 7.4 for interventional studies. Conclusion: Mandatory training for investigators is essential to provide readability ease and GCP compliance for the ICFs for the local population. PMID:27453828

  13. The ease of use and reproducibility of the Alere™ Heart Check System: a comparison of patient and healthcare professional measurement of BNP.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ninian N; Wong, Chih M; Dalzell, Jonathan R; Jansz, Sandra; Leslie, Stephen J; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ease of use and the reproducibility of a novel point-of-care BNP measurement system when used by patients and healthcare providers (HCP). Patients with symptomatic heart failure were recruited from outpatient clinics at four hospitals. They were provided with brief training and instructional material for the use of the point-of-care BNP measurement system. Finger-prick blood BNP concentration was measured by the HCP and the patient (n = 150). Ease of use and reproducibility of the system were assessed. In total, 80% of the 164 patients who completed a questionnaire on the ease of use of the system found it easy to operate. There was excellent correlation of BNP measurement compared between patients and HCP (r = 0.966; p < 0.001). Patients find the Alere Heart Check BNP measurement system easy to operate. BNP concentration measurements obtained by patients show excellent correlation with those obtained by healthcare providers.

  14. Folding Digital Mapping into a Traditional Field Camp Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Louisiana State University runs a field camp with a permanent fixed-base which has continually operated since 1928 in the Front Range just to the south of Colorado Springs, CO. The field camp program which offers a 6-credit hour course in Field Geology follows a very traditional structure. The first week is spent collecting data for the construction of a detailed stratigraphic column of the local geology. The second week is spent learning the skills of geologic mapping, while the third applies these skills to a more geologically complicated mapping area. The final three weeks of the field camp program are spent studying and mapping igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as conducting a regional stratigraphic correlation exercise. Historically there has been a lack of technology involved in this program. All mapping has been done in the field without the use of any digital equipment and all products have been made in the office without the use of computers. In the summer of 2011 the use of GPS units, and GIS software were introduced to the program. The exercise that was chosen for this incorporation of technology was one in which metamorphic rocks are mapped within Golden Gate Canyon State Park in Colorado. This same mapping exercise was carried out during the 2010 field camp session with no GPS or GIS use. The students in both groups had the similar geologic backgrounds, similar grade point averages, and similar overall performances at field camp. However, the group that used digital mapping techniques mapped the field area more quickly and reportedly with greater ease. Additionally, the students who used GPS and GIS included more detailed rock descriptions with their final maps indicating that they spent less time in the field focusing on mapping contacts between units. The outcome was a better overall product. The use of GPS units also indirectly caused the students to produce better field maps. In addition to greater ease in mapping, the use of GIS software to

  15. Childbirth customs in Vietnamese traditions.

    PubMed

    Bodo, K; Gibson, N

    1999-03-01

    A review of the literature dating back to 1966, supplemented by interviews with members of the Vietnamese community in Edmonton, Alberta, was conducted to examine and understand how differences in the cultural backgrounds of Canadian physicians and their Vietnamese patients can affect the quality and efficacy of prenatal and postnatal treatment. The available data suggest that traditional Vietnamese beliefs and practices regarding birth are very different from the biomedical view held by the Canadian medical system. The experiences and beliefs of the Vietnamese respondents support this finding. Such cultural differences could contribute to misunderstandings between physicians and patients, and affect the quality and efficacy of health care provided. A sensitive and open approach to the patient's belief system, and open and frank communication are needed to ensure effective prenatal and postnatal treatment for recent Vietnamese immigrants and refugees.

  16. Teaching methods: Tradition and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikandrov, Nikolai D.

    1990-06-01

    It has always been difficult to distinguish between tradition and innovation in teaching methods, not least because of the absence of clear-cut criteria. Definitions of teaching methods are also loose rather than binding. Nevertheless a trend towards active participation by studients is noticeable and very often taken as marking `progressive' teaching. Starting from the basic relationship of method and objective, an attempt is made to further relate cognitive activity of students to specific levels of achievement which are considered as teaching objectives. It is suggested, too, that a loose notion of method can for practical purposes be replaced by a more reliable notion of teaching text whether presented orally or given in written form. Then the problem of innovation in teaching methods can be stated a bit more precisely as that of creating a good teaching text. Some suggestions of how this can be achieved are discussed.

  17. HIV thrives in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Shreedhar, J

    1995-01-01

    Participation in ancient traditions is facilitating the current spread of HIV through India. For most of the year, Koovagam is a typical Indian village. Each April on the night of the full moon, however, the Chittirai-Pournami festival is held in Koovagam, a celebration in homage to Aravan during which up to 2000 pilgrims from across the country engage in thousands of acts of unprotected sexual intercourse. Aravan is a man depicted in a Hindu tale who asked to experience sexual bliss before being sacrificed to the gods. To fulfill this last wish, the god Krishna is said to have assumed the form of a beautiful woman and had sexual intercourse with Aravan. Many of the festival participants are hijras, eunuchs and transsexuals who sell sex for a living. Hijras may be accompanied by men who serve as their sex partners and bodyguards. Surveys suggest that one-third of the 10,000 hijras in New Delhi may be infected with HIV. Other participants are known as dangas, men who are either married or single and appear to lead strictly heterosexual lives throughout the year except during the Chittirai-Pournami festival when they dress as women and sell sex to other men attending the festival. The panthis comprise another group of participants and tend to be either single or married men who attend the festival to have sex with the hijras and dangas for fees up to ten rupees, approximately US$0.50, per sexual encounter. Prostitution within the devadasi sect and the sale of young, virgin girls in the state of Andhra Pradesh to the highest male bidders are other examples of how ancient traditions are facilitating the current spread of HIV in India.

  18. Phenotypic effects of calving ease on the subsequent fertility and milk production of dam and calf in UK Holstein-Friesian heifers.

    PubMed

    Eaglen, S A E; Coffey, M P; Woolliams, J A; Mrode, R; Wall, E

    2011-11-01

    The effect of calving ease on the fertility and production performance of both dam and calf was studied in approximately 50,000 and 10,000 UK Holstein-Friesian heifers and heifer calves, respectively. The first objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a difficult calving on the subsequent first-lactation milk production by estimating lactation curves using cubic splines. This methodology allows the estimation of daily milk, protein, and fat yields following calvings of differing degrees of difficulty. Losses in milk yield after a difficult calving have been quantified previously; however, estimates are generally restricted to the accumulated yields at specific days in lactation. By fitting cubic splines, gaps (in which the shape of the lactation curve can be merely guessed) between estimations were avoided. The second objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a difficult birth on the subsequent performance of the calf as an adult animal. Even though the calving process is known to involve cooperation between dam and calf, the effect of a difficult calving has, until now, only been estimated for the subsequent performance of the dam. Addressing the effects of a difficult birth on the adult calf strengthens the importance of calving ease as a selection trait because it suggests that the benefit of genetic improvement may currently be underestimated. The effect of calving ease on the subsequent reproductive performance of dam and calf was analyzed using linear regression and with calving ease score fitted as a fixed effect. Dams with veterinary-assisted calvings required 0.7 more services to conception and 8 more days to first service and experienced a 28-d longer calving interval in first lactation compared with dams that were not assisted at calving. Effects of calving ease on the reproductive performance of the adult calf in first lactation were not detected. Losses in milk yield of the dam were significant between d 9 to 90 in milk

  19. Between Traditional Classification and Coordinate Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Amitabha; Dhawle, Anand S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes MANIS, an information system for retrieval of interdisciplinary information in management, which maintains traditional classification but allows the user to combine terms of his choice, where choice is restricted to terms belonging to the systems of traditional classification. (CWM)

  20. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  1. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-11-04

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses.

  2. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  3. Non-Traditional Transfer Student Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Current literature focuses on traditional student attrition and on transfer transition, but little information is available on the non-traditional transfer student experience. The following study explores the process of non-traditional transfer student attrition through an investigation that illustrates the importance of past student experiences,…

  4. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  5. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    medicinal use period in the EU and evidence of absence of health risk as required by Article 16a (1) (d), and Article 16a (1) (e). Under the current EU legislation, the requirement to demonstrate 15-year minimum medicinal use in the EU is a major obstacle to the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products. Access to scientific data to support the product safety profile may be a possible solution to overcome the hurdle presented by the 15-year minimum medicinal use period. Furthermore, the Community herbal monographs play an important role in the registration process. Therefore, making full use of existing Community herbal monographs, and promoting scientific research and subsequent development of additional monographs for herbal substances and preparations, and combinations thereof from non-European traditions would be of benefit to herbal medicinal product registration from non-European traditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. History confirms the traditional meaning

    SciTech Connect

    Garthoff, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    This article complements the Rhinelander and Rubin article (this issue) and provides an account of US and USSR practice subsequent to the ABM Treaty. The Soviet subsequent practice from 1972 to date, like that of the US from 1972 until 1985, has fully supported the validity of the traditional interpretation, and explicitly rejected the reinterpretation, both before and after the reinterpretation was announced. The record is unambiguous. The Reagan administration's continued support of its radical reinterpretation of the ABM Treaty cannot be justified. In seeking to place the matter in perspective, one could do worse than apply the golden rule: what would the US have thought if after many years the USSR had suddenly, unilaterally, reinterpreted the ABM Treaty (or any other) to suit a policy purpose of its own, contrary to US policy and to the original clear understanding of both parties. What would the US have thought if the Soviets had then publicly acknowledged that they had done so without examining either their own ratification record of the record of the subsequent practice of the parties, without consulting any but one of their own negotiators, and before compiling much of their own relevant negotiating records.

  7. Swaziland's Traditional Birth Attendants Survey.

    PubMed

    Lech, M M; Mngadi, T P

    2005-12-01

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms registered in Swaziland. The total number of sampled respondents in the 25 Chiefdoms was 721. From the survey, it is estimated that there were probably 3000 TBAs in the country, and in the majority of cases such TBAs would be a 51-year old woman who herself had delivered six children and had worked as a TBA for at least 10 years. Between 9,000 and 12,000 deliveries are estimated to take place out of health facilities. Of these many, nearly 43.5% are assisted by "TBAs"; 16.3% of woman interviewed deliver relative/family member and 15.1% are assisted by friends/neighbours, etc. Some of TBAs carry out procedures which are considered to be potentially harmful. Nearly 30% of TBAs have administered herbs; 45% attend to abnormal deliveries (breech and multiple pregnancies); 26.7% re-use their cord cutting tools and in the case of haemorrhage 23.4% do manual procedures within reproductive tract of delivering women.

  8. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  9. Simplified Tai Chi Program Training versus Traditional Tai Chi on the Functional Movement Screening in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Wei, Ankui; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of Tai Chi programs on the Functional Movement Screening (FMS) in older adults. Methods. Ninety older adults (65.5 ± 4.6 years old) who met the eligibility criteria were randomized into three different groups based on a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1: a traditional Tai Chi exercise (TTC), a simplified Tai Chi exercise (TCRT), or a control group (routine activity). The FMS consisted of the deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg rise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability, which was used to measure physical function before the present study and after six months of Tai Chi interventions. Results. Seventy-nine participants completed the present study (control = 27, TTC = 23, and TCRT = 29). Significant improvement on the FMS tests between the baseline and after the six-month intervention was observed in both Tai Chi programs, whereas no significant improvement was observed in the control group. In addition, participants in the TCRT group demonstrated greater improvement than those in the TTC group. Conclusions. The TCRT is more effective in improving the physical function in older adults when compared to the traditional Tai Chi modality, particularly for improving balance. PMID:27956920

  10. Simplified Tai Chi Program Training versus Traditional Tai Chi on the Functional Movement Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiru; Wei, Ankui; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yang; Liu, Yang; Yu, Dinghai; Zou, Liye

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of Tai Chi programs on the Functional Movement Screening (FMS) in older adults. Methods. Ninety older adults (65.5 ± 4.6 years old) who met the eligibility criteria were randomized into three different groups based on a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1: a traditional Tai Chi exercise (TTC), a simplified Tai Chi exercise (TCRT), or a control group (routine activity). The FMS consisted of the deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg rise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability, which was used to measure physical function before the present study and after six months of Tai Chi interventions. Results. Seventy-nine participants completed the present study (control = 27, TTC = 23, and TCRT = 29). Significant improvement on the FMS tests between the baseline and after the six-month intervention was observed in both Tai Chi programs, whereas no significant improvement was observed in the control group. In addition, participants in the TCRT group demonstrated greater improvement than those in the TTC group. Conclusions. The TCRT is more effective in improving the physical function in older adults when compared to the traditional Tai Chi modality, particularly for improving balance.

  11. Need of the regulation for profit percentage investment by pharmaceutical companies in new drug discovery research from the various local traditional medicinal and plant systems.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-01-01

    In the modern medical systems the active pharmacological ingredients, effective against any disease is identified, purified and studied for its various effects and side-effects whereas it is not so in the traditional systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that safety concerns have often been raised about the traditional medical products. The major issue now, is to make appropriate situation with basic supports to bring all the available experts and resources together for the identification, purification, and study of efficacy and safety of the active molecules of the popular traditional medicines. Government and public sectors in the countries with such rich traditional medicinal and plant systems have related experts, but they also have much hurdle regarding recruitment and retention of expert human resources, getting fund, purchase and maintenance of equipment, bureaucratic formalities and others. The pharmaceutical companies have basic laboratories with related infrastructure and human resources as well as interest about bringing the drug molecules. To bridge the gap, there is a need of the regulation which will make the pharmaceutical companies to invest certain percentage of their profit in the field of research to identify new drug molecules and to study their effects. It is just not an issue of discovering the active molecule but also of creating the concept and culture of research, purity and quality of drugs, safety of people, and future direction of the human society.

  12. The Pacific Island Health Care Project: easing the cancer burden in the United States associated Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Person, Donald A

    2004-09-01

    Cancer is a serious and ever increasing problem in the United States Associated Pacific Islands (USAPIs). Nearly 30% of all consultations and referrals are for cancer. Depending on the type of cancer, the prognosis for long-term survival is often poor and the cost of caring for such patients is considerable. Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) provides tertiary medical care to patients from the USAPIs in support of Graduate Medical Education (GME) at no cost to the patient or jurisdiction. Continuing its tradition of leading telemedicine initiatives in the Pacific, TAMC has developed a web-based electronic consultation and referral network, the Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP). Ten sites in Micronesia and one in American Samoa were provided with computer equipment. Local clinicians request consultation from TAMC specialists through the internet, attaching supporting imagery. The consults are posted on a secure web page, where they are viewed, evaluated, forwarded, and commented on by the consultants. Experience with more than 2,100 cases indicates that the Internet can be easily used as a store-and-forward consultation format and offers a cost effective means for distance consultation, referral, and learning. This format has provided for a more rational evaluation of all patients but especially patients with cancer. Patients who are terminally ill, have widely metastasized disease, and/or have inoperable tumors or recurrences are excluded so that limited resources can be used for those most likely to benefit. There has been overwhelming enthusiasm for such Internet consultations between referring physicians and consultants. Many Pacific Islander patients have received state-of-the-art medical care through this program. At the same time, the training of TAMC physicians and residents has been enhanced by their opportunity to care for these remarkable and deserving patients from the Pacific.

  13. Contraception: traditional and religious attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-04-01

    Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups.

  14. Correct usage, ease of use, and preference of two dry powder inhalers in patients with COPD: analysis of five phase III, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Riley, John H; Tabberer, Maggie; Richard, Nathalie; Donald, Alison; Church, Alison; Harris, Stephanie S

    2016-01-01

    Background Handheld inhalers are used to deliver treatment for COPD. Incorrect usage leads to suboptimal disease control. Complex treatment regimens and use of multiple inhalers may reduce patient compliance. The Anoro Ellipta™ dry powder inhaler (DPI) simultaneously delivers umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) and vilanterol (VI) without coformulation being required. Aim To assess the correct usage and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI administering UMEC/VI and to compare patient preference for Ellipta™ with the HandiHaler® through exploratory analyses of patient and observer questionnaires in five Phase III studies. Methods Two Phase III, 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled studies assessed the correct usage of the Ellipta™ DPI at Day 1 and after 6 weeks, and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI using a nonvalidated patient questionnaire after 6 weeks or early withdrawal. In three 6-month, blinded double-dummy, active comparator studies (two Phase IIIa and one Phase IIIb), patients completed a COPD device preference questionnaire between the Ellipta™ DPI and the Handi-Haler® at Day 168 (Week 24) or early withdrawal. Results In the 3-month placebo-controlled studies, ≥98% of patients used the Ellipta™ DPI correctly and 99% of patients found the inhaler easy/very easy-to-use and the dose counter easy/very easy to read. Across the two Phase IIIa active comparator studies, patients consistently stated a preference for the Ellipta™ DPI over HandiHaler® regarding the number of steps to use (59% vs 17%), time taken to use (62% vs 14%), and ease of use (63% vs 15%) regardless of which inhaler contained active drug. Results were consistent in the Phase IIIb active comparator study. Conclusion Delivery of UMEC/VI via the Ellipta™ DPI was considered easy-to-use, and patients with COPD demonstrated clear preference for this inhaler compared with HandiHaler®. PMID:27578968

  15. Collections of traditional Chinese medical literature as resources for systematic searches.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2012-12-01

    This review evaluates and compares published collections of the traditional literature on Traditional Chinese Medicine in terms of their scope and utility as resources for systematic searches for information of relevance to traditional evidence, clinical research, and drug discovery. Published collections of books and compilation works that contain substantial samples of traditional literature on Chinese herbal medicine were located via internet, library, and bookshop searches. These sources were compared in terms of scope, size, content, and ease of searching. The fourteen included collections varied considerably in scope, format, probity of included material, and accessibility. The largest was Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica), with 2027 titles; followed by Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine), a compact disc (CD) of 1000 full books; and Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian (Great Compendium of Chinese Medical Formulas), which includes extracts derived from 680 books. Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian is an edited collection that is highly accessible because it is well-indexed with respect to herbal formulas and disorders. The most accessible of the large full-text collections is the Zhong Hua Yi Dian CD, which allows electronic searches. However, neither collection provides detailed bibliographic information on their included books. A collection that combines convenient search options with high quality bibliographic data is Si Ku Yi Xue Cong Shu (The Four Treasuries of Medical Works), but having only 104 titles, this is one of the smaller collections. A two-stage process for systematic searches is suggested. Large indexed compendia such as Zhong Yi Fang Ji Da Ci Dian or electronic resources such as Zhong Hua Yi Dian can be used to locate citations, and this can be followed by crossreferencing to authenticated editions of the books to verify the retrieved information.

  16. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  17. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  18. Safety and toxicity issues associated with lead-based traditional herbo-metallic preparations.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Surya; Sivaji, Kalaiarasi; Krishnaswamy, Sridharan; Pemiah, Brindha; Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and herbo-mineral preparations are being traditionally used in Indian medicines. The herbo-mineral preparations have several benefits that have been instrumental in their widespread use in treatment of different disorders by traditional medicinal practitioners. These include better stability, lower dosage, ease of storability and sustained availability. Naga bhasma (lead sulphide ash), a traditional Indian herbo-mineral medication prepared using lead and several herbal ingredients, has been used as an oral medicine in India for many years for the treatment of diabetes, spleen enlargement, diarrhoea and various skin diseases. The elaborate preparation protocol involved in the traditional medicines is believed to modify the toxic nature of the precursor (metal) and adds therapeutic value. But modern scientists claim that these preparations are toxic to health as they contain large amount of metal. Many factors such as preparation based factors, chemical nature based factors, vehicle used, therapy associated factors, pharmacological factors, etc, determine whether the traditional medicines are toxic or not. This review focuses on the safety and critical issues associated with Naga bhasma-a lead based ayurvedic medicine. The detailed review of literature about Naga bhasma apart from other lead based formulations are carried out by utilizing the resources including, classical Indian text books, databases such as Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and few other web sources. Though metallic lead is known to be toxic to the biological system, no compelling evidence has been put forth to suggest any toxic manifestations of Naga bhasma. The elemental characterization of preparations containing Naga bhasma has shown extremely high levels of lead content and various parameters must be taken into consideration in deciding the safety and critical issues present in traditional medicines. As there are no molecular targets available for most of the traditional medicine, it is

  19. Organophosphate antidote auto-injectors vs. traditional administration: a time motion study.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, Terri; Clements, Bruce W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Evans, R Gregory

    2009-08-01

    Organophosphates may be used as weapons in chemical attacks on civilian or military populations. Antidotes are available to counter the effects of organophosphates, but they must be administered shortly after exposure. Timing required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors has not been studied. This study is intended to quantify and compare the time required to administer organophosphate antidotes using traditional equipment vs. auto-injectors in different treatment conditions. The study was a randomized, un-blinded design. There were 62 participants assigned to one of three groups: Mark I, ATNAA (antidote treatment nerve agent auto-injector), and traditional needle/syringe; however, the results from only 56 participants could be analyzed. Injection trials were videotaped. Subjects also completed a 14-item survey containing demographic questions, perceived ease of injection, receipt of prior training, and preferred training format for organophosphate treatment. Injection time differentials were compared using one-way analysis of variance; post hoc evaluation was performed using the Scheffe test with Bonferroni correction. Fifty-six subjects completed this study. The ATNAA required less time to administer than the Mark I or traditional needle/syringe devices (p < .001). There was no difference in time to administer the Mark I auto-injectors vs. a traditional needle/syringe. There were no differences between injection time and occupation, receipt of prior training, wearing of personal protective equipment, or perceived ease of injection device use. The use of auto-injectors shortens response time for administering organophosphate antidote treatment. An ATNAA auto-injector can be administered in less than half the time it takes to administer a single injection using a needle and syringe or two injections using a Mark I. Mark I can be administered in approximately the same amount of time it takes to administer a single

  20. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy.

  1. Patient safety climate (PSC) perceptions of frontline staff in acute care hospitals: examining the role of ease of reporting, unit norms of openness, and participative leadership.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Shahram; Ginsburg, Liane; Chuang, You-Ta; Grace, Sherry L

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness regarding the importance of patient safety issues has led to the proliferation of theoretical conceptualizations, frameworks, and articles that apply safety experiences from high-reliability industries to medical settings. However, empirical research on patient safety and patient safety climate in medical settings still lags far behind the theoretical literature on these topics. The broader organizational literature suggests that ease of reporting, unit norms of openness, and participative leadership might be important variables for improving patient safety. The aim of this empirical study is to examine in detail how these three variables influence frontline staff perceptions of patient safety climate within health care organizations. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of previously validated scales. The results of the study show that ease of reporting, unit norms of openness, and participative leadership are positively related to staff perceptions of patient safety climate. Health care management needs to involve frontline staff during the development and implementation stages of an error reporting system to ensure staff perceive error reporting to be easy and efficient. Senior and supervisory leaders at health care organizations must be provided with learning opportunities to improve their participative leadership skills so they can better integrate frontline staff ideas and concerns while making safety-related decisions. Finally, health care management must ensure that frontline staff are able to freely communicate safety concerns without fear of being punished or ridiculed by others.

  2. Reduced Worries of Hypoglycaemia, High Satisfaction, and Increased Perceived Ease of Use after Experiencing Four Nights of MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas at Home (DREAM4)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Claudia; Liberman, Alon; Nimri, Revital; Muller, Ido; Klemenčič, Simona; Bratina, Nataša; Bläsig, Sarah; Remus, Kerstin; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas; Lange, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study assesses the impact of using an AP-system at home on fear of hypoglycaemia. In addition, satisfaction and acceptance of the new technology are evaluated. Methods. In a multicentre, multinational study of 75 patients using the MD-Logic AP during four consecutive nights in home setting 59 of them (aged 10–54 years, 54% male, HbA1c 7.89 ± 0.69% [62.72 ± 7.51 mmol/mol], diabetes duration 11.6 ± 8.4 yrs) answered standardized questionnaires (HFS, adapted TAM, and AP satisfaction) before and after using the AP. Results. After experiencing the AP in home setting worries of hypoglycaemia were significantly reduced (before 1.04 ± 0.53 versus after 0.90 ± 0.63; P = 0.017). Perceived ease of use as a measure of acceptance with the AP significantly increased after personal experience (before 4.64 ± 0.94 versus after 5.06 ± 1.09; P = 0.002). The overall satisfaction mean score after using the AP was 3.02 ± 0.54 (range 0–4), demonstrating a high level of satisfaction with this technology. Conclusions. The four-night home-based experience of using MD Logic AP was associated with reduced worries of hypoglycaemia, high level of satisfaction, and increased perceived ease of use of the new technology in children, adolescents, and adults. PMID:26581230

  3. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens cases--compromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2013-05-01

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coating to polypropylene cases to evaluate their ease of cleaning and probability of bacterial transmission to CLs. Adhesion forces of nine bacterial strains (Pseudomonas, Staphylococci, and Serratia) to rigid CLs, polypropylene, and silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated polypropylene were measured using atomic-force-microscopy and subjected to Weibull analyses to yield bacterial transmission probabilities. Biofilms of each strain were grown in coated and uncoated cases and rinsed with a NaCl or antimicrobial lens care solution. Residual, viable organisms were quantified. Bacterial adhesion forces of all strains were significantly, up to tenfold smaller on brush-coated than on uncoated polypropylene. This yielded, higher transmission probabilities to a CL, but mild-rinsing yielded 10-100 fold higher removal of bacteria from brush-coated than from polypropylene cases. Moreover, due to weak adhesion forces, bacteria on brush-coated cases were two-to-three fold more susceptible to an antimicrobial lens care solution than on polypropylene cases. Therewith, the design of lens case surfaces is a compromise between ease of cleaning and transmission probability to CLs.

  4. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    PubMed

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (p<0.05), Ellipta vs. Easyhaler (p<0.01), Diskus vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01), Ellipta vs. Turbuhaler (p<0.01). In the participants' ranking, the inhalers Ellipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A monograph of the National Space Transportation System Office (NSTSO) integration activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the EASE/ACCESS payload flown on STS 61-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The integration process of activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular activity (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) payload is provided as a subset to the standard payload integration process used by the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) to fly payloads on the Space Shuttle. The EASE/ACCESS payload integration activities are chronologically reviewed beginning with the initiation of the flight manifesting and integration process. The development and documentation of the EASE/ACCESS integration requirements are also discussed along with the implementation of the mission integration activities and the engineering assessments supporting the flight integration process. In addition, the STS management support organizations, the payload safety process leading to the STS 61-B flight certification, and the overall EASE/ACCESS integration schedule are presented.

  6. Hurdle #1: Getting In the Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the experiences of three leading science and engineering institutions (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology) in recruiting and retaining African American students, noting the recruitment, financial aid, and retention strategies that produce favorable results and others…

  7. NCLB Cases Face Hurdles in the Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    When cobbling together the landmark No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, Congress quietly tacked on an unusual provision that says the law does not require states or school districts "to spend any funds or incur any costs not paid for under this act." Little noticed at the time and lifted directly from an earlier version of the law enacted…

  8. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Bax, Nicholas J; Bustamante, Rodrigo H; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K; Hayes, Keith R; Hobday, Alistair J; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E; Punt, André E; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C

    2015-11-05

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with 'no-action' counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human-ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential 'surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Hurdles Ahead in "Race to Top"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    As states scramble to spend and report on millions of dollars of education stimulus funds already flowing their way, they face another daunting task if they want a shot at even more money: navigating the complex application process for $4 billion from the Race to the Top Fund. Merely filling out the award application will take each state 642…

  10. State Electoral Victors Face K-12 Hurdles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The new class of governors, state legislators, and chief state school officers elected last week will face formidable challenges in dealing with the squeeze the nation's sagging economy--and ballooning state budget deficits--is putting on K-12 education. In the November 4 elections, Democrats added one more governor's office--in Missouri--to their…

  11. Examining Teachers' Hurdles to "Science for All"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry; Gallard, Alejandro; Callihan, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify science teachers' beliefs and conceptions that play an important role in shaping their understandings of and attempts to enact inclusive science teaching practices. We examined the work products, both informal (online discussions, email exchanges) and formal (papers, unit plans, peer reviews), of 14…

  12. Hurdles in Acquiring the Number Word Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning the sequence of number words in English up to 30 is not a simple process. In NSW government schools taking part in "Early Action for Success," over 800 students in each of the first 3 years of school were assessed every 5 weeks over the school year to determine the highest correct oral count they could produce. Rather than…

  13. Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Bax, Nicholas J.; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Dichmont, Catherine; Dunstan, Piers K.; Hayes, Keith R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Pitcher, Roland; Plagányi, Éva E.; Punt, André E.; Savina-Rolland, Marie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Models provide useful insights into conservation and resource management issues and solutions. Their use to date has highlighted conditions under which no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) may help us to achieve the goals of ecosystem-based management by reducing pressures, and where they might fail to achieve desired goals. For example, static reserve designs are unlikely to achieve desired objectives when applied to mobile species or when compromised by climate-related ecosystem restructuring and range shifts. Modelling tools allow planners to explore a range of options, such as basing MPAs on the presence of dynamic oceanic features, and to evaluate the potential future impacts of alternative interventions compared with ‘no-action’ counterfactuals, under a range of environmental and development scenarios. The modelling environment allows the analyst to test if indicators and management strategies are robust to uncertainties in how the ecosystem (and the broader human–ecosystem combination) operates, including the direct and indirect ecological effects of protection. Moreover, modelling results can be presented at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and relative to ecological, economic and social objectives. This helps to reveal potential ‘surprises', such as regime shifts, trophic cascades and bottlenecks in human responses. Using illustrative examples, this paper briefly covers the history of the use of simulation models for evaluating MPA options, and discusses their utility and limitations for informing protected area management in the marine realm. PMID:26460131

  14. Hurdling toward Campuswide E-Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2010-01-01

    Despite resistance from faculty, staff, and students, and the sheer magnitude of the effort from a technological and management point of view, some campuses are shifting electronic portfolios away from department-specific initiatives to become institution-wide programs. The move seems to be driven by institutions wanting to focus more deeply and…

  15. Hurdles of publication: to authors to overcome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    The experience of work in BioImpacts and direct involvement in whole the process of publication inspired us to tackle here the dimensions which we recognize as problematic areas in publication, namely, scientific setbacks, language and technical issues. Authors besides readers as competent future authors are urged not to neglect the significance of well-writing either through considering the language-associated issues or attending the technical matters besides enriching the scientific content. The article offers a scope for the authors to manifest themselves, hence we suggest how to best appear in this play. PMID:25671172

  16. Clinical Governance: myth, hurdle, or new opportunity?

    PubMed

    Collo, Gianluca; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Castoldi, Filippo; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to outline the pragmatic use of the Clinical Governance and the urge to introduce it in daily practice. The present and future of modern medicine should be based on these principles. The reengineering of the Italian health care system has been mentioned as an example that took place in the early 90s.

  17. Hurdling toward Campuswide E-Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2010-01-01

    Despite resistance from faculty, staff, and students, and the sheer magnitude of the effort from a technological and management point of view, some campuses are shifting electronic portfolios away from department-specific initiatives to become institution-wide programs. The move seems to be driven by institutions wanting to focus more deeply and…

  18. Genetic privacy in sports: clearing the hurdles.

    PubMed

    Callier, Shawneequa

    2012-12-01

    As genomic medicine continues to advance and inform clinical care, knowledge gained is likely to influence sports medicine and training practices. Susceptibility to injury, sudden cardiac failure, and other serious conditions may one day be tackled on a subclinical level through genetic testing programs. In addition, athletes may increasingly consider using genetic testing services to maximize their performance potential. This paper assesses the role of privacy and genetic discrimination laws that would apply to athletes who engage in genetic testing and the limits of these protections.

  19. Major Hurdles for the Evolution of Sociality.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Why do most animals live solitarily, while complex social life is restricted to a few cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects? Here, we synthesize concepts and theories in social evolution and discuss its underlying ecological causes. Social evolution can be partitioned into (a) formation of stable social groups, (b) evolution of helping, and (c) transition to a new evolutionary level. Stable social groups rarely evolve due to competition over food and/or reproduction. Food competition is overcome in social insects with central-place foraging or bonanza-type food resources, whereas competition over reproduction commonly occurs because staying individuals are rarely sterile. Hence, the evolution of helping is shaped by direct and indirect fitness options and helping is only altruism if it reduces the helper's direct fitness. The helper's capability to gain direct fitness also creates within-colony conflict. This prevents transition to a new evolutionary level.

  20. Education and Training: Springboard or Hurdle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 19 British companies documented their use of education and training programs. Questions covered such areas as (1) expenditure rates, (2) strategy and policies, (3) appraisal and budgeting, and (4) accounting practice. Problems and potential changes were solicited. (CH)

  1. Biofortifying foods: Tripping over high hurdles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lofty goal for many in agriculture is the attainment of global nutritional security. Balanced nutrition would help ensure every child an opportunity to thrive. Currently, cereal grains are used as the staple caloric source in most developing countries. Unfortunately, these grains are poor sources ...

  2. Overcoming Hurdles Implementing Multi-skilling Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    front line supervisors an easy to use heuristic that can make a significant difference in the amount of time it takes to complete a set of tasks...Various scheduling heuristics were applied to give supervisors an effective way to schedule the workforce. v Acknowledgments First and foremost, a...Scheduling Theory Output ........................................................................................ 86 Scheduling Heuristics

  3. Hurdles for recent measures in eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C; Gratton, Steven

    2007-06-15

    In recent literature on eternal inflation, a number of measures have been introduced which attempt to assign probabilities to different pocket universes by counting the number of each type of pocket according to a specific procedure. We give an overview of the existing measures, pointing out some interesting connections and generic predictions. For example, pairs of vacua that undergo fast transitions between themselves will be strongly favored. The resultant implications for making predictions in a generic potential landscape are discussed. We also raise a number of issues concerning the types of transitions that observers in eternal inflation are able to experience.

  4. Waponahki Intellectual Tradition of Weaving Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockbeson, Rebecca Cardinal

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an articulation of a Waponahki intellectual tradition from the experience of a Waponahki woman attempting to position Indigenous knowledge systems in the academy. The author shows how the Waponahki intellectual tradition of weaving baskets can serve as a theoretical framework and foundation for understanding Waponahki…

  5. 50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26... Traditional loans. (a) Eligible projects. Financing or refinancing up to 80 percent of a project's actual cost... construction cost has already been financed (or otherwise paid) prior to the submission of a loan...

  6. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  7. On (De) Personification in Prophet Muhammad's Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sharif, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the themes of personification and de-personification in the Prophet Muhammad's Tradition from a cognitive linguistic viewpoint. Instances of personification and de- personification in Prophet Muhammad's Tradition are analysed following approaches of conceptual metaphor theory and critical metaphor analysis. The analysis…

  8. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  9. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  10. Optimal Stand Management: Traditional and Neotraditional Solutions

    Treesearch

    Karen Lee Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    The traditional Faustmann (1849) model has served as the foundation of economic theory of the firm for the forestry production process. Since its introduction over 150 years ago, many variations of the Faustmann have been developed which relax certain assumptions of the traditional model, including constant prices, risk neutrality, zero production and management costs...

  11. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  12. On the Bearing of a Living Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Dorothy C.

    2003-01-01

    In his highly regarded book on moral philosophy, "After Virtue" (1984), Alasdair MacIntyre offered a concept of tradition that explained both the past's claim upon the present and the present's availability for change, though he had not yet recognized and developed the theological implications of his work. A living tradition, in his terms, is a…

  13. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  14. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  15. Attitudes toward Traditional and Nontraditional Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescoll, Victoria L.; Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2005-01-01

    Three studies investigated attitudes toward traditional parents (stay-at-home mothers and employed fathers) and nontraditional parents (stay-at-home fathers and employed mothers) among adult men and women. Using a between-subjects design, Study 1 found that nontraditional parents were liked significantly less than traditional parents. Participants…

  16. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  17. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  18. Traditional to CBI--A Simple Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.

    These workshop materials consist of a presentation text and an audience handout designed to explain a system whereby trade and industrial education teachers can convert a traditional curriculum guide to a competency-based guide. Covered first are the differences between the traditional and competency-based approaches. The format of a traditional…

  19. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  20. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…