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Sample records for easily removable cationic

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, to application of water soluble and easily removable cationic pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    In recent years, the world has expressed an increasing interest in the recycling of waste paper to supplement the use of virgin fiber as a way to protect the environment. Statistics show that major countries are increasing their use of recycled paper. For example, in 1991 to 1996, the U.S. increased its recovered paper utilization rate from 31% to 39%, Germany went from 50% to 60%, the UK went from 60% to 70%, France increased from 46% to 49%, and China went from 32% to 35% [1]. As recycled fiber levels and water system closures both increase, recycled product quality will need to improve in order for recycled products to compete with products made from virgin fiber [2]. The use of recycled fiber has introduced an increasing level of metal, plastic, and adhesive contamination into the papermaking process which has added to the complexity of the already overwhelming task of providing a uniform and clean recycle furnish. The most harmful of these contaminates is a mixture of adhesives and polymeric substances that are commonly known as stickies. Stickies, which enter the mill with the pulp furnish, are not easily removed from the repulper and become more difficult the further down the system they get. This can be detrimental to the final product quality. Stickies are hydrophobic, tacky, polymeric materials that are introduced into the papermaking system from a mixture of recycled fiber sources. Properties of stickies are very similar to the fibers used in papermaking, viz. size, density, hydrophobicity, and electrokinetic charge. This reduces the probability of their removal by conventional separation processes, such as screening and cleaning, which are based on such properties. Also, their physical and chemical structure allows for them to extrude through screens, attach to fibers, process equipment, wires and felts. Stickies can break down and then reagglomerate and appear at seemingly any place in the mill. When subjected to a number of factors including changes

  2. Removal of cesium ions from clays by cationic surfactant intercalation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new approach to remediate cesium-contaminated clays based on intercalation of the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) into clay interlayers. Intercalation of DTAB was found to occur very rapidly and involved exchanging interlayer cations. The reaction yielded efficient cesium desorption (∼97%), including of a large amount of otherwise non-desorbable cesium ions by cation exchange with ammonium ions. In addition, the intercalation of DTAB afforded an expansion of the interlayers, and an enhanced desorption of Cs by cation exchange with ammonium ions even at low concentrations of DTAB. Finally, the residual intercalated surfactants were easily removed by a decomposition reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Cu(2+)/Fe(2+) catalysts.

  3. Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms: analysis of kinetics and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, G A; Huck, P M

    2001-07-01

    This paper evaluates the rate of utilization of easily biodegradable organic compounds by drinking water biofilms. Tap water, which had been filtered through biologically active granular activated carbon, was used as an innoculum for biofilm growth in annular reactors (ARs). Synthetic cocktails of easily biodegradable material in the concentration range of 50-2,000 mgC/m3 were used as substrate for biofilm growth. Influent and effluent aggregate concentrations of biodegradable organic matter (BOM) were calculated by adding the measurable BOM components on a mass carbon basis. The aggregate BOM values were used for calculating the observed Damköhler number and Theile modulus (based on a reaction rate per unit surface area), which were used to determine whether external or internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. For all of the experimental trials, it was shown that neither external nor internal mass transfer limited BOM removal. Because the biofilms in this research are thin and the fact that mass transfer is not limiting, it was assumed that the bulk BOM concentration was approximately equal to the average BOM concentration in the biofilm. A linear model was obtained for the aggregate BOM flux and the product of the effluent BOM concentration and the biofilm density. The slope or the areal biodegradation rate (ka) for the aggregate BOM was 0.033 m/h, as determined through a linear regression.

  4. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  5. Competition and enhancement effect in coremoval of atenolol and copper by an easily regenerative magnetic cation exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Li, Qimeng; Wang, Zheng; Li, Qiang; Shuang, Chendong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Gao, Canzhu

    2017-03-06

    This paper aimed to investigate the removal of combined Cu(2+) and atenolol (ATL) in aqueous solution by using a newly synthesized magnetic cation exchange resin (MCER) as the adsorbent. The MCER exhibited efficient removal performance in sole, binary, pre-loading and saline systems. The adsorption kinetics of Cu(2+) and ATL fitted both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order model, while better described by pseudo-second order model in binary system. In mixed Cu(2+) and ATL solution, the adsorption of ATL was suppressed due to direct competition of carboxylic groups, while Cu(2+) adsorption was enhanced because of the formation of surface complexes. This increasing in heterogeneity was demonstrated by adsorption isotherms, which were more suitable for Freundlich model in binary system, while better described by Langmuir model in sole system. As proved by FTIR and XPS spectra, both amino and hydroxyl groups of ATL could form complexes with Cu(2+). Decomplexing-bridging interaction was elucidated as the leading mechanism in coremoval of Cu(2+) and ATL, which involved [Cu-ATL] decomplexing and newly created Cu- or ATL sites for additional bridging. For saline system, the resulting competition and enhancement effects in mixed solution were amplified with the addition of co-existing cations. Moreover, the MCER could be effectively regenerated by 0.01 M HCl solution and maintain high stability over 5 adsorption-desorption cycles, which render it great potential for practical applications.

  6. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  7. Biological removal of cationic fission products from nuclear wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, N; Chirwa, E M N

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is becoming a preferred energy source amidst rising concerns over the impacts of fossil fuel based energy on global warming and climate change. However, the radioactive waste generated during nuclear power generation contains harmful long-lived fission products such as strontium (Sr). In this study, cationic strontium uptake from solution by microbial cultures obtained from mine wastewater is evaluated. A high strontium removal capacity (q(max)) with maximum loading of 444 mg/g biomass was achieved by a mixed sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) culture. Sr removal in SRB was facilitated by cell surface based electrostatic interactions with the formation of weak ionic bonds, as 68% of the adsorbed Sr(2+) was easily desorbed from the biomass in an ion exchange reaction with MgCl₂. To a lesser extent, precipitation reactions were also found to account for the removal of Sr from aqueous solution as about 3% of the sorbed Sr was precipitated due to the presence of chemical ligands while the remainder occurred as an immobile fraction. Further analysis of the Sr-loaded SRB biomass by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed extracellular Sr(2+) precipitation as a result of chemical interaction. In summary, the obtained results demonstrate the prospects of using biological technologies for the remediation of industrial wastewaters contaminated by fission products.

  8. Sorption mechanism and predictive models for removal of cationic organic contaminants by cation exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Zhang, Huichun

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the sorption mechanism of organic contaminants on cation exchange resins (CXRs) will enable application of these resins for the removal of cationic organic compounds from contaminated water. In this study, sorption of a diverse set of 12 organic cations and 8 neutral aromatic solutes on two polystyrene CXRs, MN500 and Amberlite 200, was examined. MN500 showed higher sorbed concentrations due to its microporous structure. The sorbed concentrations followed the same trend of aromatic cations > aliphatic cations > neutral solutes for both resins. Generally, solute-solvent interactions, nonpolar moiety of the solutes, and resin matrix can affect selectivity of the cations. Sorbed concentrations of the neutral compounds were significantly less than those of the cations, indicating a combined effect of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions. By conducting multiple linear regression between Gibbs free energy of sorption and Abraham descriptors for all 20 compounds, polarity/polarizability (S), H-bond acidity (A), induced dipole (E), and electrostatic (J(+)) interactions were found to be involved in the sorption of the cations by the resins. After converting the aqueous sorption isotherms to sorption from the ideal gas-phase by water-wet resins, a more significant effect of J(+) was observed. Predictive models were then developed based on the linear regressions and validated by accurately estimating the sorption of different test set compounds with a root-mean-square error range of 0.91-1.1 and 0.76-0.85 for MN500 and Amberlite 200, respectively. The models also accurately predicted sorption behavior of aniline and imidazole between pH 3 and 10.

  9. Transport of sewage molecular markers through saturated soil column and effect of easily biodegradable primary substrate on their removal.

    PubMed

    Foolad, Mahsa; Ong, Say Leong; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) are emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the aquatic environment. The presence of PPCPs and ASs in water bodies has an ecologic potential risk and health concern. Therefore, it is needed to detect the pollution sources by understanding the transport behavior of sewage molecular markers in a subsurface area. The aim of this study was to evaluate transport of nine selected molecular markers through saturated soil column experiments. The selected sewage molecular markers in this study were six PPCPs including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET), salicylic acid (SA) and three ASs including acesulfame (ACF), cyclamate (CYC), and saccharine (SAC). Results confirmed that ACF, CBZ, CTMT, CYC and SAC were suitable to be used as sewage molecular markers since they were almost stable against sorption and biodegradation process during soil column experiments. In contrast, transport of ACT, CF and DEET were limited by both sorption and biodegradation processes and 100% removal efficiency was achieved in the biotic column. Moreover, in this study the effect of different acetate concentration (0-100mg/L) as an easily biodegradable primary substrate on a removal of PPCPs and ASs was also studied. Results showed a negative correlation (r(2)>0.75) between the removal of some selected sewage chemical markers including ACF, CF, ACT, CYC, SAC and acetate concentration. CTMT also decreased with the addition of acetate, but increasing acetate concentration did not affect on its removal. CBZ and DEET removal were not dependent on the presence of acetate.

  10. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes.

  11. Removal of Microcystis aeruginosa using cationic starch modified soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenqing; Tan, Wanqiao; Wang, Lijing; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    A cheap and biodegradable modifier, cationic starch (CS), was used to turn local soils into effective flocculants for Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) removal. The isoelectric point of soil particles was remarkably increased from pH 0.5 to 11.8 after modification with CS, which made CS modified soil particles positively charged and obtain algal flocculation ability. At the soil concentration of 100 mg/L, when the CS modifier was 10 mg/L, 86% of M. aeruginosa cells were removed within 30 min. Lower or higher CS dosage led to limited algal removal. About 71% and 45% of M. aeruginosa cells were removed within 30 min when CS was 5 mg/L and 80 mg/L, respectively. This is because only part of algal cells combined with CS modified soil particles through charge neutralization at low dosage, while flocs formed at high CS dosage were positively charged which prevents further aggregation among the flocs. The floc stability was quantified by a floc breakage index under applied shear force. Algal flocs formed at acid and alkaline conditions were more prone to be broken than those at the neutral condition. The cost and biodegradability concerns may be largely reduced through the use of CS modified local soils. For field applications, other practical issues (e.g., re-suspension) should be further studied by jointly using other methods.

  12. Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation of three surface waters was conducted with aluminum salt and/or cationic polymer to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate removed equal or slightly lower amounts of DON as compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). At aluminum sulfate dosages up to 5mg per mg DOC, the cationic polymer improved DON removal by an additional 15% to 20% over aluminum sulfate alone. At very high aluminum sulfate dosages (>8 mg aluminum sulfate per mg DOC), however, the cationic polymer addition negligibly increased DON removal. Molecular weight fractionation before and after coagulation experiments indicated that cationic polymer addition can increase the removal of all molecular weight fractions of DON with the highest molecular weight fraction (>10,000 Da) being preferentially removed. Results indicated that the DON added as part of the cationic polymer was almost completely removed at optimum aluminum sulfate and polymer doses.

  13. Bioconjugated graphene oxide hydrogel as an effective adsorbent for cationic dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Khadijeh; Tehrani, Abbas Dadkhah; Adeli, Mohsen

    2017-08-18

    In this study, graphene oxide - cellulose nanowhiskers nanocomposite hydrogel was easily synthesized through covalent functionalization of cellulose nanowhiskers with graphene oxide via a facile approach. The nitrene chemistry applied for covalent functionalization of graphene oxide sheets. The surface morphology and chemical structure of the nanocomposite hydrogel were characterized by FTIR, TGA, Raman, XRD, elemental analysis and SEM. The UV/Visible absorption spectrum revealed that the obtained porous nanocomposite hydrogel can efficiently remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) from wastewater with high absorption power. The adsorption process showed that 100% of MB and 90% of RhB have been removed and the equilibrium state has been reached in 15min for low concentration solutions in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, the sample exhibited stable performance after being used several times. High adsorption capacity and easy recovery are the efficient factors making these materials as good adsorbent for water pollutants and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Capability of cation exchange technology to remove proven N-nitrosodimethylamine precursors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shixiang; Zhang, Xulan; Bei, Er; Yue, Huihui; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2017-08-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors consist of a positively charged dimethylamine group and a non-polar moiety, which inspired us to develop a targeted cation exchange technology to remove NDMA precursors. In this study, we tested the removal of two representative NDMA precursors, dimethylamine (DMA) and ranitidine (RNTD), by strong acidic cation exchange resin. The results showed that pH greatly affected the exchange efficiency, with high removal (DMA>78% and RNTD>94%) observed at pHMg(2+)>RNTD(+)>K(+)>DMA(+)>NH4(+)>Na(+). The partition coefficient of DMA(+) to Na(+) was 1.41±0.26, while that of RNTD(+) to Na(+) was 12.1±1.9. The pseudo second-order equation fitted the cation exchange kinetics well. Bivalent inorganic cations such as Ca(2+) were found to have a notable effect on NA precursor removal in softening column test. Besides DMA and RNTD, cation exchange process also worked well for removing other 7 model NDMA precursors. Overall, NDMA precursor removal can be an added benefit of making use of cation exchange water softening processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher; Bagheri, Hasan

    2011-11-30

    An adsorbent, magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, was used for removal of cationic dyes crystal violet (CV), thionine (Th), janus green B (JG), and methylene blue (MB) from water samples. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, BET and XRD measurements. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in the water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. The influences of parameters including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent and contact time have been investigated in order to find the optimum adsorption conditions. The optimum pH for removing of all the investigated cationic dyes from water solutions was found to be 7.0. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for CV, JG, Th and MB dyes were obtained as 227.7, 250.0, 36.4 and 48.1 mg g(-1), respectively. Desorption process of the adsorbed cationic dyes was also investigated using acetonitrile as the solvent. It was notable that both the adsorption and desorption of dyes were quite fast probably due to the absence of internal diffusion resistance.

  16. Removal of cadmium, zinc, manganese and chromium cations from aqueous solution by a clay mineral.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Maria G; de Oliveira, Michelle M; Arakaki, Luiza N H

    2006-09-01

    Vermiculite, a 2:1 clay mineral, was applied as adsorbent for removal of cadmium, zinc, manganese, and chromium from aqueous solutions. Parameters such as time of reaction, effect of pH and cation concentration were investigated. All isotherms were L type of the Gilles classification, except zinc (type S). The adsorbent showed good sorption potential for these cations. The experimental data was analyzed by Langmuir isotherm model showing reasonable adjustment. The quantity of adsorbed cations was 0.50, 0.52, 0.60, and 0.48 mmol g(-1) of Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+), respectively.

  17. A study on cations and color removal from thin sugar juice by modified sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Tumen, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    This article describes the use of citric acid modified sugar beet pulp as new ion-exchanger sorbent for the removal of metal cations and colorants from thin juice. The results of batch adsorption runs concerning the effects of contact time, material dosage, temperature and pH drop were presented and discussed. Experimental data on the removal of metal cations showed that the sorption process was rapid and reached equilibrium in 60 min. Modified material in acidic form caused to a significant pH drop in thin juice, which could result with sucrose inversion. Uptake of metal cations increased with temperature whereas that of color decreased. Neutralised type modified product gave more satisfying results. After six successive contacts, 49.7%, 37.5% and 43.7% removals for Ca-Mg, K and color, respectively, were obtained by using neutralised form of modified sugar beet pulp.

  18. Electrochemical Removal of Metal Cations from Wastewater Monitored by Differential Pulse Polarography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Delphine; Kuhn, Alexander; Sojic, Neso

    2004-01-01

    Electrodeposition eliminates wastewater pollutants such as electrochemically active metal cations, with different pulse polarography (DPP) scrutinizing the kinetics of the treatment process. These mechanisms produce qualitative and quantitative data about the removal process, while students appreciate the use of electrochemistry in resolving…

  19. Electrochemical Removal of Metal Cations from Wastewater Monitored by Differential Pulse Polarography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Delphine; Kuhn, Alexander; Sojic, Neso

    2004-01-01

    Electrodeposition eliminates wastewater pollutants such as electrochemically active metal cations, with different pulse polarography (DPP) scrutinizing the kinetics of the treatment process. These mechanisms produce qualitative and quantitative data about the removal process, while students appreciate the use of electrochemistry in resolving…

  20. Removal of natural organic matter by cationic hydrogel with magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pinhua; Lo, Irene M C; Yin, Ke; Tang, Samuel C N

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic cationic hydrogel (MCH) was synthesized, and its removal efficiency and mechanisms in regard to natural organic matter (NOM, represented by humic acid and fulvic acid) from the aqueous environment were studied. The effects of time, adsorbent dosage, initial pH, ionic strength, background ions, and NOM types were also investigated. MCH was characterized and found to have a strong magnetic character, yielding an extra advantage for recycling and reuse. Batch studies showed that the removal of Aldrich humic acid (AHA) by MCH was effective. The main mechanism for the removal of NOM is believed to be due to electrostatic interaction. NOM with larger molecular weight tended to be preferentially removed. Solutions with low pH, high ionic strength, and background electrolytes containing calcium, sulfate and bicarbonate were unfavorable for AHA removal. The adsorption-desorption of MCH was evaluated in three cycles, and demonstrated high regeneration rates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gum karaya based hydrogel nanocomposites for the effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Hemant; Maity, Arjun; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable hydrogel nanocomposites (HNC) of gum karaya (GK) grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) incorporated silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) were synthesized using the in situ graft copolymerization method and tested for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the HNC were characterized using different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that the surface area and porosity of the hydrogel polymer significantly increased after nanocomposite formation with SiC NPs. The HNC was employed for the removal of cationic dyes, i.e., malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) from the aqueous solution. The HNC was found to remove 91% (MG) and 86% (RhB) of dyes with a polymer dose of 0.5 and 0.6 g l-1 in neutral medium, respectively. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent and followed the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 757.57 and 497.51 mg g-1 for MG and RhB, respectively. Furthermore, the HNC was demonstrated as a versatile adsorbent for the removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from the simulated wastewater. The HNC showed excellent regeneration capacity and was successfully used for the three cycles of adsorption-desorption. In summary, the HNC has shown its potential as an environment friendly and efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes from contaminated water.

  2. Bentonite modification with hexadecylpyridinium and aluminum polyoxy cations and its effectiveness in Se(IV) removal.

    PubMed

    Orucoglu, Esra; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2015-09-01

    Usage of bentonite as a buffer material is suggested in radioactive waste repositories. Although bentonites have higher sorption ability to cations, they cannot adsorp anions due to negative surface charge. Nowadays, ongoing researches focus on increasing anion adsorption ability of the bentonites with modification. Organic-pillared bentonite (OPBent) was produced by modification of sodium bentonite with aluminum polyoxy and hexadecylpyridinium cations in this study. Variation in structure after modification was demonstrated by using different characterization techniques. Se removal efficiency of OPBent is investigated by using (75)Se, since selenium (Se) is one of the important long lived fission products found in radioactive waste and has toxic anionic species in an aqueous environment. The effect of reaction time, solid/liquid ratio, pH and concentration on the adsorption performance were examined. Se speciation and its effect onto adsorption were also investigated by measuring Eh-pH values under certain experimental conditions. Additionally, importance of the amount of Al-polyoxy cations used in modification was investigated by comparing these results with the results of other organic-pillared bentonite produced in our previous research. Experimental results confirmed that both cations were successfully placed into the bentonite interlayer and significant change in the host structure leads to increase Se adsorption. Consequently, bentonite modification improves its Se adsorption ability and further investigations are needed related to the usage of this adsorbent in other remediation studies especially in sorption of other anionic pollutants.

  3. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  4. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE PAGES

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; ...

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  5. Photocatalytically Enhanced Cationic Dye Removal with Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukh, G.

    2017-06-01

    Calcined and organo-modified Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were studied as adsorbents and photocatalysts for removal of cationic dye, as namely methylene blue (MB) . Zn-Al LDHs with a cationic ratio of 2:4 were obtained by the coprecipitation method. As-synthesized samples were calcined at different temperatures and the phase transformations were investigated by XRD, TG/DTG, and UV-vis-DR methods. The activity of as-synthesized and calcined Zn-Al LDHs under UV light was attributed to the presence of ZnO phase. The amount of ZnO in LDHs can be regulated by varying of Zn/Al ratio and heating temperature. The impact of Zn/Al ratio on photocatalytic activity of LDHs was observed predominant. The calcined Zn-Al LDHs demonstrated low adsorption of MB. The modification of ZnAl LDHs by sodium dodecyl sulfate was performed using a reconstruction method. The organo/LDH nanohybrids demonstrated high adsorption capacity to MB. The removal of MB from solutions with organo/Zn-Al LDHs was enhanced by using UV light due to MB photodestruction.

  6. Removal of two cationic dyes from a textile effluent by filtration-adsorption on wood sawdust.

    PubMed

    Laasri, Laila; Elamrani, M Khalid; Cherkaoui, Omar

    2007-06-01

    Wastewater from textile industry contains various contaminants such as dyes, surfactants and heavy metals. Textile dyes have synthetic origin and complex aromatic molecular structures that make them difficult to biodegrade when discharged in the ecosystem. The objective of this study was to examine the decolourisation of textile effluents containing cationic dyes by filtration-adsorption on wood sawdust from two different origins; fir as an example of a conifer tree, and beech as an example of a deciduous one, and to explain the adsorption mechanism. The process of dye removal was applied to a synthetic effluent in batch mode. Adsorption experiments were performed by suspending sawdust in the effluent and analyzing the supernatant by spectrophotometry. The effectiveness of the treatment process was evaluated by measuring coloration. Experimental results showed a significant potential for wood sawdust, especially coniferous sawdust, to remove cationic dyes from textile effluents. Adsorption kinetics was influenced by the initial dye concentration, nature and amount of sorbent as well as sorbent particle size. The adsorption followed a pseudo first-order kinetics. For both basic dyes, the Langmuir adsorption equation showed a better fit than the Freundlich equation. Filtration-adsorption using an inexpensive and readily available biosorbent provided an attractive alternative treatment for dye removal, and it does not generate any secondary pollution. Recommendations and Perspectives. Laboratory studies provide promising perspectives for the utilization of wood sawdust as renewable adsorbent for reducing pollution while enhancing the reuse of textile effluents. However, the treatment process needs to be applied to the other textile dye classes in order to be used on an industrial scale.

  7. Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Larese, Kathleen Caroline; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov

    2017-05-30

    Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

  8. Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert C; Holt-Larese, Kathleen C; Bontchev, Ranko

    2013-08-13

    Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

  9. Nitrogen removal from wastewater through microbial electrolysis cells and cation exchange membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability of water resources to nutrients led to progressively stricter standards for wastewater effluents. Modification of the conventional procedures to meet the new standards is inevitable. New technologies should give a priority to nitrogen removal. In this paper, ammonium chloride and urine as nitrogen sources were used to investigate the capacity of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) configured by cation exchange membrane (CEM) for electrochemical removal of nitrogen over open-and closed-circuit potentials (OCP and CCP) during biodegradation of organic matter. Results obtained from this study indicated that CEM was permeable to both organic and ammonium nitrogen over OCP. Power substantially mediated ammonium migration from anodic wastewater to the cathode, as well. With a urine rich wastewater in the anode, the maximum rate of ammonium intake into the cathode varied from 34.2 to 40.6 mg/L.h over CCP compared to 10.5-14.9 mg/L.h over OCP. Ammonium separation over CCP was directly related to current. For 1.46-2.12 mmol electron produced, 20.5-29.7 mg-N ammonium was removed. Current also increased cathodic pH up to 12, a desirable pH for changing ammonium ion to ammonia gas. Results emphasized the potential for MEC in control of ammonium through ammonium separation and ammonia volatilization provided that membrane characteristic is considered in their development. PMID:24533446

  10. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bée, Agnès; Obeid, Layaly; Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala; Welschbillig, Mathias; Talbot, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9-12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3-12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay.

  11. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  12. Column study of Cr(VI) removal by cationic hydrogel for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samuel C N; Yin, Ke; Lo, Irene M C

    2011-07-01

    Column experiments were conducted for examining the effectiveness of the cationic hydrogel on Cr(VI) removal from groundwater and soil. For in-situ groundwater remediation, the effects of background anions, humic acid (HA) and pH were studied. Cr(VI) has a higher preference for being adsorbed onto the cationic hydrogel than sulphate, bicarbonate ions and HA. However, the adsorbed HA reduced the Cr(VI) removal capacity of the cationic hydrogel, especially after regeneration of the adsorbents, probably due to the blockage of adsorption sites. The Cr(VI) removal was slightly influenced by the groundwater pH that could be attributed to Cr(VI) speciation. The 6-cycle regeneration and reusability study shows that the effectiveness of the cationic hydrogel remained almost unchanged. On average, 93% of the adsorbed Cr(VI) was recovered in each cycle and concentrated Cr(VI) solution was obtained after regeneration. For in-situ soil remediation, the flushing water pH had an insignificant effect on the release of Cr(VI) from the soils. Multiple-pulse flushing increased the removal of Cr(VI) from the soils. In contrast, more flushing water and longer operation may be required to achieve the same removal level by continuous flushing.

  13. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  14. [Research on removal of copper, manganese and zinc ions using cation exchange membrane based on Donnan dialysis].

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Hua; Shi, Zhou; Chen, Shi-Yang; Xie, Peng; Song, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Based on Donnan dialysis technique, the mechanism that influences the exchange capacity of the membrane and the interaction mechanism between two co-existing ions are investigated in this paper, where the cation exchange membrane is applied to remove the heavy metal ions such as copper, manganese, zinc. The following results were obtained: It is applicable to use the cation exchange membrane to remove copper, manganese and zinc ions and 75%-85% of removal efficiency can be obtained; when the concentration and charge number are the same, the smaller the radius of hydrated heavy metal, the quicker the ion diffuse and consequently the higher removal efficiency the membrane can achieve, which is the main factor; when the radius of the hydrated heavy metals are approximately same, the membrane will have higher removal efficiency to the ion with lower atomic number; when the ions with same charge number and concentration co-exist, both of them are removed but with different removal speeds for existing of disturbance between them and there exist diffusion competition, i.e. those who are more prone to be exchanged will be more competitive and more likely to low the removal rate of the other ion seriously; if the total concentration of the ions is far lower than the exchange capacity of the membrane, the removal efficiency when the ions coexist is not lower too much than that of the case when they exist lonely.

  15. Functionalization of cubic mesoporous silica SBA-16 with carboxylic acid via one-pot synthesis route for effective removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-En; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that a high density of −COOH groups loading, up to 60 mol% based on silica, is successfully incorporated into SBA-16 via a one-pot synthesis route, which involves co-condensation of carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CES) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) templated by Pluronic F127 and P123 in an acidic medium. A variety of characterization techniques are performed to confirm quantitative incorporation of carboxylic groups into ordered cubic mesostructures. These functionalized materials are used to effectively remove two cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and phenosafranine (PF) with the maximum adsorption capacities of 561 and 519 mg g(-1), respectively, at pH 9. The zeta potential results reveal that the electrostatic interactions between cationic dye molecule and negatively charged surface of the adsorbent play a crucial role in their high adsorption capacities. For a binary component system consisting of MB and PF, competitive adsorption of these two dyes is observed with adsorption capacity values slightly lower than those of the corresponding single dye systems. The dye adsorbed material can be easily regenerated by simple acid washing and be reused for five times with MB removal efficiency still up to 98.6%, showing its great potentials in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphate removal and recovery from water using nanocomposite of immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on cationic polymer.

    PubMed

    Abo Markeb, Ahmad; Alonso, Amanda; Dorado, Antonio David; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    A novel nanocomposite (NC) based on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) immobilized on the surface of a cationic exchange polymer, C100, using a modification of the co-precipitation method was developed to obtain magnetic NCs for phosphate removal and recovery from water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy , X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to characterize the NCs. Continuous adsorption process by the so-called breakthrough curves was used to determine the adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4-based NC. The adsorption capacity conditions were studied under different conditions (pH, phosphate concentration, and concentration of nanoparticles). The optimum concentration of iron in the NC for phosphate removal was 23.59 mgFe/gNC. The sorption isotherms of this material were performed at pH 5 and 7. Taking into account the real application of this novel material in real water, the experiments were performed at pH 7, achieving an adsorption capacity higher than 4.9 mgPO4-P/gNC. Moreover, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a combination of them fit the experimental data and were used for interpreting the influence of pH on the sorption and the adsorption mechanism for this novel material. Furthermore, regeneration and reusability of the NC were tested, obtaining 97.5% recovery of phosphate for the first cycle, and at least seven cycles of adsorption-desorption were carried out with more than 40% of recovery. Thus, this work described a novel magnetic nanoadsorbent with properties for phosphate recovery in wastewater.

  17. Adsorptional removal of methylene blue by guar gum-cerium (IV) tungstate hybrid cationic exchanger.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Pathania, Deepak; Singh, Pardeep; Kumar, Amit; Rathore, B S

    2014-01-30

    Guar gum-cerium (IV) tungstate nanocomposite (GG/CTNC) cationic exchanger was synthesized using simple sol gel method. The GG/CTNC was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer (EDX). The XRD studies confirmed amorphous and fibrous in nature of GG/CTNC. The high percentage of oxygen in the nanocomposite material confirmed the functionality tungstate (WO4(-)). The ion exchange capacity of GG/CTNC for Na(+) ion was observed to be 1.30 mequivg(-1). The hybrid exchanger was used as potential adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous system. The correlation coefficients value indicated a good fit of monolayer Langmuir model to the adsorption of methylene blue onto GG/CTNC. The adsorption kinetic study revealed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo second order kinetic. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values confirmed the spontaneous nature of adsorption process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cationic polyacrylamide as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride for low molecule organic matter removal.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Qi, Q B; Wang, Y; Phuntsho, S; Kim, J-H; Yue, Q Y; Li, Q; Shon, H K

    2013-08-15

    This is the first attempt to use cationic polyacrylamide (PAM) as coagulant aid with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) to improve the coagulation performance and floc properties. Coagulation-flocculation treatment was applied to simulated water (with fulvic acid (FA) as model organic matter) for both coagulation behavior investigation and floc characterization. The effect of PAM on floc reformation properties after cyclic breakage/regrowth was also investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to investigate the influence of PAM aided TiCl4 coagulation on the membrane fouling. The results showed that organic removal was enhanced by PAM addition at low TiCl4 doses. Floc growth rate and floc size were significantly affected by dosing sequence. TiCl4-PAM significantly improved the floc strength factors (Sf) and recovery factors (Rf). The dosing sequence of TiCl4 and PAM significantly influenced the floc structure. Characterization of the flocculated sludge indicated that TiO2 with anatase structure and high photocatalytic activity could be obtained from the TiCl4-PAM flocculated sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of cationic waste paper and its application in poisonous dye removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Song, Xiaojie; Yan, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Cationic paper was prepared by reaction of paper with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous suspension, and tested as low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The experimental results revealed that anionic dyes (Acid Orange 7, Acid Red 18, and Acid Blue 92) were adsorbed on the cationic paper nicely. The maximum amount of dye Acid Orange 7 adsorbed on cationic paper was 337.2 mg/g in experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, temperature, and initial pH of dye solution on adsorption capacity of cationic paper were studied. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption process of dye on cationic paper occurred spontaneously.

  20. Cationic and anionic modifications of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sajab, Mohd Shaiful; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Khiew, Poi Sim

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were employed to remove dyes from aqueous solutions via adsorption approaches. The EFB fibers were modified using citric acid (CA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce anionic and cationic adsorbents, respectively. The CA modified EFB fibers (CA-EFB) and PEI-modified EFB fibers (PEI-EFB) were used to study the efficiency in removing cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic phenol red (PR) from aqueous solutions, respectively, at different pHs, temperatures and initial dye concentrations. The adsorption data for MB on the CA-EFB fitted the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption of PR on the PEI-EFB fitted the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting a monolayer and heterogeneous adsorption behavior of the adsorption processes, respectively. Both modified fibers can be regenerated up to seven adsorption/desorption cycles while still providing as least 70% of the initial adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ji-Lai; Wang, Bin; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yang, Chun-Ping; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Zhou, Wen-Jin; Liang, Yi

    2009-05-30

    A magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized and was used as an adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The MMWCNT nanocomposite was composed of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes and iron oxide nanoparticles. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. Adsorption characteristics of the MMWCNT nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using methylene blue, neutral red and brilliant cresyl blue as adsorbates. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the effect of adsorption dosage and solution pH values on the removal of cationic dyes. Kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo second-order model. Freundlich model was used to study the adsorption isotherms. The prepared MMWCNT adsorbent displayed the main advantage of separation convenience compared to the present adsorption treatment.

  2. Characterization and adsorption properties of a lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel composite for fluoride removal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuoxun; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel (MCH-La) was synthesized for fluoride adsorption from drinking water. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and effects of pH and co-existing anions on fluoride uptake by MCH-La were evaluated. FTIR, Raman and XPS were used to analyze the fluoride adsorption mechanism of MCH-La. Results showed that MCH-La had positive zeta potential values of 23.6-8.0 mV at pH 3.0-11.0, with the magnitude of saturation magnetization up to 10.3 emu/g. The fluoride adsorption kinetics by MCH-La fitted well with the fractal-like-pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption capacity reached 93% of the ultimate adsorption capacity within the first 10 min. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for MCH-La was 136.78 mg F(-)/g at an equilibrium fluoride concentration of 29.3 mg/L and pH 7.0. Equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Sips model was more suitable than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. MCH-La still had more than 100 mg of F(-)/g adsorption capacity at a strongly alkaline solution (pH > 10). The adsorption process was highly pH-dependent, and the optimal adsorption was attained at pH 2.8-4.0, corresponding to ligand exchange, electrostatic interactions, and Lewis acid-base interactions. With the exception of both anions of HCO3(-) and SiO4(4-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-) did not evidently prevent fluoride removal by MCH-La at their real concentrations in natural groundwater. The fluoride adsorption capacity of the regenerated MCH-La approached 70% of the fresh MCH-La from the second to fifth recycles. FTIR and Raman spectra revealed that C-O and CO functional groups on MCH contributed to the fluoride adsorption, this finding was also confirmed by the XPS F 1s spectra. Deconvolution of C 1s spectra before and after fluoride adsorption indicated that the carboxyl, anhydride, and phenol groups of MCH were involved in the fluoride removal.

  3. Removal of chromium from Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of resulted cations.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2011-11-30

    This work presents investigations on the total removal of chromium from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of the resulted cations with NaOH. The process was detrimentally affected by a compactly passivation film occurred at scrap iron surface, mainly composed of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Maximum removal efficiency of the Cr(total) and Fe(total) achieved in the clarifier under circumneutral and alkaline (pH 9.1) conditions was 98.5% and 100%, respectively. The optimum precipitation pH range which resulted from this study is 7.6-8.0. Fe(total) and Cr(total) were almost entirely removed in the clarifier as Fe(III) and Cr(III) species; however, after Cr(VI) breakthrough in column effluent, chromium was partially removed in the clarifier also as Cr(VI), by coprecipitation with cationic species. As long the column effluent was free of Cr(VI), the average Cr(total) removal efficiency of the packed column and clarifier was 10.8% and 78.8%, respectively. Our results clearly indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater can be successfully treated by combining reduction with scrap iron and chemical precipitation with NaOH.

  4. NDTB-1: A Supertetrahedral Cationic Framework That Removes TcO4- from Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Casey, William H.; Phillips, Brian L.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-02-01

    A cubic thorium borate possesses a porous supertetrahedral cationic framework with extraframework borate anions. These anions are readily exchanged with a variety of environmental contaminants, especially those from the nuclear industry, including chromate and pertechnetate.

  5. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water.

    PubMed

    Nussinovitch, A; Dagan, O

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan-alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb(2+)/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules' ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations - copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) - was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation's affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1M nitric acid suspension for 24h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of magnetite-porphyrin nanocomposite and its application as a novel magnetic adsorbent for removing heavy cations

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhshayesh, Sara Dehghani, Hossein

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Magnetite-porphyrin nanocomposite (MPNC) as a novel magnetic adsorbent for removing heavy cations was synthesized. - Highlights: • Nanosized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared by hydrothermal reaction of iron salt in alkaline media. • The synthesized magnetite and nanocomposite had soft ferromagnetic property. • Magnetic nanocomposite as a novel magnetic adsorbent for heavy cations was prepared. • Satisfactory separation from solutions in the order of Pb{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Hg{sup 2+} was obtained. - Abstract: Magnetite-porphyrin nanocomposite (MPNC) was synthesized as a novel magnetic adsorbent for removing heavy cations. Firstly, we prepared nano-sized magnetite using a simple hydrothermal route. The synthesis of nanoscaled magnetite was carried out through reaction between iron source and various amines. In this paper, we studied effective parameters in controlling shape and size of nanoscaled magnetite. These parameters were presence of alkaline, reaction time, kind of amine and iron salt. Morphology, particle size and magnetic properties of the nanoscaled magnetite were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Our study showed that the synthesized magnetite from reaction between FeSO{sub 4} and hydrazinum hydrate has spherical shape. The synthesized magnetite was a nanosized compound and used for preparation of magnetite-porphyrin nanocomposite. The synthesized magnetite-porphyrin hybrid material had magnetic property and was used as magnetic adsorbent for removing heavy cations of water. Satisfactory separation from solutions in the order of Pb{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Hg{sup 2+} was obtained.

  7. Modelling Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Kinetics for Removal of Trace Levels of Divalent Cations in Ultrapure Water

    SciTech Connect

    B. Widman

    2003-01-01

    Ion exchanger resin fluid film mass transfer coefficients and the ionic diffusivities from which they are derived are often measured by use of ion exchange resin columns. Such tests, usually run dynamically using short resin beds, are often performed using relatively high (ppm) concentrations of ions to accurately measure output concentrations as a function of flow rate. The testing described herein was performed to determine fluid film ionic diffusivities for cationic concentrations typical of ultrapure water ({le}ppb levels) containing ppm levels of ammonia. Effective ionic diffusivities at these low ionic concentrations and high pHs were needed to complete a computer model (SIMIX) to be used in ion exchange simulations. SIMIX is a generalized multicomponent ion exchange model designed to simulate the removal of divalent cations from ultrapure water.

  8. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition.

  9. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    PubMed

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice.

  10. Water soluble/dispersible and easy removable cationic adhesives and coating for paper recycling

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Yulin; Yan, Zegui

    2005-11-29

    The present invention is an adhesive or coating composition that is dispersible or dissolvable in water, making it useful in as a coating or adhesive in paper intended for recycling. The composition of the present invention is cationically charged thereby binding with the fibers of the paper slurry and thus, resulting in reduced deposition of adhesives on equipment during the recycling process. The presence of the composition of the present invention results in stronger interfiber bonding in products produced from the recycled fibers.

  11. Preparation of Cationic MOFs with Mobile Anions by Anion Stripping to Remove 2,4-D from Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Yuemei; Yang, Haiguan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    A cationic porous framework with mobile anions (MIL-101(Cr)-Cl) was easily and successfully synthesized by utilizing the stronger affinity of F− to Al3+ than Cr3+ in the charge-balanced framework of MIL-101(Cr). The structure, morphology and porosity of MIL-101(Cr)-Cl were characterized. The obtained new materials retain the high surface area, good thermostability, and structure topology of MIL-101(Cr). With the mobile Cl− anion, MIL-101(Cr)-Cl can be used as an ion-exchange material for anionic organic pollutions. In this work, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a model to test the absorption performance of this new material. This new material exhibited improved adsorbability compared to that of the original metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). At the same time, this material also shows high anti-interference performance with changing solution pH. PMID:28773239

  12. In vitro adsorption removal of paraquat by activated carbon and cation exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Kitakouji, M.; Miyoshi, T.; Tanada, M.S.; Nakamura, T. )

    1989-06-01

    With the modernization of agriculture, environmental pollution and accidental poisoning by agricultural chemicals have become a great social problem. With the remarkable increase in the amount of paraquat used, the number of deaths by swallowing of paraquat has also increased in recent years. Presently, an effective antidote and treatment for paraquat poisoning is not available. For primary treatment, administration of an adsorbent is done at the same time as gastrointestinal lavage. As an adsorbent for paraquat poisoning, the efficacy of activated carbon, Fuller's Earth, bentonite, and a cation exchange resin have been reported. In this work, the authors discuss the adsorption characteristics of paraquat in artificial gastric juice and normal saline solution.

  13. Malachite green "a cationic dye" and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Nirav P.; Shah, Prapti U.; Shah, Nisha K.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption can be efficiently employed for the removal of various toxic dyes from water and wastewater. In this article, the authors reviewed variety of adsorbents used by various researchers for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from an aqueous environment. The main motto of this review article was to assemble the scattered available information of adsorbents used for the removal of MG to enlighten their wide potential. In addition to this, various optimal experimental conditions (solution pH, equilibrium contact time, amount of adsorbent and temperature) as well as adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics data of different adsorbents towards MG were also analyzed and tabulated. Finally, it was concluded that the agricultural solid wastes and biosorbents such as biopolymers and biomass adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding adsorption capabilities for removal of MG dye.

  14. Electronic modules easily separated from heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Metal heat sink and electronic modules bonded to a thermal bridge can be easily cleaved for removal of the modules for replacement or repair. A thin film of grease between a fluorocarbon polymer film on the metal heat sink and an adhesive film on the modules acts as the cleavage plane.

  15. Removal of lead compounds from polyvinylchloride in electric wires and cables using cation-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Masami; Ito, Mayumi; Yuta, Sasaki; Tomoo, Sakai; Hiroyoshi, Naoki

    2011-07-15

    Recycling treatment of cable insulation resin generated from electric wires and cables was investigated. Conventional insulation PVC contains a lead component, tribase, as a thermal stabilizer and lead removal is necessary to recycle this PVC as insulation resin. This paper describes a solid surface adsorption method using ion exchange resin to remove the fine lead containing particles from PVC dissolved solution. Low lead concentration in the recovered PVC, complying with the requirements of RoHS, was achieved.

  16. Organo/Zn-Al LDH Nanocomposites for Cationic Dye Removal from Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukh, G.; Rozovik, O.; Oranska, O.

    2016-04-01

    Cationic dye sorption by Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with anionic surfactants was examined using methylene blue (MB) dye as a compound model in aqueous solutions. The modification of Zn-Al LDHs was performed by reconstruction method using dodecyl sulfate anion (DS) solutions. DS contained Zn-Al LDHs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, and SEM analysis. The reconstructed organo/Zn-Al LDHs comprise the crystalline phases (DS-intercalated LDHs, hydrotalcite), and the amorphous phase. The intercalation of DS ions into the interlayer galleries and DS adsorption on the surface of the LDHs occurred causing the MB adsorption on the external and its sorption in the internal surfaces of modified LDHs. The presence of DS greatly increased the affinity of organo/Zn-Al LDHs for MB due to hydrophobic interactions between the surfactants and the dye molecules. The optical properties of sorbed MB were studied.

  17. Arsenite and arsenate removal from wastewater using cationic polymer-modified waste tyre rubber.

    PubMed

    Imyim, Apichat; Sirithaweesit, Thitayati; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2016-01-15

    Waste tyre rubber (WTR) granulate was modified with a cationic polymer, poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (p(APTMACl)). The resulting WTR/p(APTMACl) was utilized for the adsorption of arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) from aqueous medium in both batch and column methods. The level of adsorption increased gradually with increasing monomer concentration and contact time. The adsorption behavior obeyed the Freundlich model, and the rate of adsorption could be predicted by employing the pseudo-second order model. In the column method, As(V) could be adsorbed onto the sorbent more effectively than As(III). Remarkable desorption of As(III) and As(V) (99 and 92%, respectively) from the adsorbent was achieved using 0.10 M HCl as eluent. An approach of evaluation of adsorption capacity uncertainty is proposed.

  18. Microbially-Mediated Subsurface Calcite Precipitation for Removal of Hazardous Divalent Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, Frederick S.; Smith, R.W.; Ferris, F. Gratn; Ingram, Jani C.; Reysenbach, A.-L.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Tyler, T.L.; Taylor, J.L.; Banta, A.; Delwiche, M.E.; McLing, T.; Cortez, Marnie, M.; Watwood, M.E.

    2003-03-27

    We are investigating microbially-mediated acceleration of calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of hazardous divalent cations (e.g., 90Sr) in calcite saturated subsurface systems. In theory, the addition of urea to an aquifer or vadose zone and its subsequent hydrolysis by indigenous microbes will cause an increase in alkalinity, pH and calcite precipitation. Lab studies indicated the ability of various bacteria to precipitate calcite through urea hydrolysis and that incorporation of strontium in biogenically-formed calcite is greater than in abiotically formed calcite. Results from a field experiment in a pristine location in the Snake River Plain aquifer involving the phased addition of molasses and then urea showed increases in total cell numbers, rate of urea hydrolysis and calcite formation during the study. The combined diagnostic approaches of microbiology, molecular ecology and analytical chemistry demonstrate the feasibility of this biogeochemical manipulation for subsurface remediation at arid Western DOE sites such as Hanford and INEEL.

  19. Comparing Nafion and ceramic separators used in electrochemical purification of spent chromium plating solutions: cationic impurity removal and transport.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Lin; Holsen, Thomas M; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Selman, J Robert

    2003-05-01

    This study focuses on the electrolytic regeneration of spent chromium plating solutions. These solutions contain a significant amount of chromium and a lesser amount of other heavy metals, which makes them a significant environmental concern and an obvious target for recycling and reuse. The type of separator used is extremely critical to the performance of the process because they are the major resistance in the transport-related impurity (Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III)) removals from contaminated chromic acid solutions. A Nafion 117 membrane and a ceramic diaphragm separator traditionally used in the industry were tested for comparison. It was found that the mobilities of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were similar and higher than that of Fe(III) using both separators. The mobility of each cation was smaller in the Nafion membrane than in the ceramic diaphragm. The measured conductivity of the ceramic diaphragm was slightly higher than that of Nafion membrane. However, the Nafion membrane was much thinner than the ceramic diaphragm resulting in the system using the Nafion membrane having higher impurity removal rates than the system using the ceramic diaphragm. The removal rates were approximately equal for Cu(II) and Ni(II) and lowest for Fe(III). Both current and initial concentration affected the removal rates of the impurities. Modeling results indicated that a system using a Nafion separator and a small catholyte/anolyte volume ratio was better than a system using a ceramic separator for removing impurities from concentrated plating solutions if the impurities transported into the catholyte are deposited or precipitated.

  20. Removal of straw lignin from spent pulping liquor using synthetic cationic and biobased flocculants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous alkaline delignification of wheat straw produces hemicellulose for bioenergy and other applications. After removal of the hemicellulose, spent pulping liquor (SPL) remains. The spent pulping liquor is approximately 28% water, 40% ash, 3% hemicellulose, 25% lignin, 5% protein, and less than...

  1. Equilibrium analysis for heavy metal cation removal using cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    El Zayat, Mohamed; Elagroudy, Sherien; El Haggar, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and chemical precipitation have been investigated extensively for heavy metal uptake. However, they are deemed too expensive to meet stringent effluent characteristics. In this study, cement kiln dust (CKD) was examined for the removal of target heavy metals. Adsorption studies in completely mixed batch reactors were used to generate equilibrium pH adsorption edges. Studies showed the ability of CKD to remove the target heavy metals in a pH range below that of precipitation after an equilibrium reaction time of 24 h. A surface titration experiment indicated negative surface charge of the CKD at pH below 10, meaning that electrostatic attraction of the divalent metals can occur below the pH required for precipitation. However, surface complexation was also important due to the substantive metal removal. Accordingly, a surface complexation model approach that utilizes an electrostatic term in the double-layer description was used to estimate equilibrium constants for the protolysis interactions of the CKD surface as well as equilibria between background ions and the sorbent surface. It was concluded that the removal strength of adsorption is in the order: Pb > Cu > Cd. The experiments were also supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  2. Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water Using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, John F.; Palmer, Cynthia E.; Taylor, Richard W.

    1999-06-01

    The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic nonradioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic or amphiphilic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from ground water, mixed waste, and aqueous waste solutions produced during decontamination and decommissioning operations. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage.

  3. Removal of Radioactive Cations Anions from Polluted Water Using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration (60041-OK)

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn,John F.; Taylor, Richard W.; Palmer, Cynthia E.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic non-radioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium, cadmium, and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic or amphiphilic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from ground water, mixed waste, and aqueous waste solutions produced during decontamination and decommissioning operations. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage.

  4. Efficient removal and mechanisms of water soluble aromatic contaminants by a reduced-charge bentonite modified with benzyltrimethylammonium cation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Runliang

    2008-02-01

    A novel strategy utilizing the phenyls interaction and the hydrophobic affinity of available siloxane surface in the interlayer of bentonite was proposed to improve the sorption capabilities of organobentonites for water soluble aromatic contaminants. A unique organobentonite (65BTMA) was synthesized by intercalating benzyltrimethylammonium cation (BTMA(+)) into the interlayer of a reduced-charge bentonite with cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 65 cmol kg(-1). Phenol, aniline and toluene were used as model compounds of water soluble aromatic contaminants. Their respective removal efficiencies by 65BTMA were achieved at 83.3%, 89.2% and 97.3% at the initial concentration of 20 mg l(-1). To reveal the sorption mechanism, sorption characteristics of aromatic contaminants to 65BTMA were compared with that of aliphatic contaminants in similar molecular size. And various organobentonites were prepared by combining TMA(+) (tetramethylammonium), BTMA(+), HTMA(+) (heptyltrimethylammonium) and CTMA(+) (cetyltrimethylammonium) with two bentonites (CEC=108 and 65 cmol kg(-1)). To 65BTMA, sorption magnitudes of aromatic contaminants were much greater than that of aliphatic compounds with similar size; and dramatically higher than those to other organobentonites at low pollutant concentrations. These observations revealed that the strong phenyls interactions contributed significantly to sorb the aqueous soluble aromatic contaminants to 65BTMA (>90%), and which favored to design uniquely powerful sorbents.

  5. Synthesized layered inorganic-organic magnesium organosilicate containing a disulfide moiety as a promising sorbent for cations removal.

    PubMed

    Moscofian, Andrea S O; Airoldi, Claudio

    2008-12-15

    A new-layered inorganic-organic magnesium organosilicate was synthesized through a single step template sol-gel route under mild conditions, using a new alkoxysilane, containing a 2-aminophenyldisulfide molecule. Elemental analysis data based on the nitrogen atom showed an incorporation of 1.97mmol of organic pendant groups for each gram of the hybrid formed. The X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that this nanocompound exhibited lamellar structure, in agreement with that found for natural inorganic silicates. Infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance for the (29)Si nucleus in the solid state are in agreement with the success of the proposed synthetic method. The presence of nitrogen and sulfur basic centers attached to the pendant groups inside the lamellar structure is used as basic centers to coordinate cations from aqueous solution at the solid/liquid interface. The isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maxima adsorption capacities for copper, lead and cadmium, calculated from Langmuir model, were 3.28, 1.42 and 0.35mmol g(-1), respectively. These values are comparable to other adsorbing nanomaterials. This behavior suggested that this new inorganic-organic hybrid could be employed as a promising adsorbent for cation removal from polluted systems.

  6. Efficient removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxuan; Yang, Hu; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Li, Haijiang; Jiang, Ziwen; Kan, Xiaowei; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2012-10-01

    In the current paper, a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent was prepared and applied to adsorb various dyes from aqueous solutions. The amphoteric adsorbent was proven effective in eliminating both cationic and anionic dyes (methylene blue and acid green 25), especially at corresponding favored pH conditions. The fundamental adsorption behavior of the adsorbent on removing various dyes was also investigated at different temperatures. The adsorption isotherms were all best-fitted by the Langmuir equation, whereas the adsorption kinetics was well-described by both the pseudo-second order model and the Elovich model. The experimental result revealed that the adsorption mechanism followed the monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bionanocomposites based on layered silicates and cationic starch as eco-friendly adsorbents for hexavalent chromium removal.

    PubMed

    Koriche, Yamina; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Semsari, Saida; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-07-21

    Functional bionanocomposites based on two layered silicates, the commercial montmorillonite known as Cloisite®Na and a natural bentonite from Algeria, were prepared by intercalation of cationic starch, synthesized with two different degrees of substitution, 0.85 and 0.55. After characterization of the prepared bionanocomposites by XRD and zeta potential measurements, batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of hexavalent chromium anions from aqueous solution. The adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and the effect of pH on the process were studied. The removal efficiency was evaluated in the presence of competing anions such as NO3(-), ClO4(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). In order to regenerate the adsorbent for its repeated use, the regeneration process was studied in two different extractant solutions, 0.1 M NaCl at pH 10 and 0.28 M Na2CO3 at pH 12.

  8. Quince seed mucilage magnetic nanocomposites as novel bioadsorbents for efficient removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sina

    2015-12-10

    This study investigated the potential use of quince seed mucilage (QSM) as alternative bioadsorbents for methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. This novel magnetic nanocomposite adsorbent (MNCA) based on QSM was synthesized by in situ formation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into QSM solution. The MNCAs were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, and VSM. Removal of MB was investigated by batch adsorption technique. The thermodynamic parameters suggest that the dye adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Moreover, the adsorbents showed high selectivity for the adsorption of cationic dyes with regenerated properties. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models also provide the best correlation of the experimental data for MB adsorption. The results indicate that the MNCAs can be employed as efficient low cost adsorbents with excellent dye adsorption performance in wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Easily Constructed Dodecahedron Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1984-01-01

    A model of a dodecahedron which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (for example, that of dodecahedrane) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary for accomplishing this task are presented. (JN)

  10. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  11. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  12. An Easily Constructed Cube Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    A model of a cube which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (especially of inorganic compounds) can be made easily, by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

  13. Preparation of cationized pine sawdust for nitrate removal: Optimization of reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Anni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Hormi, Osmo; Tanskanen, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Anion exchange materials were prepared from pine sawdust (Pinus sylvestris, PSD) through cationizing treatment with N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHMAC) in the presence of NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to find the optimal reaction conditions. Three factors were chosen: reaction temperature (26-94 °C), reaction time (0.32-3.7 h) and NaOH/CHMAC molar ratio (0.19-2.2). Product yield (%) was used as a response. A quadratic model was fitted to the experimental data. The optimal conditions were: a reaction temperature of 57 °C, a reaction time of 1.8 h and a NaOH/CHMAC molar ratio of 1.32. A maximum nitrogen content of 2.6% was obtained at 60 °C, 3.7 h and a molar ratio of 1.2. The molar ratio had the greatest impact on the response. Regression analysis revealed that over 95% of the variance can be explained by the model. A maximum nitrate sorption capacity of 15.3 ± 1.4 mg N/g was achieved. The effect of CHMAC dose was also studied (a NaOH/CHMAC molar ratio of 1.2): 0.064 mol/g PSD was found to be near the optimum. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater (27.5 mg/l NO3) was treated with CPSD. Doses of 3-6 g/l resulted in 59-71% nitrate reduction.

  14. A potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Md. Tamez; Rahman, Md. Arifur; Rukanuzzaman, Md.; Islam, Md. Akhtarul

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at using mango leaf powder (MLP) as a potential adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the adsorbent was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The pH at the point of zero charge of the adsorbent was determined by titration method and was found a value to be 5.6 ± 0.2. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters like initial solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage on the removal of MB. An adsorption-desorption study was carried out resulting the mechanism of adsorption was carried out by electrostatic force of attraction. The adsorption equilibrium time required for the adsorption of MB on MLP was almost 2 h and 85 ± 5% of the total amount of dye uptake was found to occur in the first rapid phase (30 min). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for modeling the adsorption equilibrium. The experimental equilibrium data could be well interpreted by Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 156 mg/g. To state the sorption kinetics, the fits of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The above findings suggest that MLP can be effectively used for decontamination of dye containing wastewater.

  15. Application of Ulva lactuca and Systoceira stricta algae-based activated carbons to hazardous cationic dyes removal from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Salima, Attouti; Benaouda, Bestani; Noureddine, Benderdouche; Duclaux, Laurent

    2013-06-15

    Marine algae Ulva lactuca (ULV-AC) and Systoceira stricta (SYS-AC) based activated carbons were investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of hazardous cationic dyes. Both algae were surface oxidised by phosphoric acid for 2 and subsequently air activated at 600 °C for 3 h. Dyes adsorption parameters such as solution pH, contact time, carbon dosage, temperature and ionic strength were measured in batch experiments. Adsorption capacities of 400 and 526 mg/g for Malachite green and Safranine O by the SYS-AC and ULV-AC respectively were significantly enhanced by the chemical treatments. Model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data and the best fits to the experimental data were provided by the first two isotherm models. BET, FT-IR, iodine number and methylene blue index determination were also performed to characterize the adsorbents. To describe the adsorption mechanism, kinetic models such as pseudo-second-order and the intra particle diffusion were applied. Thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption processes of both dyes confirms their spontaneity and endothermicity. Increasing solution ionic strength increased significantly the adsorption of Safranine O. This study shows that surface modified algae can be an alternative to the commercially available adsorbents for dyes removal from liquid effluents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel electrodialysis cation exchange membrane prepared by 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid; heavy metal ions removal.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Hosseini, S M; Shabanian, M

    2017-09-05

    In the present work a novel heterogeneous cation exchange membrane (CEM) composed of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid based hydrogel (AMAH) was prepared. The membranes were fabricated with different fractions of AMAH to optimize the performance in desalination. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR to prove the successful synthesis. The membrane properties such as permselectivity, ionic permeability, flux, water content, electrical resistance, morphology, contact angle and dimensional stability were evaluated. Modified membranes showed acceptable dimensional stabilities, more hydrophilic surface, higher water content and porosity. SEM images revealed the formation of a more porous membrane structure. Membrane permselectivity and transport number showed a relatively constant then decreasing trend in Na(+) and Ba(2+) solutions. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of AMAH into the PVC matrix obviously improved ionic permeability and flux of Na (∼9%) and Ba (∼23%). Membrane electrical resistance was declined about 36% by adding AMAH in the membrane structure. Membranes' performance in potassium and heavy metal ions removal showed a remarkable separation capacity of K(+) (99.9%), Pb(2+) (99.9%) and Ni(2+) (96.9%). Membranes showed desirable potential for scaling removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Action of a cationic surfactant on the activity and removal of bacterial biofilms formed under different flow regimes.

    PubMed

    Simões, Manuel; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Vieira, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    The action of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was investigated to control biofilms (aged 7d) formed by Pseudomonas fluorescens on stainless-steel slides, using flow cells reactors, under turbulent and laminar flow. The effect of CTAB was also investigated using planktonic cells in the presence and absence of BSA, by measuring the cellular respiratory activity and the ATP released. The action of CTAB on biofilms was assessed by means of cellular respiratory activity and variation of biofilm mass, immediately and 3, 7 and 12h after the application of CTAB. The physical stability of the biofilm was also assessed using a rotating device, where the effect of the surfactant on the biofilm stability was evaluated through the variation of the mass remaining on the surface. CTAB significantly reduced the activity of the planktonic cells probably due to the rupture of the cells. This effect was significantly reduced in the presence of BSA. Planktonic cells were more easily inactivated than bacteria in biofilms. Biofilms formed under laminar flow were more susceptible than those formed under turbulent flow, but in both cases total inactivation was not achieved. Biofilm recovery was observed, in terms of respiratory activity, in almost all the cases studied. CTAB application by itself did not promote the detachment of biofilms. The physical stability tests showed that the synergistic action of the surfactant and the application of high shear stress to the biofilm increase its detachment.

  18. Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S S; Rauf, Naseem

    2006-06-01

    The ability of bentonite to remove malachite green from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature, pH and shaking time. Maximum adsorption of the dye, i.e. >90% has been achieved in aqueous solutions using 0.05 g of bentonite at a pH of 9. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH degrees, DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots of lnK(D) against 1/T. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at 298, 308, 318 and 328 K showed that the adsorption pattern on bentonite seems to follow the Langmuir, Freundlih and D-R isotherms. The temperature increase reduces adsorption capacity by bentonite, due to the enhancement of the desorption step in the mechanism. The numerical values of sorption free energy (E(a)) of 1.00-1.12 kJ mol(-1) indicated physical adsorption. The kinetic data indicated an intraparticle diffusion process with sorption being first order. The rate constant k was 0.526 min(-1). The concentration of malachite green oxalate was measured before and after adsorption by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

  19. Modification of an Iranian clinoptilolite nano-particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium cationic surfactant and dithizone for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Anari-Anaraki, Mostafa; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-02-15

    Natural clinoptilolite tuff was mechanically converted to micro (MCP) and nano (NCP) particles. The MCP and NCP powders were respectively modified with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) and dithizone (DTZ). The raw and modified samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infra red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The results confirm that both ion exchange and complexation processes are responsible for removal of Pb(II) cations in the modified samples, while Pb(II) cations were only removed via an ion exchange process by the raw clinoptilolite. In this sorbent, the anionic removal property of surfactant modified zeolites (SMZs) changed to cationic removal property by an additional modification step. The best removal efficiency was observed by NCP-HDTMA-DTZ at the following experimental conditions: C(Pb(II)): 800 mg L(-1), HDTMA dosage: 0.2 mol L(-1), DTZ dosage: 5 mmol L(-1), contact time of DTZ with NCP-HDTMA: 1800 min and contact time of the sorbent with Pb(II): 360 min. The NCP-HDTMA-DTZ sorbent showed good efficiency for the removal of lead in the presence of different multivalent cations. Adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) ions obey the Langmuir equation that indicate the monolayer sorption of Pb(II). The adsorption kinetics based on the pseudo-second-order rate equation indicates that the rate limiting step involving a chemical reaction. The negative ΔH and ΔG indicate an exothermic and spontaneous process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance evaluation of household water treatment systems used in Kerman for removal of cations and anions from drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakootian, Mohammad; Amirmahani, Najmeh; Yazdanpanah, Ghazal; Nasiri, Alireza; Asadipour, Ali; Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Darvish Moghaddam, Sodaif

    2017-08-01

    Increased awareness in society of the consequences of contaminants in drinking water has created a demand for household water treatment systems, which provide higher quality water, to spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of household water treatment systems used in Kerman for the removal of cations and anions. Various brands of home water treatment devices commonly used in Kerman were selected, with one device chosen from each brand for study. In cases in which the devices were used extensively, samples were selected with filters that had been changed in proper time, based on the device's operational instructions. The samples were selected from homes in the center and four geographical directions of Kerman. Then, sampling was conducted in three stages of input and output water of each device. For each of the samples, parameters were measured, such as chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, nitrate and nitrite (mg/L), temperature (°C), and pH. The average removal efficiency of different parameters by 14 brands in Kerman, which include chloride ions, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, nitrites, nitrates, and total hardness, was obtained at 68.48, 85, 67, 61.21, 78.97, 80.24, 32.59, 66.83, and 69.38%, respectively. The amount of sulfate, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and nitrate in the output water of household water treatment systems was less than the input water of these devices, but nitrite concentration in the output of some devices was more than the input water and showed a significant difference (p > 0.05).

  1. Amazon kaolinite functionalized with diethylenetriamine moieties for U(VI) removal: thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Denis L; Leidens, Victor L; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2010-08-15

    The compound N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine (MPDET) was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface (KLT) by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite clay samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), N(2) adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, ion exchange capacities, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of (29)Si and (13)C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the (13)C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The adsorption of uranyl on natural (KLT) and modified (KLT(MPDET)) kaolinite clays was investigated as a function of the solution pH, metal concentration, temperature, and ionic strength. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 8.37 x 10(-3) and 13.87 x 10(-3) mmol g(-1) for KLT and KLT(MPDET) at 298 K, respectively. The energetic effects (Delta(int)H, Delta(int)G, and Delta(int)S) caused by metal cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.

  2. The DEG/ENaC cation channel protein UNC-8 drives activity-dependent synapse removal in remodeling GABAergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Fleming, Tyne W; Petersen, Sarah C; Manning, Laura; Matthewman, Cristina; Gornet, Megan; Beers, Allison; Hori, Sayaka; Mitani, Shohei; Bianchi, Laura; Richmond, Janet; Miller, David M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming and neural activity drive synaptic remodeling in developing neural circuits, but the molecular components that link these pathways are poorly understood. Here we show that the C. elegans Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channel (DEG/ENaC) protein, UNC-8, is transcriptionally controlled to function as a trigger in an activity-dependent mechanism that removes synapses in remodeling GABAergic neurons. UNC-8 cation channel activity promotes disassembly of presynaptic domains in DD type GABA neurons, but not in VD class GABA neurons where unc-8 expression is blocked by the COUP/TF transcription factor, UNC-55. We propose that the depolarizing effect of UNC-8-dependent sodium import elevates intracellular calcium in a positive feedback loop involving the voltage-gated calcium channel UNC-2 and the calcium-activated phosphatase TAX-6/calcineurin to initiate a caspase-dependent mechanism that disassembles the presynaptic apparatus. Thus, UNC-8 serves as a link between genetic and activity-dependent pathways that function together to promote the elimination of GABA synapses in remodeling neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14599.001 PMID:27403890

  3. Benzene carboxylic acid derivatized graphene oxide nanosheets on natural zeolites as effective adsorbents for cationic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Murthy, Bandaru N; Shapter, Joseph G; Constantopoulos, Kristina T; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Ellis, Amanda V

    2013-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were grafted to acid-treated natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders followed by a coupling reaction with a diazonium salt (4-carboxybenzenediazoniumtetrafluoroborate) to the GO surface. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of GO nanosheets onto the zeolite surface. The application of the adsorbents for the adsorption of rhodamine B from aqueous solutions was then demonstrated. After reaching adsorption equilibrium the maximum adsorption capacities were shown to be 50.25, 55.56 and 67.56 mg g(-1) for pristine natural zeolite, GO grafted zeolite (GO-zeolite) and benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders, respectively. The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. Further, a relationship between surface functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency was established. Results indicate that benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders are environmentally favorable adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution using jackfruit peel as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H

    2009-02-15

    This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using jackfruit peel (JFP), a solid waste, abundantly available in Malaysia, for the adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (35-400mg/L), pH (2-11), and adsorbent dose (0.05-1.20g) on the removal of dye at temperature of 30 degrees C. The experimental data were analyzed by the four different types of linearized Langmuir isotherm, the Freundlich isotherm and the Temkin isotherm. The experimental data fitted well with the type 2 Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 285.713mg/g. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were tested with the experimental data, and pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of MB by JFP with coefficients of correlation R(2)> or =0.9967 for all initial MB concentrations studied. The results demonstrated that the JFP is very effective for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions.

  5. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater.

  6. An integrated process for removing the inhibitors of the prehydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp process via cationic polymer treatment.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abrar; Fatehi, Pedram; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-07-01

    The prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process contains various amounts of hemicelluloses that can be utilized in the production of value-added products. In this work, a new process was proposed for removing the inhibitors of PHL via employing a flocculation concept to facilitate the utilization of hemicelluloses. Lignin, lignocelluloses/cationic polymer complexes, and possibly ethanol are the main products of this process. This process has been experimentally evaluated with an industrially produced PHL and cationic polymers. The results showed that 16% of lignin, 19% of acetic acid, 43% of furfural, and insignificant amount of sugars were removed from PHL via pretreating PHL with acid and lime at pH 7. Furthermore, by adding 0.4-0.5 mg g(-1) polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) or chitosan to the pretreated PHL, 12-14% acetic acid, 40-50% furfural, 5-6% monomeric sugars, and 25% oligomeric sugars were removed from the PHL. The complexes made from these components may be applied as organic fillers in various industries. Alternatively, by adding 1.2 or 1.4 mg g(-1) PDADMAC or chitosan to the pretreated PHL, 30 or 35% of lignin was removed, respectively, which induced complexes that could be used as a fuel source. The composition of the complexes formed was also determined in this work.

  7. A new nanohybrid material constructed from Keggin-type polyoxometalate and Cd(II) semicarbazone Schiff base complex with excellent adsorption properties for the removal of cationic dye pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Saeed; Amini, Mostafa M.; Dusek, Michal; Kucerakova, Monika; Mahmoudi, Farzaneh

    2017-02-01

    A novel nanohybrid material containing a Cd(II) semicarbazone Schiff base complex and phosphomolybdic acid, [Cd(H2L+)6][H2L]+4[PMo12O40]4·18CH3OH·4H2O (1), [HL = pyridine-2-carbaldehyde semicarbazone] was prepared by a simple sonochemical route and characterized by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, PXRD, FESEM, TG-DTA and BET-BJH surface area analysis. Also the single crystal 1, was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P-1 and is assembled into 3D supramolecular structure via hydrogen intermolecular interactions. The nanohybrid 1 was tested for the adsorption and removal of organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The effects of parameters such as the dosage of adsorbent, the initial concentration and pH of dye solution were investigated on the removal efficiency of methylene blue. The nanohybrid 1 exhibited excellent adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. Moreover, it could be easily separated from the reaction solution and recycled up to three times without significant loss of adsorption activity.

  8. Nano-structured Mg-doped Fe2O3-ferrihydrite powder--a new adsorbent for cation removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, M; Mohapatra, L; Hariprasad, D; Anand, S; Mishra, B K

    2012-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken with a view to developing a low-cost, efficient adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. A new cost-effective nano-structured Mg-doped Fe2O3-ferrihydrite adsorbent exhibiting high uptake capacities for various cations was synthesized. After preliminary testing of a series of Mg-doped (0.38 to 0.98%) samples for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) or Co(II) adsorption, a typical sample containing 55.7% Fe and 0.38% Mg was chosen for detailed characterization studies (XRD, TG-DTA, FTIR and TEM techniques). The adsorption behaviour of cations on the prepared nano powder was studied under various experimental conditions. The generated data were fitted to kinetic and isotherm models. The Langmuir monolayer capacities were 99.1, 83.3, 111.1 and 151.5 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Co(II), respectively. It is the first time that such a high loading capacity for Co(II) has been reported. The effect of the presence of chloride or sulphate was dependent on the nature of the cation. Lead(II) adsorption was endothermic in nature with increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface, while for the rest of the three cations the adsorption process was exothermic. The XRD and FTIR studies on the loaded samples revealed structural changes during the adsorption process. The high cation loading capacities along with the stability of the loaded adsorbent make the synthesized ferrihydrite-Fe2O3 nano powder a potential candidate for contaminated water purification.

  9. Iminodiacetic acid functionalized cation exchange resin for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Misra, R K; Jain, S K; Khatri, P K

    2011-01-30

    Iminodiacetic acid functionality has been introduced on styrene-divinyl benzene co-polymeric beads and characterized by FT-IR in order to develop weak acid based cation exchange resin. This resin was evaluated for the removal of different heavy metal ions namely Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions. The results showed greater affinity of resin towards Cr(VI) for which 99.7% removal achieved in optimal conditions following the order Ni(II)>Pb(II)>Cd(II) with 65%, 59% and 28% removal. Experiments were also directed towards kinetic studies of adsorption and found to follow first order reversible kinetic model with the overall rate constants 0.3250, 0.2393, 0.4290 and 0.2968 for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal respectively. Detailed studies of Cr(VI) removal has been carried out to see the effect of pH, resin dose and metal ion concentration on adsorption and concluded that complexation enhanced the chromium removal efficacy of resin drastically, which is strongly pH dependent. The findings were also supported by the comparison of FT-IR spectra of neat resin with the chromium-adsorbed resin.

  10. Optimization of a cationic dye removal by a chemically modified agriculture by-product using response surface methodology: biomasses characterization and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Azzaz, Ahmed Amine; Jellali, Salah; Akrout, Hanene; Assadi, Aymen Amine; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2016-10-10

    The present study investigates the alkaline modification of raw orange tree sawdust (ROS) for an optimal removal of methylene blue (MB), as a cationic dye model, from synthetic solutions. The effects of operating parameters, namely, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations, ROS doses in NaOH solutions, stirring times, and initial MB concentrations on dye removal efficiency, were followed in batch mode. The process optimization was performed through the response surface methodology approach (RSM) by using Minitab17 software. The results showed that the order of importance of the followed parameters was NaOH treatment concentrations > stirring times > initial MB concentrations > ROS doses in NaOH solutions. The optimal experimental conditions ensuring the maximal MB removal efficiency was found for a NaOH treatment concentration of 0.14 M, a stirring time of 1 h, a ROS dose in NaOH solutions of 50 g L(-1), and an initial MB concentration of 69.5 mg L(-1). Specific analyses of the raw and alkali-treated biomasses, e.g., SEM/EDS and XRD analyses, demonstrated an important modification of the crystalline structure of the wooden material and a significant increase in its surface basic functional groups. Kinetic and isotherm studies of MB removal from synthetic solutions by ROS and the alkali-treated material (ATOS) showed that for both adsorbents, the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir model fitted the best the experimental data, respectively, which indicates that MB removal might be mainly a chemical and a monolayer process. Furthermore, thanks to the chemical modification of the ROS, the MB maximal uptake capacity has increased from about 39.7 to 78.7 mg g(-1). On the other hand, due to the competition phenomenon, the coexistence of MB and Zn(II) ions could significantly decrease the MB removal efficiency. A maximal decrease of about 32 % was registered for an initial Zn(II) concentration of 140 mg L(-1). Desorption experiments undertaken at natural pH (without

  11. Metal-air battery with easily removable anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Niksa, A.J.; Nikasa, M.J.; Noscal, J.M.; Sovich, T.J.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a metal-air battery. It comprises: one or more cells. Each cell comprising;a frame having opposed faces; an air cathode sealed to each face of the frame; an access opening in the frame; an anode blank comprising a consumable end inserted through the access opening into the space between the air cathodes and an exposed end protruding from the opening for replacement of the anode blank through the opening; and a labyrinth seal molded directly onto the anode blank between the consumable end and the exposed end sealing the access opening.

  12. Selective removal of toxic anionic dyes using a novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Ghosh, Shankhamala; Mandal, Barun; Pal, Sagar

    2016-01-15

    A novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and in-situ incorporated SiO2 NP (cat-GG/SiO2) has been developed. The cat-GG has been synthesised by grafting poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) on GG backbone. Various analyses endorse the suitability of cat-GG as well-organized template for the development of homogeneous SiO2 NPs. Dye adsorption studies predict that cat-GG/SiO2 efficiently and selectively adsorb anionic dyes (reactive blue-RB and Congo red-CR) from mixture of dye solutions. This is because of high surface area, multifunctional chelating H-bonding interactions and electrostatic interactions of cationic adsorbent with anionic dyes. Dyes adsorbed on the composite surface are desorbed reversibly using pH 10 stripping solution. Besides, cat-GG/SiO2 has been recycled efficiently with no prominent loss of dye uptake capacity, even after 4 adsorption-desorption cycles.

  13. Adsorption isotherm models for dye removal by cationized starch-based material in a single component system: error analysis.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Frédéric; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Renault, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Crini, Grégorio

    2008-08-30

    This article describes the adsorption of an anionic dye, namely C.I. Acid Blue 25 (AB 25), from aqueous solutions onto a cationized starch-based adsorbent. Temperature was varied to investigate its effect on the adsorption capacity. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured for the single component system and the experimental data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Generalized, Redlich-Peterson, and Toth isotherm equations. Five error functions were used to determine the alternative single component parameters by non-linear regression due to the bias in using the correlation coefficient resulting from linearization. The error analysis showed that, compared with other models, the Langmuir model described best the dye adsorption data. Both linear regression method and non-linear error functions provided the best-fit to experimental data with the Langmuir model.

  14. Removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from lake water by composites of bentonite with micelles of the cation octadecyltrimethyl ammonium (ODTMA).

    PubMed

    Sukenik, Assaf; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Tavassi, Mordechay; Nir, Shlomo

    2017-09-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins present potential hazard to consumers of water from lakes, reservoirs and rivers, thus their removal via water treatment is essential. The capacity of nano-composites of Octadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (ODTMA) complexed with clay to remove cyanobacterial and their toxins from laboratory cultures and from lake water, was evaluated. Column filters packed with micelles of ODTMA complexed with bentonite and granulated were shown to significantly reduce the number of cyanobacteria cells or filaments and their corresponding toxins from laboratory cultures. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that cyanobacteria cells lost their metabolic activity (photosynthesis) upon exposure to the micelle (ODTMA)-bentonite complex, or ODTMA monomers. The complex efficiently removed cyanobacteria toxins with an exceptional high removal rate of microcystins. The effectiveness of the complex in elimination of cyanobacteria was further demonstrated with lake water containing cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton species. These results and model calculations suggest that filters packed with granulated composites can secure the safety of drinking water in case of a temporary bloom event of toxic cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of radioactive cations and anions from polluted water using ligand-modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, J.F.; Palmer, C.E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    'The objectives of this project are to determine the feasibility of and develop optimum conditions for the use of colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (CEUF) methods to remove and recover radionuclides and associated toxic non-radioactive contaminants from polluted water. The target metal ions are uranium, plutonium, thorium, strontium and lead along with chromium (as chromate). Anionic chelating agents, used in conjunction with polyelectrolyte colloids, provide a means to confer selectivity required for removal of the target cations. This project entails a comprehensive study of the effects of solution composition and filtration unit operating parameters on the separation efficiency and selectivity of ligand modified colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-CEUF) processes. Problem areas identified by the Office of Environmental Management addressed by this project include removal of hazardous ionic materials from groundwater, aqueous waste solutions and mixed waste. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring long-term storage. This report summarizes work after 8 months of a 3-year project.'

  16. Simultaneous removal of dyes and metal cations using an acid, acid-base and base modified vermiculite as a sustainable and recyclable adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Freitas, Olga; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Mordarski, Grzegorz; Figueiredo, Sónia

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this work was the modification of vermiculite in order to produce a low cost, efficient and sustainable adsorbent for dyes and metals. Three activation methods consisting of acid, base and combined acid/base treatment were applied to improve the of vermiculite's adsorption properties. Adsorbents were tested in single, bi- and tricomponent solutions containing cationic dyes and Cu(2+) cations. The raw material showed low adsorption capacity for dyes and metal. The acid/base treated vermiculite had very good adsorption capacity toward dyes while the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) did not change comparing to the starting material. The alkaline treated vermiculite was a good adsorbent for metals, while still being able to remove dyes on the level of the not treated material. Moreover, it was shown that the materials may be regenerated and used in several adsorption-desorption cycles. Furthermore, it was possible to separate adsorbed dyes from metals that were desorbed, using as eluents ethanol/NaCl and 0.05M HNO3, respectively. This opens a possibility for sustainable disposal and neutralization of both of the pollutants or for their further applications in other processes.

  17. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  18. Versatile Cellulose-Based Carbon Aerogel for the Removal of Both Cationic and Anionic Metal Contaminants from Water.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Sara-Maaria; Pileidis, Filoklis; Mäkilä, Ermei; Sevilla, Marta; Repo, Eveliina; Salonen, Jarno; Sillanpää, Mika; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2015-11-25

    Hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose in the presence of the globular protein ovalbumin leads to the formation of nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel with a fibrillar continuous carbon network. The protein plays here a double role: (i) a natural source of nitrogen functionalities (2.1 wt %) and (ii) structural directing agent (S(BET) = 38 m(2)/g). The applicability in wastewater treatment, namely, for heavy metal removal, was examined through adsorption of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) ion solely and in a mixed bicomponent aqueous solutions. This cellulose-based carbogel shows an enhanced ability to remove both Cr(VI) (∼68 mg/g) and Pb(II) (∼240 mg/g) from the targeted solutions in comparison to other carbon materials reported in the literature. The presence of competing ions showed little effect on the adsorption efficiency toward Cr(VI) and Pb(II).

  19. Solid cation exchange phase to remove interfering anthocyanins in the analysis of other bioactive phenols in red wine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Letícia Flores; Guerra, Celito Crivellaro; Klein, Diandra; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2017-07-15

    Bioactive phenols (BPs) are often targets in red wine analysis. However, other compounds interfere in the liquid chromatography methods used for this analysis. Here, purification procedures were tested to eliminate anthocyanin interference during the determination of 19 red-wine BPs. Liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), was used to compare the direct injection of the samples with solid-phase extractions: reversed-phase (C18) and strong cation-exchange (SCX). The HPLC-DAD method revealed that, out of 13BPs, only six are selectively analyzed with or without C18 treatment, whereas SCX enabled the detection of all BPs. The recovery with SCX was above 86.6% for eight BPs. Moreover, UPLC-MS demonstrated the potential of SCX sample preparation for the determination of 19BPs. The developed procedure may be extended to the analysis of other red wine molecules or to other analytical methods where anthocyanins may interfere.

  20. Immobilization of polyethylenimine nanoclusters onto a cation exchange resin through self-crosslinking for selective Cu(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiliang; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Haiyan; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2011-06-15

    Donnan membrane principle provides great opportunities for development of highly efficient adsorbents for toxic metals abatement. Based on the principle we prepared a new composite adsorbent by immobilizing polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoclusters within a macroporous cation exchanger D001 through self-crosslinking by glutaraldehyde upon Cu(II)-template process. Negligible PEI loss was observed from the resultant composite adsorbent D001-PEI-GA to solution of pHs 1-12. Increasing solution pH from 1 to 6 results in more favorable Cu(II) retention by D001-PEI-GA, and Cu(II) adsorption onto D001-PEI-GA follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. Compared to D001, D001-PEI-GA displays more preferable Cu(II) sequestration in the presence of co-ions Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) at higher levels. Fixed-bed adsorption of a synthetic solution containing Cu(II) and other co-ions showed that Cu(II) sequestration on D001-PEI-GA could result in its conspicuous decrease from 5mg/L to below 0.01 mg/L with the treatment volume as high as 630 BV per run, while that for D001 was only ∼ 85 BV. Also, the spent composite adsorbent can be readily regenerated by HCl (0.3M)-NaCl (0.5M) binary solution for repeated use with negligible capacity loss.

  1. Removal of Radioactive Cations and Anions from Polluted Water using Ligand-Modified Colloid-Enhanced Ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, John F; Taylor, Richard W; Palmer, Cynthia E

    2001-12-17

    The purpose of this project was to develop, optimize, and evaluate new separation methods for removal of hazardous (radionuclides and toxic non-radioactive contaminants) metal ions from either ground water or aqueous waste solutions produced during Decontamination and Decommissioning operations at DOE sites. Separation and concentration of the target ions will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of material requiring disposal or long-term storage. The target metal ions studied were uranium, thorium, lead, cadmium, and mercury along with chromium (as chromate). The methods tested use membrane ultrafiltration in conjunction with water-soluble polymers or surfactants with added metal-selective chelating agents. Laboratory scale tests showed removal of 99.0-99.9% of each metal tested in a single separation stage. The methods developed for selective removal of radionuclides (UO22+, Th4+) and toxic heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+) are applicable to two DOE focus areas; decontamination of sites and equipment, and in remediation of contaminated groundwater. Colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration methods have potential to be substantially less expensive than alternative methods and can result in less waste. Results of studies with varying solution composition (concentration, acidity) and filtration parameters (pressure, flow rate) have increased our understanding of the fundamental processes that control the metal ion separation and colloid recovery steps of the overall process. Further laboratory studies are needed to improve the ligand/colloid recovery step and field demonstration of the technology is needed to prove the applicability of the integrated process. A number of graduate students, post-doctoral associates, and research associates have received training and research experience in the areas of separation science, colloid chemistry, and metal ion coordination chemistry of radionuclides and

  2. Amino-functionalized alkaline clay with cationic star-shaped polymer as adsorbents for removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuanfeng; Cai, Pingxiong; Farmahini-Farahani, Madjid; Li, Yiduo; Hou, Xiaobang; Xiao, Huining

    2016-11-01

    Pentaerythritol (PER) was esterified with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to synthesize a four-arm initiator 4Br-PER for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Star-shaped copolymers (P(AM-co-DMAEMA)4, CSP) were prepared via ATRP using dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and acrylamide (AM) as comonomers, while Br-PER and CuBr/2,2‧-bipyridine (BPY) as the initiator and the catalyst, respectively. The resulting four-arm initiator and star-shaped polymer (CSP) were characterized with FT-IR, 1H NMR and Ubbelohde viscometry. Alkaline clay (AC) was immobilized with CSPs to yield amino groups, and the cationic star polymer-immobilized alkaline clay (CSP-AC) was applied to remove Cr(VI) from the aqueous solution in batch experiments. Various influencing factors, including pH, contact time and immobilization amount of CSP on adsorption capacity of CSP-AC for Cr(VI) were also investigated. The results demonstrated that Cr(VI) adsorption was highly pH dependent. The optimized pH value was 4.0. The adsorption isotherms of the adsorbent fit the Langmuir model well, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 137.9 mg/g at 30 °C. The material should be a promising adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal, with the advantages of high adsorption capacity.

  3. An Easily Constructed Trigonal Prism Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1984-01-01

    A model of a trigonal prism which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially of the neodymium enneahydrate ion), can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

  4. Flexible magnetic planning boards are easily transported

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Easily transportable preprinted magnetic planning boards are made by coating thin sheet steel with clear plastic. Flexible magnetic boards used with paper charts are constructed from close mesh steel screen.

  5. An Easily Constructed Trigonal Prism Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1984-01-01

    A model of a trigonal prism which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially of the neodymium enneahydrate ion), can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

  6. Removal of copper(II) from aqueous phase by Purolite C100-MB cation exchange resin in fixed bed columns: modeling.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2009-01-30

    The dynamic removal of copper by Purolite C100-MB cation exchange resin was studied in packed bed columns. The values of column parameters are predicted as a function of flow rate and bed height. Batch experiments were performed using the Na-form resin to determine equilibrium and kinetics of copper removal. The uptake of Cu(II) by this resin follows first-order kinetics. The effect of stirring speed and temperature on the removal kinetics was studied. The activation energy for the exchange reaction is 13.58kJmol(-1). The equilibrium data obtained in this study have been found to fit both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough curves with varying bed heights and flow rates. To predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column useful for process design, four kinetic models; Bohart-Adams, Bed Depth Service Time (BDST), Clark and Wolborska models are applied to experimental data. All models are found suitable for describing the whole or a definite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. The simulation of the whole breakthrough curve is effective with the Bohart-Adams and the Clark models, but the Bohart-Adams model is better. The breakthrough is best predicted by the Wolborska model. The breakthrough data gave a good fit to the BDST model, resulting in a bed exchange capacity very close to the value determined in the batch process.

  7. Modification of waste coal gangue and its application in the removal of Mn(2+) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ruifang; Cheng, Fangqin

    We developed a new calcination method to convert coal gangue (CG), a common waste generated from coal production process, into a modified form, which could be used as an adsorbent to remove Mn(2+) from aqueous solution. Sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) was added into the CG calcination process as an additive, and the concentrations of Na2B4O7·10H2O were optimized along with the calcination temperature to obtain the best adsorbent capacity of modified coal gangue (MCG). We applied multiple analytical methods such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis to characterize the MCG. The results showed it had a smaller particle size and a larger specific surface area and pore volume after modification. It also indicated that the phase of CG transformed from kaolinite to metakaolinite after calcination. Moreover, a new substance was generated with two new peaks at 1,632 cm(-1) and 799 cm(-1). The Mn(2+) absorption capacity of MCG was evaluated using a series of experiments with different adsorbent doses, pH values and initial Mn(2+) concentrations during the adsorption process. We found that Mn(2+) adsorbent capacity of MCG increased by more than seven-fold compared to that of CG. The Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the adsorption processes.

  8. Anion Exchange on Cationic Surfactant Micelles, and a Speciation Model for Estimating Anion Removal on Micelles during Ultrafiltration of Water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Jafvert, Chad T

    2017-07-05

    Surfactant micelles combined with ultrafiltration can partially, or sometimes nearly completely, separate various ionic and nonionic pollutants from water. To this end, the selectivity of aqueous micelles composed of either cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA(+)) bromide or cetylpyridinium (CP(+)) chloride toward many environmentally relevant anions (IO3(-), F(-), Cl(-), HCO3(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), H2PO4(-), HPO4(2-), SO4(2-), and CrO4(2-)) was investigated. Selectivity coefficients of CTA(+) micelles (with respect to Br(-)) and CP(+) micelle (with respect to Cl(-)) for these anions were evaluated using a simple thermodynamic ion exchange model. The sequence of anion affinity for the CTA(+) micelles and for the CP(+) micelles were the same, with decreasing affinity occurring in the order of: CrO4(2-) > SO4(2-) > HPO4(2-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > NO2(-) > Cl(-) > HCO3(-) > H2PO4(-) ≈ F(-). From the associated component mass balance and ion exchange (i.e., mass action) equations, an overall speciation model was developed to predict the distribution of all anions between the aqueous and micellar pseudophase for complex ionic mixtures. Experimental results of both artificial and real surface waters were in good agreement to model predictions. Further, the results indicated that micelles combined with ultrafiltration may be a potential technology for nutrient and other pollutant removal from natural or effluent waters.

  9. Ligand-modified polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration with electrostatic attachment of ligands. 2. Use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/cationic polyelectrolyte mixtures to remove both cations and anions from aqueous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, M. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK ); Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Taylor, R.W.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-12-01

    A mixture of a cationic polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or PDADMAC, and the anionic ligand diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) can be added to aqueous streams as a water-soluble colloid to bind simultaneously divalent cations, such as Cu[sup 2+] and Pb[sup 2+], and anions, such as CrO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  10. Process development for robust removal of aggregates using cation exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification with implementation of quality by design.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihao; Li, Jason; Zhou, Joe X

    2012-01-01

    Aggregate removal is one of the most important aspects in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification. Cation-exchange chromatography (CEX), a widely used polishing step in mAb purification, is able to clear both process-related impurities and product-related impurities. In this study, with the implementation of quality by design (QbD), a process development approach for robust removal of aggregates using CEX is described. First, resin screening studies were performed and a suitable CEX resin was chosen because of its relatively better selectivity and higher dynamic binding capacity. Second, a pH-conductivity hybrid gradient elution method for the CEX was established, and the risk assessment for the process was carried out. Third, a process characterization study was used to evaluate the impact of the potentially important process parameters on the process performance with respect to aggregate removal. Accordingly, a process design space was established. Aggregate level in load is the critical parameter. Its operating range is set at 0-3% and the acceptable range is set at 0-5%. Equilibration buffer is the key parameter. Its operating range is set at 40 ± 5 mM acetate, pH 5.0 ± 0.1, and acceptable range is set at 40 ± 10 mM acetate, pH 5.0 ± 0.2. Elution buffer, load mass, and gradient elution volume are non-key parameters; their operating ranges and acceptable ranges are equally set at 250 ± 10 mM acetate, pH 6.0 ± 0.2, 45 ± 10 g/L resin, and 10 ± 20% CV respectively. Finally, the process was scaled up 80 times and the impurities removal profiles were revealed. Three scaled-up runs showed that the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) purity of the CEX pool was 99.8% or above and the step yield was above 92%, thereby proving that the process is both consistent and robust.

  11. Use of Sodium Polyanetholesulfonate-CaCl2 for Removal of Serum Nonspecific Inhibitors of Rubella Hemagglutination: Comparison with Other Polyanion-Divalent Cation Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Ellins, Mary L.; Campbell, James B.

    1977-01-01

    By using trypsin-treated human type O cells as indicators, we compared the abilities of four polyanion-divalent cation combinations (heparin-MnCl2; high-and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl2; and sodium polyanetholesulfonate [SPS]-CaCl2) for removal of serum non-immunoglobulin (lipoprotein) inhibitors of rubella hemagglutination. The combination of SPS-CaCl2 was found to be the most effective, precipitating completely the pre-β and β-lipoproteins and reducing the α-lipoprotein levels by more than 50%. Hemagglutination patterns after this treatment were clear and stable, and, when normal sera were tested, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were comparable to those obtained after standard heparin-MnCl2 treatment. High-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl2 removed serum lipoproteins almost as effectively as SPS-CaCl2. However, problems of nonspecific agglutination and the heavy hemagglutination patterns resulting made this combination unacceptable for routine purposes. Neither low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl2 nor heparin-MnCl2 removed the pre-β lipoproteins completely, and occasionally traces of β-lipoprotein also remained after treatment. The presence of pre-β lipoproteins in normal sera after treatment may be of no consequence in the HI test since we have found that the very-low-density lipoprotein fractions obtained by ultracentrifugal methods from normal sera (those corresponding to the pre-β fractions obtained by electrophoresis) had no HI activity. However, very-low-density lipoprotein fractions from all hyperlipemic sera tested had HI activity (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) which, in the majority of cases, was not eliminated after heparin-MnCl2 treatment. In every case, treatment with SPS-CaCl2 removed this nonspecific activity completely. Since hyperlipemic sera may occasionally be encountered in routine rubella HI antibody testing, we recommend the use of SPS-CaCl2 rather than heparin-MnCl2 for pretreatment of sera. PMID

  12. Cation binding by bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.H.; Chen, J.G.; Govindjee, R.; Ebrey, T.

    1984-01-01

    It was found that extensively washed purple membrane has about 1 calcium and 3-4 magnesium ions bound per bacteriorhodopsin molecule. When these divalent cations are removed by any of a variety of means, the pigment changes its color from purple to blue (lambda/sub max/ approx. = 600 nm). This blue pigment, which can be formed at near neutral pH, is probably very similar to blue species formed when the pH of a purple membrane sample is lowered to approx. = 2. When any of a wide variety of cations are added to a blue membrane preparation, the characteristic purple color of bacteriorhodopsin returns. Divalent and trivalent cations are much more efficient than monovalent cations in restoring the purple color and are effective at a ratio approaching one cation per pigment molecule. Besides shifting the absorption spectrum, removal of the divalent cations drastically alters the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin, including abolishing the unprotonated Schiff base (M-type) intermediate. Finally, lanthanum not only displaces the divalent cations normally bound to the purple membrane but also greatly reduces both the rate of decay of the M412 intermediate and proton uptake.

  13. Self-assembly synthesis of hollow double silica @ mesoporous magnesium silicate magnetic hierarchical nanotubes with excellent performance for fast removal of cationic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yaxi; Cui, Guijia; Liu, Yan; Li, Haizhen; Sun, Zebin; Yan, Shiqiang

    2016-11-01

    In this work, novel hollow double silica @ mesoporous magnesium silicate magnetic hierarchical nanotubes (MgSNTs) were successfully synthesized by using magnetic mesoporous silica nanocapsules (MSNCs) as morphology templates via a hydrothermal method for the first time. MgSNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Mapping, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infraed spetroscopy, N2 adorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The synthesized MgSNTs with high specific surface area (588 m2/g), average pore width (7.13 nm) and pore volume (1.05 cm3/g) had high removal efficiency for low concentration methylene blue (70 mg/L, 299 mg/g) and high adsorption capacities for high concentration rodamine B (300 mg/L, 752 mg/g). Besides, it could be easily recovered due with the help of γ-Fe2O3 in the inner chamber. Moreover, the adsorption capacity, the influence of pH, adsorption kinetics and adsorption mechanism were also carefully and comprehensively investigated. The results indicated that magnetic magnesium silicate nanotubes (MgSNTs) using mesoporous silica nanocapsules as the assisted templates were promsing adsorbents for water purification.

  14. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  15. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  16. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  17. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  18. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part II: purification of targeted thorium conjugates on cation exchange columns.

    PubMed

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-09-01

    Tumor targeting pharmaceuticals will play a crucial role in future pharma pipelines. The targeted thorium conjugate (TTC) therapeutic platform could provide real benefit to patients, whereby targeting moieties like monoclonal antibodies are radiolabelled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th, t1/2 = 18.7 days). A potential problem could be the accumulation of the long-lived daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 days) in the drug product during manufacturing and distribution. Therefore, the level of (223)Ra must be standardized before administration to the patient. The focus in this study has been the removal of (223)Ra, as the other progenies will have a very limited stay in the formulation. In this study, the purification of TTCs labeled with decayed (227)Th has been explored. Columns packed with a strong cation exchange resin have been used to sequester (223)Ra. The separation of TTC from (223)Ra has been evaluated as influenced by both formulation and process parameters with a design of experiments (DOE) study; including citrate or acetate buffer, pH, buffer concentration, presence or absence of pABA + EDTA, resin amount and sodium chloride concentration. The aim was to achieve a separation with high sorption of (223)Ra and accompanying low TTC sorption. The results were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Four regression models of TTC and (223)Ra sorption from citrate and acetate buffered formulations were developed. The predictive accuracy of sorption in the four statistical models was given by standard deviations and confidence intervals. The TTC sorption in citrate and acetate buffered formulations was affected by the identical variables and the variation in TTC sorption was comparable for the two models. However, the DOE variables had a significantly stronger impact on the (223)Ra sorption in citrate buffered formulations than the (223)Ra sorption in acetate buffer. An optimal separation with a TTC sorption

  19. Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

    2013-08-01

    Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of Δ v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

  20. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part I: purification of decayed thorium-227 on cation exchange columns.

    PubMed

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-02-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates (TTCs) are being explored as a potential future platform for specific tumor targeting pharmaceuticals. In TTCs, the alpha emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th) with a half-life of 18.697 d is labeled to targeting moieties, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The amount of daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.435 d) will increase during manufacture and distribution, and so a technology for purification is required to assure an acceptable level of (223)Ra is administrated to the patient. Since (223)Ra is the only progeny of (227)Th with a long half-life (days), the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited stay in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. The focus in this study has, therefore, been on the removal of (223)Ra. In this study, the sorption and separation of (223)Ra (radium(II)) and (227)Th (thorium(IV)) on cation exchange columns has been evaluated as a purification method of decayed (227)Th (i.e. prior to radiolabelling of a mAb and formation of TTC). The goal is to minimize the sorption of (227)Th and maximize the sorption of (223)Ra. Statistical experimental design with formulation and process parameters, including buffered formulations comprising citrate and acetate, at various concentrations and pH, presence of free radical scavenger and chelator, and resin amount have been evaluated for impact on the purification process. The studies have been interpreted by the aid of multivariate data analysis. The correlations between design of experimental variables and sorption are summarized by regression models. The predictive accuracy of radionuclide sorption was given by standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals originating from statistical cross validation. Experimental results and statistical models for citrate-buffered formulations verified reproducible and acceptable sorption levels of (223)Ra and (227)Th under selected conditions. For acetate-buffered formulations, prediction of (227)Th

  1. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  2. Detection and characterization of carrier-mediated cationic amino acid transport in lysosomes of normal and cystinotic human fibroblasts. Role in therapeutic cystine removal

    SciTech Connect

    Pisoni, R.L.; Thoene, J.G.; Christensen, H.N.

    1985-04-25

    The discovery of a trans-stimulation property associated with lysine exodus from lysosomes of human fibroblasts has enabled us to characterize a system mediating the transport of cationic amino acids across the lysosomal membrane of human fibroblasts. The cationic amino acids arginine, lysine, ornithine, diaminobutyrate, histidine, 2-aminoethylcysteine, and the mixed disulfide of cysteine and cysteamine all caused trans-stimulation of the exodus of radiolabeled lysine from the lysosomal fraction of human fibroblasts at pH 6.5. In contrast, neutral and acidic amino acids did not affect the rate of lysine exodus. Trans-stimulation of lysine exodus was observed over the pH range from 5.5 to 7.6, was specific for the L-isomer of the cationic amino acid, and was intolerant to methylation of the alpha-amino group of the amino acid. The lysosomotropic amine, chloroquine, greatly retarded lysine exodus, whereas the presence of sodium ion was without effect. The specificity and lack of Na+ dependence of this lysosomal transport system is similar to that of System y+ present on the plasma membrane of human fibroblasts. An important mechanism by which cysteamine treatment of cystinosis allows cystine escape from lysosomes may be the ability of the mixed disulfide of cysteine and cysteamine formed by sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange to migrate by this newly discovered system mediating cationic amino acid transport.

  3. First-Principles Calculation Study of Mechanism of Cation Adsorption Selectivity of Zeolites: A Guideline for Effective Removal of Radioactive Cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko

    2013-02-01

    Zeolites have attracted attention in the reprocessing of radioactive nuclear waste because of their high selective affinity for radioisotopes of Cs. Very recently, their useful properties have been widely utilized in decontamination after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants. In this study, we study the high selectivity in the Cs adsorption of zeolites using first-principles calculations and clarify the mechanism of the cation selectivity of zeolites. We obtain energy surfaces on all capture locations for Cs/Na ions inside the micropores of a zeolite, ``mordenite'', and find three crucial conditions for the highly ion-selective exchange of Na for Cs: i) micropores with a radius of ˜3 Å, ii) a moderate Al/Si ratio, and iii) a uniform distribution of Al atoms around each micropore. These insights suggest a guideline for developing zeolites with high Cs selectivity and for enhancing the cation selectivity in more general situations.

  4. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Divya, L; Ramachandran, M

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R(2)=0.99; chi(2)=1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  5. A novel supramolecular polymer gel based on naphthalimide functionalized-pillar[5]arene for the fluorescence detection of Hg(2+) and I(-) and recyclable removal of Hg(2+)via cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qi; Mao, Peng-Peng; Fan, Yan-Qing; Liu, Lu; Liu, Juan; Zhang, You-Ming; Yao, Hong; Wei, Tai-Bao

    2017-08-29

    The development of novel materials for the detection and removal of Hg(2+) is a very important issue due to the acute toxicity of Hg(2+). Herein, a novel supramolecular polymer P5BD-DPHB has been constructed by the collaboration of a naphthalimide functionalized-pillar[5]arene host (P5BD) and a bis-bromohexane functionalized-pillar[5]arene guest (DPHB). P5BD-DPHB could form a stable supramolecular gel (P5BD-DPHB-G). Interestingly, P5BD-DPHB-G shows selective fluorescent "turn-on" detection for Hg(2+)via cation-π interactions with high selectivity and sensitivity. Furthermore, the Hg(2+) coordinated supramolecular gel P5BD-DPHB-HgG can detect I(-) successively. The detection limits for Hg(2+) and I(-) are 1.65 × 10(-9) and 1.84 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), respectively. Even more significantly, the xerogel of P5BD-DPHB-G could remove Hg(2+) from aqueous solution with excellent recyclability and ingestion capacity, and with a Hg(2+) removal rate of 98%.

  6. Highly precise detection, discrimination, and removal of anionic surfactants over the full pH range via cationic conjugated polymer: an efficient strategy to facilitate illicit-drug analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sameer; Malik, Akhtar H; Iyer, Parameswar K

    2015-02-11

    A water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE), poly(1,4-bis(6-(1-methylimidazolium)-hexyloxy)-benzene bromide) (PMI) displays extraordinary stability over the full pH range of 1-14 as well as in seawater, brine, urine, and other solutions and carries out efficient detection, discrimination, and removal of moderately dissimilar anionic surfactants (viz., sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) at very low levels (31.7 and 17.3 parts per billion (ppb), respectively). PMI formed stable hydrogels in the presence of SDS that remained unaffected by strong acids/bases, heating, ultrasonication, or exposure to light, whereas SDBS formed precipitate with PMI as a result of its different interpolymer cofacial arrangement via Columbic attraction. The complex-forming ability of PMI with SDS and SDBS facilitated their elimination from water or drug-doped urine samples without the use of any organic solvent, chromatographic technique, or solid support. This protocol, the first of its kind for the removal of anionic surfactants at very low concentrations from any type of solution and competitive environments, demonstrates an original application using a CPE. The surfactant-free sample solutions could be precisely analyzed for the presence of illicit drugs by any standard methods. Using PMI, a newly developed CPE, a rapid and practical method for the efficient detection, discrimination, and removal of SDS and SDBS at ppb levels from water and urine, under harsh conditions, and in natural chemical environments is demonstrated.

  7. Removal of cationic Rhodamine-B dye using nano-titania with anatase crystalline structure and kinetic analysis of the photocatalytic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye from liquid phase was done using anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 synthesized via a modified sol-gel process. The anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was characterized using various analytical techniques including XRD, UV-vis DRS, PL, and FTIR to investigate its phase composition and structure, nanocrystalline size, band gap energy, photoluminescence and surface properties of the prepared systems. The photocatalytic discoloration efficiency of anatase-phase nanocrystalline titania was investigated by monitoring the decomposition of RhB dye as target compounds in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the as-prepared anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was excellent for degradation of RhB molecule, and the crystallite size, excitonic PL and surface hydroxyl content have intimate relationship with the decomposition efficiency of RhB. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the results demonstrate that the role of direct photolysis on RhB dye degradation can be neglected. Meanwhile, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model describes the photodecay date of RhB in consistent with a first order powder law and thus photocatalytic oxidation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  8. Application of Brazilian kaolinite clay as adsorbent to removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic and thermodynamic of cation-basic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, Denis L.; Leidens, Victor L.; Viana, Rubia R.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2010-05-15

    The compound N{sup 1}-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route. The modified and natural kaolinite samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic nuclei of {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C. The well-defined peaks obtained in the {sup 13}C NMR spectrum in the 5.0-62.1 ppm region confirmed the attachment of organic functional groups as pendant chains bonded into the porous clay. The ability of these materials to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms adjusted to a Sips equation at room temperature and pH 4.0. The kinetic parameters analyzed by the Lagergren and Elovich models gave a good fit for a pseudo-second order reaction with k{sub 2} values 16.0 and 25.1 mmol g{sup -1} min{sup -1} ranges for natural and modified kaolinite clays, respectively. The energetic effects caused by metal ion adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. - Graphical abstract: This investigation reports the use of original and modified kaolinites as alternative absorbents. The compound N-[3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine was anchored onto Amazon kaolinite surface by heterogeneous route.

  9. A simple and effective method for the removal of trace metal cations from a mammalian culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M H; Suzuki, K T

    1995-07-01

    Direct batch addition of sterile Chelex ion-exchange resin to Dubecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum with gentle stirring removed a very wide variety of trace metal ions from the medium to varying extents dependent upon Chelex content (between 0.01 and 4% w/v), exposure time (between 5 min and 10 days) and temperature (4, 25 and 37 degrees C). Prolonged treatment (10 days) with 4% w/v Chelex at 4 degrees C reduced the concentration of zinc, strontium, aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel and chromium from 100 to 2.7, 12.1, 7.7, 22.6, 13.0, 14.7 and 53.3% of their original concentrations, respectively. Re-supplementation of the metal depleted medium with a defined cocktail of metals restored the growth potential of the medium which was then capable of supporting growth over at least three subcultures without a decrease in fibroblast cell yield, demonstrating its suitability in cell culture studies on trace metal ions.

  10. Temperature-induced vesicle to micelle transition in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Liu, Lifei; Huang, Xin; Tan, Xiuniang; Luo, Tian; Li, Wei

    2015-12-07

    Temperature-induced vesicle to micelle transition (VMT), which has rarely been reported in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems, was systemically studied in a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)/dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) aqueous solution. We investigated the effect of temperature on DDAB/DTAC aqueous solutions by means of turbidity, conductivity, cryo-TEM, a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and a steady-state fluorescence spectrometer. It was found that increasing temperature could induce the transformation from the vesicle to the micelle in this cationic/cationic mixed surfactant system. The degree of transformation can be easily controlled by the operation temperature. Additionally, by adjusting the proportion of the mixed cationic/cationic systems and employing cationic surfactants with different chain-lengths, we were able to conclude that the hydrophobic tail length of the surfactant affects the aggregation behavior of cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems as a function of temperature. It is universal to induce the transformation from the vesicle to the micelle by temperature in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems. A possible mechanism for the temperature-induced VMT was proposed based on the experimental results.

  11. An Easily Constructed Model of a Square Antiprism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi

    1984-01-01

    A model of a square antiprism which is necessary for teaching stereochemistry (for example, of the octafluorotantalate ion) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

  12. Easily constructed mini-sextant demonstrates optical principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenninger, Garet G.

    2000-04-01

    An easily constructed optical instrument for measuring the angle between the Sun and the horizon is described. The miniature sextant relies on multiple reflections to produce multiple images of the sun at fixed angles away from the true Sun.

  13. Using an algorithm to easily interpret basic cardiac rhythms.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Denise

    2005-11-01

    MANY NURSES STRUGGLE with identifying electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms, but rapidly interpreting primary ECG rhythms is an essential skill that every nurse should master. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES an algorithm that nurses can use to easily interpret basic ECG rhythms.

  14. Description of the Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Bruce K. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Experimental Avionics Systems Integration Laboratory (EASILY) is a comprehensive facility used for development, integration, and preflight validation of hardware and software systems for the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) experimental transport aircraft. This report describes the history, capabilities, and subsystems of EASILY. A functional description of the many subsystems is provided to give potential users the necessary knowledge of the capabilities of this facility.

  15. Easily Testable PLA-Based Finite State Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    PLATYPUS (20]. Then, justifi- type 1, 4 and 5 can be guaranteed to be testable via cation paths are obtained from the STG using simple logic...next state lines is found, if such a vector par that is gnrt d y the trupt eexists, using PLATYPUS [20]. pair that is generated by the first corrupted

  16. Epoxy-coated containers easily opened by wire band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Coy, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Epoxy coating reduces punctures, abrasions, and contamination of synthetic cellular containers used for shipping and storing fragile goods and equipment. A wire band is wound around the closure joint, followed by the epoxy coating. The container can then be easily opened by pulling the wire through the epoxy around the joint.

  17. Metathesis depolymerization for removable surfactant templates.

    SciTech Connect

    Zifer, Thomas; Wheeler, David Roger; Rahimian, Kamayar; McElhanon, James Ross; Long, Timothy Michael; Jamison, Gregory Marks; Loy, Douglas Anson; Kline, Steven R.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Current methodologies for the production of meso- and nanoporous materials include the use of a surfactant to produce a self-assembled template around which the material is formed. However, post-production surfactant removal often requires centrifugation, calcination, and/or solvent washing which can damage the initially formed material architecture(s). Surfactants that can be disassembled into easily removable fragments following material preparation would minimize processing damage to the material structure, facilitating formation of templated hybrid architectures. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of novel cationic and anionic surfactants with regularly spaced unsaturation in their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails and the first application of ring closing metathesis depolymerization to surfactant degradation resulting in the mild, facile decomposition of these new compounds to produce relatively volatile nonsurface active remnants.

  18. An easily assembled laboratory exercise in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylott, Elliot; Klepetka, Ryan; Dunlap, Justin C.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present a laboratory activity in computed tomography (CT) primarily composed of a photogate and a rotary motion sensor that can be assembled quickly and partially automates data collection and analysis. We use an enclosure made with a light filter that is largely opaque in the visible spectrum but mostly transparent to the near IR light of the photogate (880 nm) to scan objects hidden from the human eye. This experiment effectively conveys how an image is formed during a CT scan and highlights the important physical and imaging concepts behind CT such as electromagnetic radiation, the interaction of light and matter, artefacts and windowing. Like our setup, previous undergraduate level laboratory activities which teach the basics of CT have also utilized light sources rather than x-rays; however, they required a more extensive setup and used devices not always easily found in undergraduate laboratories. Our setup is easily implemented with equipment found in many teaching laboratories.

  19. [Easily implemented cognitive behaviour techniques in primary care (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Tarín, C; Manzanera-Escartí, R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy has shown to be very effective for treating the vast majority of mental health disorders. In this second part of the article, we continue commenting on those techniques that can be easily used in the Primary Care setting. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. [Easily closed gun-barrel enterostomy. A new technique].

    PubMed

    Belliard, R; Saric, J; Dost, C; Vergne, P; Perissat, J

    1982-05-15

    The availability of continuous low rate enteral and parenteral feeding has enlarged the indications of enterostomy, notably in patients with multiple operations. However, closing an enterostomy, which may be high up in the small bowel, rises technical problems and is not always without risk. In this study a new technique of gun-barrel enterostomy easily closed with automatic sutures and without reopening of the abdominal wall is presented.

  1. A method for easily customizable gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew J; Roman, Brandon; Norstrom, Eric

    2016-09-15

    Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for the resolution of polypeptides by relative mobility. Here, we present a simplified method for generating polyacrylamide gradient gels for routine analysis without the need for specialized mixing equipment. The method allows for easily customizable gradients which can be optimized for specific polypeptide resolution requirements. Moreover, the method eliminates the possibility of buffer cross contamination in mixing equipment, and the time and resources saved with this method in place of traditional gradient mixing, or the purchase of pre-cast gels, are noteworthy given the frequency with which many labs use gradient gel SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From an Easily Accessible Pentacarbonylcobalt(I) Salt to Piano Stool Cations [(arene)Co(CO)2 ]().

    PubMed

    Meier, Stefan C; Holz, Albina; Schmidt, Alexei; Kratzert, Daniel; Himmel, Daniel; Krossing, Ingo

    2017-08-10

    The facile synthesis of a pentacarbonyl cobalt(I) salt without the need for a super acid as solvent is presented. This salt, [Co(CO)5 ](+) [Al(OR(F) )4 ](-) {R(F) =C(CF3 )3 }, readily accessible on a multigram scale, undergoes substitution reactions with arenes yielding the hitherto unknown class of two-legged cobalt piano stool complexes [(arene)Co(CO)2 ](+) with four different arene ligands. Such a substitution chemistry would have been impossible in superacid solution, as the arenes used would have been oxidized and/or protonated. Thus, the general approach described herein may have a wide synthetic use. Additionally, the thermochemistry of the piano-stool complexes is shown to be not easy to describe computationally and most of the established DFT methods overestimate the reaction energies. Only CCSD(T) calculations close to the basis set limit gave energies fully agreeing with the experiment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Internal crankcase ventilation system with easily accessible PCV valve

    SciTech Connect

    Balsley, R.L.

    1986-07-29

    A crankcase ventilation system is described having a flow limiting PCV valve and means defining and internal passage between a crankcase and a cylinder charge induction means of an engine, the system comprising an engine valve cover forming a part of the internal passage defining means and having an exterior wall, a cavity in the cover wall and forming a portion of the internal passage, the wall further including valve mounting means surrounding the passage and receiving the valve and a valve body seal in position to control flow through the mounting means and passage and an opening through the wall to the housing exterior and generally opposite the mounting means for removing and replacing a valve on the mounting means, and closure means normally closing the opening and preventing air leakage therethrough into the induction system, the closure means engaging the valve to maintain its installed position within the wall cavity and being openable to permit removal of the PCV valve.

  4. Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes.

    PubMed

    McPeak, Kevin M; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Kress, Stephan J P; Meyer, Stefan; Iotti, Stelio; Rossinelli, Aurelio; Norris, David J

    2015-03-18

    High-quality materials are critical for advances in plasmonics, especially as researchers now investigate quantum effects at the limit of single surface plasmons or exploit ultraviolet- or CMOS-compatible metals such as aluminum or copper. Unfortunately, due to inexperience with deposition methods, many plasmonics researchers deposit metals under the wrong conditions, severely limiting performance unnecessarily. This is then compounded as others follow their published procedures. In this perspective, we describe simple rules collected from the surface-science literature that allow high-quality plasmonic films of aluminum, copper, gold, and silver to be easily deposited with commonly available equipment (a thermal evaporator). Recipes are also provided so that films with optimal optical properties can be routinely obtained.

  5. Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in Drosophila adults.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jason R; Tanouye, Mark A

    2013-10-15

    Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas(+) in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas(+) in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-quality materials are critical for advances in plasmonics, especially as researchers now investigate quantum effects at the limit of single surface plasmons or exploit ultraviolet- or CMOS-compatible metals such as aluminum or copper. Unfortunately, due to inexperience with deposition methods, many plasmonics researchers deposit metals under the wrong conditions, severely limiting performance unnecessarily. This is then compounded as others follow their published procedures. In this perspective, we describe simple rules collected from the surface-science literature that allow high-quality plasmonic films of aluminum, copper, gold, and silver to be easily deposited with commonly available equipment (a thermal evaporator). Recipes are also provided so that films with optimal optical properties can be routinely obtained. PMID:25950012

  7. An easily fabricated high performance ionic polymer based sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Xiaopin; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer materials can generate an electrical potential from ion migration under an external force. For traditional ionic polymer metal composite sensors, the output voltage is very small (a few millivolts), and the fabrication process is complex and time-consuming. This letter presents an ionic polymer based network of pressure sensors which is easily and quickly constructed, and which can generate high voltage. A 3 × 3 sensor array was prepared by casting Nafion solution directly over copper wires. Under applied pressure, two different levels of voltage response were observed among the nine nodes in the array. For the group producing the higher level, peak voltages reached as high as 25 mV. Computational stress analysis revealed the physical origin of the different responses. High voltages resulting from the stress concentration and asymmetric structure can be further utilized to modify subsequent designs to improve the performance of similar sensors.

  8. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977 mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300 mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850 mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes.

  9. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  10. A versatile patterning process based on easily soluble sacrificial bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Takayuki; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a microfabrication process is essential to embed fascinating physical properties of functional materials into mesoscopic devices. Different from well-investigated materials with established microfabrication process, newly-discovered materials often meet difficulty when scaling down into a mesoscopic size, because process damages cause serious deterioration of their functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a versatile lift-off method using a carefully designed sacrificial bilayer, composed of an easily soluble layer and a thermally stable rigid layer. In this method, the target films can be grown in optimum conditions, such as high temperature and high oxygen partial pressure, on the stable pre-patterned substrate with the inorganic sacrificial bilayer. After film deposition, measurable patterned devices can be obtained just by a short-time lift-off in a mild chemical solution. We carried out micron-scale patterning and electrical measurements by applying this technique to one of perovskite oxides, SrRuO3, and Fe-based chalcogenide superconductors, FeSe, both of which are incompatible with conventional photolithography and dry-etching processes. The demonstrated narrowest line width of 5 μm is successfully patterned with maintaining the almost identical properties of the pristine films, exemplifying that process damage is minimized. The demonstrated versatile patterning process expands the range of application of emerging functional materials in thin film devices.

  11. Disaster easily averted? Data confidentiality and the hospital desktop computer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Neeraj; Lane, Gethin; Newton, Sophie; Egan, Philip; Ghosh, Samit

    2014-05-01

    We specifically identified the hospital desktop computer as a potential source of breaches in confidentiality. We aimed to evaluate if there was accessible, unprotected, confidential information stored on the desktop screen on computers in a district general hospital and if so, how a teaching intervention could improve this situation. An unannounced spot check of 59 ward computers was performed. Data were collected regarding how many had confidential information stored on the desktop screen without any password protection. An online learning module was mandated for healthcare staff and a second cycle of inspection performed. A district general hospital. Two doctors conducted the audit. Computers in clinical areas were assessed. All clinical staff with computer access underwent the online learning module. An online learning module regarding data protection and confidentiality. In the first cycle, 55% of ward computers had easily accessible patient or staff confidential information stored on their desktop screen. This included handovers, referral letters, staff sick leave lists, audits and nursing reports. The majority (85%) of computers accessed were logged in under a generic username and password. The intervention produced an improvement in the second cycle findings with only 26% of computers being found to have unprotected confidential information stored on them. The failure to comply with appropriate confidential data protection regulations is a persistent problem. Education produces some improvement but we also propose a systemic approach to solving this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from wastewater by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a coagulant

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Tatsumi, Kenji )

    1995-02-20

    Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from industrial wastewater by tyrosinase was investigated. A color change from colorless to dark brown was observed, but no precipitate was formed. Colored products were found to be easily removed by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant containing amino group, such as hexamethylenediamine-epichlorohidrin polycondensate, polyethleneimine, or chitosan. The first two coagulants, synthetic polymers, were more effective than chitosan, a polymer produced in crustacean shells. Phenols and aromatic amines are not precipitated by any kind of coagulants, but their enzymatic reaction products are easily precipitated by a cationic polymer coagulant. These results indicate that the combination of tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant is effective in removing carcinogenic phenols and aromatic amines from an aqueous solution. Immobilization of tyrosinase on magnetite gave a good retention of activity (80%) and storage stability i.e., only 5% loss after 15 days of storage at ambient temperature. In the treatment of immobilized tyrosinase, colored enzymatic reaction products were removed by less coagulant compared with soluble tyrosinase.

  13. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  14. The cubyl cation rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Jalife, Said; Mondal, Sukanta; Cabellos, Jose Luis; Martinez-Guajardo, Gerardo; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A; Merino, Gabriel

    2016-02-25

    Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and high-level ab initio computations predict that the cage-opening rearrangement of the cubyl cation to the 7H(+)-pentalenyl cation is feasible in the gas phase. The rate-determining step is the formation of the cuneyl cation with an activation barrier of 25.3 kcal mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/def2-TZVP//MP2/def2-TZVP level. Thus, the cubyl cation is kinetically stable enough to be formed and trapped at moderate temperatures, but it may be rearranged at higher temperatures.

  15. Too easily lead? Health effects of gasoline additives.

    PubMed Central

    Menkes, D B; Fawcett, J P

    1997-01-01

    Octane-enhancing constituents of gasoline pose a number of health hazards. This paper considers the relative risks of metallic (lead, manganese), aromatic (e.g., benzene), and oxygenated additives in both industrialized and developing countries. Technological advances, particularly in industrialized countries, have allowed the progressive removal of lead from gasoline and the increased control of exhaust emissions. The developing world, by contrast, has relatively lax environmental standards and faces serious public health problems from vehicle exhaust and the rapid increase in automobile use. Financial obstacles to the modernization of refineries and vehicle fleets compound this problem and the developing world continues to import large quantities of lead additives and other hazardous materials. Progress in decreasing environmental health problems depends both on the adoption of international public health standards as well as efforts to decrease dependence on the private automobile for urban transport. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9171982

  16. Surface functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles with cationic polymers via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Characterization and enhanced removal of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-28

    Monodispersed SiO2 particles functionalized with cationic polymers poly-((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAPTCl) were prepared using mussel inspired surface modification strategy and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potential were employed to characterize these SiO2 samples. The adsorption performance of the functionalized SiO2 (donated as SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl) towards anionic organic dye Congo red (CR) was investigated to evaluate their potential environmental applications. We demonstrated that the surface of SiO2 particles can be successfully functionalized with cationic PAPTCl. The adsorption capability of as-prepared SiO2 was found to increases from 28.70 and 106.65mg/g after surface grafted with cationic polymers. The significant enhancement in the adsorption capability of SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl is mainly attributed to the introduction of cationic polymers. More importantly, this strategy is expected to be promising for fabrication of many other functional polymer nanocomposites for environmental applications due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and well designability and good monomer adaptability of SI-ATRP.

  17. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: an easily overlooked neurologic emergency

    PubMed Central

    Oruch, Ramadhan; Pryme, Ian F; Engelsen, Bernt A; Lund, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an unpredictable iatrogenic neurologic emergency condition, mainly arising as an idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic agent use. It is characterized by distinctive clinical features including a change in mental status, generalized rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and dysautonomia. It can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated properly. Mortality and morbidity attributed to this syndrome have recently declined markedly due to greater awareness, earlier diagnosis, and intensive care intervention. In most cases, the syndrome occurs as a result of a rapid increase in a dose of neuroleptic, especially one of the long-acting ones. Pathophysiology behind this syndrome is attributed to a dopamine receptor blockade inside the neurons rendered by the offending drug and excessive calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myocytes. Laboratory tests, although not diagnostic, may assist in assessing the severity of the syndrome and also the consequent complications. The syndrome has been described in all age groups and occurs more in males than in females. Genetics appears to be central regarding the etiology of the syndrome. Stopping the use of the offending agent, cold intravenous fluids, and removal of the causative agent and its possible active metabolites is the cornerstone of treatment. Periodic observation of psychotic patients recently started on antipsychotic medications, especially those being treated with depot preparations, may aid to an early diagnosis of the syndrome and lead to early treatment. PMID:28144147

  18. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  19. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  20. Detection and removal of contaminating hydroxylamines from the spin trap DEPMPO, and re-evaluation of its use to indicate nitrone radical cation formation and S(N)1 reactions.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Simon K; Liu, Ke Jian; Liu, Miao; Timmins, Graham S

    2002-02-01

    A previous report that the spin trap 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) allows DEPMPO radical cation formation to be detected via the production of a carbon-centred radical adduct (assigned as the cis-hydroxyethyl species, formed by an intramolecular process) is shown to be incorrect. Rather, this and other paramagnetic species arise from the facile oxidation of trace hydroxylamine impurities present in commercial DEPMPO samples. As a result, techniques for the detection and elimination of such hydroxylamine impurities from DEPMPO solutions were developed and are described; these should prove to be of general use in EPR spin trapping experiments.

  1. Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite for rapid scavenging of cationic and anionic dyes from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite was successfully carried out for the removal of cationic (Methylene Blue, MB) and anionic dyes (Congo Red, CR) from synthetic wastewater. Nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, EDS analysis and zeta potential. TEM analysis indicated that the particle diameter of nanocomposite was in the range of 14 to 23nm. Various important parameters viz. contact time, concentration of dyes, nanocomposite dosage, temperature and solution pH were optimized to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. In the case of MB, removal decreased from 99.82% to 93.67% while for CR, removal decreased from 88.55% to 75.69% on increasing dye concentration from 100 to 450mg/L. pH study confirmed the higher removal of CR in acidic range while MB removal was higher in alkaline range. Kinetic study revealed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model for the adsorption of both dyes. Negative values of ΔG(0) for both systems suggested the feasibility of dye removal and support for spontaneous adsorption of CR and MB on nanocomposite. Nanocomposite showed 277.77 and 238.09mg/g Langmuir adsorption capacity for MB and CR respectively. Desorption of dyes from the dye loaded nanocomposite was easily carried out with acetone. The results indicate that the prepared malachite@clay nanocomposite is an efficient adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for the aforementioned dyes.

  2. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  3. Restructuring of a Peat in Interaction with Multivalent Cations: Effect of Cation Type and Aging Time

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al3+, Ca2+ or Na+, respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for Ca

  4. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    PubMed

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (<2 h) and was described by a Langmuir model. The maximum uptake increased with pH of cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for

  5. The pi-Cation Radical of Chlorophyll a.

    PubMed

    Borg, D C; Fajer, J; Felton, R H; Dolphin, D

    1970-10-01

    Chlorophyll a undergoes reversible one-electron oxidation in dichloromethane and butyronitrile. Removal of the electron by controlled potential electrolysis or by stoichiometric charge transfer to a known cation radical yields a radical (epr line width = 9 gauss, g = 2.0025 +/- 0.0001) whose optical spectrum is bleached relative to that of chlorophyll. Upon electrophoresis this bleached species behaves as a cation. By comparison with the known properties of pi-cation radicals of porphyrins and chlorins, the chlorophyll radical is also identified as a pi-cation. Further correlation of optical and epr properties with published studies on photosynthesis leads to the conclusion that oxidized P700, the first photochemical product of photosystem I in green plants, contains a pi-cation radical of the chlorin component of chlorophyll a. This radical is the likely source of the rapidly-decaying, narrow epr signal of photosynthesis.

  6. Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lincopan, Nilton; Santana, Mariana RA; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana; da Costa, Maria Helena B; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001–1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in vivo from delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions determined by foot-pad swelling tests (DTH) and cytokines analysis evidenced the superior performance of the silica/DODAB adjuvant as compared to alum or antigens alone whereas humoral response from IgG in serum was equal to the one elicited by alum as adjuvant. Conclusion Cationized silica is a biocompatible, inexpensive, easily prepared and possibly general immunoadjuvant for antigen presentation which displays higher colloid stability than alum, better performance regarding cellular immune responses and employs very low, micromolar doses of cationic and toxic synthetic lipid. PMID:19152701

  7. Easily Regenerable Solid Adsorbents Based on Polyamines for Carbon Dioxide Capture from the Air

    SciTech Connect

    Goeppert, A; Zhang, H; Czaun, M; May, RB; Prakash, GKS; Olah, GA; Narayanan, SR

    2014-03-18

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  8. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  9. Solar-assisted photodegradation of isoproturon over easily recoverable titania catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tolosana-Moranchel, A; Carbajo, J; Faraldos, M; Bahamonde, A

    2017-01-27

    An easily recoverable homemade TiO2 catalyst (GICA-1) has been evaluated during the overall photodegradation process, understood as photocatalytic efficiency and catalyst recovery step, in the solar light-assisted photodegradation of isoproturon and its reuse in two consecutive cycles. The global feasibility has been compared to the commercial TiO2 P25. The homemade GICA-1 catalyst presented better sedimentation efficiency than TiO2 P25 at all studied pHs, which could be explained by its higher average hydrodynamic particle size (3 μm) and other physicochemical surface properties. The evaluation of the overall process (isoproturon photo-oxidation + catalyst recovery) revealed GICA-1 homemade titania catalyst strengths: total removal of isoproturon in less than 60 min, easy recovery by sedimentation, and reusability in two consecutive cycles, without any loss of photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, considering the whole photocatalytic cycle (good performance in photodegradation plus catalyst recovery step), the homemade GICA-1 photocatalyst resulted in more affordability than commercial TiO2 P25. Graphical abstract.

  10. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  11. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability-implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.

  12. Diaryldichalcogenide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Ole; Khanfar, Monther A; Malischewski, Moritz; Finke, Pamela; Hesse, Malte; Lork, Enno; Augenstein, Timo; Breher, Frank; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Vasilieva, Nadezhda V; Zibarev, Andrey; Bogomyakov, Artem S; Seppelt, Konrad; Beckmann, Jens

    2015-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of two series of diaryldichalcogenides (C6F5E)2 (13a-c) and (2,6-Mes2C6H3E)2 (16a-c) was studied (E = S, Se, Te). The reaction of 13a and 13b with AsF5 and SbF5 gave rise to the formation of thermally unstable radical cations [(C6F5S)2]˙(+) (14a) and [(C6F5Se)2]˙(+) (14b) that were isolated as [Sb2F11](-) and [As2F11](-) salts, respectively. The reaction of 13c with AsF5 afforded only the product of a Te-C bond cleavage, namely the previously known dication [Te4](2+) that was isolated as [AsF6](-) salt. The reaction of (2,6-Mes2C6H3E)2 (16a-c) with [NO][SbF6] provided the corresponding radical cations [(2,6-Mes2C6H3E)2]˙(+) (17a-c; E = S, Se, Te) in the form of thermally stable [SbF6](-) salts in nearly quantitative yields. The electronic and structural properties of these radical cations were probed by X-ray diffraction analysis, EPR spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and other methods.

  13. [Mechanisms of removing red tide organisms by organo-clays].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xi-Hua; Song, Xiu-Xian; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Kui

    2006-08-01

    We tested the influence of the preparation conditions of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) modified clays on their capacities to remove red tide organisms, then discussed the mechanisms of the organo-clays removing red tide organisms. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) improved the capacity of clays to flocculate red tide algae, and the HDTMA in metastable state enhanced the toxicity of the clay complexes to algae. The capacities of the organo-clays correlated with the toxicity and the adsorbed amount of the QACs used in clays modification, but as the incubation time was prolonged the stability of the organo-clays was improved and the algal removal efficiencies of the clay complexes decreased. When the adsorbed HDTMA was arranged in different clays in which the spatial resistance was different, there was more HDTMA in metastable state in the three-layer montmorillonite. Because of the homo-ion effect the bivalent or trivalent metal ions induced more HDTMA in metastable state and the corresponding organo-clays had high capacities to remove red tide organisms. When the reaction temperature was 60 degrees C the adsorbed HDTMA was easily arranged on cation exchange sites, if the temperature rose or fell the metastable HDTMA would increase so that the capacity of the clays was improved.

  14. Cation diffusion in titanomagnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, R.; McCallister, R. H.; Harrison, H. R.

    1984-02-01

    Interdiffusion couple experiments were performed with titanomagnetite single crystals at 1,000°C, 1,100° C and 1,200° C in various buffered atmospheres. The dependence of the interdiffusion coefficient on oxygen fugacity, composition and temperature was interpreted in terms of point defect structure. Estimates of the cation tracer diffusivities indicate that Fe migrates via a point defect mechanism, involving mixed tetrahedral-octahedral site jumps, with an activation energy of 33 Kcal/mole; whereas Ti migration is one to two orders of magnitude slower, is restricted to octahedral sites and has an activation energy of 60 Kcal/mole.

  15. Application of Vegard's law to mixed cation sodalites: a simple method for determining the stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lambregts, Marsha J; Frank, Steve

    2004-02-27

    Vegard's law describes the empirical relationship between the crystal lattice parameter of a mixture and its components. This relationship holds for some sodalites, in particular those containing mixtures of Li, K and Na as the charge balancing cations. By utilizing previously published lattice parameters for Li/Na and K/Na mixed cation chloride sodalites, linear curves were drawn allowing the composition of the mixed cation sodalites to be determined from their lattice parameters. Further, by mathematical addition of the curves for Li/Na and K/Na mixed cation chloride sodalites, a linear curve was developed and tested for the mixed tri-cation Li/Na/K chloride sodalites. This provides a simple way to monitor the composition of mixed cation sodalites and has an application in monitoring the composition of multi-phase materials where the sodalite phase cannot be easily separated for elemental analysis.

  16. Dissecting the cation-cation interaction between two uranyl units.

    PubMed

    Tecmer, Paweł; Hong, Sung W; Boguslawski, Katharina

    2016-07-21

    We present a state-of-the-art computational study of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) cation-cation interactions (dications) in aqueous solution. Reliable electronic structures of two interacting uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) subunits as well as those of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) clusters are presented for the first time. Our theoretical study elucidates the impact of cation-cation interactions on changes in the molecular structure as well as changes in vibrational and UV-Vis spectra of the bare uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) moieties for different total spin-states and total charges of the dications.

  17. Alkaline earth metal cation exchange: effect of mobile counterion and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Indarawis, Katrina; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-04-17

    The goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the interactions between alkaline earth metals and DOM under conditions that are encountered during drinking water treatment with particular focus on cation exchange. Both magnetically enhanced and nonmagnetic cation exchange resins were converted to Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba mobile counterion forms as a novel approach to investigate the exchange behavior between the cations and the interactions between the cations and DOM. The results show that cation exchange is a robust process for removal of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) considering competition with cations on the resin surface and presence of DOM. DOM was actively involved during the cation exchange process through complexation, adsorption, and coprecipitation reactions. In addition to advancing the understanding of ion exchange processes for water treatment, the results of this work are applicable to membrane pretreatment to minimize fouling, treatment of membrane concentrate, and precipitative softening.

  18. A monovalent cationic conductance that is blocked by extracellular divalent cations in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, R O; Woodward, R M; Miledi, R

    1995-01-01

    1. Native Xenopus oocytes were voltage clamped and exposed to Ringer solutions containing low concentrations of divalent cations. Oocytes, held at -60 mV, developed a reversible non-inactivating smooth inward current (Ic) associated with an increase in membrane conductance. 2. Ic was selectively carried by cations (Na+, K+), indicating that the current was not the result of a non-specific membrane breakdown, but was due instead to removal of a blocking effect of divalent cations on a specific population of endogenous ionic channels located in the oocyte membrane. 3. The blocking effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were voltage dependent, implying action at a binding site within the pore of the cationic channel. For example, the half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of Ic by Ca2+ was 61 microM in oocytes held at -60 mV and 212 microM in oocytes held at 0 mV. 4. The Ic channels could be unblocked by depolarization of the membrane even in the presence of physiological concentrations of Ca2+ or Mg2+. The unblocking of the channels was observed as a slowly developing outward current. 5. The novel cationic current was substantially reduced following in vitro maturation of oocytes by treatment with progesterone (10 microM, 4-5 h). 6. The physiological role of Ic channels remains to be elucidated. Nonetheless, their characteristics explain the ionic basis of the sensitivity of oocytes to reductions in extracellular divalent cations and raise the possibility that the channels play a role in calcium homeostasis. PMID:7542710

  19. High NH(4)(+)-N concentration wastewater treatment by shortcut nitrification-denitrification using a system of A/O inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Hu, X M; Chen, Y W; Liao, Y G; Yan, W F; Zhu, S M; Shen, S B

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment, a rapid mass-transfer inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was employed to treat synthetic high ammonia nitrogen-containing (NH(4)(+)-N) wastewater by shortcut nitrification-denitrification. The reactor operation was stable after a short start-up period. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were predominant and 65% nitrite (NO(2)(-)-N/NO(x)(-)-N) levels were achieved. During the nitrification-denitrification period, the removal rates of NH(4)(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) reached 94 and 82%, respectively. From the material balance, it was indicated that 87% of NH(4)(+)-N was removed by shortcut nitrification. The features of ILFBBR and the benefits of shortcut nitrification were combined in this experiment, and showed an excellent removal of NH(4)(+)-N from high-concentration NH(4)(+)-N wastewater.

  20. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken out at the same time as the tonsils ( tonsillectomy ). Adenoid removal is also called adenoidectomy. The procedure is most often done in children. ... can be removed again if necessary. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of ... Instructions Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge Tonsil removal - what to ...

  1. Inventory Control: An Inexpensive and Easily Constructed Device for Quantitative Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin

    1989-01-01

    Presents a low cost system with easily replaced electrodes for use in general chemistry. Notes the accuracy and wide applicability permit easy use in physical or quantitative chemistry experiments. Provides schematic, theory, and helpful suggestions. (MVL)

  2. An Easily Constructed Model of Twin Octahedrons Having a Common Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamana, Shukichi; Kawaguchi, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    A model of twin octahedrons having a common line which is useful for teaching stereochemistry (especially that of complex ions) can be made easily by using a sealed, empty envelope. The steps necessary to accomplish this task are presented. (JN)

  3. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Liang, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beuhler, M.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The possible use of enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal was examined at the facilities of a California utility in 1992 and 1993. The tests were conducted at bench, pilot, and demonstration scales, with two source waters. Alum and ferric chloride, with cationic polymer, were investigated at various influence arsenic concentrations. The investigators concluded that for the source waters tested, enhanced coagulation could be effective for arsenic removal and that less ferric chloride than alum, on a weight basis, is needed to achieve the same removal.

  4. Metal Cationization Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Multiple Oxygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Spencer, Sandra E.; Glish, Gary L.

    2017-06-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization is an ambient ionization technique that allows real-time sampling of liquid samples, including organic aerosols. Similar to electrospray ionization, the composition of the electrospray solvent used in extractive electrospray ionization can easily be altered to form metal cationized molecules during ionization simply by adding a metal salt to the electrospray solvent. An increase in sensitivity is observed for some molecules that are lithium, sodium, or silver cationized compared with the protonated molecule formed in extractive electrospray ionization with an acid additive. Tandem mass spectrometry of metal cationized molecules can also significantly improve the ability to identify a compound. Tandem mass spectrometry of lithium and silver cationized molecules can result in an increase in the number and uniqueness of dissociation pathways relative to [M + H]+. These results highlight the potential for extractive electrospray ionization with metal cationization in analyzing complex aerosol mixtures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Metal Cationization Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Multiple Oxygens.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kenneth D; Spencer, Sandra E; Glish, Gary L

    2016-11-28

    Extractive electrospray ionization is an ambient ionization technique that allows real-time sampling of liquid samples, including organic aerosols. Similar to electrospray ionization, the composition of the electrospray solvent used in extractive electrospray ionization can easily be altered to form metal cationized molecules during ionization simply by adding a metal salt to the electrospray solvent. An increase in sensitivity is observed for some molecules that are lithium, sodium, or silver cationized compared with the protonated molecule formed in extractive electrospray ionization with an acid additive. Tandem mass spectrometry of metal cationized molecules can also significantly improve the ability to identify a compound. Tandem mass spectrometry of lithium and silver cationized molecules can result in an increase in the number and uniqueness of dissociation pathways relative to [M + H](+). These results highlight the potential for extractive electrospray ionization with metal cationization in analyzing complex aerosol mixtures. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Metal Cationization Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Compounds Containing Multiple Oxygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Spencer, Sandra E.; Glish, Gary L.

    2016-11-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization is an ambient ionization technique that allows real-time sampling of liquid samples, including organic aerosols. Similar to electrospray ionization, the composition of the electrospray solvent used in extractive electrospray ionization can easily be altered to form metal cationized molecules during ionization simply by adding a metal salt to the electrospray solvent. An increase in sensitivity is observed for some molecules that are lithium, sodium, or silver cationized compared with the protonated molecule formed in extractive electrospray ionization with an acid additive. Tandem mass spectrometry of metal cationized molecules can also significantly improve the ability to identify a compound. Tandem mass spectrometry of lithium and silver cationized molecules can result in an increase in the number and uniqueness of dissociation pathways relative to [M + H]+. These results highlight the potential for extractive electrospray ionization with metal cationization in analyzing complex aerosol mixtures.

  7. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Teh; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Li, Zhaohui; Krukowski, Keith

    2013-04-15

    With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl3 at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cation-π Interaction

    PubMed Central

    DOUGHERTY, DENNIS A.

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author’s perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forgo aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction – Li+ binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4+ with 19 kcal/mol– distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2 – 5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) Cδ−–Hδ+ bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li+>Na+>K+>Rb+: as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane

  9. Effect of Cations on the Chemical Mechanical Polishing of SiO2 Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Han; Wang, Liang-Yong; Liu, Wei-Li; Song, Zhi-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the effect of cations with different valences on the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of silicon dioxide films. The removal rate and surface roughness of the silicon-dioxide-film post-CMP are checked for the silica-based slurry with different cation salts (NaCl, CaCl2, AlCl3). Meanwhile, the particle size and size distribution of the slurries are characterized to test their lifetimes. The result shows that the three kinds of salts can improve the polishing removal rate from around 20 nm/min to 120 nm/min without affecting the surface roughness when the polishing slurry is stable. With increasing valence of cations, the polishing slurry requires less cation concentration to be added to improve the removal rate, while keeping a superior surface topography and maintaining a longer lifetime as well.

  10. Cationic Nitrogen Doped Helical Nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Feng, Xinliang; Berger, Reinhard; Popov, Alexey A; Weigand, Jan J; Vincon, Ilka; Machata, Peter; Hennersdorf, Felix; Zhou, Youjia; Fu, Yubin

    2017-09-13

    Herein, we report on the synthesis of a series of novel cationic nitrogen doped nanographenes (CNDN) by rhodium catalyzed annulation reactions. This powerful method allows for the synthesis of cationic nanographenes with non-planar, axial chiral geometries. Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals helical and cove-edged structures. Compared to their all-carbon analogues, the CNDN exhibit energetically lower lying frontier orbitals with a reduced optical energy gap and an electron accepting behavior. All derivatives show quasi reversible reductions in cyclic voltammetry. Depending on the number of nitrogen dopant, in situ spectroelectrochemistry proves the formation of neutral radicals (one nitrogen dopant) or radical cations (two nitrogen dopants) upon reduction. The developed synthetic protocol paves the way for the design and synthesis of expanded nanographenes or even graphene nanoribbons containing cationic nitrogen doping. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Teaching the Assessment of Normality Using Large Easily-Generated Real Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented, which can be used in teaching students statistics with an easily generated, large, real world data set. The activity consists of analyzing a video recording of an object. The colour data of the recorded object can then be used as a data set to explore variation in the data using graphs including histograms,…

  12. Making On-Line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET…

  13. The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Seven easily obtainable background variables, such as number of persons, rooms, or cars per family dwelling; kindergarten attendance; and sex were found to have a multiple correlation of .52 with a standard achievement test for a large sample of fourth grade pupils in a metropolitan school district. (JKS)

  14. Teaching the Assessment of Normality Using Large Easily-Generated Real Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented, which can be used in teaching students statistics with an easily generated, large, real world data set. The activity consists of analyzing a video recording of an object. The colour data of the recorded object can then be used as a data set to explore variation in the data using graphs including histograms,…

  15. Removing Solids From Supercritical Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus removes precipitated inorganic salts and other solids in water-recycling process. Designed for use with oxidation in supercritical water which treats wastes and yields nearly pure water. Heating coils and insulation around vessel keep it hot. Locking bracket seals vessel but allows it to be easily opened for replacement of filled canisters.

  16. Removing Solids From Supercritical Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus removes precipitated inorganic salts and other solids in water-recycling process. Designed for use with oxidation in supercritical water which treats wastes and yields nearly pure water. Heating coils and insulation around vessel keep it hot. Locking bracket seals vessel but allows it to be easily opened for replacement of filled canisters.

  17. Cation binding sites on the projected structure of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Katre, N V; Kimura, Y; Stroud, R M

    1986-08-01

    Divalent cations are involved in the function of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as a light-driven proton pump. If cations are removed from purple membranes they become blue. Divalent cations such as Ca2+ or Pb2+ or trivalent ions, can be stoichiometrically titrated back on to these deionized membranes. The color transitions as a function of ion concentration for Ca2+ or Pb2+ are precisely comparable and indicate that approximately three stoichiometric equivalents of cations are required to effect the color transition (Kimura et al., 1984). We found four main partially occupied binding sites for cations at a stoichiometric ratio of 3 Pb2+/bR. We localized the binding sites for Pb2+ using x-ray diffraction of membranes reconstituted with 1, 2, and 3 equivalents of Pb2+ per bR. The site of highest affinity is located on helix 7. At 2 Pb2+/bR, sites on helix 6 and between helix 2 and 3 are occupied. At 3 Pb2+/bR a fourth site above helix 3 is occupied.

  18. Alloyed copper chalcogenide nanoplatelets via partial cation exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Lesnyak, Vladimir; George, Chandramohan; Genovese, Alessandro; Prato, Mirko; Casu, Alberto; Ayyappan, S; Scarpellini, Alice; Manna, Liberato

    2014-08-26

    We report the synthesis of alloyed quaternary and quinary nanocrystals based on copper chalcogenides, namely, copper zinc selenide-sulfide (CZSeS), copper tin selenide-sulfide (CTSeS), and copper zinc tin selenide-sulfide (CZTSeS) nanoplatelets (NPLs) (∼20 nm wide) with tunable chemical composition. Our synthesis scheme consisted of two facile steps: i.e., the preparation of copper selenide-sulfide (Cu2-xSeyS1-y) platelet shaped nanocrystals via the colloidal route, followed by an in situ cation exchange reaction. During the latter step, the cation exchange proceeded through a partial replacement of copper ions by zinc or/and tin cations, yielding homogeneously alloyed nanocrystals with platelet shape. Overall, the chemical composition of the alloyed nanocrystals can easily be controlled by the amount of precursors that contain cations of interest (e.g., Zn, Sn) to be incorporated/alloyed. We have also optimized the reaction conditions that allow a complete preservation of the size, morphology, and crystal structure as that of the starting Cu2-xSeyS1-y NPLs. The alloyed NPLs were characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), which demonstrated tunability of their light absorption characteristics as well as their electrochemical band gaps.

  19. Alloyed Copper Chalcogenide Nanoplatelets via Partial Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of alloyed quaternary and quinary nanocrystals based on copper chalcogenides, namely, copper zinc selenide–sulfide (CZSeS), copper tin selenide–sulfide (CTSeS), and copper zinc tin selenide–sulfide (CZTSeS) nanoplatelets (NPLs) (∼20 nm wide) with tunable chemical composition. Our synthesis scheme consisted of two facile steps: i.e., the preparation of copper selenide–sulfide (Cu2–xSeyS1–y) platelet shaped nanocrystals via the colloidal route, followed by an in situ cation exchange reaction. During the latter step, the cation exchange proceeded through a partial replacement of copper ions by zinc or/and tin cations, yielding homogeneously alloyed nanocrystals with platelet shape. Overall, the chemical composition of the alloyed nanocrystals can easily be controlled by the amount of precursors that contain cations of interest (e.g., Zn, Sn) to be incorporated/alloyed. We have also optimized the reaction conditions that allow a complete preservation of the size, morphology, and crystal structure as that of the starting Cu2–xSeyS1–y NPLs. The alloyed NPLs were characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV–vis–NIR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), which demonstrated tunability of their light absorption characteristics as well as their electrochemical band gaps. PMID:25050455

  20. Broad Scope Aminocyclization of Enynes with Cationic JohnPhos-Gold(I) Complex as the Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ricarda; Carreras, Javier; Muratore, Michael E; Gaydou, Morgane; Camponovo, Francesco; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2016-03-04

    A practical aminocyclization of 1,6-enynes with a wide variety of substituted anilines, including N-alkyl anilines, has been achived by using cationic [JohnPhosAu(MeCN)]SbF6 as a general purpose catalyst. The resulting adducts can be easily converted into polycyclic compounds by palladium- and gold-catalyzed reactions.

  1. Broad Scope Aminocyclization of Enynes with Cationic JohnPhos–Gold(I) Complex as the Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A practical aminocyclization of 1,6-enynes with a wide variety of substituted anilines, including N-alkyl anilines, has been achived by using cationic [JohnPhosAu(MeCN)]SbF6 as a general purpose catalyst. The resulting adducts can be easily converted into polycyclic compounds by palladium- and gold-catalyzed reactions. PMID:26839084

  2. Structural roles of monovalent cations in the HDV ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ailong; Ding, Fang; Batchelor, Joseph D; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-03-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme catalyzes viral RNA self-cleavage through general acid-base chemistry in which an active-site cytidine and at least one metal ion are involved. Monovalent metal ions support slow catalysis and were proposed to substitute for structural, but not catalytic, divalent metal ions in the RNA. To investigate the role of monovalent cations in ribozyme structure and function, we determined the crystal structure of the precursor HDV ribozyme in the presence of thallium ions (Tl(+)). Two Tl(+) ions can occupy a previously observed divalent metal ion hexahydrate-binding site located near the scissile phosphate, but are easily competed away by cobalt hexammine, a magnesium hexahydrate mimic and potent reaction inhibitor. Intriguingly, a third Tl(+) ion forms direct inner-sphere contacts with the ribose 2'-OH nucleophile and the pro-S(p) scissile phosphate oxygen. We discuss possible structural and catalytic implications of monovalent cation binding for the HDV ribozyme mechanism.

  3. Removing cadmium ions from water via nanoparticle-enhanced ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Jawor, Anna; Hoek, Eric M V

    2010-04-01

    Here we evaluate removal of cadmium ions from water by nanoparticle-enhanced ultrafiltration using polymer and zeolite nanoparticles. This evaluation considered nanoparticle physical-chemical properties, metal-binding kinetics, capacity and reversibility, and ultrafiltration separation for a Linde type A zeolite nanocrystals, poly(acrylic acid), alginic acid, and carboxyl-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers in simple, laboratory prepared ionic solutions. The three synthetic materials exhibited fast binding kinetics and strong affinity for cadmium, with good regeneration capabilities. Only the zeolite nanoparticles were completely rejected by the ultrafiltration membranes tested. Overall, colloidal zeolites performed similar to conventional metal binding polymers, but were more easily recovered using relatively loose filtration membranes (i.e., lower energy consumption). Further, the superhydrophilic colloidal zeolites caused relatively little flux decline even in the presence of divalent cations which caused dense, highly impermeable polymer gels to form over the membranes. These results suggest zeolite nanoparticles may compete with polymeric materials in low-pressure hybrid filtration processes designed to remove toxic metals from water.

  4. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester to Nα-benzoyl-l-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the 'LEMON' method an easily applied emergency airway assessment tool?

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew J; Rennie, Louise M; Dunn, Mark J G; Gray, Alasdair J; Robertson, Colin E; McKeown, Dermot W

    2004-06-01

    To assess whether the 'LEMON' method, devised by the developers of the US National Emergency Airway Management Course, is an easily applied airway assessment tool in patients undergoing treatment in the emergency department resuscitation room. One hundred patients treated in the resuscitation room of a UK teaching hospital between June 2002 and January 2003 were assessed on criteria based on the 'LEMON' method. All seven criteria of the 'Look' section of the method could be adequately assessed. Data for the 'Evaluate' section could not be obtained in 10 patients, with inter-incisor distance being the most problematical item. The 'Mallampatti' score was unavailable in 43 patients, and had to be assessed in the supine position in 32 of the remaining 57 patients. Assessment for airway 'Obstruction' and 'Neck mobility' could be performed in all patients. The 'Look', 'Obstruction' and 'Neck mobility' components of the 'LEMON' method are the easiest to assess in patients undergoing treatment in the emergency department resuscitation room. The 'Evaluate' and 'Mallampatti' components are less easily applied to the population that present to the resuscitation room, and assessment of these is more problematical and prone to inaccuracy. We suggest that the 'LEMON' airway assessment method may not be easily applied in its entirety to unselected resuscitation room patients, and that information on the 'Evaluate' and 'Mallampatti' parameters may not always be available.

  6. Lightweight and Easily Foldable MCMB-MWCNTs Composite Paper with Exceptional Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anisha; Kumari, Saroj; Kumar, Rajeev; Teotia, Satish; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Dhawan, S K; Dhakate, Sanjay R

    2016-04-27

    Lightweight and easily foldable with high conductivity, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) composite paper is prepared using a simple, efficient, and cost-effective strategy. The developed lightweight and conductive composite paper have been reported for the first time as an efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material in X-band frequency region having a low density of 0.26 g/cm(3). The investigation revealed that composite paper shows an excellent absorption dominated EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of -31 to -56 dB at 0.15-0.6 mm thickness, respectively. Specific EMI-SE of as high as -215 dB cm(3)/g exceeds the best values of metal and other low-density carbon-based composites. Additionally, lightweight and easily foldable ability of this composite paper will help in providing stable EMI shielding values even after constant bending. Such intriguing performances open the framework to designing a lightweight and easily foldable composite paper as promising EMI shielding material, especially in next-generation devices and for defense industries.

  7. A proposal for a portal to make earth's microbial diversity easily accessible and searchable.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, Boris A; Tian, Long; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-03-09

    Estimates of the number of bacterial species range from 10(7) to 10(12). At the pace at which descriptions of new species are currently being published, the description of all bacterial species on earth will only be completed in thousands of years. However, even if one day all species were named and described, these names and descriptions would still be of little practical value unless they could be easily searched and accessed, so that novel strains could be easily identified as members of any of these species. To complicate the situation further, many of the currently known species contain significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity that would still be missed if description of microbial diversity were limited to species. The solution to this problem could be a database in which every bacterial species and every intra-specific group is anchored to a genome-similarity framework. This ideal database should be searchable using complete or partial genome sequences as well as phenotypes. Moreover, the database should include functions to easily add newly sequenced novel strains, automatically place them into the genome-similarity framework, identify them as members of an already named species, or tag them as members of yet to be described species or new intra-specific groups. Here, we propose the means to develop such a database by taking advantage of the concept of genome sequence similarity-based codes, called Life Identification Numbers or LINs.

  8. Semiautomated method for cation-exchange capacity determination of reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Raible, C.J.; Volk, L.J.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of significant amounts of clay in tight-gas sand formations makes the determination of cation exchange capacities (CEC) important for electric-log, self potential (SP), and gamma ray log interpretation. In the past, CEC measurements have been difficult and time-consuming to obtain. However, an automated method that avoids many difficulties of other techniques while determining the CEC's of many samples at one time has been described by Worthington. This work is a modification of the work done by Worthington. Easily assembled commercial equipment instead of specially built equipment is used to agitate rock samples contained in dialysis membrane bags during ion exchange with barium acetate solution and during washing of the samples to remove excess barium ions. Barium acetate is used as the source of barium ions instead of barium chloride, which is used in Worthington's procedure, to avoid corrosion of the stainless steel equipment. The amount of barium ions on the rock samples is then determined by conductometric titration with magnesium sulfate. The titration procedure is not automated. In addition, the use of the barium ion method was extended to samples with CEC values an order of magnitude lower than those determined by Worthington. Most measured CEC's for the western tight-gas sands ranged from 0.5 to 10 meq/100 g with a few to 19 meg/100 g. A comparison of barium acetate, adsorbed water, and ammonium acetate methods for determining CEC's is made.

  9. Semiautomated method for cation-exchange capacity determination of reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Raible, C.J.; Volk, L.J.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of significant amounts of clay in tight-gas sand formations makes the determination of cation exchange capacities (CEC) important for electric-log, self potential (SP), and gamma ray log interpretation. In the past, CEC measurements have been difficult and time-consuming to obtain. However, an automated method that avoids many difficulties of other techniques while determining the CEC's of many samples at one time has been described by Worthington. This work is a modification of the work done by Worthington. Easily assembled commercial equipment instead of specially built equipment is used to agitate rock samples contained in dialysis membrane bags during ion exchange with barium acetate solution and during washing of the samples to remove excess barium ions. Barium acetate is used as the source of barium ions instead of barium chloride, which is used in Worthington's procedure, to avoid corrosion of the stainless steel equipment. The amount of barium ions on the rock samples is then determined by conductometric titration with magnesium sulfate. The titration procedure is not automated. In addition, the use of the barium ion method was extended to samples with CEC values an order of magnitude lower than those determined by Worthington.

  10. Easy removal of nasal magnets.

    PubMed

    Starke, Lori

    2005-09-01

    This article uses a case report and discussion to demonstrate the removal of magnets which have become lodged in the nasal cavity as a result of using magnet-backed earrings to decorate the alae. If bi-alar decoration is used, removal of nasal magnets can present more of a challenge than other nasal foreign bodies. This is because of their attraction to each other through the septum and because of the edema that can form around the magnets. This case discusses that removal of magnets lodged in the nares can be easily achieved with minimal trauma, by the use of a household pocket magnet.

  11. A new removable airway stent

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Tore; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Leira, Håkon Olav; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Langø, Thomas; Hammer, Tommy; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Mattsson, Erney

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use. PMID:27608269

  12. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  13. Removing Bonded Integrated Circuits From Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Small resistance heater makes it easier, faster, and cheaper to remove integrated circuit from hybrid-circuit board, package, or other substrate for rework. Heater, located directly in polymeric bond interface or on substrate under integrated-circuit chip, energized when necessary to remove chip. Heat generated softens adhesive or solder that bonds chip to substrate. Chip then lifted easily from substrate.

  14. Potassium niobate nanolamina: a promising adsorbent for entrapment of radioactive cations from water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Yang, Dongjiang; Sun, Cuihua; Liu, Long; Yang, Shuanglei; Alec Jia, Yi; Cai, Rongsheng; Yao, Xiangdong

    2014-12-04

    Processing and managing radioactive waste is a great challenge worldwide as it is extremely difficult and costly; the radioactive species, cations or anions, leaked into the environment are a serious threat to the health of present and future generations. We report layered potassium niobate (K4Nb6O17) nanolamina as adsorbent to remove toxic Sr(2+), Ba(2+) and Cs(+) cations from wastewater. The results show that K4Nb6O17 nanolamina can permanently confine the toxic cations within the interlayer spacing via a considerable deformation of the metastable layered structure during the ion exchange process. At the same time, the nanolaminar adsorbent exhibits prompt adsorption kinetics, high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and superior acid resistance. These merits make it be a promising material as ion exchanger for the removal of radioactive cations from wastewater.

  15. Potassium Niobate Nanolamina: A Promising Adsorbent for Entrapment of Radioactive Cations from Water

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Yang, Dongjiang; Sun, Cuihua; Liu, Long; Yang, Shuanglei; (Alec) Jia, Yi; Cai, Rongsheng; Yao, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Processing and managing radioactive waste is a great challenge worldwide as it is extremely difficult and costly; the radioactive species, cations or anions, leaked into the environment are a serious threat to the health of present and future generations. We report layered potassium niobate (K4Nb6O17) nanolamina as adsorbent to remove toxic Sr2+, Ba2+ and Cs+ cations from wastewater. The results show that K4Nb6O17 nanolamina can permanently confine the toxic cations within the interlayer spacing via a considerable deformation of the metastable layered structure during the ion exchange process. At the same time, the nanolaminar adsorbent exhibits prompt adsorption kinetics, high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and superior acid resistance. These merits make it be a promising material as ion exchanger for the removal of radioactive cations from wastewater. PMID:25472721

  16. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  17. Cation affinity numbers of Lewis bases.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Christoph; Tandon, Raman; Maryasin, Boris; Larionov, Evgeny; Zipse, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Using selected theoretical methods the affinity of a large range of Lewis bases towards model cations has been quantified. The range of model cations includes the methyl cation as the smallest carbon-centered electrophile, the benzhydryl and trityl cations as models for electrophilic substrates encountered in Lewis base-catalyzed synthetic procedures, and the acetyl cation as a substrate model for acyl-transfer reactions. Affinities towards these cationic electrophiles are complemented by data for Lewis-base addition to Michael acceptors as prototypical neutral electrophiles.

  18. An AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded complex easily accessible for supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

    2014-12-15

    For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7)  M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  20. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  1. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E; Zhao, Dazhong

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants.

  2. The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT): Structure, function, and role in organic cation disposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, J

    2016-11-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a new polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports a variety of biogenic amines and xenobiotic cations. Highly expressed in the brain, PMAT represents a major uptake2 transporter for monoamine neurotransmitters. At the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, PMAT is the principal organic cation transporter for removing neurotoxins and drugs from the CSF. Here I summarize our latest understanding of PMAT and its roles in monoamine uptake and xenobiotic disposition. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Full automation of (68)Ga labelling of DOTA-peptides including cation exchange prepurification.

    PubMed

    Ocak, M; Antretter, M; Knopp, R; Kunkel, F; Petrik, M; Bergisadi, N; Decristoforo, C

    2010-02-01

    Here we describe a fully automated approach for the synthesis of (68)Ga-labelled DOTA-peptides based on pre-concentration and purification of the generator eluate by using a cation exchange-cartridge and its comparison with fully automated direct labelling applying fractionated elution. Pre-concentration of the eluate on a cation exchange cartridge both using a resin-based and a disposable cation-exchange cartridge efficiently removed (68)Ge as well as major metal contaminations with Fe and Zn. This resulted in a high labelling efficiency of DOTA-peptides at high specific activity (SA) with short synthesis times. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Mobile Application Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If you find a tick attached to your skin, there's no need to panic. There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a plain set of ...

  5. Competition between kaolinite flocculation and stabilization in divalent cation solutions dosed with anionic polyacrylamides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Joon; Schlautman, Mark A; Toorman, Erik; Fettweis, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Divalent cations have been reported to develop bridges between anionic polyelectrolytes and negatively-charged colloidal particles, thereby enhancing particle flocculation. However, results from this study of kaolinite suspensions dosed with various anionic polyacrylamides (PAMs) reveal that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) can lead to colloid stabilization under some conditions. To explain the opposite but coexisting processes of flocculation and stabilization with divalent cations, a conceptual flocculation model with (1) particle-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules and kaolinite particles and (2) polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules is proposed. The particle-binding bridges enhanced flocculation and aggregated kaolinite particles in large, easily-settleable flocs whereas the polymer-binding bridges increased steric stabilization by developing polymer layers covering the kaolinite surface. Both the particle-binding and polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges coexist in anionic PAM- and kaolinite-containing suspensions and thus induce the counteracting processes of particle flocculation and stabilization. Therefore, anionic polyelectrolytes in divalent cation-enriched aqueous solutions can sometimes lead to the stabilization of colloidal particles due to the polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges.

  6. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  7. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  8. Uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by biosorption onto granular kohlrabi peel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Renmin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Huijun; Sun, Yingzhi; Liu, Birong

    2007-04-01

    A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Granules prepared from kohlrabi peel had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and acridine orange (AO). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., dye concentration, particle size, initial pH, contact time and other factors) were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Above the value of initial pH 4, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir model in the case of NR sorption and the Freundlich model for all three dyes sorption. The biosorption processes followed the pseudo-first-order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that kohlrabi peel was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.

  9. Glycosyl Cations versus Allylic Cations in Spontaneous and Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Danby, Phillip M; Withers, Stephen G

    2017-08-09

    Enzymatic prenyl and glycosyl transfer are seemingly unrelated reactions that yield molecules and protein modifications with disparate biological functions. However, both reactions employ diphosphate-activated donors and each proceed via cationic species: allylic cations and oxocarbenium ions, respectively. In this study, we explore the relationship between these processes by preparing valienyl ethers to serve as glycoside mimics that are capable of allylic rather than oxocarbenium cation stabilization. Rate constants for spontaneous hydrolysis of aryl glycosides and their analogous valienyl ethers were found to be almost identical, as were the corresponding activation enthalpies and entropies. This close similarity extended to the associated secondary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), indicating very similar transition state stabilities and structures. Screening a library of over 100 β-glucosidases identified a number of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of these valienyl ethers with kcat values up to 20 s(-1). Detailed analysis of one such enzyme showed that ether hydrolysis occurs via the analogous mechanisms found for glycosides, and through a very similar transition state. This suggests that the generally lower rates of enzymatic cleavage of the cyclitol ethers reflects evolutionary specialization of these enzymes toward glycosides rather than inherent reactivity differences.

  10. Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gergely; Danko, Tamas; Bergeron, Marc J; Balazs, Bernadett; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zsembery, Akos; Hediger, Matthias A

    2011-01-01

    TRPV6 belongs to the vanilloid family of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily. This calcium-selective channel is highly expressed in the duodenum and the placenta, being responsible for calcium absorption in the body and fetus. Previous observations have suggested that TRPV6 is not only permeable to calcium but also to other divalent cations in epithelial tissues. In this study, we tested whether TRPV6 is indeed also permeable to cations such as zinc and cadmium. We found that the basal intracellular calcium concentration was higher in HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPV6 than in non-transfected cells, and that this difference almost disappeared in nominally calcium-free solution. Live cell imaging experiments with Fura-2 and NewPort Green DCF showed that overexpression of human TRPV6 increased the permeability for Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and interestingly also for La(3+) and Gd(3+). These results were confirmed using the patch clamp technique. (45)Ca uptake experiments showed that cadmium, lanthanum and gadolinium were also highly efficient inhibitors of TRPV6-mediated calcium influx at higher micromolar concentrations. Our results suggest that TRPV6 is not only involved in calcium transport but also in the transport of other divalent cations, including heavy metal ions, which may have toxicological implications.

  11. Halogenated silanes, radicals, and cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liming; He, Yi-Liang

    2008-09-01

    Quantum chemistry study has been carried out on the structure and energetics of halogenated silanes, radicals, and cations (SiHxXy0,+1, X = F, Cl, Br; x + y = 1-4). The geometries are optimized at B3LYP/6-31+G(2df,p) level. The adiabatic ionization energiess (IEas), relative energetics of cations, proton affinities (PAs) of silanes, and the enthalpies of formation are predicted using G3(CC) model chemistry. Non-classical ion complex structures are found for hydrogenated cations and transition states connecting classical and non-classical structures are also located. The most stable cations for silylene and silyl radicals have their classical divalent and trivalent structures, and those for silanes have non-classical structures except for SiH3Br+ and SiH2Br2+. The non-classical structures for halosilane cations imply difficulty in experimentally measurement of the adiabatic ionization energies using photoionization or photoelectron studies. For SiH3X, SiH2X2, and SiHX3, the G3(CC) adiabatic IEas to classical ionic structures closest to their neutrals agree better with the photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The transition states between classical and non-classical structures also hamper the photoionization determination of the appearance energies for silylene cations from silanes. The G3(CC) results for SiHx0,+1 agree excellently with the photoionization mass spectrometric study, and the results for fluorinated and chlorinated species also agree with the previous theoretical predictions at correlation levels from BAC-MP4 to CCSD(T)/CBS. The predicted enthalpy differences between SiH2Cl+, SiHCl2+, and SiCl3+ are also in accordance with previous kinetics study. The G3(CC) results show large discrepancies to the collision-induced charge transfer and/or dissociation reactions involving SiFx+ and SiClx+ ions, for which the G3(CC) enthalpies of formation are also significantly differed from the previous theoretical predictions, especially on SiFx+ (x = 2-4). The G3

  12. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca(2+) as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK(a2) (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d(001)) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fly ash adsorbents for multi-cation wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Maria; Isac, Luminita; Duta, Anca

    2012-06-01

    Class "F" fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 proved good adsorbent properties, and was further used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for heavy metals from multi-cation wastewater treatment. Firstly, the new adsorbent was characterized by AFM, XRD, DSC, FTIR and the surface energy was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The experimental data suggested that the new type of substrate is predominant crystalline with highly polar surface. The substrate was used for removing the Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ cations from mixed solutions. The results show high efficiency and selective adsorption the Pb2+ and Zn2+ cations. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the processes. The pseudo-second order kinetics could well model all the processes, indicating a surface concentration of the adsorption sites with the same order of magnitude as the cation concentrations.

  14. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  15. A 2D zinc-organic network being easily exfoliated into isolated sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guihong; Li, Ruiqing; Leng, Zhihua; Gan, Shucai

    2016-08-01

    A metal-organic aggregate, namely {Zn2Cl2(BBC)}n (BBC = 4,4‧,4‧‧-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diyl))tribenzoate) was obtained by solvothermal synthesis. Its structure is featured with the Zn2(COO)3 paddle-wheels with two chloride anions on axial positions and hexagonal pores in the layers. The exclusion of water in the precursor and the solvent plays a crucial role in the formation of target compound. This compound can be easily dissolved in alkaline solution and exfoliated into isolated sheets, which shows a novel way for the preparation of 2D materials.

  16. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-09

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  17. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic—inorganic hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P.; Freitas, Vânia T.; André, Paulo S.; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er3+, Yb3+ codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er3+- and Yb3+-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  18. The study on development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojeong

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTS When the functions involved in the ingestion of food occurs failure, not only loss of enjoyment of eating, it will be faced with protein-energy malnutrition. Dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing occurs in various diseases, but it may be a major cause of aging, and elderly people with authoring and dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing in the aging society is expected to increase rapidly. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this study, we carried out a survey targeting nutritionists who work in elderly care facilities, and examined characteristics of offering of foods for elderly and the degree of demand of development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for the elderly who can crush foods and take that by their own tongues, and sometimes have difficulty in drinking water and tea. RESULTS In elderly care facilities, it was found to provide a finely chopped food or ground food that was ground with water in a blender for elderly with dysmasesis. Elderly satisfaction of provided foods is appeared overall low. Results of investigating the applicability of foods for elderly and the reflection will of menus, were showed the highest response rate in a gelification method in molecular gastronomic science technics, and results of investigating the frequent food of the elderly; representative menu of beef, pork, white fish, anchovies and spinach, were showed Korean barbecue beef, hot pepper paste stir fried pork, pan fried white fish, stir fried anchovy, seasoned spinach were the highest offer frequency. CONCLUSIONS This study will provide the fundamentals of the development of easily chewable and swallowable foods, gelification, for the elderly. The study will also illustrate that, in the elderly, food undergone gelification will reduce the risk of swallowing down to the wrong pipe and improve overall food preference. PMID:26244082

  19. A new side stream process for easily degradable industrial waste waters to avoid sludge bulking.

    PubMed

    Wandl, G; Matsché, N; Bayer, H

    2004-01-01

    A new treatment scheme for the treatment of easily biodegradable industrial waste waters has been developed. The side stream treatment of dairy waste water with the excess sludge from the domestic treatment line of the regional treatment plant Bad Vöslau has been operated successfully for a period of three years during which the industrial load stemming from the dairy increased from 800 kg COD/d to 2,500 kg COD/d with peak loads up to 5,000 kg/d. Despite of the increased load to the treatment plant the total aeration tank volume had not been increased. This treatment is performed in an existing aeration tank of the WWTP (V = 1,800 m3) which is now used as contact tank for the combined aeration of dairy waste water and excess sludge from the domestic treatment line (volume aeration tank = 15,000 m3). In this tank the easily degradable substrate from the industrial waste is mainly adsorbed to the biological sludge and after a mechanical dewatering transferred to the anaerobic digester where it yields in an increased gas production. The filtrate of the dewatering process is completely free from biodegradable material and can without danger of bulking be fed to the aeration tank of the domestic treatment line. The new process has proven to be extremely flexible since already now daily peak loads exceeding the design load by more then 60% could be treated in the plant without any problems. Compared to other alternatives for the dairy waste water treatment that were investigated during this study, the new side stream process is very advantageous. No other pre-treatment process for industrial waste water could have been operated under comparable loading conditions without severe operating problems.

  20. Phonomicrosurgery simulation: A low-cost teaching model using easily accessible materials.

    PubMed

    Zambricki, Elizabeth A; Bergeron, Jennifer L; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Sung, C Kwang

    2016-11-01

    To introduce the use of a new phonomicrosurgical trainer using easily accessible materials, and to establish the effectiveness of the model. The model uses a grape imbedded in gelatin, a microscope, and microlaryngeal instruments. The study was designed to test baseline differences in training levels, as well as improvement in performance after training with the simulation model. Thirty subjects enrolled in the Stanford University School of Medicine otolaryngology training program performed microlaryngeal surgery tasks on a grape. Tasks were designed to model both excision of a vocal fold lesion and vocal fold injection. Anonymized video recordings comparing presimulation and postsimulation training were collected and graded by an expert laryngologist. Both objective comparison of skills and subjective participant surveys were analyzed. Objectively, trainees in all groups made statistically significant improvements across all tested variables, including microscope positioning, creation of a linear incision, elevation of epithelial flaps, excision of a crescent of tissue, vocal fold injection, preservation of remaining tissue, and time to complete all tasks. Subjectively, 100% of participants felt that they had increased comfort with microlaryngeal instruments and decreased intimidation of microlaryngeal surgery after completing the simulation training. This appreciation of skills was most notable and statistically significant in the intern trainees. Microlaryngeal surgical simulation is a tool that can be used to train residents to prepare them for phonomicrosurgical procedures at all levels of training. Our low-cost model with accessible materials can be easily duplicated and used to introduce trainees to microlaryngeal surgery or improve skills of more senior trainees. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2528-2533, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  2. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Calorimetric study of cationic photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajlik, I.; Hedvig, P.; Ille, A.; Dobó, J.

    1996-03-01

    The photopolymerization of penta-erythritol tetra-glycidyl ether (initiator Degacure KI-85) was studied by a du Pont 910 type DSC. From our experimental results the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) During the cationic polymerization reaction the lifetime of the initiating centers are long compared to the lifetime of free radicals in case of radical polymerization. (2) The rate of deactivation of the initiating centers increases with increasing temperature.

  4. Spleen removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and infections. It also helps filter the blood. Description The spleen is removed while you are under ... cuts in the belly. The surgeon inserts an instrument called a laparoscope through one of the cuts. ...

  5. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Kim, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the myriad of options available, laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice, given its safety and efficacy.

  6. GoCxx: a tool to easily leverage C++ legacy code for multicore-friendly Go libraries and frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-12-01

    Current HENP libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a ‘single-thread’ processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. Writing scalable code in C++ for multicore architectures, while doable, is no panacea. Sure, C++11 will improve on the current situation (by standardizing on std::thread, introducing lambda functions and defining a memory model) but it will do so at the price of complicating further an already quite sophisticated language. This level of sophistication has probably already strongly motivated analysis groups to migrate to CPython, hoping for its current limitations with respect to multicore scalability to be either lifted (Grand Interpreter Lock removal) or for the advent of a new Python VM better tailored for this kind of environment (PyPy, Jython, …) Could HENP migrate to a language with none of the deficiencies of C++ (build time, deployment, low level tools for concurrency) and with the fast turn-around time, simplicity and ease of coding of Python? This paper will try to make the case for Go - a young open source language with built-in facilities to easily express and expose concurrency - being such a language. We introduce GoCxx, a tool leveraging gcc-xml's output to automatize the tedious work of creating Go wrappers for foreign languages, a critical task for any language wishing to leverage legacy and field-tested code. We will conclude with the first results of applying GoCxx to real C++ code.

  7. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Polyacrylamide-Phytic Acid-Polydopamine Conducting Porous Hydrogel for Efficient Removal of Water-Soluble Dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Li, Leijiao; Geleta, Girma Selale; Ma, Lina; Wang, Zhenxin

    2017-08-11

    Removal of toxic dyes from wastewater has become a hot topic in both academic and industrial fields since there is growing concern about the threat of sewage to human health. Herein, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional porous polyacrylamide-phytic acid-polydopamine (termed as PAAM/PA/PDA) hydrogel can be served as reusable adsorbent with high efficiency for either anionic or cationic dyes. Using methyl blue (MB), methylene blue (YMB), methyl violet (MV) and neutral red (NR) as model dyes, we investigate the effect of pH, temperature, dye concentration, and PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel mass on the adsorption. The experimental maximum adsorption capacities are more than 350.67 mg g(-1) for four selected dyes. Adsorption kinetic and thermodynamic analysis suggests that the dyes are adsorbed on the PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel through the strong π-π stacking and anion-cation interaction, and the adsorption process satisfies a pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the free-standing PAAM/PA/PDA hydrogel can be easily removed from water after adsorption process, and regenerated by adjusting solution pH values.

  9. Easily applicable SEP-monitoring of the N20 wave in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Baars, Jan H; von Klitzing, Jan-Philipp

    2017-02-01

    In this technical note, a conveniently sized, single-channel somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP)-stimulation-recording unit for bedside use in the intensive care unit is presented. The validation of the SEP N20 wave in intensive care guidelines as initial parameter for the prognostic evaluation of cardiac arrest has increased the demand for a more widespread availability of SEP, outside the electrophysiological domain. A device with a simplified interface that safely guides the user through a complete examination and that includes artifact removal is a prerequisite for such more widespread use, in which expert interpretation can be reduced to a necessary minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal Design of Multitype Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Easily Accessible Tools.

    PubMed

    Wöhling, Thomas; Geiges, Andreas; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring networks are expensive to establish and to maintain. In this paper, we extend an existing data-worth estimation method from the suite of PEST utilities with a global optimization method for optimal sensor placement (called optimal design) in groundwater monitoring networks. Design optimization can include multiple simultaneous sensor locations and multiple sensor types. Both location and sensor type are treated simultaneously as decision variables. Our method combines linear uncertainty quantification and a modified genetic algorithm for discrete multilocation, multitype search. The efficiency of the global optimization is enhanced by an archive of past samples and parallel computing. We demonstrate our methodology for a groundwater monitoring network at the Steinlach experimental site, south-western Germany, which has been established to monitor river-groundwater exchange processes. The target of optimization is the best possible exploration for minimum variance in predicting the mean travel time of the hyporheic exchange. Our results demonstrate that the information gain of monitoring network designs can be explored efficiently and with easily accessible tools prior to taking new field measurements or installing additional measurement points. The proposed methods proved to be efficient and can be applied for model-based optimal design of any type of monitoring network in approximately linear systems. Our key contributions are (1) the use of easy-to-implement tools for an otherwise complex task and (2) yet to consider data-worth interdependencies in simultaneous optimization of multiple sensor locations and sensor types.

  11. Measurement of thermal properties of white radish (R. raphanistrum) using easily constructed probes

    PubMed Central

    Obot, Mfrekemfon Samuel; Li, Changcheng; Fang, Ting; Chen, Jinquan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties are necessary for the design and control of processes and storage facilities of food materials. This study proposes the measurement of thermal properties using easily constructed probes with specific heat capacity calculated, as opposed to the use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) or other. These probes were constructed and used to measure thermal properties of white radish in the temperature range of 80–20°C and moisture content of 91–6.1% wb. Results showed thermal properties were within the range of 0.71–0.111 Wm-1 C-1 for thermal conductivity, 1.869×10−7–0.72×10−8 m2s-1 for thermal diffusivity and 4.316–1.977 kJ kg-1C-1for specific heat capacity. These results agree with reports for similar products studied using DSC and commercially available line heat source probes. Empirical models were developed for each property through linear multiple regressions. The data generated would be useful in modeling and control of its processing and equipment design. PMID:28288175

  12. 11C=O Bonds Made Easily for Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Liang, Steven H.; Placzek, Michael S.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Gee, Antony D.; Dollé, Frédéric; Wilson, Alan A.; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The positron-emitting radionuclide carbon-11 (11C, t1/2 = 20.3 minutes) possesses the unique potential for radiolabeling of any biological, naturally occurring, or synthetic organic molecule for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Carbon-11 is most often incorporated into small molecules by methylation of alcohol, thiol, amine or carboxylic acid precursors using [11C]methyl iodide or [11C]methyl triflate (generated from [11C]CO2). Consequently, small molecules that lack an easily substituted 11C-methyl group are often considered to have non-obvious strategies for radiolabeling and require a more customized approach. [11C]Carbon dioxide, [11C]carbon monoxide, [11C]cyanide, and [11C]phosgene represent alternative carbon-11 reactants to enable 11C-carbonylation. Methodologies developed for preparation of 11C-carbonyl groups have had a tremendous impact on the development of novel PET radiopharmaceuticals and provided key tools for clinical research. 11C-Carbonyl radiopharmaceuticals based on labeled carboxylic acids, amides, carbamates, and ureas now account for a substantial number of important imaging agents that have seen translation to higher species and clinical research of previously inaccessible targets, which is a testament to the creativity, utility, and practicality of the underlying radiochemistry. PMID:27276357

  13. An easily accessible Web-based minimization random allocation system for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lan; Huang, Qiwen; Yank, Veronica; Ma, Jun

    2013-07-19

    Minimization as an adaptive allocation technique has been recommended in the literature for use in randomized clinical trials. However, it remains uncommonly used due in part to a lack of easily accessible implementation tools. To provide clinical trialists with a robust, flexible, and readily accessible tool for implementing covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock-Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms) and 2-way (currently limited to 2-arm trials) minimization methods for trials using only categorical prognostic factors or the symmetric Kullback-Leibler divergence minimization method for trials (currently limited to 2-arm trials) using continuous prognostic factors with or without categorical factors, in covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. In this paper, we describe the system's essential statistical and computer programming features and provide as an example the randomization results generated by it in a recently completed trial. The system can be used in single- and double-blind trials as well as single-center and multicenter trials. We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice.

  14. Ectopic spleen: An easily identifiable but commonly undiagnosed entity until manifestation of complications

    PubMed Central

    Blouhos, Konstantinos; Boulas, Konstantinos A.; Salpigktidis, Ilias; Barettas, Nikolaos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Anestis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ectopic spleen is an uncommon clinical entity as splenectomy for treatment of ectopic spleens accounts for less than 0.25% of splenectomies. The most common age of presentation is childhood especially under 1 year of age followed by the third decade of life. PRESENTATION OF CASE The present report refers to a patient with torsion of a pelvic spleen treated with splenectomy. The patient exhibited a period of vague intermittent lower abdominal pain lasted 65 days followed by a period of constant left lower quadrant pain of increasing severity lasted 6 days. On the first 65 days, vague pain was attributed to progressive torsion of the spleen which resulted in venous congestion. On the last 6 days, exacerbation of pain was attributed to irreducible torsion, infraction of the arterial supply, acute ischemia, strangulation and rupture of the gangrenous spleen. Diagnosis was made by CT which revealed absence of the spleen in its normal position, a homogeneous pelvic mass with no contrast enhancement, free blood in the peritoneal cavity, and confirmed by laparotomy. DISCUSSION Clinical manifestations of ectopic spleen vary from asymptomatic to abdominal emergency. Symptoms are most commonly attributed to complications related to torsion. Operative management, including splenopexy or splenectomy, is the treatment of choice in uncomplicated and complicated cases because conservative treatment of an asymptomatic ectopic spleen is associated with a complication rate of 65%. CONCLUSION Although an ectopic spleen can be easily identified on clinical examination, it is commonly misdiagnosed until the manifestation of complications in adulthood. PMID:24973525

  15. Long-Term Amorphous Drug Stability Predictions Using Easily Calculated, Predicted, and Measured Parameters.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska, Katarzyna; Booth, Jonathan; Roberts, Clive J; McCabe, James; Dryden, Ian; Fischer, Peter M

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive model of the amorphous stability of drugs with particular relevance for poorly water-soluble compounds. Twenty-five representative neutral poorly soluble compounds with a diverse range of physicochemical properties and chemical structures were systematically selected from an extensive library of marketed drug products. The physical stability of the amorphous form, measured over a 6 month period by the onset of crystallization of amorphous films prepared by melting and quench-cooling, was assessed using polarized light microscopy. The data were used as a response variable in a statistical model with calculated/predicted or measured molecular, thermodynamic, and kinetic parameters as explanatory variables. Several multiple linear regression models were derived, with varying balance between calculated/predicted and measured parameters. It was shown that inclusion of measured parameters significantly improves the predictive ability of the model. The best model demonstrated a prediction accuracy of 82% and included the following as parameters: melting and glass transition temperatures, enthalpy of fusion, configurational free energy, relaxation time, number of hydrogen bond donors, lipophilicity, and the ratio of carbon to heteroatoms. Good predictions were also obtained with a simpler model, which was comprised of easily acquired quantities: molecular weight and enthalpy of fusion. Statistical models are proposed to predict long-term amorphous drug stability. The models include readily accessible parameters, which are potentially the key factors influencing amorphous stability. The derived models can support faster decision making in drug formulation development.

  16. Changes in plasma characteristics caused by easily ionisable elements in hollow cathode discharge emission spectrography.

    PubMed

    Szilvássy-Vámos, Z; Gyódrfi-Buzási, A; Pásztor, Z

    1991-11-01

    The effect of several concomitant easily ionisable elements (EIE's), Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs on the line intensity of Sr II (first ionised state) and Al I and He I (atomic states) has been studied by atomic emission spectrometry (AES) hollow cathode (HCD) analysis. The spectral line intensities emitted by Sr II, Al I and He I have been measured while varying the volume of the EIE's concentrations, ranging from 0.1 mg ml to 10 mg ml. In the presence of EIE's at higher concentrations than 0.5% a considerable decrease of the line intensities of Sr II at 430.54 nm and 407.71 nm was observed, together with a gradual decrease in the line intensities of both Al I 494.40 nm and 396.15 nm, and He I 412.1 nm. It is demonstrated in the present experiments with a water-cooled HCD source that interference effects caused by EIE's are observed when the ratio of the number of gas atoms (n(g)) and atoms with low ionisation energy (n(a))n(g)/n(a)is lower than 10(12).

  17. A cost-effective, easily reproducible, suprapubic catheter insertion simulation training model.

    PubMed

    Hossack, Tania; Chris, Barrington-Brown; Beer, Janet; Thompson, Graeme

    2013-10-01

    Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a basic skill required of surgical trainees. It is likely a trainee's first attempt at the procedure, will be undertaken without direct supervision at night and without access to aids of catheterization. Unfortunately, lack of simulation models and unpredictability of when SPCs are required, make it difficult to acquire this skill. Therefore, junior doctors frequently persist with urethral catheterization, with an increased risk of urethral injury. Improper catheterization has been cited as the causative factor for urethral strictures. The aim of this study was to develop an SPC model and assess its influence on a trainee's confidence in this procedure. An SPC model needs to fulfill a number of criteria. It should have anatomic characteristics of a bladder and provide realistic visual and sensory feedback. Cost effective copies of the model, which are able to be rapidly cycled through simulations are needed for effective clinical workshops. Finally, a trainee's understanding and confidence in performing the procedure should increase after using it. This prototype model has 3 anatomic parts: the bladder, the anterior abdominal wall, and the housing abdominal box. The most crucial component is the bladder, which is a balloon with Mefix tape that prevents leaking and "popping" on trocar insertion. This SPC model can be readily replicated by most clinical school and easily added to surgical workshops to ensure that trainees have hands on experience with this procedure before being required to perform it on patients. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Sixty years ago, cell cultures finally permitted the poliomyelitis virus to multiply easily].

    PubMed

    Chastel, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In 1949, three American virologists, John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller and Frederick C. Robbins, from the Harvard Medical Scholl and working at the Children's Medical Centre, Boston, Mass., have provoked a true revolution in Virology. Here, they have succeeded in readily multiplying the three poliomyelitis viruses in vitro, in non-nervous cells cultures. A few years afterwards (1954), they were collectively honoured by the Nobel Prize of Physiology and Medicine. This discovery not only has quickly led to the production of efficient poliomyelitis vaccines (J. E. Salk, 1953; A. B. Sabin, 1955) but also has permitted to easily isolate a number of already known viruses (measles, rubella, mumps, herpes simplex and herpes zoster) or until then totally unknown viruses (adenovirus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus). These progresses have significantly contributed to improve diagnosis, sanitary surveillance and vaccinal prophylaxis of human and animal viral diseases. Moreover, the cells cultures techniques have also benefited to other domains of fundamental Biology, such as cellular biology, genetics, cancerology, biology of the reproduction and regenerative medicine as well.

  19. An easily reversible structural change underlies mechanisms enabling desert crust cyanobacteria to survive desiccation.

    PubMed

    Bar-Eyal, Leeat; Eisenberg, Ido; Faust, Adam; Raanan, Hagai; Nevo, Reinat; Rappaport, Fabrice; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Sétif, Pierre; Thurotte, Adrien; Reich, Ziv; Kaplan, Aaron; Ohad, Itzhak; Paltiel, Yossi; Keren, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Biological desert sand crusts are the foundation of desert ecosystems, stabilizing the sands and allowing colonization by higher order organisms. The first colonizers of the desert sands are cyanobacteria. Facing the harsh conditions of the desert, these organisms must withstand frequent desiccation-hydration cycles, combined with high light intensities. Here, we characterize structural and functional modifications to the photosynthetic apparatus that enable a cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp., to thrive under these conditions. Using multiple in vivo spectroscopic and imaging techniques, we identified two complementary mechanisms for dissipating absorbed energy in the desiccated state. The first mechanism involves the reorganization of the phycobilisome antenna system, increasing excitonic coupling between antenna components. This provides better energy dissipation in the antenna rather than directed exciton transfer to the reaction center. The second mechanism is driven by constriction of the thylakoid lumen which limits diffusion of plastocyanin to P700. The accumulation of P700(+) not only prevents light-induced charge separation but also efficiently quenches excitation energy. These protection mechanisms employ existing components of the photosynthetic apparatus, forming two distinct functional modes. Small changes in the structure of the thylakoid membranes are sufficient for quenching of all absorbed energy in the desiccated state, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibitory damage. These changes can be easily reversed upon rehydration, returning the system to its high photosynthetic quantum efficiency.

  20. Easily recycled Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings prepared via ball milling followed by calcination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijun; Hu, Xumin; Hao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings derived from Bi coatings were first prepared by a two-step method, namely ball milling followed by the calcination process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. The results showed that monoclinic Bi2O3 coatings were obtained after sintering Bi coatings at 673 or 773 K, while monoclinic and triclinic mixed phase Bi2O3 coatings were obtained at 873 or 973 K. The topographies of the samples were observably different, which varied from flower-like, irregular, polygonal to nanosized particles with the increase in calcination temperature. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated solar irradiation for 180 min showed that the largest degradation efficiency of 86.2% was achieved over Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings sintered at 873 K. The Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings, encapsulated with Al2O3 ball with an average diameter around 1 mm, are quite easily recycled, which provides an alternative visible light-driven photocatalyst suitable for practical water treatment application.

  1. Efficient transformation of grease to biodiesel using highly active and easily recyclable magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thao P N; Li, Aitao; Tiew, Kang W; Li, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Green and efficient production of biodiesel (FAME) from waste grease containing high amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was achieved by using novel magnetic nanobiocatalyst aggregates (MNA). Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase (TLL) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) were covalently immobilized on core-shell structured iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (80 nm), respectively, followed by freeze-dry to give MNA (13-17 μm) with high yield (80-89%) and high enzyme loading (61 mg TLL or 22 mg CALB per gram MNA). MNA TL showed the best performance among immobilized enzymes known thus for the production of FAME from grease (17 wt.% FFA) with methanol, giving 99% yield in 12 h (3.3 wt.% catalyst). MNA TL was easily separated under magnetic field and reused, retaining 88% productivity in 11th cycle. MNA CA converted >97% FFA in grease (17 wt.% FFA) to FAME in 12 h (0.45 wt.% catalyst), being useful in two-step transformation of grease to biodiesel.

  2. Predictive model for delayed graft function based on easily available pre-renal transplant variables.

    PubMed

    Zaza, Gianluigi; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Sandrini, Silvio; Scolari, Maria Piera; Capelli, Irene; Minetti, Enrico; Gesualdo, Loreto; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Gambaro, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Boschiero, Luigino

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pre-transplant factors influencing delayed graft function (DGF) could have an important clinical impact. This could allow clinicians to early identify dialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients eligible for special transplant programs, preventive therapeutic strategies and specific post-transplant immunosuppressive treatments. To achieve these objectives, we retrospectively analyzed main demographic and clinical features, follow-up events and outcomes registered in a large dedicated dataset including 2,755 patients compiled collaboratively by four Italian renal/transplant units. The years of transplant ranged from 1984 to 2012. Statistical analysis clearly demonstrated that some recipients' characteristics at the time of transplantation (age and body weight) and dialysis-related variables (modality and duration) were significantly associated with DGF development (p ≤ 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the final model based on the four identified variables predicting DGF was 0.63 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.65). Additionally, deciles of the score were significantly associated with the incidence of DGF (p value for trend <0.001). Therefore, in conclusion, in our study we identified a pre-operative predictive model for DGF, based on inexpensive and easily available variables, potentially useful in routine clinical practice in most of the Italian and European dialysis units.

  3. An Easily Accessible Web-Based Minimization Random Allocation System for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Huang, Qiwen; Yank, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimization as an adaptive allocation technique has been recommended in the literature for use in randomized clinical trials. However, it remains uncommonly used due in part to a lack of easily accessible implementation tools. Objective To provide clinical trialists with a robust, flexible, and readily accessible tool for implementing covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Methods We developed a Web-based random allocation system, MinimRan, that applies Pocock–Simon (for trials with 2 or more arms) and 2-way (currently limited to 2-arm trials) minimization methods for trials using only categorical prognostic factors or the symmetric Kullback–Leibler divergence minimization method for trials (currently limited to 2-arm trials) using continuous prognostic factors with or without categorical factors, in covariate-adaptive biased-coin randomization. Results In this paper, we describe the system’s essential statistical and computer programming features and provide as an example the randomization results generated by it in a recently completed trial. The system can be used in single- and double-blind trials as well as single-center and multicenter trials. Conclusions We expect the system to facilitate the translation of the 3 validated random allocation methods into broad, efficient clinical research practice. PMID:23872035

  4. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy with a new, small, easily concealed monitor.

    PubMed

    Tape, T G; Rayburn, W F; Bremer, K D; Schnoor, T A

    1994-12-01

    Before establishing the utility of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy, we evaluated the accuracy of a small, easily concealed monitor. The 59 normotensive pregnant patients were between 13 and 26 gestational weeks. For each monitor reading, two trained observers independently and simultaneously recorded blood pressures using a mercury manometer connected to the monitor cuff. Seven readings in three positions (sitting upright, semirecumbent, standing) were performed on each patient. Averaged differences between the observers' and monitor readings varied from -2.2 to -0.9 mm Hg (systolic) and from -2.8 to -0.6 (fifth-phase diastolic), indicating slight but clinically unimportant overestimation by the monitor. Correlations between averaged observers' readings and the monitor ranged from 0.79 to 0.92 (systolic) and from 0.85 to 0.92 (fifth-phase diastolic). Overall, the observers agreed with the monitor within 5 mm Hg on 94% of systolic readings and 99% of fifth-phase diastolic readings. There was no statistically significant difference in accuracy with changes in body position. We conclude that this small, quiet, noninvasive device accurately determined blood pressures during pregnancy.

  5. An affordable and easily constructed model for training in ultrasound-guided vascular access.

    PubMed

    Rippey, James C R; Blanco, Pablo; Carr, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and inexpensive method to make high-fidelity simulators for use in ultrasound-guided vascular access teaching. The phantoms can be created to reflect the ultrasound appearance and feel of central or peripheral arteries and veins. Different clinical states such as hypovolaemia may be readily displayed using the phantoms. The article and associated videos describe the production, appearance and use of phantoms for central vascular access, for peripheral venous access and for peripheral arterial access. Key ingredients are readily accessible and include chicken breasts, modelling balloons and thin walled latex or silicone tubing. The phantoms are easily and rapidly constructed and may be used repeatedly in a training session. As the needle passes through the phantom and vessel wall, the ultrasound appearance and tactile sensation is very similar to that of human tissue and vessels. Using this method, simple and inexpensive phantoms can be created. These are ideal for use in training for ultrasound-guided vascular access. Links to videos describing the phantom construction process, their appearance and the teaching techniques utilised by the authors are found in the text.

  6. Open Window: When Easily Identifiable Genomes and Traits Are in the Public Domain

    PubMed Central

    Angrist, Misha

    2014-01-01

    “One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible.” - Charles Fort [1] As the costs of personal genetic testing “self-quantification” fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown. PMID:24647311

  7. Easily applicable multiple testing procedures to improve the interpretation of clinical trials with composite endpoints.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Svenja; Mucha, Annegret; Doherty, Patrick; Kieser, Meinhard; Rauch, Geraldine

    2014-07-15

    Cardiology trials often consider composite endpoints as primary efficacy outcomes thereby combining several time-to-event variables in a single time-to-first-event measure. The main motivation to use a composite endpoint is to increase the number of expected events thereby reducing the required sample size. However, interpretation may be difficult as the effect observed for the composite endpoint does not necessarily reflect the effects for the single components. To improve interpretation, it is therefore a current standard to analyze the individual components in a descriptive way. However, a descriptive analysis does not allow a statistical proof of concept. Therefore the gain in information is limited. This paper systematically explores multiple testing procedures aimed at improving the interpretation of composite endpoints by confirmatory tests of the components. A simulation study demonstrates, on the basis of a real cardiology clinical trial example, the benefit of these easily applicable multiple testing procedures. By applying adequate multiple testing strategies to assess the components of a composite endpoint there is a high chance to get additional confirmatory evidence on the components without the need to increase sample size. With a moderate increase in sample size, a gain in evidence can often also be ensured with a predefined power. The interpretation of composite endpoints can be improved by applying multiple testing procedures that assess the components. The methods discussed here are easy to apply and provide a substantial benefit for clinical interpretation of study results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in venom chemistry in Tetragnatha spiders is not easily explained by adult niche differences.

    PubMed

    Binford, Greta J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Maddison, Wayne P

    2016-05-01

    Spider venom composition typically differs between sexes. This pattern is anecdotally thought to reflect differences in adult feeding biology. We used a phylogenetic approach to compare intersexual venom dimorphism between species that differ in adult niche dimorphism. Male and female venoms were compared within and between related species of Hawaiian Tetragnatha, a mainland congener, and outgroups. In some species of Hawaiian Tetragnatha adult females spin orb-webs and adult males capture prey while wandering, while in other species both males and females capture prey by wandering. We predicted that, if venom sexual dimorphism is primarily explained by differences in adult feeding biology, species in which both sexes forage by wandering would have monomorphic venoms or venoms with reduced dimorphism relative to species with different adult feeding biology. However, we found striking sexual dimorphism in venoms of both wandering and orb-weaving Tetragnatha species with males having high molecular weight components in their venoms that were absent in females, and a reduced concentration of low molecular weight components relative to females. Intersexual differences in venom composition within Tetragnatha were significantly larger than in non-Tetragnatha species. Diet composition was not different between sexes. This striking venom dimorphism is not easily explained by differences in feeding ecology or behavior. Rather, we hypothesize that the dimorphism reflects male-specific components that play a role in mating biology possibly in sexual stimulation, nuptial gifts and/or mate recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Easily separated silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis and high antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Zhi; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide (MGO-Ag) was synthesized by doping silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of GO, which was used as an antibacterial agent. MGO-Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and magnetic property tests. It can be found that magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nano-Ag was well dispersed on graphene oxide; and MGO-Ag exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several factors were investigated to study the antibacterial effect of MGO-Ag, such as temperature, time, pH and bacterial concentration. We also found that MGO-Ag maintained high inactivation rates after use six times and can be separated easily after antibacterial process. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism is discussed and the synergistic effect of GO, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nano-Ag accounted for high inactivation of MGO-Ag. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High efficiency removal of dissolved As(III) using iron nanoparticle-embedded macroporous polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Savina, Irina N; English, Christopher J; Whitby, Raymond L D; Zheng, Yishan; Leistner, Andre; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Cundy, Andrew B

    2011-09-15

    Novel nanocomposite materials where iron nanoparticles are embedded into the walls of a macroporous polymer were produced and their efficiency for the removal of As(III) from aqueous media was studied. Nanocomposite gels containing α-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were prepared by cryopolymerisation resulting in a monolithic structure with large interconnected pores up to 100 μm in diameter and possessing a high permeability (ca. 3 × 10(-3) ms(-1)). The nanocomposite devices showed excellent capability for the removal of trace concentrations of As(III) from solution, with a total capacity of up to 3mg As/g of nanoparticles. The leaching of iron was minimal and the device could operate in a pH range 3-9 without diminishing removal efficiency. The effect of competing ions such as SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) was negligible. The macroporous composites can be easily configured into a variety of shapes and structures and the polymer matrix can be selected from a variety of monomers, offering high potential as flexible metal cation remediation devices.

  11. Gas-Phase Chemistry of Benzyl Cations in Dissociation of N-Benzylammonium and N-Benzyliminium Ions Studied by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Lin; Sun, Hezhi; Guo, Cheng; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the fragmentation reactions of various N-benzylammonium and N-benzyliminium ions were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In general, the dissociation of N-benzylated cations generates benzyl cations easily. Formation of ion/neutral complex intermediates consisting of the benzyl cations and the neutral fragments was observed. The intra-complex reactions included electrophilic aromatic substitution, hydride transfer, electron transfer, proton transfer, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution. These five types of reactions almost covered all the potential reactivities of benzyl cations in chemical reactions. Benzyl cations are well-known as Lewis acid and electrophile in reactions, but the present study showed that the gas-phase reactivities of some suitably ring-substituted benzyl cations were far richer. The 4-methylbenzyl cation was found to react as a Brønsted acid, benzyl cations bearing a strong electron-withdrawing group were found to react as electron acceptors, and para-halogen-substituted benzyl cations could react as substrates for nucleophilic attack at the phenyl ring. The reactions of benzyl cations were also related to the neutral counterparts. For example, in electron transfer reaction, the neutral counterpart should have low ionization energy and in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction, the neutral counterpart should be piperazine or analogues. This study provided a panoramic view of the reactions of benzyl cations with neutral N-containing species in the gas phase.

  12. Gas-phase chemistry of benzyl cations in dissociation of N-benzylammonium and N-benzyliminium ions studied by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Lin; Sun, Hezhi; Guo, Cheng; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the fragmentation reactions of various N-benzylammonium and N-benzyliminium ions were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In general, the dissociation of N-benzylated cations generates benzyl cations easily. Formation of ion/neutral complex intermediates consisting of the benzyl cations and the neutral fragments was observed. The intra-complex reactions included electrophilic aromatic substitution, hydride transfer, electron transfer, proton transfer, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution. These five types of reactions almost covered all the potential reactivities of benzyl cations in chemical reactions. Benzyl cations are well-known as Lewis acid and electrophile in reactions, but the present study showed that the gas-phase reactivities of some suitably ring-substituted benzyl cations were far richer. The 4-methylbenzyl cation was found to react as a Brønsted acid, benzyl cations bearing a strong electron-withdrawing group were found to react as electron acceptors, and para-halogen-substituted benzyl cations could react as substrates for nucleophilic attack at the phenyl ring. The reactions of benzyl cations were also related to the neutral counterparts. For example, in electron transfer reaction, the neutral counterpart should have low ionization energy and in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction, the neutral counterpart should be piperazine or analogues. This study provided a panoramic view of the reactions of benzyl cations with neutral N-containing species in the gas phase.

  13. [Removal of red tide organisms by organo-modified bentonite].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuesong; Xu, Zirong; Xia, Meisheng; Ye, Ying; Hu, Caihong

    2004-01-01

    A series of organo-bentonites were synthesized by exchanging cation surfactants such as cyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium to remove red tide organisms Skeletonema costatum. The results showed that the removal rate of Skeletonema costatum by the bentonites was in the order of cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > iron pillared bentonite > cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified sodium bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified > sodium bentonite. The removal rate of Skeletonema costatum was related to the length of alkyl chains and the amount of cation surfactants exchanged on bentonites.

  14. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  15. Structure of alginate gels: interaction of diuronate units with divalent cations from density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Agulhon, Pierre; Markova, Velina; Robitzer, Mike; Quignard, Françoise; Mineva, Tzonka

    2012-06-11

    The complexation of (1→4) linked α-L-guluronate (G) and β-D-mannuronate (M) disaccharides with Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) cations have been studied with quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT)-based method. A large number of possible cation-diuronate complexes, with one and two GG or MM disaccharide units and with or without water molecules in the inner coordination shells have been considered. The computed bond distances, cation interaction energies, and molecular orbital composition analysis revealed that the complexation of the transition metal (TM) ions to the disaccharides occurs via the formation of strong coordination-covalent bonds. On the contrary, the alkaline earth cations form ionic bonds with the uronates. The unidentate binding is found to be the most favored one in the TM hydrated and water-free complexes. By removing water molecules, the bidentate chelating binding also occurs, although it is found to be energetically less favored by 1 to 1.5 eV than the unidentate one. A good correlation is obtained between the alginate affinity trend toward TM cations and the interaction energies of the TM cations in all studied complexes, which suggests that the alginate affinities are strongly related to the chemical interaction strength of TM cations-uronate complexes. The trend of the interaction energies of the alkaline earth cations in the ionic complexes is opposite to the alginate affinity order. The binding strength is thus not a limiting factor in the alginate gelation in the presence of alkaline earth cations at variance with the TM cations.

  16. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  17. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  18. Atomistic understanding of cation exchange in PbS nanocrystals using simulations with pseudoligands

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Buijs, Wim; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; van Huis, Marijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Cation exchange is a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanostructures such as core–shell nanocrystals, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Interactions of cations with ligands and solvent molecules are systematically ignored in simulations. Here, we introduce the concept of pseudoligands to incorporate cation-ligand-solvent interactions in molecular dynamics. This leads to excellent agreement with experimental data on cation exchange of PbS nanocrystals, whereby Pb ions are partially replaced by Cd ions from solution. The temperature and the ligand-type control the exchange rate and equilibrium composition of cations in the nanocrystal. Our simulations reveal that Pb ions are kicked out by exchanged Cd interstitials and migrate through interstitial sites, aided by local relaxations at core–shell interfaces and point defects. We also predict that high-pressure conditions facilitate strongly enhanced cation exchange reactions at elevated temperatures. Our approach is easily extendable to other semiconductor compounds and to other families of nanocrystals. PMID:27160371

  19. OntologyWidget – a reusable, embeddable widget for easily locating ontology terms

    PubMed Central

    Beauheim, Catherine C; Wymore, Farrell; Nitzberg, Michael; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Jin, Heng; Skene, JH Pate; Ball, Catherine A; Sherlock, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies are being widely used to annotate biological data in a computer-accessible, consistent and well-defined manner. However, due to their size and complexity, annotating data with appropriate terms from an ontology is often challenging for experts and non-experts alike, because there exist few tools that allow one to quickly find relevant ontology terms to easily populate a web form. Results We have produced a tool, OntologyWidget, which allows users to rapidly search for and browse ontology terms. OntologyWidget can easily be embedded in other web-based applications. OntologyWidget is written using AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and has two related elements. The first is a dynamic auto-complete ontology search feature. As a user enters characters into the search box, the appropriate ontology is queried remotely for terms that match the typed-in text, and the query results populate a drop-down list with all potential matches. Upon selection of a term from the list, the user can locate this term within a generic and dynamic ontology browser, which comprises the second element of the tool. The ontology browser shows the paths from a selected term to the root as well as parent/child tree hierarchies. We have implemented web services at the Stanford Microarray Database (SMD), which provide the OntologyWidget with access to over 40 ontologies from the Open Biological Ontology (OBO) website [1]. Each ontology is updated weekly. Adopters of the OntologyWidget can either use SMD's web services, or elect to rely on their own. Deploying the OntologyWidget can be accomplished in three simple steps: (1) install Apache Tomcat [2] on one's web server, (2) download and install the OntologyWidget servlet stub that provides access to the SMD ontology web services, and (3) create an html (HyperText Markup Language) file that refers to the OntologyWidget using a simple, well-defined format. Conclusion We have developed OntologyWidget, an easy

  20. Superomniphobic and easily repairable coatings on copper substrates based on simple immersion or spray processes.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Thomaz C; Michels, Alexandre F; Horowitz, Flávio; Weibel, Daniel E

    2015-03-24

    Textures that resemble typical fern or bracken plant species (dendrite structures) were fabricated for liquid repellency by dipping copper substrates in a single-step process in solutions containing AgNO3 or by a simple spray liquid application. Superhydrophobic surfaces were produced using a solution containing AgNO3 and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPSi), and superomniphobic surfaces were produced by a two-step procedure, immersing the copper substrate in a AgNO3 solution and, after that, in a solution containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES). The simple functionalization processes can also be used when the superomniphobic surfaces were destroyed by mechanical stress. By immersion of the wrecked surfaces in the above solutions or by the spray method and soft heating, the copper substrates could be easily repaired, regenerating the surfaces' superrepellency to liquids. The micro- and nanoroughness structures generated on copper surfaces by the deposition of silver dendrites functionalized with TMPSi presented apparent contact angles greater than 150° with a contact angle hysteresis lower than 10° when water was used as the test liquid. To avoid total wettability with very low surface tension liquids, such as rapeseed oil and hexadecane, a thin perfluorinated coating of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), produced by physical vapor deposition, was used. A more efficient perfluorinated coating was obtained when PFDTES was used. The superomniphobic surfaces produced apparent contact angles above 150° with all of the tested liquids, including hexadecane, although the contact angle hysteresis with this liquid was above 10°. The coupling of dendritic structures with TMPSi/PTFE or directly by PFDTES coatings was responsible for the superrepellency of the as-prepared surfaces. These simple, fast, and reliable procedures allow the large area, and cost-effective scale fabrication of superrepellent surfaces on copper substrates for various industrial

  1. Clearly written, easily comprehended? The readability of websites providing information on epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2015-03-01

    There is a general need for high-quality, easily accessible, and comprehensive health-care information on epilepsy to better inform the general population about this highly stigmatized neurological disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health literacy level of eight popular English-written websites that provide information on epilepsy in quantitative terms of readability. Educational epilepsy material on these websites, including 41 Wikipedia articles, were analyzed for their overall level of readability and the corresponding academic grade level needed to comprehend the published texts on the first reading. The Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) was used to assess ease of comprehension while the Gunning Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Automated Readability Index, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook scales estimated the corresponding academic grade level needed for comprehension. The average readability of websites yielded results indicative of a difficult-to-fairly-difficult readability level (FRE results: 44.0±8.2), with text readability corresponding to an 11th academic grade level (11.3±1.9). The average FRE score of the Wikipedia articles was indicative of a difficult readability level (25.6±9.5), with the other readability scales yielding results corresponding to a 14th grade level (14.3±1.7). Popular websites providing information on epilepsy, including Wikipedia, often demonstrate a low level of readability. This can be ameliorated by increasing access to clear and concise online information on epilepsy and health in general. Short "basic" summaries targeted to patients and nonmedical users should be added to articles published in specialist websites and Wikipedia to ease readability.

  2. The Sclerotic Scatter Limbal Arc Is More Easily Elicited under Mesopic Rather Than Photopic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Denion, Eric; Lux, Anne-Laure; Mouriaux, Frédéric; Béraud, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to determine the limbal lighting illuminance thresholds (LLITs) required to trigger perception of sclerotic scatter at the opposite non-illuminated limbus (i.e. perception of a light limbal scleral arc) under different levels of ambient lighting illuminance (ALI). Material and Methods Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled. The iris shade (light or dark) was graded by retrieving the median value of the pixels of a pre-determined zone of a gray-level iris photograph. Mean keratometry and central corneal pachymetry were recorded. Each subject was asked to lie down, and the ALI at eye level was set to mesopic values (10, 20, 40 lux), then photopic values (60, 80, 100, 150, 200 lux). For each ALI level, a light beam of gradually increasing illuminance was applied to the right temporal limbus until the LLIT was reached, i.e. the level required to produce the faint light arc that is characteristic of sclerotic scatter at the nasal limbus. Results After log-log transformation, a linear relationship between the logarithm of ALI and the logarithm of the LLIT was found (p<0.001), a 10% increase in ALI being associated with an average increase in the LLIT of 28.9%. Higher keratometry values were associated with higher LLIT values (p = 0.008) under low ALI levels, but the coefficient of the interaction was very small, representing a very limited effect. Iris shade and central corneal thickness values were not significantly associated with the LLIT. We also developed a censored linear model for ALI values ≤ 40 lux, showing a linear relationship between ALI and the LLIT, in which the LLIT value was 34.4 times greater than the ALI value. Conclusion Sclerotic scatter is more easily elicited under mesopic conditions than under photopic conditions and requires the LLIT value to be much higher than the ALI value, i.e. it requires extreme contrast. PMID:26964096

  3. Threshold concentration of easily assimilable organic carton in feedwater for biofouling of spiral-wound membranes.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, W A M; Biraud, D; Cornelissen, E R; van der Kooij, D

    2009-07-01

    One of the major impediments in the application of spiral-wound membranes in water treatment or desalination is clogging of the feed channel by biofouling which is induced by nutrients in the feedwater. Organic carbon is, under most conditions, limiting the microbial growth. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the concentration of an easily assimilable organic compound such as acetate in the feedwater and the pressure drop increase in the feed channel. For this purpose the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) was used as a model for the feed channel of a spiral-wound membrane. This MFS unit was supplied with drinking water enriched with acetate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microg C x L(-1). The pressure drop (PD) in the feed channel increased at all tested concentrations but not with the blank. The PD increase could be described by a first order process based on theoretical considerations concerning biofilm formation rate and porosity decline. The relationship between the first order fouling rate constant R(f) and the acetate concentration is described with a saturation function corresponding with the growth kinetics of bacteria. Under the applied conditions the maximum R(f) (0.555 d(-1)) was reached at 25 microg acetate-C x L(-1) and the half saturation constant k(f) was estimated at 15 microg acetate-C x L(-1). This value is higher than k(s) values for suspended bacteria grown on acetate, which is attributed to substrate limited growth conditions in the biofilm. The threshold concentration for biofouling of the feed channel is about 1 microg acetate-C x L(-1).

  4. Cation reordering in natural titanomagnetites and implications for paleointensity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Jackson, M. J.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Successful paleointensity experiments hinge on the underlying assumption of reciprocity; the remanence acquired over a particular temperature range should be fully removed over the same temperature range, and vice versa. This means that the blocking (TB) and unblocking (TUB) temperature spectra are identical and do not change during the course of the experiment. We will present the results of recent work demonstrating that some natural titanomagnetites undergo cation reordering on laboratory timescales and at temperatures at or below the Curie temperature (TC). The bulk composition of the titanomagnetites (Fe3-xTixO4) varies between approximately 0.2 < x < 0.4, with moderate degrees of Mg and Al substitution. Although there is no attendant structural or chemical alteration, the re-distribution of ferric and ferrous iron cations results in reversible changes in Curie temperature of up to 150°C. This necessarily changes the blocking temperature spectrum as a function of prior thermal history. These changes in TC, TUB and TB clearly pose problems for all paleointensity experiments, but the effects may be most apparent during Thellier-type experiments where the sample is step-wise heated to increasingly higher temperatures. The blocking temperature distribution will be expected to change over the course of the experiment even in the absence of chemical alteration, and one can expect the experiment to fail. We will explore the effects of cation redistribution on paleointensity experiments through numerical models and by comparison with paleointensity data from pumice samples taken from the 1980 pyroclastic flows at Mt. St. Helens (MSH). In the MSH samples, two phases are typically present: a predominantly multi-domain, homogeneous titanomagnetite (associated with the cation reordering) and an oxyexsolved, single-domain to pseudo-single-domain phase with ilmenite lamellae in a magnetite-rich host. Samples that result in technically successful paleointensity experiments

  5. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  6. Anti-arthritis activity of cationic materials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lei; Xia, Suhua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cationic materials exhibit remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in experimental arthritis models. Our aim was to confirm this character of cationic materials and investigate its possible mechanism. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) models were used to test cationic materials for their anti-inflammatory activity. Cationic dextran (C-dextran) with different cationic degrees was used to investigate the influence of the cationic elements of materials on their anti-inflammatory ability. Peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells were used to test the expression of cytokines stimulated by cationic materials. Interferon (IFN)-γ receptor-deficient mice and macrophage-depleted rats were used to examine the possible mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity of cationic materials. In AIA models, different cationic materials shared similar anti-inflammatory characters. The anti-inflammatory activity of C-dextran increased with as the cationic degree increased. Cationic materials stimulated interleukin (IL)-12 expression in peritoneal macrophages, and strong stimulation of IFN-γ secretion was subsequently observed in spleen cells. In vivo experiments revealed that circulating IL-12 and IFN-γ were enhanced by the cationic materials. Using IFN-γ receptor knockout mice and macrophage-depleted rats, we found that IFN-γ and macrophages played key roles in the anti-inflammatory activity of the materials towards cells. We also found that neutrophil infiltration at inflammatory sites was reduced when AIA animals were treated with C-dextran. We propose that cationic signals act through an unknown receptor on macrophages to induce IL-12 secretion, and that IL-12 promotes the expression of IFN-γ by natural killer cells (or T cells). The resulting elevated systemic levels of IFN-γ inhibit arthritis development by preventing neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites. PMID:19538477

  7. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    DOEpatents

    Small, James H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  8. Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

  9. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  10. Hair removal.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices.

  11. Cation Transport in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stanley G.; Solomon, A. K.

    1961-01-01

    Methods have been developed to study the intracellular Na and K concentrations in E. coli, strain K-12. These intracellular cation concentrations have been shown to be functions of the extracellular cation concentrations and the age of the bacterial culture. During the early logarithmic phase of growth, the intracellular K concentration greatly exceeds that of the external medium, whereas the intracellular Na concentration is lower than that of the growth medium. As the age of the culture increases, the intracellular K concentration falls and the intracellular Na concentration rises, changes which are related to the fall in the pH of the medium and to the accumulation of the products of bacterial metabolism. When stationary phase cells, which are rich in Na and poor in K, are resuspended in fresh growth medium, there is a rapid reaccumulation of K and extrusion of Na. These processes represent oppositely directed net ion movements against concentration gradients, and have been shown to be dependent upon the presence of an intact metabolic energy supply. PMID:13909521

  12. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  13. Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Rare Cause of Cutaneous Ulceration and One Easily Misdiagnosed

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Maureen Y.; Hoey, Susannah E.; O'Kane, Donal

    2016-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis often misdiagnosed. It is uncommon in infants and children accounting for 4% of cases. A one-year-old male in paediatric ICU ventilated for bronchopneumonia was referred with ulcerated areas on his neck and axilla corresponding to sites of recent removal of central and arterial lines. Examination revealed areas of deep ulceration with violaceous undermined borders in keeping with PG. This was supported by a skin biopsy showing a neutrophilic infiltrate in the deeper dermis. Topical clobetasol propionate was commenced and a dramatic improvement within 24 hours noted. Blood results showed a leucocytosis of 29.7; a differential WCC showed toxic granulation in neutrophils with myeloid left shift; immunoglobulins showed elevated IgG 23 and IgA 4.86. The elevated WCC made us consider a leukaemic trigger; however, they settled with treatment of the underlying infection. PG in children is more likely to have an atypical distribution involving the head and neck (26.6%) or buttocks (15%). An interesting feature in this case is the presence of pathergy, a term used to describe the induction or exacerbation of PG at sites of iatrogenic or incidental trauma. It is seen in 31% of patients with PG. PMID:27738542

  14. The adsorption and mass-transfer process of cationic red X-GRL dye on natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jingjing; Guan, Junfang; Gao, Huimin; Wen, Yafei; Ren, Zijie

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of natural zeolite was studied in order to determine the adsorption capacity and mass-transfer process of cationic red X-GRL (C(18)H(21)BrN(6)) onto the adsorbent. The adsorption tests to determine both the uptake capacity and the mass-transfer process at equilibrium were performed under batch conditions, which showed rapid uptake in general for the initial 5 min, corresponding to 92% total removal. The equilibrium adsorption capacity value (q(e,cal)) in pseudo-second-order kinetics was 13.51 mg/g at 293 K and the whole adsorption process was governed by physical adsorption with an endothermic, endothermic spontaneous nature. Adsorption tests indicated that the zeolite has great potential as an alternative low-cost material in the treatment of X-GRL drainage. However, the mass-transfer process to determine the rate-controlling steps showed that both film diffusion and pore diffusion were important in controlling the adsorption rate. The adsorption process was governed by film diffusion while pore diffusion was poor because the X-GRL molecules could not penetrate into the zeolite easily. The X-GRL molecules were only adsorbed on the external surface of the zeolite. Hence, to improve the adsorption capacity of natural zeolite further, modification to expand its micropores is necessary.

  15. Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Cationic Polymerization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    cation mechanism of Scholl reaction the Lewis acid and by the benzylic carbocations . Hydride transfer to benzylic carbenium ions leads to methyl groups...reviewed. Examples from ring-opening, carbocationic , and radical-cation poly- merizations and oligomerizations are discussed. Accesion For DrIC TAB3...Examples from ring- opening, carbocationic , and radical-cation polymeri- zations and oligomerizations are discussed. INTRODUCTION This paper will

  16. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Khym, J.X.

    1959-03-10

    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  17. Long-term effects of commercial sawlog harvest on soil cation concentrations

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the effects of nutrient removal associated with various forest harvesting practices on long-term site productivity. The authors measured exchangeable soil cation concentration responses to a commercial clearcut sawlog harvest in mixed hardwoods on a 59-ha watershed in the Southern Appalachians. Soils were sampled 17 months prior to and...

  18. Modeling the enhanced removal of emerging organic contaminants during MAR through a reactive barrier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Artificial recharge of reclaimed water is often proposed as a way of increasing water resources while improving quality. However, it is also feared that recalcitrant organic contaminants (i.e., those that are not completely removed during wastewater treatment) may reach the aquifer. Specifically, emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been increasingly detected in surface and ground waters and are becoming a worldwide problem. Most EOCs exhibit higher concentrations in reclaimed water used for artificial recharge than in produced groundwater, indicating that these compounds are retained and/or degraded during infiltration. Removal may be the result of sorption, which depends on organic matter and inorganic surfaces contained in the sediments, and degradation, which depends on redox conditions (some EOCs are preferentially removed under specific redox conditions). To enhance removal and retention processes, we designed a reactive barrier, which consists of compost, sand, clay and is covered by iron oxide. The role of compost is to favor sorption of neutral compounds and to release easily degradable organic carbon, so as to generate diverse redox condition, thus increasing the range of degraded EOCs. The role of iron oxides and clay is to favor sorption of anionic and cationic compounds, respectively. The barrier has been tested in the field proving its ability in promoting diverse redox conditions and indeed improving EOCs removal. However, experimental data do not allow separating sorption from degradation. To do so, we have built a flow and transport model representing the infiltration system and the aquifer beneath. The model has been calibrated against head data, collected during three years that include recharge and natural flow periods, and concentration, collected during a conservative tracer test. The calibrated model was then used to predict the fate of EOCs using sorption and half-lives from the literature. Results confirm that retention and degradation

  19. Gas-phase Electronic Spectra of Coronene and Corannulene Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, F.-X.; Rice, Corey A.; Maier, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Gas-phase electronic spectra of the coronene ({{{C}}}24{{{{H}}}12}+) and corannulene ({{{C}}}20{{{{H}}}10}+) cations complexed with helium have been recorded in a quadrupole ion trap at 5 K by photodissociation. The electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}20{{{{H}}}10}+ with two helium atoms was also measured to estimate the perturbation. This method is sufficient for an astronomical comparison because the shift due to the weakly bound helium is on the order of 0.2 Å. {{{C}}}24{{{{H}}}12}+{--}{He} has the origin band of the {{{A}}}2{{{E}}}1g≤ftarrow X{}2{{{E}}}2u transition at 9438.3 Å and that to a much higher state {{{D}}}3≤ftarrow X{}2{{{E}}}2u at 4570 Å. The corannulene cation is subject to a Jahn–Teller distortion in the electronic ground state, leading to the {3}2{{A}}\\prime ≤ftarrow {{X}}{}2{{A}}\\prime \\prime and {3}2{{A}}\\prime \\prime ≤ftarrow {{X}}{}2{{A}}\\prime transitions with origin band maxima when complexed with helium at 5996.1 and 5882.6 Å. These absorptions lie in a region where there is a congestion of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). However, the recorded features have no match with astronomical observations, removing coronene and corannulene cations and probably other aromatic hydrocarbons of this size as possible carriers of the DIBs.

  20. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  1. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  2. Removing Bureaucracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...managed a new start program to deliver a revolutionary warfighting capability in Battlefield Management/Command and Control . The Service sponsor was...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and

  3. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  4. Cation-coupled bicarbonate transporters.

    PubMed

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-10-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3(-) transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3(-) and associated with Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The first Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3(-) transporters of the SLC4-family.

  5. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOEpatents

    Wasserman, Stephen R.; Anderson, Kenneth B.; Song, Kang; Yuchs, Steven E.; Marshall, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  6. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite.

    PubMed

    Machesky, Michael; Wesolowski, David; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Předota, Milan; Vlcek, Lukas; Ridley, Moira; Kohli, Vaibhav; Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Cummings, Peter; Lvov, Serguei; Fedkin, Mark; Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Kubicki, James; Bandura, Andrei

    2011-04-19

    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl(2) in NaCl, and trace ZnCl(2) in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite (ε(bulk) ≈ 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb(+) and Na(+) on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl(-) binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb(+), Na(+), and especially Sr(2+) are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn(2+) are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn(2+) hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH(+) on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner

  7. Analysis of oxygen binding to Panulirus japonicus hemocyanin. The effect of divalent cations on the allosteric transition.

    PubMed

    Makino, N

    1986-01-02

    The effects of H+ and divalent cations on the O2 equilibrium of hexameric hemocyanin from a spiny lobster, Panulirus japonicus, were examined. The hemocyanin showed the normal Bohr effect. When divalent cations were removed by EDTA treatment, the protein showed a fivefold increase in the O2 affinity and a considerable decrease in the cooperativity. Several cooperativity models were tested for the conformity with the observed O2-binding isotherms by the least-square curve fitting. Among the models examined, the three-state concerted model was found to be most consistent with the results. It was postulated that in the absence of divalent cations deoxyhemocyanin is mainly in the intermediate-affinity state. The arthropod hemocyanins were found to be classifiable into two groups according to their functional responses to the divalent cations. It was suggested that the cations act differently on the allosteric transitions of the two groups of hemocyanins.

  8. Cation channels, cell volume and the death of an erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Lang, Karl S; Wieder, Thomas; Myssina, Svetlana; Birka, Christina; Lang, Philipp A; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kempe, Daniela; Duranton, Christophe; Huber, Stephan M

    2003-11-01

    Similar to a variety of nucleated cells, human erythrocytes activate a non-selective cation channel upon osmotic cell shrinkage. Further stimuli of channel activation include oxidative stress, energy depletion and extracellular removal of Cl-. The channel is permeable to Ca2+ and opening of the channel increases cytosolic [Ca2+]. Intriguing evidence points to a role of this channel in the elimination of erythrocytes by apoptosis. Ca2+ entering through the cation channel stimulates a scramblase, leading to breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, and stimulates Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels, thus leading to KCl loss and (further) cell shrinkage. The breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry is evidenced by annexin binding, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The effects of osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion on annexin binding are mimicked by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 microM) and blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Nevertheless, the residual annexin binding points to additional mechanisms involved in the triggering of the scramblase. The exposure of phosphatidylserine at the extracellular face of the cell membrane stimulates phagocytes to engulf the apoptotic erythrocytes. Thus, sustained activation of the cation channels eventually leads to clearance of affected erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Susceptibility to annexin binding is enhanced in several genetic disorders affecting erythrocyte function, such as thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The enhanced vulnerability presumably contributes to the shortened life span of the affected erythrocytes. Beyond their role in the limitation of erythrocyte survival, cation channels may contribute to the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells exposed to osmotic shock and/or oxidative stress.

  9. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  10. Cation exchange capacity of pine bark substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an important soil and substrate chemical property. It describes a substrate's ability to retain cation nutrients. Higher CEC values for a substrate generally result in greater amounts of nutrients retained in the substrate and available for plant uptake, and great...

  11. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Long, Hai; Park, Andrew M.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-10-15

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  12. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selective recognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure and selectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometric ion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  13. Structural and energetic study of cation-π-cation interactions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Silvana; Soteras, Ignacio; Gelpí, Josep Lluis; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles

    2017-04-12

    Cation-π interactions of aromatic rings and positively charged groups are among the most important interactions in structural biology. The role and energetic characteristics of these interactions are well established. However, the occurrence of cation-π-cation interactions is an unexpected motif, which raises intriguing questions about its functional role in proteins. We present a statistical analysis of the occurrence, composition and geometrical preferences of cation-π-cation interactions identified in a set of non-redundant protein structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. Our results demonstrate that this structural motif is observed at a small, albeit non-negligible frequency in proteins, and suggest a preference to establish cation-π-cation motifs with Trp, followed by Tyr and Phe. Furthermore, we have found that cation-π-cation interactions tend to be highly conserved, which supports their structural or functional role. Finally, we have performed an energetic analysis of a representative subset of cation-π-cation complexes combining quantum-chemical and continuum solvation calculations. Our results point out that the protein environment can strongly screen the cation-cation repulsion, leading to an attractive interaction in 64% of the complexes analyzed. Together with the high degree of conservation observed, these results suggest a potential stabilizing role in the protein fold, as demonstrated recently for a miniature protein (Craven et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 1543). From a computational point of view, the significant contribution of non-additive three-body terms challenges the suitability of standard additive force fields for describing cation-π-cation motifs in molecular simulations.

  14. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  15. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  16. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  17. Layered double hydroxides as anion- and cation-exchanging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mickey Charles

    2007-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) have been principally known as anion-exchanging, clay-like materials for several decades, and continues to be the main driving force for current and future research. The chemical interactions of LDH, with transition metallocyanides, have been a popular topic of investigation for many years, partly due to the use of powder x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy as the main characterization tools. Each transition metallocyanide has a characteristic infrared stretching frequency that can be easily observed, and their respective sizes can be observed while intercalated within the interlayer of the LDH. The ability of LDH to incorporate metal cations or any ions/molecules/complexes, that have a postive charge, have not been previously investigated, mainly due to the chemical and physical nature of LDH. The possibility of cationic incorporation with LDH would most likely occur by surface adsorption, lattice metal replacement, or by intercalation into the LDH interlayers. Although infrared spectroscopy finds it main use through the identification of the anions incorporated with LDH, it can also be used to study and identify the various active and inactive bending and stretching modes that the metal hydroxide layers have.

  18. Amphiphilically modified chitosan cationic nanoparticles for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jie; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Chang; Zhao, Chengguang; Jin, Langping; Zhou, Yili; Xu, Xuzhong; Dong, Siyang; Lu, Xincheng; Wang, Ouchen

    2013-12-01

    A series of amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-cholic acid (HPTA-CHI-CA) polymers were synthesized by grafting cholic acid (CA) and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto chitosan. The self-assembly behavior of HPTA-CHI-CA was studied by fluorescence technique. The polymers were able to self-assemble into NPs in phosphate buffered saline with a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the range of 66-26 mg/L and the CAC decreased with the increasing of the degree of substitution (DS) of CA. The size of cationic HPTA-CHI-CA NPs ranges from 170 to 220 nm (PDI < 0.2). It was found that doxorubicin (DOX) could be encapsulated into HPTA-CHI-CA NPs based on self-assembly. The drug loading content and efficiency varies depending on the DS of CA and feeding ratio of DOX to polymer. In vitro release studies suggested that DOX released slowly from HPTA-CHI-CA NPs without any burst initial release. Besides, the confocal microscopic measurements indicated that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs could easily be uptaken by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and release DOX in cytoplasm. Anti-tumor efficacy results showed that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs have a significant activity of inhibition MCF-7 cells growth. These results suggest cationic HPTA-CHI-CA may have great potential for anticancer drug delivery.

  19. Cationic-modified cyclodextrin nanosphere/anionic polymer as flocculation/sorption systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huining; Cezar, Norlito

    2005-03-15

    Simultaneous removal of dissolved and colloidal substances has been a challenging task. The cationic-modified beta-cyclodextrin nanospheres synthesized in this work, in conjunction with a water-soluble polyacrylamide-based anionic polymer, potentially provide a novel approach to address the problem. The cyclodextrin was rendered cationic using (2,3-epoxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride as a reagent. The cationicity of the modified cyclodextrin and the reaction between cyclodextrin and the reagent were characterized by electrophoresis measurement, polyelectrolyte titration, and NMR. As a dual-component flocculation system, the cationic cyclodextrin/anionic polymer significantly induced clay flocculation, lowering the relative turbidity of the clay suspension over a wide pH range. Meanwhile, as a nanospherical absorbent, the modified cyclodextrins exhibited strong affinity toward aromatic compounds via inclusion complex formation in the hydrophobic cavities, which was monitored by UV spectroscopy. These systems facilitated the simultaneous removal of dissolved and colloidal substances, which was unachievable previously. In addition, the interaction between anionic polymers and the clay particles pretreated with cationic cyclodextrin was investigated in order to reveal the flocculation mechanism.

  20. ESR study of the guanine cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, David M.; Sagstuen, Einar; Nelson, William H.

    1985-05-01

    It has been proposed that the primary direct radiation damage products in DNA are guanine cations and thymine anions. Experiments reported here characterize a guanine cation observed in a single crystal of guanine:HCl:H2O. ESR experiments were performed by x-irradiating and observing the crystals at 15 K. Spectral parameters for the cation include N3 and N10 hyperfine couplings, a C8-Hα hyperfine coupling, and two small exchangeable couplings presumably from the N10 protons. The computed spin densities of ρ(N3)=0.283, ρ(N10)=0.168, and ρ(C8)=0.182 agree nicely with those observed for the guanine cation in DNA. In the single crystal the native molecule is protonated at N7. It is proposed that once the native molecule is oxidized it rapidly deprotonates at N7 to form the cation observed.

  1. REMOVAL OF MTBE FROM WATER WITH ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE has impacted public drinking water wells from releases of gasoline making the water non-potable. MTBE is highly soluble in water, has a low volatility, does not adsorb strongly to soil, and is not thought to be easily biodegradable. Traditional methods of removing organics ...

  2. REMOVAL OF MTBE FROM WATER WITH ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE has impacted public drinking water wells from releases of gasoline making the water non-potable. MTBE is highly soluble in water, has a low volatility, does not adsorb strongly to soil, and is not thought to be easily biodegradable. Traditional methods of removing organics ...

  3. Cation-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Urmann, Marina; Graalfs, Heiner; Joehnck, Matthias; Jacob, Lothar R

    2010-01-01

    A novel cation-exchange resin, Eshmuno™ S, was compared to Fractogel® SO3− (M) and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The stationary phases have different base matrices and carry specific types of polymeric surface modifications. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used as model proteins to characterize these chromatographic resins. Results from gradient elutions, stirred batch adsorptions and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations were used to elucidate binding behavior of mAbs onto Eshmuno™ S and Fractogel® SO3− and the corresponding transport mechanisms on these two resins. The number of charges involved in mAb binding for Eshmuno™ S is lower than for Fractogel® SO3−, indicating a slightly weaker electrostatic interaction. Kinetics from batch uptake experiments are compared to kinetic data obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. Both experimental approaches show an accelerated protein adsorption for the novel stationary phase. The influence of pH, salt concentrations and residence times on dynamic binding capacities was determined. A higher dynamic binding capacity for Eshmuno™ S over a wider range of pH values and residence times was found compared to Fractogel® SO3− and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The capture of antibodies from cell culture supernatant, as well as post-protein A eluates, were analyzed with respect to their host cell protein (hcp) removal capabilities. Comparable or even better hcp clearance was observed at much higher protein loading for Eshmuno™ S than Fractogel® SO3− or Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. PMID:20559022

  4. Cationization increases brain distribution of an amyloid-beta protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Edén, Desirée; Sehlin, Dag

    2017-11-04

    Antibodies and fragments thereof are, because of high selectivity for their targets, considered as potential therapeutics and biomarkers for several neurological disorders. However, due to their large molecular size, antibodies/fragments do not easily penetrate into the brain. The aim of the present study was to improve the brain distribution via adsorptive-mediated transcytosis of an amyloid-beta (Aβ) protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment (F(ab')2-h158). F(ab')2-h158 was cationized to different extents and the specific and unspecific binding was studied in vitro. Next, cationized F(ab')2-h158 was labelled with iodine-125 and its brain distribution and pharmacokinetics was studied in mice. Cationization did not alter the in vitro affinity to Aβ protofibrils, but increased the unspecific binding somewhat. Ex vivo experiments revealed a doubling of brain concentrations compared with unmodified F(ab')2-h158 and in vivo imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed that the cationized F(ab')2-h158, but not the unmodified F(ab')2-h158 could be visualized in the brain. To conclude, cationization is a means to increase brain concentrations of therapeutic antibodies or fragments and may facilitate the use of antibodies/fragments as imaging biomarkers in the brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pore with gate: modulating hydrogen storage in metal-organic framework materials via cation exchange.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sihai; Callear, Samantha K; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J; David, William I F; Sun, Junliang; Blake, Alexander J; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A range of anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) materials has been prepared by combination of In(III) with tetracarboxylate isophthalate-based ligands. These materials incorporate organic cations, either H2ppz2+ (ppz = piperazine) or Me2NH2+, that are hydrogen bonded to the pore wall. These cations act as a gate controlling entry of N2 and H2 gas into and out of the porous host. Thus, hysteretic adsorption/desorption for N2 and H2 is observed in these systems, reflecting the role of the bulky hydrogen bonded organic cations in controlling the kinetic trapping of substrates. Post-synthetic cation exchange with Li+ leads to removal of the organic cation and the formation of the corresponding Li+ salts. Replacement of the organic cation with smaller Li+ leads to an increase in internal surface area and pore volume of the framework material, and in some cases to an increase in the isosteric heat of adsorption of H2 at zero coverage, as predicted by theoretical modelling. The structures, characterisation and analysis of these charged porous materials as storage portals for H2 are discussed. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments confirm interaction of H2 with the carboxylate groups of the isophthalate ligands bound to In(III) centres.

  6. Intracellular trafficking mechanism of cationic phospholipids including cationic liposomes in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Un, K; Sakai-Kato, K; Goda, Y

    2014-07-01

    The development of gene delivery methods is essential for the achievement of effective gene therapy. Elucidation of the intracellular transfer mechanism for cationic carriers is in progress, but there are few reports regarding the intracellular trafficking processes of the cationic phospholipids taken up into cells. In the present work, the trafficking processes of a cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, DOTAP) were investigated from intracellular uptake to extracellular efflux using cationic liposomes in vitro. Following intracellular transport of liposomes via endocytosis, DOTAP was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria. Moreover, the proteins involved in DOTAP intracellular trafficking and extracellular efflux were identified. In addition, helper lipids of cationic liposomes were found to partially affect this intracellulartrafficking. These findings might provide valuable information for designing cationic carriers and avoiding unexpected toxic side effects derived from cationic liposomal components.

  7. Membranes Remove Metal Ions Fron Industrial Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, W. P. L.; May, C.

    1983-01-01

    Use of membrane films affords convenient and economical alternative for removing and recovering metal cations present in low concentrations from large quantities of liquid solutions. Possible applications of membrane films include use in analytical chemistry for determination of small amounts of toxic metallic impurities in lakes, streams, and municipal effluents. Also suitable for use as absorber of certain pollutant gases and odors present in confined areas.

  8. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  9. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  10. Cation Transport in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stanley G.; Epstein, Wolfgang; Solomon, A. K.

    1963-01-01

    The resuspension of K-poor, Na-rich stationary phase E. coli in fresh medium at pH 7.0 results in a rapid uptake of K and extrusion of Na by the cells. In all experiments net K uptake exceeded net Na extrusion. An investigation of the uptake of glucose, PO4, and Mg and the secretion of H by these cells indicates that the excess K uptake is not balanced by the simultaneous uptake of anions but must be accompanied by the extrusion of cations from the cell. The kinetics of net K uptake are consistent with the existence of two parallel influx processes. The first is rapid, of brief duration, and accounts for approximately 60 per cent of the total net K uptake. This process is a function of the extracellular K concentration, is inhibited in acid media, and appears to be a 1 for 1 exchange of extracellular K for intracellular H. The second influx process has a half-time of approximately 12 minutes, and is not affected by acid media. This process is a function of the intracellular Na concentration, is dependent upon the presence of K in the medium, and may be ascribed to a 1 for 1 exchange of extracellular K for intracellular Na. PMID:14080819

  11. INORGANIC CATIONS IN RAT KIDNEY

    PubMed Central

    Tandler, C. J.; Kierszenbaum, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    For localization of pyroantimonate-precipitable cations, rat kidney was fixed by perfusion with a saturated aqueous solution of potassium pyroantimonate (pH about 9.2, without addition of any conventional fixative). A remarkably good preservation of the tissue and cell morphology was obtained as well as a consistent and reproducible localization of the insoluble antimonate salts of magnesium, calcium, and sodium. All proximal and distal tubules and glomeruli were delimited by massive electron-opaque precipitates localized in the basement membrane and, to a lesser extent, in adjacent connective tissue. In the intraglomerular capillaries the antimonate precipitate was encountered in the basement membranes and also between the foot processes. In addition to a more or less uniform distribution in the cytoplasm and between the microvilli of the brush border, antimonate precipitates were found in all cell nuclei, mainly between the masses of condensed chromatin. The mitochondria usually contained a few large antimonate deposits which probably correspond to the so-called "dense granules" observed after conventional fixations. PMID:4106544

  12. A novel configuration of microbial fuel cell stack bridged internally through an extra cation exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhidan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Songping; Su, Zhiguo

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports a novel configuration of stacked microbial fuel cells (MFCs) bridged internally through an extra cation exchange membrane (CEM). The MFC stack (MFC(stack)), assembled from two single MFCs (MFC(single)), resulted in double voltage output and half optimal external resistance. COD removal rate was increased from 32.4% to 54.5%. The performance improvement could be attributed to the smaller internal resistance and enhanced cations transfer. A result from a half cell study further confirmed the important role of the extra CEM. This study also demonstrated MFCs where the anode and cathode were sandwiched between two CEMs possessed significantly high power outputs.

  13. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  14. Aggregation of nucleosomes by divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    de Frutos, M; Raspaud, E; Leforestier, A; Livolant, F

    2001-01-01

    Conditions of precipitation of nucleosome core particles (NCP) by divalent cations (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) have been explored over a large range of nucleosome and cation concentrations. Precipitation of NCP occurs for a threshold of divalent cation concentration, and redissolution is observed for further addition of salt. The phase diagram looks similar to those obtained with DNA and synthetic polyelectrolytes in the presence of multivalent cations, which supports the idea that NCP/NCP interactions are driven by cation condensation. In the phase separation domain the effective charge of the aggregates was determined by measurements of their electrophoretic mobility. Aggregates formed in the presence of divalent cations (Mg(2+)) remain negatively charged over the whole concentration range. They turn positively charged when aggregation is induced by trivalent (spermidine) or tetravalent (spermine) cations. The higher the valency of the counterions, the more significant is the reversal of the effective charge of the aggregates. The sign of the effective charge has no influence on the aspect of the phase diagram. We discuss the possible reasons for this charge reversal in the light of actual theoretical approaches. PMID:11463653

  15. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  16. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  17. Efficient and selective removal of methoxy protecting groups in carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Boto, Alicia; Hernández, Dácil; Hernández, Rosendo; Suárez, Ernesto

    2004-10-14

    [reaction: see text] The selective removal from carbohydrate substrates of methoxy protecting groups next to hydroxy groups is reported. On treatment with PhI(OAc)(2)-I(2), the methoxy group is transformed into an easily removable acetal. The mild conditions of this methodology are compatible with many functional groups, and good to excellent yields are usually achieved.

  18. Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

  19. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May Be More Easily Altered than Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee' S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and…

  20. Cation-π Interactions: Mimicking mussel mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkedal, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    Gluing materials together underwater is a mighty challenge faced -- and overcome -- by mussels. It requires good adhesion and cohesion. Molecular-level mechanical measurements have now shown that cation-π interactions provide surprisingly strong cohesive abilities.

  1. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-02-28

    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bearing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(i) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions provided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported catalysts feature unique geometries caused by ligation of the bulky phosphine ligands. Their activities and selectivities in standard metathesis reactions were also investigated. These cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts reported here showed moderate activity and very similar stereoselectivity when compared to the second generation ruthenium dichloride catalyst in ring-closing metathesis, cross metathesis, and ring-opening metathesis polymerization assays.

  2. Cation-cation clusters in ionic liquids: Cooperative hydrogen bonding overcomes like-charge repulsion.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Anne; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-12-02

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for H-bonding between like-charged ions is reported for the ionic liquid, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. New infrared bands in the OH frequency range appear at low temperatures indicating the formation of H-bonded cation-cation clusters similar to those known for water and alcohols. Supported by DFT calculations, these vibrational bands can be assigned to attractive interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the cations. The repulsive Coulomb interaction is overcome by cooperative hydrogen bonding between ions of like charge. The transition energy from purely cation-anion interacting configurations to those including cation-cation H-bonds is determined to be 3-4 kJmol(-1). The experimental findings and DFT calculations strongly support the concept of anti-electrostatic hydrogen bonds (AEHBs) as recently suggested by Weinhold and Klein. The like-charge configurations are kinetically stabilized with decreasing temperatures.

  3. Cation locations and dislocations in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Luis James

    The focus of this dissertation is the extra-framework cation sites in a particular structural family of zeolites, chabazite. Cation sites play a particularly important role in the application of these sieves for ion exchange, gas separation, catalysis, and, when the cation is a proton, acid catalysis. Structural characterization is commonly performed through the use of powder diffraction and Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. Use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, in the study of the local order of the various constituent nuclei of zeolites, complements well the long-range order information produced by diffraction. Recent developments in solid state NMR techniques allow for increased study of disorder in zeolites particularly when such phenomena test the detection limits of diffraction. These two powerful characterization techniques, powder diffraction and NMR, offer many insights into the complex interaction of cations with the zeolite framework. The acids site locations in SSZ-13, a high silica chabazite, and SAPO-34, a silicoaluminophosphate with the chabazite structure, were determined. The structure of SAPO-34 upon selective hydration was also determined. The insensitivity of X-rays to hydrogen was avoided through deuteration of the acid zeolites and neutron powder diffraction methods. Protons at inequivalent positions were found to have different acid strengths in both SSZ-13 and SAPO-34. Other light elements are incorporated into zeolites in the form of extra-framework cations, among these are lithium, sodium, and calcium. Not amenable by X-ray powder diffraction methods, the positions of such light cations in fully ion-exchanged versions of synthetic chabazite were determined through neutron powder diffraction methods. The study of more complex binary cation systems were conducted. Powder diffraction and solid state NMR methods (MAS, MQMAS) were used to examine cation site preferences and dislocations in these mixed-akali chabazites

  4. Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step.

  5. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  6. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-08-24

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction.

  7. Mechanisms of fragmentation of cationic peptide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Adams, Jeanette

    1993-06-01

    Fragmentation mechanisms for formation of several commonly occurring product ions in high-energy collision-induced induced decomposition spectra of either (M + Cat2+ - H)+ ions of peptides cationized with alkaline earth metal ions, (M + Ca+)+ ions cationized with alkali metal ions, or (M + H)+ ions are evaluated by using deuterium-labelled peptides. The different sources of hydrogen transferred in the reactions are identified. Our study supports some previously proposed mechanisms but also provides evidence for others.

  8. Analysis of chromite by cation-exchange using ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, M; Ingman, F

    1975-12-01

    A method for the separation and determination of five major elements in chromite ore (and chrome-bearing refractories), based on complexation of the metals with EDTA is described. After removal of silica, the cations are separated into two groups by passing the solution through a cation-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X8, in Na-form) in the presence of an excess of the complexing agent. The optimum conditions for the separation are discussed on the basis of exchange constants that were either known or determined. The first group contains Cr and Fe, which emerge in the filtrate at pH between 1.5 and 2.1, whereas A1, Mg and Ca, which are adsorbed on the resin, form another group. Complexometric titrations are used for the subsequent determination of the cations in each group. The method is simpler and more rapid and accurate for routine analysis than the current methods.

  9. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    DOEpatents

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1998-04-28

    A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate. 3 figs.

  10. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  11. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Abutokaikah, Maha T; Wagoner, Ashley R; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the (0,2) A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms . Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  13. Cation-dependent stability of subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P A; Ruan, B; Bryan, P N

    2001-09-04

    Subtilisin BPN' contains two cation binding sites. One specifically binds calcium (site A), and the other can bind both divalent and monovalvent metals (site B). By binding at specific sites in the tertiary structure of subtilisin, cations contribute their binding energy to the stability of the native state and increase the activation energy of unfolding. Deconvoluting the influence of binding sites A and B on the inactivation rate of subtilisin is complicated, however. This paper examines the stabilizing effects of cation binding at site B by using a mutant of subtilisin BPN' which lacks calcium site A. Using this mutant, we show that calcium binding at site B has relatively little effect on stability in the presence of moderate concentrations of monovalent cations. At [NaCl] =100 mM, site B is >or=98% occupied with sodium, and therefore its net occupancy with a cation varies little as subtilisin is titrated with calcium. Exchanging sodium for calcium results in a 5-fold decrease in the rate of inactivation. In contrast, because of the high selectivity of site A for calcium, its occupancy changes dramatically as calcium concentration is varied, and consequently the inactivation rate of subtilisin decreases approximately 200-fold as site A becomes saturated with calcium, irrespective of the concentration of monovalent cations.

  14. Drawbacks of Dialysis Procedures for Removal of EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Mónico, Andreia; Martínez-Senra, Eva; Cañada, F. Javier; Zorrilla, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent commonly used in protein purification, both to eliminate contaminating divalent cations and to inhibit protease activity. For a number of subsequent applications EDTA needs to be exhaustively removed. Most purification methods rely in extensive dialysis and/or gel filtration in order to exchange or remove protein buffer components, including metal chelators. We report here that dialysis protocols, even as extensive as those typically employed for protein refolding, may not effectively remove EDTA, which is reduced only by approximately two-fold and it also persists after spin-column gel filtration, as determined by NMR and by colorimetric methods. Remarkably, the most efficient removal was achieved by ultrafiltration, after which EDTA became virtually undetectable. These results highlight a potentially widespread source of experimental variability affecting free divalent cation concentrations in protein applications. PMID:28099451

  15. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-05-01

    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  16. Synthesis, DTPA coupling and radio labeling of cationic aminodextran

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Schneider, R.F.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.; Lyons, B.J.; Roskopf, M.

    1984-01-01

    In glomerular diseases, the normal anionic charge of the basement membrane is lost at an early stage. Glomerular damage in rats has been detected more readily with cationic dextrans than with inulin. Hence, the authors attempted to demonstrate this phenomenon in vivo in rats with labeled cationic dextran. Aminated Dextran (AMDEX) was prepared by treating Dextran(mol. wt approx. = 15k) with sodium methoxide followed by a bromethylamine HBr in DMSO resulting in 10-25 aminogroups per mole. DTPA cyclic dianhydride was coupled to AMDEX using a weight ratio of 1:10 in 0.2 - 1.0 ml 0.42 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4. Free DTPA was removed by gel filtration (Sephadex P6DG) or by using Centricon-10 (AMICON) centrifugal microconcentrators. AMDEX coupled with DTPA was labeled with Indium-111 in 0.25 M acetate buffer. Labeling yields were >90% by gel chromatography and electrophoresis (pH8.2 Barbitol buffer). AMEXDTPA was labeled also by ligand exchange with Tc-99m-Sn-citrate at neutral pH with a labeling yield of 30%. On electrophoresis, all the labeled samples retained their cationic character. The distribution of purified In-111 AMDEX, was compared with simultaneously IV injected Tc-99m DTPA in rats. The 2 hour urinary excretion, and renal clearance (calculated from the biexponential plasma clearance) were slower (70 to 80%) than those of DTPA, due to the larger molecular size of AMDEX. By 1 hr., 5% of the administered activity was retained in each kidney, probably due to adherence to anionic binding sites.

  17. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-11-07

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  18. Investigation of a variety of cationic surfactants attached to cation-exchange silica for hydrophobicity optimization in admicellar solid-phase extraction for high-performance liquid and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Simmons, Justin; Conte, Eric D

    2006-11-03

    A series of cationic surfactants were attached to cation-exchange silica that included silica modified with sulfopropyl groups and unmodified silica to create hydrophobic solid-phase extraction sorbents. Various chain lengths and chain numbers of amine, ammonium and pyridinium-based cationic surfactants were investigated to reach sufficient sorbent hydrophobicity to capture US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Of the tested surfactant/silica combinations, dihexadecyldimethylammonium cations attached to unmodified silica resulted in the sorbent having the greatest hydrophobicity. This sorbent provided strong hydrophobic attraction of PAHs and also efficient elution because the PAHs were removed together with the surfactant using a very mild 5% acetic acid in methanol rinse solution. This admicellar solid-phase extraction procedure was applied for the determination of these PAHs for both high-performance liquid and gas chromatography. The detection limits of these PAHs were below the EPA's maximum contaminant level of 0.2 microg/L.

  19. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

    2014-01-01

    Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150–200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as “photocatalyst dam” for the polluted river. PMID:24496147

  20. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

    2014-02-01

    Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150-200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as ``photocatalyst dam'' for the polluted river.

  1. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijie; Zhang, Lisha; Wang, Huanli; Chen, Zhigang; Hu, Junqing; Xu, Kaibing; Liu, Jianshe

    2014-02-05

    Traditional nanosized photocatalysts usually have high photocatalytic activity but can not be efficiently recycled. Film-shaped photocatalysts on the substrates can be easily recycled, but they have low surface area and/or high production cost. To solve these problems, we report on the design and preparation of efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts with nanostructure by using Ta3N5 as a model semiconductor. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth has been prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation-wet impregnation method, and it is composed of Ta3N5 fibers with diameter of 150-200 nm and hierarchical pores. Furthermore, these fibers are constructed from Ta3N5 nanoparticles with diameter of ~25 nm which are decorated with Pt nanoparticles with diameter of ~2.5 nm. Importantly, Ta3N5-Pt cloth can be used as an efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalyst with wide visible-light response, for the degradation of methylene blue and parachlorophenol, probably resulting in a very promising application as "photocatalyst dam" for the polluted river.

  2. INORGANIC CATIONS IN THE CELL NUCLEUS

    PubMed Central

    Tres, Laura L.; Kierszenbaum, A. L.; Tandler, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier reports indicated the presence of significant amounts of inorganic salts in the nucleus. In the present study the possibility that this might be related to the transcription process was tested on seminiferous epithelium of the adult mouse, using potassium pyroantimonate as a fixative. The results indicated that a correlation exists between the inorganic cations comprising the pyroantimonate-precipitable fraction and the RNA synthetic activity. During meiotic prophase an accumulation of cation-antimonate precipitates occurs dispersed through the middle pachytene nuclei, the stage in which RNA synthesis reaches a maximum. At other stages (zygotene to diplotene), where RNA synthesis falls to a low level, that pattern is not seen; cation-antimonate deposits are restricted to a few masses in areas apparently free of chromatin. The condensed sex chromosomes, the heterochromatin of the "basal knobs," the axial elements, and the synaptonemal complexes are devoid of antimonate deposits during the meiotic prophase. The Sertoli cells, active in RNA synthesis in both nucleoplasm and nucleolus, show cation-antimonate deposits at these sites. In the nucleoplasm some "patches" of precipitates appear coincident with clusters of interchromatin granules; in the nucleolus the inorganic cations are mainly located in the fibrillar and/or amorphous areas, whereas relatively few are shown by the granular component. The condensed chromatin bodies associated with the nucleolus were always free of antimonate precipitates. It is suggested that the observed sites of inorganic cation accumulation within the nucleus may at least partially indicate the presence of RNA polymerases, the activity of which is dependent on divalent cations. PMID:4112542

  3. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  4. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  5. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  6. REMOVAL OF CESIUM BY SORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Ames, L.L.

    1962-01-16

    ABS>A process is given for selectively removing cesium from acid aqueous solutions containing cesium in microquantities and other cations in macroquantities by absorption on clinoptilolite. The cesium can be eluted from the clinoptilolite with a solution of ammonia, potassium hydroxide, or rubidium hydroxide. (AEC)

  7. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  8. Preparation of crosslinked chitosan magnetic membrane for cations sorption from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Begum, Samina; Ali, Nauman; Khan, Sabir; Hussain, Sajjad; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2017-05-01

    A chitosan magnetic membrane was prepared in order to confer magnetic properties to the membrane, which could be used for the removal of cations from aqueous solution. The crosslinked magnetic membrane was compared with pristine chitosan membrane in term of stability, morphology and cation adsorption capacity. The fabricated magnetic materials are thermally stable as shown by thermogravimetric curves. The membrane containing nickel magnetic particles (CHNiF-G) shows high thermal stability compared to the other membranes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed successful preparation of chitosan magnetic membrane. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the rough surface of the membrane with increased porosity. The prepared chitosan membranes were applied to cations of copper, nickel and lead in dilute aqueous solution. The chitosan membrane showed the following adsorption order for metallic cations: Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+), while CHNiF-G showed higher capacity, 3.51 mmol g(-1) for copper, reflecting the improvement in adsorption capacity, since the amount of copper on pristine chitosan gave 1.40 mmol g(-1). The time required for adsorption to reach to the equilibrium was 6 h for the selected cations using different chitosan membranes. The kinetic study showed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The most commonly used isotherm models, Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin, were applied to experimental data using linear regression technique. However, The Temkin model fits better to experimental data.

  9. Geometrical isomerization of carotenoids mediated by cation radical/dication formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-03-28

    Electrochemical oxidation of all-trans-canthaxanthin and {beta}-carotene in dichloromethane leads to significant trans-to-cis isomerization, with cis isomers accounting for about 40% of the products formed. The electrochemically generated isomers were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 9-cis, 13-cis, 15-cis, and 9,13-di-cis isomers of the carotenoids by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy (Q ratio). The results of simultaneous bulk electrolysis and optical absorption spectroscopy indicate the following isomerization mechanism: the all-trans cation radicals and/or dications formed by electrochemical oxidation of all-trans-carotenoids can easily undergo geometrical isomerization to form cis cation radicals and/or dications. The latter are converted by the comproportionation equilibrium to cation radicals which are then transformed to neutral cis-carotenoids by exchanging one electron with neutral carotenoids. AM1 molecular orbital calculations, which show that the energy barriers of configurational transformation from trans to cis are much lower in the cation radical and dication species than in the neutral molecule, strongly support the first step of this mechanism. 36 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Role of charge screening and delocalization for lipophilic cation permeability of model and mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Trendeleva, Tatiana A; Sukhanova, Evgenia I; Rogov, Anton G; Zvyagilskaya, Renata A; Seveina, Inna I; Ilyasova, Tatiana M; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2013-09-01

    The effects of the mitochondria-targeted lipophilic cation dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP, the charge is delocalized and screened by bulky hydrophobic residues) and those of lipophilic cations decyltriethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TEA and C16TMA, the charges are localized and screened by less bulky residues) on bilayer planar phospholipid membranes and tightly-coupled mitochondria from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica have been compared. In planar membranes, C12TPP was found to generate a diffusion potential as if it easily penetrates these membranes. In the presence of palmitate, C12TPP induced H(+) permeability like plastoquinonyl decyltriphenilphosphonium that facilitates transfer of fatty acid anions (Severin et al., PNAS, 2010, 107, 663-668). C12TPP was shown to stimulate State 4 respiration of mitochondria and caused a mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a half-maximal effect at 6μM. Besides, C12TPP profoundly potentiated the uncoupling effect of endogenous or added fatty acids. C10TEA and C16TMA inhibited State 4 respiration and decreased the membrane potential, though at much higher concentrations than C12TPP, and they did not promote the uncoupling action of fatty acids. These relationships were modeled by molecular dynamics. They can be explained by different membrane permeabilities for studied cations, which in turn are due to different availabilities of the positive charge in these cations to water dipoles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and Performance Properties of Cationic Fabric Softeners Derived from Free Fatty Acid of Tallow Fat.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mithun G; Pratap, Amit Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    Esterquat cationic softener is basically the class of surface active quaternary ammonium compounds. Esterquat compounds were synthesized and their surface behavior, antibacterial activity and Textile softening properties were investigated. Easily found cheap material was used to synthesize cationic fabric softeners. This fabric softener will be a good for commercially and industrially important because their emulsify activity, rewettability dispersing power and softness. Free fatty acids were derived from tallow oil and were treated with triethanolamine and mono-ethanolamine at 140°C. This diester was quaternaries with dimethyl sulphate and benzyl chloride. The synthesized esterquat compounds were characterized by its cationic content, 1H NMR and FT-IR analysis. In addition to the cationic content, surface tension, CMC (critical micelle concentration), rewettability, fabric softening, emulsification and dispersing power were determined as their surface-active properties. The fabric softening activity of esterquat and esteramide prepared from DMS was better softening activity of fabrics compared to untreated cotton and polyester fabrics cloth. The presented result shows that the esterquat made from BCl exhibit the best dispersing power. The esterquat made from DMS both in TEA and MEA shows good rewettability was determined.

  12. Reactions and structural investigation of chlorpromazine radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Ravi; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2008-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to understand pro-oxidant behaviour of chlorpromazine radical cation (CPZ rad + ). Pulse radiolysis studies have shown that CPZ rad + oxidizes physiological antioxidants (uric acid and bilirubin), and biomolecules like, tyrosine and proteins (bovine serum albumin and casein), thereby acting as a pro-oxidant. Ab-initio quantum chemical calculations suggest structural and electronic changes on oxidation of CPZ. The calculations with Hartree-Fock and density functional methods show that ring nitrogen atom is the site of electron removal from CPZ and sulfur atom is the site of maximum spin in CPZ rad + . The calculations also suggest that oxidation of CPZ leads to increase in planarity of the tricyclic ring as well as tilting of alkyl side chain towards chlorine containing ring. The structural changes on oxidation of CPZ and spin delocalization in CPZ rad + fairly explain the pro-oxidant activity of CPZ.

  13. Gas-phase folding and unfolding of cytochrome c cations.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, T D; Chorush, R A; Wampler, F M; Little, D P; O'Connor, P B; McLafferty, F W

    1995-01-01

    Water is thought to play a dominant role in protein folding, yet gaseous multiply protonated proteins from which the water has been completely removed show hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange behavior similar to that used to identify conformations in solution. Indicative of the gas-phase accessibility to D2O, multiply-charged (6+ to 17+) cytochrome c cations exchange at six (or more) distinct levels of 64 to 173 out of 198 exchangeable H atoms, with the 132 H level found at charge values 8+ to 17+. Infrared laser heating and fast collisions can apparently induce ions to unfold to exchange at a higher distinct level, while charge-stripping ions to lower charge values yields apparent folding as well as unfolding. PMID:7708663

  14. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sanyang; Qin, Xian; An, Zhongfu; Zhu, Yihan; Liang, Liangliang; Han, Yu; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27698348

  15. Controlling the actuation properties of MXene paper electrodes upon cation intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Come, Jeremy E.; Black, Jennifer M.; Naguib, Michael; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Beidaghi, Majid; Wesolowski, David J.; Gogotsi, Yury; Rondinone, Adam J.; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-05

    Atomic force microscopy was used to monitor the macroscopic deformation in a delaminated Ti₃C₂ paper electrode in-situ, during charge/discharge in a variety of aqueous electrolytes to examine the effect of the cation intercalation on the electrochemical behavior and mechanical response. The results show a strong dependence of the electrode deformation on cation size and charge. The electrode undergoes a large contraction during Li⁺, Na⁺ or Mg²⁺ intercalation, differentiating the Ti₃C₂ paper from conventional electrodes where redox intercalation of ions (e.g. Li⁺) into the bulk phase (e.g. graphite, silicon) results in volumetric expansion. This feature may explain the excellent rate performance and cyclability reported for MXenes. We also demonstrated that the variation of the electromechanical contraction can be easily adjusted by electrolyte exchange, and shows interesting characteristics for the design of actuators based on 2D metal carbides.

  16. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sanyang; Qin, Xian; An, Zhongfu; Zhu, Yihan; Liang, Liangliang; Han, Yu; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-10-01

    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  17. Using Ylide Functionalization to Stabilize Boron Cations

    PubMed Central

    Scherpf, Thorsten; Feichtner, Kai‐Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The metalated ylide YNa [Y=(Ph3PCSO2Tol)−] was employed as X,L‐donor ligand for the preparation of a series of boron cations. Treatment of the bis‐ylide functionalized borane Y2BH with different trityl salts or B(C6F5)3 for hydride abstraction readily results in the formation of the bis‐ylide functionalized boron cation [Y−B−Y]+ (2). The high donor capacity of the ylide ligands allowed the isolation of the cationic species and its characterization in solution as well as in solid state. DFT calculations demonstrate that the cation is efficiently stabilized through electrostatic effects as well as π‐donation from the ylide ligands, which results in its high stability. Despite the high stability of 2 [Y−B−Y]+ serves as viable source for the preparation of further borenium cations of type Y2B+←LB by addition of Lewis bases such as amines and amides. Primary and secondary amines react to tris(amino)boranes via N−H activation across the B−C bond. PMID:28185370

  18. Effect of divalent cations on RED performance and cation exchange membrane selection to enhance power densities.

    PubMed

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-09-26

    Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain - next to monovalent ions - also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams containing divalent ions experiences lower power densities due to both uphill transport and increased membrane resistance. In this study, we investigate the effects of divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) on RED and demonstrate the mitigation of those effects using both novel and existing commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Monovalent-selective Neosepta CMS is known to block divalent cations transport and can therefore mitigate reductions in stack voltage. The newly developed multivalent-permeable Fuji T1 is able to transport divalent cations without a major increase in resistance. Both strategies significantly improve power densities compared to standard-grade CEMs when performing RED using streams containing divalent cations.

  19. Coagulation-flocculation studies of tannery wastewater using combination of alum with cationic and anionic polymers.

    PubMed

    Haydar, Sajjad; Aziz, Javed Anwar

    2009-09-15

    A study was conducted to treat the tannery wastewater through coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation. Alum was used as coagulant with cationic and anionic polymers as coagulant aid. The results were subsequently compared with the study in which alum was used alone for the treatment. Jar test apparatus was used to conduct research work. The results of the study revealed that the combination of alum with cationic polymer C-492 [molecular weight (MW)=6 million Dalton; charge density (CD)=40%] resulted in effluent turbidity removal of 97%, total suspended solids (TSS) removal of 93.5%, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal of 36.2% and chromium removal of 98.4%. Sludge production was 40 mL/L and cost of chemicals to treat one cubic meter of wastewater was $ 0.07. For this combination the optimum dose of alum was 100mg/L as Al(2)(SO(4))(3) with 5mg/L of C-496. The combination of alum with suitable anionic polymer A-100 (MW=15 million Dalton; CD=16%) resulted in effluent turbidity removal of 99.7%, TSS removal of 96.3%, TCOD removal of 48.3% and chromium removal of 99.7%. Sludge production was 30 mL/L and cost of chemicals to treat one cubic meter of wastewater was $ 0.08. The results of the above combinations were compared with those when alum was used alone for the treatment. The comparison revealed that use of coagulant aid reduced sludge volume by 60-70% and cost of chemicals by 50% for comparable removal efficiencies.

  20. Efficient Removal and Recovery of Uranium by a Layered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thiostannate.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei-Ling; Sarma, Debajit; Qi, Xing-Hui; Du, Ke-Zhao; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-28

    Uranium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle both as an energy source and as radioactive waste. It is of vital importance to recover uranium from nuclear waste solutions for further treatment and disposal. Herein we present the first chalcogenide example, (Me2NH2)1.33(Me3NH)0.67Sn3S7·1.25H2O (FJSM-SnS), in which organic amine cations can be used for selective UO2(2+) ion-exchange. The UO2(2+)-exchange kinetics perfectly conforms to pseudo-second-order reaction, which is observed for the first time in a chalcogenide ion-exchanger. This reveals the chemical adsorption process and its ion-exchange mechanism. FJSM-SnS has excellent pH stability in both strongly acidic and basic environments (pH = 2.1-11), with a maximum uranium-exchange capacity of 338.43 mg/g. It can efficiently capture UO2(2+) ions in the presence of high concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), or HCO3(-) (the highest distribution coefficient Kd value reached 4.28 × 10(4) mL/g). The material is also very effective in removing of trace levels of U in the presence of excess Na(+) (the relative amounts of U removed are close to 100%). The UO2(2+)···S(2-) interactions are the basis for the high selectivity. Importantly, the uranyl ion in the exchanged products could be easily eluted with an environmentally friendly method, by treating the UO2(2+)-laden materials with a concentrated KCl solution. These advantages coupled with the very high loading capacity, low cost, environmentally friendly nature, and facile synthesis make FJSM-SnS a new promising remediation material for removal of radioactive U from nuclear waste solutions.

  1. Synthesis and properties of a cation exchange resin prepared by the pyrolysis of starch in the presence of phytic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrfeld, J.

    1995-12-01

    A material having cation exchange and adsorption properties was prepared by the controlled pyrolysis of starch in the presence of a commercial phytic acid solution. Resins can be prepared with binding capacities of 0.7-5.7 meq/g. These resins also have the ability to remove atrazine from aqueous solutions.

  2. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  3. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field. PMID:26891471

  4. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Divalent cation signaling in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Divalent cations of two alkaline earth metals Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the transition metal Zn2+ play vital roles in the immune system, and several immune disorders are associated with disturbances of their function. Until recently, only Ca2+ was considered to serve as a second messenger. However, signaling roles for Mg2+ and Zn2+ have been recently described, leading to a reevaluation of their role as potential second messengers. Here we review the roles of these cations as second messengers in light of recent advances in Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ signaling in the immune system. Developing a better understanding of these signaling cations may lead to new therapeutic strategies for immune disorders. PMID:24932518

  6. Cationic acrylamide emulsion polymer brine thickeners

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P.A.; Piccoline, M.A.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a thickened, solids free, aqueous drilling and servicing brine having a density of at least 14.4 ppg. comprising (a) an aqueous solution of at least one water-soluble salt of a multivalent metal, and (b) a cationic water-in-oil emulsion polymer of acrylamide or methacrylamide and a cationic monomer selected from the group consisting of a dialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylamide or methacrylamide, a trialkylaminoalkyl acrylate or methacrylate, and a dialkyldialkyl ammonium halide. The acrylamide or methacrylamide to cationic monomer molar ratio of the polymer is about 70:30 to 95:5, the polymer having an I.V. in 1.0N KCl of about 1.0 to 7.0 dl/g and being present in a compatible and viscosifying amount; the thickened brine characterized by being substantially non-dilatent.

  7. The role of cell walls and pectins in cation exchange and surface area of plant roots.

    PubMed

    Szatanik-Kloc, A; Szerement, J; Józefaciuk, G

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Coagulation of wood extractives in chemical pulp bleaching filtrate by cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, T; Rämö, J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of short-chain cationic polyelectrolytes of different molecular weights and charge densities in reducing turbidity and selectively removing toxic wood extractives from chemical birch pulp filtrate. The effects of chemical type, dosage and temperature were of interest. An effective performance was achieved with a copolymer of acrylamide and methacrylate of medium molecular weight and medium charge density at 72 degrees C and pH 5-6. The dosage range optimum for reducing the turbidity was 102-142 mg/L. Up to 92% of the wood extractives was selectively removed.

  9. Solubilization of growth hormone and other recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies by using a cationic surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Puri, N K; Crivelli, E; Cardamone, M; Fiddes, R; Bertolini, J; Ninham, B; Brandon, M R

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant pig growth hormone (rPGH) was solubilized from inclusion bodies by using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The solubilizing action of CTAC appeared to be dependent on the presence of a positively charged head group, as a non-charged variant was inactive. Relatively low concentrations of CTAC were required for rapid solubilization, and protein-bound CTAC was easily removed by ion-exchange chromatography. Compared with solubilization and recovery of rPGH from inclusion bodies with 7.5 M-urea and 6 M-guanidinium chloride, the relative efficiency of solubilization was lower with CTAC. However, superior refolding efficiency resulted in final yields of purified rPGH being in the order of CTAC greater than urea greater than or equal to guanidinium chloride. Detailed comparison of the different rPGH preparations as well as pituitary-derived growth hormone by h.p.l.c., native PAGE, c.d. spectral analysis and radioreceptor-binding assay showed that the CTAC-derived rPGH was essentially indistinguishable from the urea and guanidinium chloride preparations. The CTAC-derived rPGH was of greater biopotency than pituitary-derived growth hormone. The advantages of CTAC over urea and guanidinium chloride for increasing recovery of monomeric rPGH by minimizing aggregation during refolding in vitro were also found with recombinant sheep interleukin-I beta and a sheep insulin-like growth factor II fusion protein. In addition, the bioactivity of the CTAC-derived recombinant interleukin-1 beta was approximately ten-fold greater than that of an equivalent amount obtained from urea and guanidinium chloride preparations. It is concluded that CTAC represents, in general, an excellent additional approach or a superior alternative to urea and in particular guanidinium chloride for solubilization and recovery of bioactive recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 9. PMID:1497625

  10. Biochemical, electron microscopic and immunohistological observations of cationic detergent-extracted cells: detection and improved preservation of microextensions and ultramicroextensions

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2001-01-01

    Background Filopodia, retraction fibers and microvilli, are fragile microextensions of the plasma membrane that are easily damaged by mechanical force during specimen preparation for microscopy. To preserve these structures for electron microscopy glutaraldehyde is generally used, but it often causes antigen masking. By contrast, formaldehyde is generally used for immunofluorescence light microscopy, but few studies have been concerned with the loss of microextensions. Results We demonstrate in biochemical experiments that cultured cells needed to be kept in 4% formaldehyde for at least 60 min at room temperature or for 20 min at 37°C to irreversibly crosslink most of the polypeptides. Also, fragmentation of fragile microextensions was observed after Triton X-100 extraction depending on concentration and extent of crosslinking. We also report on a novel fixation procedure that includes the cationic detergent dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DOTMAC). Treatment of NIH3T3 cells with DOTMAC resulted in complete removal of membrane lipids and in good preservation of the cytoskeleton in microextensions as well as preservation of ultramicroextensions of <0.05μm in diameter that have not been observed previously unless glutaraldehyde was used. Stress fibers and microextensions of DOTMAC-extracted cells were readily stained with anti-β-actin antibodies, and antibodies to vinculin and moesin stained focal contacts and microextensions, respectively. Conclusions Some microextensions were fragmented by the standard Triton X-100 permeabilization method. By contrast, DOTMAC completely extracted membrane lipids while maintaining the cytoskeleton of microextensions. Thus, DOTMAC treatment may provide a valuable new tool for the reliable visualization of previously undetectable or poorly detectable antigens while preserving the actin cytoskeleton of microextensions. PMID:11425343

  11. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-10-01

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods for CZTS nanocrystal synthesis, device fabrication, and characterization; the size distribution and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the synthesized CZTS nanoparticles; UV-vis spectra of the

  12. Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-02

    Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices.

  13. Metalated Nitriles: Cation-Controlled Cyclizations

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Wei, Yunjing; Liu, Wang; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of cation allows the selective cyclization of substituted γ-hydroxynitriles to trans- or cis-decalins and trans- or cis-bicyclo[5.4.0]-undecanes. The stereoselectivities are consistent with deprotonations generating two distinctly different metalated nitriles: an internally coordinated nitrile anion with BuLi, and a C-magnesiated nitrile with i-PrMgCl. Employing cations to control the geometry of metalated nitriles permits stereodivergent cyclizations with complete control over the stereochemistry of the quaternary, nitrile-bearing carbon. PMID:17579448

  14. ABSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING METAL CATIONS

    DOEpatents

    Tompkins, E.R.; Parker, G.W.

    1959-03-10

    An improved method is presented for the chromatographic separation of fission products wherein a substantial reduction in liquid volume is obtained. The process consists in contacting a solution containing fission products with a body of ion-exchange adsorbent to effect adsorption of fission product cations. The loaded exchange resin is then contacted with a small volume of a carboxylic acid eluant, thereby recovering the fission products. The fission product carrying eluate is acidified without increasing its volume to the volume of the original solution, and the acidified eluate is then used as a feed solution for a smaller body of ion-exchange resin effecting readsorption of the fission product cations.

  15. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  16. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the protocol Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Moreti, Felipe; Amin, Elisabeth; Madazio, Glaucya; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    To present the cross-cultural equivalence of the Brazilian version of the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) protocol, through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the EASE was translated to Brazilian Portuguese, the back-translation into English was done. The items of the translated version were compared with the original instrument and the discrepancies were modified by consensus of a committee composed of five speech language pathologists. The Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily for Brazil (EASE-BR) has 22 questions with four alternatives: "no," "mildly," "moderately," and "extremely." The score is obtained by the simple sum of all answers. The three positive items (6, 12, and 21) require reverse score. For cultural equivalence, the EASE-BR was applied with 41 Brazilian singers, with an extra item in the answer key - "not applicable." The aim of this extra key was to identify issues that might not have been understood or were not appropriate for the target population and the Brazilian culture. Of the 32 singers, 5 who were initially evaluated had difficulties to answer 3 of the 22 questions. Therefore, the adaptation of those sentences was necessary. Afterward, the modified EASE-BR was applied to nine singers, and no more cultural and/or conceptual barriers were found. Cultural equivalence was observed between EASE and its translated version to the Brazilian Portuguese, the EASE-BR. Validation of the EASE for Brazilian Portuguese is in progress.

  18. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use.

  19. Cationic dialkylarylphosphates: a new family of bio-inspired cationic lipids for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Stéphanie S; Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Lehn, Pierre; Montier, Tristan; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain

    2015-01-28

    In this work that aims to synthesize and evaluate new cationic lipids as vectors for gene delivery, we report the synthesis of a series of cationic lipids in which a phosphate functional group acts as a linker to assemble on a molecular scale, two lipid chains and one cationic polar head. The mono or dicationic moiety is connected to the phosphate group by an aryl spacer. In this work, two synthesis strategies were evaluated. The first used the Atherton-Todd coupling reaction to introduce a phenolic derivative to dioleylphosphite. The second strategy used a sequential addition of lipid alcohol and a phenolic derivative on POCl3. The two methods are efficient, but the latter allows larger yields. Different polar head groups were introduced, thus producing amphiphilic compounds possessing either one permanent (N-methyl-imidazolium, pyridinium, trimethylammonium) or two permanent cationic charges. All these cationic lipids were formulated as liposomal solutions and characterized (size and zeta potential). They formed stable liposomal solutions both in water (at pH 7.0) and in a weakly acidic medium (at pH 5.5). Finally, this new generation of cationic lipids was used to deliver DNA into various human-derived epithelial cells cultured in vitro. Compared with Lipofectamine used as a reference commercial lipofection reagent, some cationic dialkylarylphosphates were able to demonstrate potent gene transfer abilities, and noteworthily, monocationic derivatives were much more efficient than dicationic analogues.

  20. Novel phosphorus-containing cyclodextrin polymers and their affinity for calcium cations and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wintgens, Véronique; Dalmas, Florent; Sébille, Bernard; Amiel, Catherine

    2013-10-15

    Novel phosphorous-containing β-cyclodextrin (βCD) polymers (CDP) were synthesized easily under "green chemistry" conditions. A simple polycondensation between the hydroxyl groups of βCD and non-toxic sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) under basic conditions led to soluble, non-reticulated CDPs with molecular weights (Mw) higher than 10(4) g mol(-1), the actual value depending on the NaOH:βCD and STMP:βCD weight ratios. The presence of both βCD and phosphate groups in the polymer allows for strong interactions with amphiphilic probes, such as 1-adamantyl acetic acid, or with divalent cations, such as Ca(2+), whose strengths were characterized by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The obtained phosphated compounds also display high affinity towards hydroxyapatite (HA), leading to HA nanoparticles that could easily be recovered by CDPs, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative determination of the total amount of phosphated molecules fixed on HA.

  1. A new method for in situ nitrate removal from groundwater using submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    A considerable increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater has become a serious concern worldwide. We developed a novel submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC) to in situ remove nitrate from groundwater, produce electric energy, and potentially treat wastewater. The SMDDC, which was composed of an anode and a cathode chamber, can be easily applied to subsurface environments. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, [Formula: see text] and Na(+) were transferred into the anode and cathode through anion and cation exchange membrane, respectively; the anode effluent was directed to the cathode where [Formula: see text] was reduced to N(2) through autotrophic denitrification. For proof-of-concept, the SMDDC was fed with synthetic wastewater as fuel and submerged into a glass reactor filled with synthetic groundwater. The SMDDC produced 3.4 A/m(2) of current density, while removing 90.5% of nitrate from groundwater with 12 h wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 10 Ω of external resistance. The nitrate concentration and ionic strength of groundwater were the main limiting factors to the system performance. Besides, the external resistance and HRT were also affecting the system performance. Furthermore, the SMDDC showed improved performance with high ionic strength of groundwater (2200 μS/cm) and was able to reduce groundwater salinity as well. External nitrification was beneficial to the current generation and nitrate removal rate, but was not affecting total nitrogen removal. Results clearly indicate that this system holds a great potential for efficient and cost-effective treatment of nitrate-containing groundwater and energy recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Depassivation of aged Fe 0 by divalent cations: correlation between contaminant degradation and surface complexation constants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiaomin; Waite, T David

    2014-12-16

    The dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by aged Fe(0) in the presence of a series of divalent cations was investigated with the result that while no significant degradation of TCE was observed in Milli-Q water or in solutions of Ba(2+), Sr(2+), or Ca(2+), very effective TCE removal was observed in solutions containing Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Pb(2+). The rate constants of TCE removal in the presence of particular cations were positively correlated to the log K representing the affinity of the cations for hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) surface sites though the treatments with Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were found to provide particularly strong enhancement in TCE degradation rate. The extent of Fe(II) release to solution also increased with increase in log K, while the solution pH from both experimental measurement and thermodynamic calculation decreased with increasing log K. While the peak areas of Fe and O XPS spectra of the passivated ZVI in the presence of Ba(2+), Sr(2+), and Ca(2+) were very close to those in Milli-Q water, very significant increases in surface Fe and O (and OH) were observed in solutions of Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+), revealing that the surface oxide layer dissolution is consistent with the recovery of aged Fe(0) with respect to TCE degradation. The depassivation process is proposed to involve (i) surface complexation of cations on surface coatings of aged Fe(0), (ii) dissolution of the hydrated surface as a consequence of magnetite exposure, and (iii) transport of electrons from underlying Fe(0) via magnetite to TCE, resulting in TCE dechlorination and, for some cations (Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Pb(2+)), reduction to their zero or +1 valence state (with potential for these reduced metals to enhance TCE degradation).

  3. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The problems associated with the disposal of toxic metals in an environmentally acceptable manner continues to plague industry. Such metals as nickel, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt, iron, and antimony present physiological and ecological challenges that are best addressed through minimization of exposure and dispersion. A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  4. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Justin John

    2015-01-01

    Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores. PMID:26460827

  5. Stabilization of 2,6-Diarylanilinum Cation by Through-Space Cation-π Interactions.

    PubMed

    Simó Padial, Joan; Poater, Jordi; Nguyen, D Thao; Tinnemans, Paul; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Mecinović, Jasmin

    2017-09-15

    Energetically favorable cation-π interactions play important roles in numerous molecular recognition processes in chemistry and biology. Herein, we present synergistic experimental and computational physical-organic chemistry studies on 2,6-diarylanilines that contain flanking meta/para-substituted aromatic rings adjacent to the central anilinium ion. A combination of measurements of pKa values, structural analyses of 2,6-diarylanilinium cations, and quantum chemical analyses based on the quantitative molecular orbital theory and a canonical energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme reveal that through-space cation-π interactions essentially contribute to observed trends in proton affinities and pKa values of 2,6-diarylanilines.

  6. Process and apparatus for the production of Bi-213 cations

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Hines, J.J.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.

    1998-12-29

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  7. Process and apparatus for the production of Bi-213 cations

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Hines, J.J.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.

    1998-12-29

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  8. Process and apparatus for the production of BI-213 cations

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Hines, John J.; Chiarizia, Renato; Dietz, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed.

  9. NMR studies of cation transport across membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 23/Na NMR Studies of cation transport across membranes were conducted both on model and biological membranes. Two ionophores, the carrier monensin and the channel-former gramicidin, were chosen to induce cation transport in large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The distinction between the NMR signals arising from the two sides of the membrane was achieved by the addition of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent to the outer solution. The kinetics of the cation transport across the membrane was observed simultaneously monitoring the changes in the /sup 23/Na NMR signals of both compartments. Two mathematical models were developed for the estimation of the transport parameters of the monensin- and gramicidin-induced cation transport. The models were able to fit the experimental data very well. A new method for the estimation of the volume trapped inside the vesicles was developed. The method uses the relative areas of the intra- and extravesicular NMR signals arising from a suspension of vesicles bathed in the same medium they contain, as a measure for the relative volumes of these compartments. Sodium transport across biological membranes was studied by /sup 23/ NMR, using suspensions of cultured nerve cells. The sodium influx through voltage-gated channels was studied using the channel modifier batrachotoxin in combination with scorpion toxin.

  10. ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CATIONS TO NATURAL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors that control the extent of adsorption of amphiphilic organic cations on environmental and pristine surfaces have been studied. The sorbents were kaolinite, montmorillonite, two aquifer materials, and a soil; solutions contained various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl,...

  11. ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC CATIONS TO NATURAL MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors that control the extent of adsorption of amphiphilic organic cations on environmental and pristine surfaces have been studied. The sorbents were kaolinite, montmorillonite, two aquifer materials, and a soil; solutions contained various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl,...

  12. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel, and T. Tolaymat. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles. D. Barcelo Culleres, and J. Gan SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 557: 363-368, (2016).

  13. Cationic Nanohydrogel Particles for Therapeutic Oligonucleotide Delivery.

    PubMed

    Leber, Nadine; Nuhn, Lutz; Zentel, Rudolf

    2017-06-12

    Short pharmaceutical active oligonucleotides such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) or cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) are considered as powerful therapeutic alternatives, especially to medicate hard-to-treat diseases (e.g., liver fibrosis or cancer). Unfortunately, these molecules are equipped with poor pharmacokinetic properties that prevent them from translation. Well-defined nanosized carriers can provide opportunities to optimize their delivery and guide them to their site of action. Among several concepts, this Feature Article focuses on cationic nanohydrogel particles as a universal delivery system for small anionic molecules including siRNA and CpG. Cationic nanohydrogels are derived from preaggregated precursor block copolymers, which are further cross-linked to obtain well-defined nanoparticles of tunable sizes and with (degradable) cationic cores. Novel opportunities for oligonucleotide delivery in vitro and in vivo with respect to liver fibrosis therapies will be highlighted as well as perspectives toward modulating the immune system. In general, the approach of covalently stabilized cationic carrier systems can contribute to find advanced oligonucleotide therapeutics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Concave binding of cationic Li to quadrannulene.

    PubMed

    Dang, Jing-Shuang; Wang, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Xiang; Nagase, Shigeru

    2017-08-09

    Binding of Li(+) to quadrannulene and its influence on buckybowl functionalization are introduced. The concave-trapped Li(+) acts as a Lewis acid and the rate of Diels-Alder cycloaddition is enhanced 10(8) times. A sandwiched bowl-Li(+)-bowl structure is stabilized via concave-cation-convex interactions, indicating the promoted role of Li(+) in buckybowl assembly.

  15. Hybrids of cationic porphyrins with nanocarbons.

    PubMed

    Girek, Beata; Sliwa, Wanda

    In the review hybrids of cationic porphyrins (i.e. porphyrins functionalized by quaternary pyridinium groups) with nanocarbons such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene are described. Selected examples of these species are characterized in regard of their properties and possible applications.

  16. Viscoelastic cationic polymers containing the urethane linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A method for the synthesis and manufacturing of elastomeric compositions and articles containing quaternary nitrogen centers and condensation residues along the polymeric backbone of the centers is presented. Linear and cross-linked straight chain and block polymers having a wide damping temperature range were synthesized. Formulae for the viscoelastic cationic polymers are presented.

  17. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Salgueiro, Ana M.; Creaney, Bianca; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito

    2015-07-01

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  18. Characterization of activated sludge exocellular polymers using several cation-associated extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Novak, John T

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of prior research and preliminary investigations in our laboratory led to the development of an extraction strategy that can be used to target different cations in activated sludge floc and extract their associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The methods we used were the cation exchange resin (CER) procedure, base extraction, and sulfide addition to extract EPS linked with divalent cations, Al, and Fe, respectively. A comparison of sludge cations before and after CER extraction revealed that most of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were removed while Fe and Al remained intact, suggesting that this method is highly selective for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)-bound EPS. The correlation between sludge Fe and sulfide-extracted EPS was indicative of selectivity of this method for Fe-bound EPS. The base extraction was less specific than the other methods but it was the method releasing the largest amount of Al into the extract, indicating that the method extracted Al-bound EPS. Concomitantly, the composition of extracted EPS and the amino acid composition differed for the three methods, indicating that EPS associated with different metals were not the same. The change in EPS following anaerobic and aerobic digestion was also characterized by the three extraction methods. CER-extracted EPS were reduced after aerobic digestion while they changed little by anaerobic digestion. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion was associated with the decrease in sulfide-extracted EPS. These results suggest that different types of cation-EPS binding mechanisms exist in activated sludge and that each cation-associated EPS fraction imparts unique digestion characteristics to activated sludge.

  19. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  20. Biosorption of cationic basic dye and cadmium by the novel biosorbent Bacillus catenulatus JB-022 strain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Young; Jin, Mi Ra; Chung, Chang Ho; Yun, Yeoung-Sang; Jahng, Kwang Yeop; Yu, Kang-Yeol

    2015-04-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals and dyes is a promising technology that involves the removal of toxic metals from industrial wastes. The present study aims to screen the bacterial strains isolated from soils and polluted pond for their potential biosorption of both cationic dye and cadmium. Bacillus catenulatus JB-022 strain removed 58% and 66% of cationic basic blue 3 (BB3) and cadmium (Cd(II)) at the respective concentrations of 2000 mg/L and 150 mg/L. The biosorption equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption followed the pseudo-second-order model. The biosorption kinetics showed that the equilibrium was reached within 10 min and 5 min for BB3 and Cd(II), respectively. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum uptakes of BB3 and Cd(II) by the JB-022 biomass were estimated to be 139.74 and 64.28 mg/g, respectively. To confirm the surface morphology and functional groups, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out, and the results revealed that the biomass of JB-022 has carboxyl and phosphonate groups as potential surface functional groups capable of binding to cationic pollutants. In conclusion, B. catenulatus JB-022 is proposed as an excellent biosorbent with potentially important applications in removal of cationic pollutants from wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of variance is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials: a critique and discussion of alternative statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method that is widely used in the psychosomatic literature to analyze the results of randomized trials, yet ANOVA does not provide an estimate for the difference between groups, the key variable of interest in a randomized trial. Although the use of ANOVA is frequently justified on the grounds that a trial incorporates more than two groups, the hypothesis tested by ANOVA for these trials--"Are all groups equivalent?"--is often scientifically uninteresting. Regression methods are not only applicable to trials with many groups, but can be designed to address specific questions arising from the study design. ANOVA is also frequently used for trials with repeated measures, but the consequent reporting of "group effects," "time effects," and "time-by-group interactions" is a distraction from statistics of clinical and scientific value. Given that ANOVA is easily misapplied in the analysis of randomized trials, alternative approaches such as regression methods should be considered in preference.

  2. Easily Dispersible NiFe2O4/RGO Composite for Microwave Absorption Properties in the X-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateer, Buhe; Zhang, Jianjao; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Haiqun

    2017-09-01

    Composites with good dispersion and excellent microwave absorption properties have important applications. Therefore, an easily dispersible NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite has been prepared conveniently through a simple hydrothermal method. Highly crystalline, small size (about 7 nm) monodispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are evenly distributed on the surface of RGO. The microwave absorbability revealed that the NiFe2O4/RGO composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz), and the minimum reflection loss of the NiFe2O4/RGO composite is -27.7 dB at 9.2 GHz. The NiFe2O4/RGO composite has good dispersibility in nonpolar solvent, which facilitates the preparation of stable commercial microwave absorbing coatings. It can be a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials in many application fields.

  3. Improved chitosan-mediated gene delivery based on easily dissociated chitosan polyplexes of highly defined chitosan oligomers.

    PubMed

    Köping-Höggård, M; Vårum, K M; Issa, M; Danielsen, S; Christensen, B E; Stokke, B T; Artursson, P

    2004-10-01

    Nonviral gene delivery systems based on conventional high-molecular-weight chitosans are efficient after lung administration in vivo, but have poor physical properties such as aggregated shapes, low solubility at neutral pH, high viscosity at concentrations used for in vivo delivery and a slow dissociation and release of plasmid DNA, resulting in a slow onset of action. We therefore developed highly effective nonviral gene delivery systems with improved physical properties from a series of chitosan oligomers, ranging in molecular weight from 1.2 to 10 kDa. First, we established structure-property relationships with regard to polyplex formation and in vivo efficiency after lung administration to mice. In a second step, we isolated chitosan oligomers from a preferred oligomer fraction to obtain fractions, ranging from 10 to 50-mers, of more homogeneous size distributions with polydispersities ranging from 1.01 to 1.09. Polyplexes based on chitosan oligomers dissociated more easily than those of a high-molecular-weight ultrapure chitosan (UPC, approximately a 1000-mer), and released pDNA in the presence of anionic heparin. The more easily dissociated polyplexes mediated a faster onset of action and gave a higher gene expression both in 293 cells in vitro and after lung administration in vivo as compared to the more stable UPC polyplexes. Already 24 h after intratracheal administration, a 120- to 260-fold higher luciferase gene expression was observed compared to UPC in the mouse lung in vivo. The gene expression in the lung was comparable to that of PEI (respective AUCs of 2756+/-710 and 3320+/-871 pg luciferase x days/mg of total lung protein). In conclusion, a major improvement of chitosan-mediated nonviral gene delivery to the lung was obtained by using polyplexes of well-defined chitosan oligomers. Polyplexes of oligomer fractions also had superior physicochemical properties to commonly used high-molecular-weight UPC.

  4. Can retrohepatic tunnel be quickly and easily established for laparoscopic liver hanging maneuver by Goldfinger dissector in laparoscopic right hepatectomy* #

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liu-xin; Wei, Fang-qiang; Yu, Yi-chen; Cai, Xiu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver hanging maneuver (LHM) is rarely applied in laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) because of the difficulty encountered in retrohepatic tunnel (RT) dissection and tape positioning. Thus far no report has detailed how to quickly and easily establish RT for laparoscopic LHM in LRH, nor has employment of the Goldfinger dissector to create a total RT been reported. This study’s aim was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of establishing RT for laparoscopic LHM using the Goldfinger dissector in LRH. Methods: Between March 2015 and July 2015, five consecutive patients underwent LRH via the caudal approach with laparoscopic LHM. A five-step strategy using the Goldfinger dissector to establish RT for laparoscopic LHM was adopted. Perioperative data were analyzed. Results: The median age of patients was 58 (range, 51–65) years. Surgery was performed for one intrahepatic lithiasis and four hepatocellular carcinomas with a median size of 90 (40–150) mm. The median operative time was 320 (282–358) min with a median blood loss of 200 (200–600) ml. Laparoscopic LHM was achieved in a median of 31 (21–62) min, and the median postoperative hospital stay was 14 (9–16) d. No transfusion or conversion was required, and no severe liver-related morbidity or death was observed. Conclusions: The Goldfinger dissector is a useful instrument for the establishment of RT. A five-step strategy using the Goldfinger dissector can quickly and easily facilitate an RT for a laparoscopic LHM in LRH. PMID:27604863

  5. Pressure-induced cation-cation bonding in V2O3

    DOE PAGES

    Bai, Ligang; Li, Quan; Corr, Serena A.; ...

    2015-10-09

    A pressure-induced phase transition, associated with the formation of cation-cation bonding, occurs in V2O3 by combining synchroton x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell and ab initio evolutionary calculations. The high-pressure phase has a monoclinic structure with a C2/c space group, and it is both energetically and dynamically stable at pressures above 47 GPa to at least 105 GPa. this phase transition can be viewed as a two-dimensional Peierls-like distortion, where the cation-cation dimer chains are connected along the c axis of the monoclinic cell. In conclusion, this finding provides insights into the interplay of electron correlation and lattice distortionmore » in V2O3, and it may also help to understand novel properties of other early transition-metal oxides.« less

  6. Use of β-cyclodextrin-tethered cationic polymer based fluorescence enhancement of pyrene and hybridization chain reaction for the enzyme-free amplified detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunxia; Li, Bingjie; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jianbo; Huang, Jin

    2016-12-19

    Herein, we proposed an enzyme-free strategy for the amplified detection of DNA by combining the efficient fluorescence enhancement capability of a β-cyclodextrin-tethered cationic polymer (cationic polyβ-CD) to pyrene with the amplification capability of target DNA triggered hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Cationic polyβ-CD with positive charge was synthesized. Two hairpin probes, H1 and H2, were employed in the system and the pyrene-labelled H2 was chosen as the signal unit. The pyrene attached on the sticky end of H2 was flexible and there was strong electrostatic interaction between cationic polyβ-CD and negatively-charged H2, so pyrene could easily enter the cavity of CD that is tethered on the cationic polymer, accompanied by significant fluorescence enhancement. Once target DNA was introduced, HCR was triggered to form a rigid long dsDNA polymer with pyrene attached on it. The pyrene was hardly able to enter the cavity of cationic polyβ-CD because of steric hindrance, leading to a weak fluorescent signal. Owing to the efficient pyrene fluorescence enhancement of cationic polyβ-CD and the amplified capability of HCR, an enzyme-free sensitive detection of target DNA was achieved with a detection limit of 0.1 nM and high selectivity.

  7. Mixed-valent neptunium(IV/V) compound with cation-cation-bound six-membered neptunyl rings.

    PubMed

    Jin, Geng Bang

    2013-11-04

    A new mixed-valent neptunium(IV/V) compound has been synthesized by evaporation of a neptunium(V) acidic solution. The structure of the compound features cation-cation-bound six-membered neptunyl(V) rings. These rings are further connected by Np(IV) ions through cation-cation interactions (CCIs) into a three-dimensional neptunium cationic open framework. This example illustrates the possibility of isolating neptunyl(V) CCI oligomers in inorganic systems using other cations to compete with Np(V) in bonding with the neptunyl oxygen.

  8. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture.

  9. Independent adsorption of monovalent cations and cationic polymers at PE/PG lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, Daria A.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Kondinskaia, Diana A.; Ermakov, Yuri A.; Gurtovenko, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic cationic polymers constitute a wide class of polymeric biocides. Commonly their antimicrobial effect is associated to their interaction with bacterial membranes. In the present study we analyze the interaction of various cationic polymers with model bacterial membranes comprised of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). We describe a polymer-membrane interaction as a process of modification of the surface charge. It is well known that small monovalent inorganic cations (Na+, K+) cannot overcharge the surface of a bilayer containing anionic lipids. In contrast, polycations are able to overcharge anionic membranes and demonstrate a very large input to the electric field distribution at the membrane-water interface. We aimed here to study the electrostatic effects associated with the interaction of polycations of different types with a model lipid membrane whose composition closely resembles that of bacterial membranes (PE:PG = 1:4). Four different cationic polymers (polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, poly-L-lysine and polyethylenimine) were adsorbed at a model PE/PG bilayer in MD simulations. Adsorption of sodium cations was inspected separately for PE/PG bilayers of different composition and cation’s binding parameters were determined. From computational experiments and consequent theoretical analysis we concluded that sodium adsorption at anionic binding sites does not depend on the presence of polycations. Therefore, we hypothesize that antimicrobial activity of the studied cationic polymers should depend on the ionic composition of the medium.

  10. Improving the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations by substitution.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Gu, Fenglou; Li, Min; Lin, Bencai; Si, Zhihong; Hou, Tingjun; Yan, Feng; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2014-10-06

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates for preparing anion-exchange membranes because of their good alkaline stability. Substitution of imidazolium cations is an efficient way to improve their alkaline stability. By combining density functional theory calculations with experimental results, it is found that the LUMO energy correlates with the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations. The results indicate that alkyl groups are the most suitable substituents for the N3 position of imidazolium cations, and the LUMO energies of alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations depend on the electron-donating effect and the hyperconjugation effect. Comparing 1,2-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,2-DMIm+) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,3-DMIm+) with the same substituents reveals that the hyperconjugation effect is more significant in influencing the LUMO energy of 1,3-DMIms. This investigation reveals that LUMO energy is a helpful aid in predicting the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations.

  11. Effect of Organic Cations on Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction of Carbon Supported Platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Choe, Yong-Kee; Martinez, Ulises; Dumont, Joseph Henry; Monahty, Angela; Bae, Chulsung; Matanovic, Ivana; Kim, Yu Seung

    2016-11-02

    Effect of organic cations on hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) of carbon supported platinum (Pt/C) is investigated using three 0.1 M alkaline electrolytes, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPOH). Rotating disk electrode experiments indicate that the HOR of Pt/C is adversely impacted by time-dependent and potential-driven chemisorption of organic cations. In-situ infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy experiments indicated that the specific chemisorption of organic cations drives the hydroxide co-adsorption on Pt surface. The co-adsorption of TMA+ and hydroxide at 0.1 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode is the strongest; consequently, complete removal of the co-adsorbed layer from Pt surface is difficult even after exposure the Pt surface to 1.2 V. Conversely, the chemisorption of TBP+ is the weakest, yet notable decrease of HOR current density is still observed. The adsorption energies, ΔE, for TMA+, TBA+, and TBP+ on Pt (111) surface from density functional theory are computed to be -2.79, -2.42 and -2.00 eV, respectively. The relatively low adsorption energy of TBP+ is explained by the steric hindrance and electronic effect. This study emphasizes the importance of cationic group on HOR activity of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

  12. Effect of Organic Cations on Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction of Carbon Supported Platinum

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Choe, Yong-Kee; Martinez, Ulises; ...

    2016-11-02

    Effect of organic cations on hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) of carbon supported platinum (Pt/C) is investigated using three 0.1 M alkaline electrolytes, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPOH). Rotating disk electrode experiments indicate that the HOR of Pt/C is adversely impacted by time-dependent and potential-driven chemisorption of organic cations. In-situ infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy experiments indicated that the specific chemisorption of organic cations drives the hydroxide co-adsorption on Pt surface. The co-adsorption of TMA+ and hydroxide at 0.1 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode is the strongest; consequently, complete removal of the co-adsorbed layer from Pt surfacemore » is difficult even after exposure the Pt surface to 1.2 V. Conversely, the chemisorption of TBP+ is the weakest, yet notable decrease of HOR current density is still observed. The adsorption energies, ΔE, for TMA+, TBA+, and TBP+ on Pt (111) surface from density functional theory are computed to be -2.79, -2.42 and -2.00 eV, respectively. The relatively low adsorption energy of TBP+ is explained by the steric hindrance and electronic effect. This study emphasizes the importance of cationic group on HOR activity of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.« less

  13. Degradation of aqueous carbon tetrachloride by nanoscale zerovalent copper on a cation resin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Liou, Ya Hsuan

    2005-06-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent copper supported on a cation resin was successfully synthesized to enhance the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) from contaminated water. The use of the cation resin as a support prevents the reduction of surface area due to agglomeration of nanoscale zerovalent copper particles. Moreover, the cation resin recycles the copper ions resulting from the reaction between CCl(4) and Cu(0) by simultaneous ion exchange. The decline in the amount of CCl(4) in aqueous solution results from the combined effects of degradation by nanoscale zerovalent copper and sorption by the cation resin; thus the amount of CCl(4) both in aqueous solution and sorbed onto the resin were measured. The pseudo-first-order rate constant normalized by the surface-area and the mass concentration of nanoscale zerovalent copper (k(SA)) was 2.1+/-0.1 x 10(-2)lh(-1)m(-2), approximately twenty times that of commercial powdered zerovalent copper (0.04 mm). Due to the exchange between Cu(2+) and the strongly acidic ions (H(+) or Na(+)), the pH was between 3 and 4 in unbuffered solution and Cu(2+) at the concentration of less than 0.1 mg l(-1) was measured after the dechlorination reaction. In the above-ground application, resin as a support would facilitate the development of a process that could be designed for convenient emplacement and regeneration of porous reductive medium.

  14. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  15. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  16. Optimizing the application of magnetic nanoparticles in Cr(VI) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Kaprara, Efthymia; Mitrakas, Manassis; Tziomaki, Magdalini; Angelakeris, Mavroidis; Vourlias, Georgios; Andritsos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The presence of heavy metals in aqueous systems is an intense health and environmental problem as implied by their harmful effects on human and other life forms. Among them, chromium is considered as an acutely hazardous compound contaminating the surface water from industrial wastes or entering the groundwater, the major source of drinking water, by leaching of chromite rocks. Chromium occurs in two stable oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with the hexavalent form being much more soluble and mobile in water having the ability to enter easily into living tissues or cells and thus become more toxic. Despite the established risks from Cr(VI)-containing water consumption and the increasing number of incidents, the E.U. tolerance limit for total chromium in potable water still stands at 50 μg/L. However, in the last years a worldwide debate concerning the establishment of a separate and very strict limit for the hexavalent form takes place. In practice, Cr(VI) is usually removed from water by various methods such as chemical coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and adsorption. Adsorption is considered as the simplest method which may become very effective if the process is facilitated by the incorporation of a Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduction stage. This work studies the potential of using magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbing agents for Cr(VI) removal at the concentration levels met in contaminated drinking water. A variety of nanoparticles consisting of ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn) were prepared by precipitating the corresponding bivalent or trivalent sulfate salts under controlled acidity and temperature. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to verify their crystal structure and determine the morphological characteristics. The mean particle size of the samples was found in the range 10-50 nm. Batch Cr(VI) removal tests were performed in aqueous nanoparticles dispersions showing the efficiency of ferrite

  17. Interactions between Cytochrome c2 and the Photosynthetic Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides : The Cation-pi Interaction†

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, M. L.; Weber, K. H.; Chang, C.; Okamura, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    The cation-pi interaction between positively charged and aromatic groups is a common feature of many proteins and protein complexes. The structure of the complex between cytochrome c2 (cyt c2) and photosynthetic reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides exhibits a cation-pi complex formed between Arg-C32 on cyt c2 and Tyr-M295 on the RC (Axelrod et. al (2002) J. Mol. Biol. 319, 501–515). The importance of the cation-pi interaction for binding and electron transfer was studied by mutating Tyr-M295 and Arg-C32. The first and second order rates for electron transfer were not affected by mutating Tyr-M295 to Ala indicating that the cation-pi complex does not greatly affect the association process or structure of the state active in electron transfer. The dissociation constant KD showed a greater increase when Try-M295 was replaced by non-aromatic Ala (3-fold) than by aromatic Phe (1.2-fold) characteristic of a cation-pi interaction. Replacement of Arg-C32 by Ala increased KD (80-fold) largely due to removal of electrostatic interactions with negatively charged residues on the RC. Replacement by Lys, increased KD (6-fold) indicating that Lys does not form a cation-pi complex. This specificity for Arg may be due to a solvation effect. Double mutant analysis indicates interaction energy between Tyr-M295 and Arg-C32 of about −24 meV (−0.6 kcal/mole). This energy is surprisingly small considering the widespread occurrence of cation-pi complexes and may be due to the trade-off between the favorable cation-pi binding energy and the unfavorable desolvation energy needed to bury Arg-C32 in the short-range contact region between the two proteins. PMID:16008347

  18. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy reveals chemical fractionation of humic acid by cation-induced coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Christl,I.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cation-induced coagulation on the chemical composition of dissolved and coagulated fractions of humic acid was investigated in batch coagulation experiments for additions of aluminum at pH 4 and 5, iron at pH 4, and calcium and lead at pH 6. The partitioning of organic carbon and metals was determined by analyzing total organic carbon and total metal contents of the dissolved phase. Both the dissolved and the coagulated humic acid fractions were characterized using synchrotron scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and C-1s near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Intensities of {pi}* transitions of carboxyl carbon and {sigma}* transitions of alkyl, O-alkyl, and carboxyl carbon decreased with increasing metal concentration for the dissolved humic acid fractions. This decrease was accompanied by an increase of the respective intensities in the coagulated fraction as shown for lead. Intensities of aromatic and phenolic carbon were affected to a larger extent only by aluminum and iron additions. The changes observed in the C-1s NEXAFS spectra coincided with an increasing removal of organic carbon from the dissolved phase with increasing total metal concentrations. We conclude that humic acid was chemically fractionated by cation-induced coagulation, which preferentially removed functional groups involved in metal-cation binding from solution.

  19. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  20. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    A better understanding of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of biochar and its acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is crucial when tailoring a single biochar for a particular soil and crop. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable, commonly ranging from 5 to 50 cmol+/Kg even as high as 69 to 204 cmol+/Kg and often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Ashes and very fine pores in biochar may complicate the analysis and thus compromise the results. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in a common method for CEC determination in biochar and investigate how the measured CEC may be affected by slow cation diffusion from micro-pores. We modified the existing ammonium acetate (NH4-OAc) method (buffered at pH 7), based on displaced ammonium (NH4+) in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts after removing excess NH4-OAc with alcohol in batch mode. We used pigeon pea biochar (produced at 350 ˚C; particle size 0.5mm to 2mm) to develop the method and we tested its reproducibility in biochars with different ANC. The biochar sample (1.00g) was pH-adjusted to 7 after 2 days of equilibration, using hydrochloric acid (HCl), and washed with water until the conductivity of the water was <200µScm-1.Thus, we removed the soluble ash component, while simultaneously allowing the NH4-OAc to buffer at pH 7. To assess the importance of diffusion limitation of replacing cations (NH4+ and K+) in micro-pores, we equilibrated the biochar with NH4-OAc for 1 and 7 days, and after washing with alcohol, for 1, 3 and 7 days with KCl. The effects of the washing volume of alcohol (15, 30 and 45 ml) and of the biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio (1:15, 1:30 and 1:45) were also tested. The CEC values were corrected for dry matter content and mass losses during the process. Results indicate that the measured CEC values of the modified method were highly reproducible and that 1 day shaking with NH4OAc and KCl is enough to saturate the exchange

  1. Nanoheterostructure cation exchange: anionic framework conservation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prashant K; Amirav, Lilac; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2010-07-28

    In ionic nanocrystals the cationic sublattice can be replaced with a different metal ion via a fast, simple, and reversible place exchange, allowing postsynthetic modification of the composition of the nanocrystal, while preserving its size and shape. Here, we demonstrate that, during such an exchange, the anionic framework of the crystal is preserved. When applied to nanoheterostructures, this phenomenon ensures that compositional interfaces within the heterostructure are conserved throughout the transformation. For instance, a morphology composed of a CdSe nanocrystal embedded in a CdS rod (CdSe/CdS) was exchanged to a PbSe/PbS nanorod via a Cu(2)Se/Cu(2)S structure. During every exchange cycle, the seed size and position within the nanorod were preserved, as evident by excitonic features, Z-contrast imaging, and elemental line scans. Anionic framework conservation extends the domain of cation exchange to the design of more complex and unique nanostructures.

  2. Mechanism of metal cationization in organic SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, I.; Delcorte, A.; Gonze, X.; Bertrand, P.

    2001-09-01

    A mechanism for metal cationization of phenyl group containing hydrocarbons is discussed. Intact molecules and their fragments are emitted from a thin organic layer covering a metal surface bombarded by fast ions. It is shown that the process of associative ionization of a neutral hydrocarbon molecule and a neutral excited metal atom, occurring above the surface, may contribute to the yield of cationized molecules. To demonstrate this we have calculated the potential energy curves for the model system C 6H 6+Me (Me=Ag, Cu, Au) making use of the density functional theory. The initial states of the metal atoms approaching the benzene ring along the C 6 symmetry axis were set as the ground, ionic, and excited in ( n-1)d 9ns 2 electronic configuration.

  3. Expanding the Palette of Phenanthridinium Cations

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Andrew G; Senn, Hans Martin; Murphy, Michael P; Hartley, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    5,6-Disubstituted phenanthridinium cations have a range of redox, fluorescence and biological properties. Some properties rely on phenanthridiniums intercalating into DNA, but the use of these cations as exomarkers for the reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide, and as inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) do not require intercalation. A versatile modular synthesis of 5,6-disubstituted phenanthridiniums that introduces diversity by Suzuki–Miyaura coupling, imine formation and microwave-assisted cyclisation is presented. Computational modelling at the density functional theory (DFT) level reveals that the novel displacement of the aryl halide by an acyclic N-alkylimine proceeds by an SNAr mechanism rather than electrocyclisation. It is found that the displacement of halide is concerted and there is no stable Meisenheimer intermediate, provided the calculations consistently use a polarisable solvent model and a diffuse basis set. PMID:24677631

  4. Cation channels in the Arabidopsis plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Véry, Anne Aliénor; Sentenac, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    In vivo analyses have identified different functional types of ion channels in various plant tissues and cells. The Arabidopsis genome contains approximately 70 genes for ion channels, of which 57 might be cation-selective channels (K(+), Ca(2+) or poorly discriminating channels). Here, we describe the different families of (putative) cation channels: the Shakers, the two-P-domain and Kir K(+) channels (encoded by the KCO genes), the cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels, the glutamate receptors, and the Ca(2+) channel TPC1. We also compare molecular data with the data obtained in planta, which should lead to a better understanding of the identity of these channels and provide clues about their roles in plant nutrition and cell signalling.

  5. Cation specific binding with protein surface charges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Biological organization depends on a sensitive balance of noncovalent interactions, in particular also those involving interactions between ions. Ion-pairing is qualitatively described by the law of “matching water affinities.” This law predicts that cations and anions (with equal valence) form stable contact ion pairs if their sizes match. We show that this simple physical model fails to describe the interaction of cations with (molecular) anions of weak carboxylic acids, which are present on the surfaces of many intra- and extracellular proteins. We performed molecular simulations with quantitatively accurate models and observed that the order K+ < Na+ < Li+ of increasing binding affinity with carboxylate ions is caused by a stronger preference for forming weak solvent-shared ion pairs. The relative insignificance of contact pair interactions with protein surfaces indicates that thermodynamic stability and interactions between proteins in alkali salt solutions is governed by interactions mediated through hydration water molecules. PMID:19666545

  6. Electronic spectrum of 9-methylanthracenium radical cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Gerard D.; Sanelli, Julian A.; Dryza, Vik; Bieske, Evan J.; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-04-01

    The predissociation spectrum of the cold, argon-tagged, 9-methylanthracenium radical cation is reported from 8000 cm-1 to 44 500 cm-1. The reported spectrum contains bands corresponding to at least eight electronic transitions ranging from the near infrared to the ultraviolet. These electronic transitions are assigned through comparison with ab initio energies and intensities. The infrared D1←D0 transitions exhibit significant vibronic activity, which is assigned through comparison with TD-B3LYP excited state frequencies and intensities, as well as modelled vibronic interactions. Dissociation of 9-methylanthracenium is also observed at high visible-photon energies, resulting in the loss of either CH2 or CH3. The relevance of these spectra, and the spectra of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations, to the largely unassigned diffuse interstellar bands, is discussed.

  7. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  8. Planar Chiral, Ferrocene-Stabilized Silicon Cations.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ruth K; Klare, Hendrik F T; Fröhlich, Roland; Oestreich, Martin

    2016-04-04

    The preparation of a series of planar chiral, ferrocenyl-substituted hydrosilanes as precursors of ferrocene-stabilized silicon cations is described. These molecules also feature stereogenicity at the silicon atom. The generation and (29)Si NMR spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding silicon cations is reported, and problems arising from interactions of the electron-deficient silicon atom and adjacent C(sp(3))-H bonds or aromatic π donors are discussed. These issues are overcome by tethering another substituent at the silicon atom to the ferrocene backbone. The resulting annulation also imparts conformational rigidity and steric hindrance in such a way that the central chirality at the silicon atom is set with complete diastereocontrol. These chiral Lewis acid catalysts were then tested in difficult Diels-Alder reactions, but no enantioinduction was seen.

  9. Adsorption of CaCO3 Particles on Cationic Cellulose Graft Copolymers

    PubMed

    Halab-Kessira; Ricard

    1996-12-25

    The behavior of small inorganic particles at the fiber/water interface has been analyzed from the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of CaCO3 particles onto cationic fibers. The introduction of cationic moieties onto cellulosic fibers leads to a copolymer that can easily adsorb negatively charged particles. At equilibrium, the adsorption ratio of CaCO3 particles on a cationic copolymer of cellulose and poly(2-acryloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride) is related closely to the particle size, the temperature, the agitation, and the ionic strength of the suspension. Kinetic models have shown that the weakly charged copolymers present a high-affinity-type kinetics when the CaCO3 particle average diameter is small (20 to 30 μm). For an average particle diameter equal to 72 μm, the kinetics corresponds to an adsorption with a lower affinity. The rate constants are 6.6 x 10(-12), 2.9 x 10(-12), and 1.2 x 10(-12) m3/s for particles with average diameters of 20, 30, and 72 μm, respectively. We have also noted that the adsorption increases with agitation and reaches a plateau after 5 min. The ionic strength influences the electrostatic interactions between the positive sites of the graft and the anion of the adsorbate. Indeed a decreasing adsorption is observed when the ionic strength increases.

  10. Isothermal titration calorimetric analysis of the interaction between cationic lipids and plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Lobo, B A; Davis, A; Koe, G; Smith, J G; Middaugh, C R

    2001-02-01

    The effects of buffer and ionic strength upon the enthalpy of binding between plasmid DNA and a variety of cationic lipids used to enhance cellular transfection were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry at 25.0 degrees C and pH 7.4. The cationic lipids DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethyl ammonium propane), DDAB (dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide), DOTAP:cholesterol (1:1), and DDAB:cholesterol (1:1) bound endothermally to plasmid DNA with a negligible proton exchange with buffer. In contrast, DOTAP: DOPE (L-alpha-dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine) (1:1) and DDAB:DOPE (1:1) liposomes displayed a negative enthalpy and a significant uptake of protons upon binding to plasmid DNA at neutral pH. These findings are most easily explained by a change in the apparent pKa of the amino group of DOPE upon binding. Complexes formed by reverse addition methods (DNA into lipid) produced different thermograms, sizes, zeta potentials, and aggregation behavior, suggesting that structurally different complexes were formed in each titration direction. Titrations performed in both directions in the presence of increasing ionic strength revealed a progressive decrease in the heat of binding and an increase in the lipid to DNA charge ratio at which aggregation occurred. The unfavorable binding enthalpy for the cationic lipids alone and with cholesterol implies an entropy-driven interaction, while the negative enthalpies observed with DOPE-containing lipid mixtures suggest an additional contribution from changes in protonation of DOPE.

  11. Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles interfere with the activity of antioxidant enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Doktorovová, Slavomira; Santos, Dario L; Costa, Inês; Andreani, Tatiana; Souto, Eliana B; Silva, Amélia M

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are colloidal drug and/or gene carriers developed from solid lipids and surfactants that are considered safe. Cationic SLN, usually used for formulating poorly water-soluble drugs and for gene delivery purposes, as positively charged particles may attach to cellular surfaces and be internalized more easily than negatively charged SLN, but they can also cause damage. The main aim of this work was to test a set of cationic SLN and investigate its influence on the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on antioxidant enzymes activities and on possible oxidative damage to membrane lipids in HepG2 cells. The Dichlorofluorescein assay revealed great increase in ROS presence after cell exposure to SLN. While the exposure to SLN increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase it decreased glutathione reductase activity. Although no significant increase in thiobarbituric reactive species was found, a decrease in sulfhydryl groups was detected. These results indicate that cationic SLN caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, but under reported exposure conditions HepG2 cells could attenuate the stress and thus the damage to cellular components was minimal.

  12. In search of novel highly active mitochondria-targeted antioxidants: thymoquinone and its cationic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Severina, Inna I; Severin, Fedor F; Korshunova, Galina A; Sumbatyan, Natalya V; Ilyasova, Tatyana M; Simonyan, Ruben A; Rogov, Anton G; Trendeleva, Tatyana A; Zvyagilskaya, Renata A; Dugina, Vera B; Domnina, Lidia V; Fetisova, Elena K; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Yu; Chernyak, Boris V; Skulachev, Maxim V; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Sadovnichii, Viktor A

    2013-06-27

    Since the times of the Bible, an extract of black cumin seeds was used as a medicine to treat many human pathologies. Thymoquinone (2-demethylplastoquinone derivative) was identified as an active antioxidant component of this extract. Recently, it was shown that conjugates of plastoquinone and penetrating cations are potent mitochondria-targeted antioxidants effective in treating a large number of age-related pathologies. This review summarizes new data on the antioxidant and some other properties of membrane-penetrating cationic compounds where 2-demethylplastoquinone substitutes for plastoquinone. It was found that such a substitution significantly increases a window between anti- and prooxidant concentrations of the conjugates. Like the original plastoquinone derivatives, the novel compounds are easily reduced by the respiratory chain, penetrate through model and natural membranes, specifically accumulate in mitochondria in an electrophoretic fashion, and strongly inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis at pico- and nanomolar concentrations in cell cultures. At present, cationic demethylplastoquinone derivatives appear to be the most promising mitochondria-targeted drugs of the quinone series.

  13. Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater by clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Kocasoy, Günay; Sahin, Vicdan

    2007-12-01

    Clinoptilolite- a natural zeolite has been investigated for the removal of heavy metals from the wastewaters. A pyrex-glass column of 30 mm diameter and 600 mm height was used. The column was filled with the conditioned clinoptilolite of 0.5-1 mm. In the first stage of the research, synthetic wastewater containing single cation 0.02 N and 0.04 N Cu and 0.02 N Fe and Zn solutions were passed through the column. Two liter of 0.02 N Cu and 750 ml of the 0.04 N Cu solution was treated with 100 percent removal efficiency. Clinoptilolite column was regenerated for the reuse when the removal efficiency decreased. The cation exchange capacities were calculated as 1.0663 and 1.5342 meq/g clinoptilolite for 0.02 N and 0.04 N Cu solutions, respectively. In the second stage of this research, the same procedure was repeated with the actual wastewater samples of the equalization and the neutralization tanks of the Telka-Rabak Electrolytic Copper Industry. A volume of 1811 ml of the wastewater of the equalization tank and 180 ml of the neutralization tank wastewater, which had high concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cu and Fe, was treated with 100 percent efficiency. The cation exchange capacities of clinoptilolite for the wastewater of the equalization and the neutralization tanks for Cu were 0.4483 and 0.4274, respectively. It was observed that only one third of the single copper ion solutions were obtained with the actual wastewater having competing ions such as Zn, Fe and Ni. The experimental results also indicate that the clinoptilolite is an effective cation exchanger for the removal of the metals from the wastewater and the removal efficiency is higher when there is not ant competing ions.

  14. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  15. Interaction between silica and hydrophobic cations.

    PubMed Central

    Depasse, J

    1978-01-01

    The interactions between silica and some molecules which have a high affinity for its surface have been studied. The hydrophobic properties and the positive charge of these molecules are likely to be responsible for their strong adsorption on to silica. These observations should be useful in research into new inhibitors of the effects of silica. One of the cations tested, chloroquine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of the haemolytic activity of quartz. PMID:204326

  16. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  17. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  18. Sn Cation Valency Dependence in Cation Exchange Reactions Involving Cu2-xSe Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We studied cation exchange reactions in colloidal Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs) involving the replacement of Cu+ cations with either Sn2+ or Sn4+ cations. This is a model system in several aspects: first, the +2 and +4 oxidation states for tin are relatively stable; in addition, the phase of the Cu2-xSe NCs remains cubic regardless of the degree of copper deficiency (that is, “x”) in the NC lattice. Also, Sn4+ ions are comparable in size to the Cu+ ions, while Sn2+ ones are much larger. We show here that the valency of the entering Sn ions dictates the structure and composition not only of the final products but also of the intermediate steps of the exchange. When Sn4+ cations are used, alloyed Cu2–4ySnySe NCs (with y ≤ 0.33) are formed as intermediates, with almost no distortion of the anion framework, apart from a small contraction. In this exchange reaction the final stoichiometry of the NCs cannot go beyond Cu0.66Sn0.33Se (that is Cu2SnSe3), as any further replacement of Cu+ cations with Sn4+ cations would require a drastic reorganization of the anion framework, which is not possible at the reaction conditions of the experiments. When instead Sn2+ cations are employed, SnSe NCs are formed, mostly in the orthorhombic phase, with significant, albeit not drastic, distortion of the anion framework. Intermediate steps in this exchange reaction are represented by Janus-type Cu2-xSe/SnSe heterostructures, with no Cu–Sn–Se alloys. PMID:25340627

  19. Sn cation valency dependence in cation exchange reactions involving Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    De Trizio, Luca; Li, Hongbo; Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Sathya, Ayyappan; Messina, Gabriele C; Manna, Liberato

    2014-11-19

    We studied cation exchange reactions in colloidal Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals (NCs) involving the replacement of Cu(+) cations with either Sn(2+) or Sn(4+) cations. This is a model system in several aspects: first, the +2 and +4 oxidation states for tin are relatively stable; in addition, the phase of the Cu(2-x)Se NCs remains cubic regardless of the degree of copper deficiency (that is, "x") in the NC lattice. Also, Sn(4+) ions are comparable in size to the Cu(+) ions, while Sn(2+) ones are much larger. We show here that the valency of the entering Sn ions dictates the structure and composition not only of the final products but also of the intermediate steps of the exchange. When Sn(4+) cations are used, alloyed Cu(2-4y)Sn(y)Se NCs (with y ≤ 0.33) are formed as intermediates, with almost no distortion of the anion framework, apart from a small contraction. In this exchange reaction the final stoichiometry of the NCs cannot go beyond Cu0.66Sn0.33Se (that is Cu2SnSe3), as any further replacement of Cu(+) cations with Sn(4+) cations would require a drastic reorganization of the anion framework, which is not possible at the reaction conditions of the experiments. When instead Sn(2+) cations are employed, SnSe NCs are formed, mostly in the orthorhombic phase, with significant, albeit not drastic, distortion of the anion framework. Intermediate steps in this exchange reaction are represented by Janus-type Cu(2-x)Se/SnSe heterostructures, with no Cu-Sn-Se alloys.

  20. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO2 mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yaobin; Tang, Hebin; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo; Tang, Heqing

    2016-11-05

    Microscaled CuFeO2 particles (micro-CuFeO2) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO2 was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8±0.6μm. The micro-CuFeO2 efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4-), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO2 was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu2O and micro-Fe2O3, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO2 for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO2 can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu2O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO2 was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Easily Accessible Thermotropic Hydrogen‐Bonded Columnar Discotic Liquid Crystals from Fatty Acid– Tris‐Benzoimidazolyl Benzene Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lugger, Jody A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report the formation of easily accessible hydrogen‐bonded columnar discotic liquid crystals (LCs) based on tris‐benzoimidazolyl benzene (TBIB) and commercially available fatty acids. By increasing the length of the fatty acid, the temperature range of liquid crystallinity was tuned. Introducing double bonds in octadecanoic acid lowered the crystallization temperature and increased the temperature range of the mesophase. Surprisingly, dimerized linoleic acid also forms an LC phase. When using branched aliphatic acids with the branching point close to the acid moiety, the mesophase was lost, whereas phosphonic acid or benzenesulfonic acid derivatives did have a mesophase, showing that the generality of this approach extends beyond carboxylic acids as the hydrogen‐bond donor. Furthermore, a polymerizable LC phase was obtained from mixtures of TBIB with a methacrylate‐bearing fatty acid, providing an approach for the fabrication of nanoporous polymer films if the methacrylate groups are polymerized. Finally, the higher solubility of methyl‐TBIB was used to suppress phase separation in stoichiometric mixtures of the template molecule with fatty acids. PMID:28032028

  2. Easily accessible polymer additives for tuning the crystal-growth of perovskite thin-films for highly efficient solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingqing; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Kaicheng; Yu, Hao; Huang, Peng; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Ning; Song, Bo

    2016-03-14

    For perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), one of the key issues with respect to the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is the morphology control of the perovskite thin-films. In this study, an easily-accessible additive polyethylenimine (PEI) is utilized to tune the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. With addition of 1.00 wt% of PEI, the smoothness and crystallinity of the perovskite were greatly improved, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A summit PCE of 14.07% was achieved for the p-i-n type Pero-SC, indicating a 26% increase compared to those of the devices without the additive. Both photoluminescence (PL) and alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) analyses confirm the efficiency results after the addition of PEI. This study provides a low-cost polymer additive candidate for tuning the morphology of perovskite thin-films, and might be a new clue for the mass production of Pero-SCs.

  3. Synchronously developing collet hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana provide an easily accessible system for studying nuclear movement and endoreduplication.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska, Elwira; Mathur, Jaideep; Bewley, J Derek

    2012-06-01

    Early Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth includes the highly synchronous development of hairs from every epidermal cell of the collet (the root-hypocotyl transition zone). The dynamics of collet hair growth, and accompanying nuclear movement and endoreduplication, were followed using a combination of different fluorescent probes for time-lapse imaging and flow cytometry. Using laser-scanning confocal microscopy on the double-transgenic Arabidopsis hybrid line NLS-GFP-GUS × YPM, there appeared to be a correlation between nuclear position and the cell tip during growth of the collet hair cells, as occurs in asynchronously developing root hairs. However, disruption of nuclear movement in the growing collet hairs using low concentrations of cytoskeletal inhibitors demonstrated that nuclear positioning close to the tip of the cell is not essential for tip-directed growth of the hair. Nuclear DNA content increases from 4C to 16C during development of the collet hairs. Following cessation of growth, nuclei moved to the base of the hairs and then their movement became asynchronous and limited. Co-visualization of RFP-highlighted prevacuolar vesicles and GFP-labelled nuclei showed that, whereas small vesicles allowed unimpeded nuclear movement within the hair, transient stops and directional reversals coincided with the presence of larger vesicles in close proximity to the nucleus. Arabidopsis collet hairs provide a robust, easily accessible, naturally synchronized population of single tip-growing cells that can be used as a model cell type for studying nuclear movement and endoreduplication.

  4. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May be More Easily Altered than Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee'S.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and Science Inquiry course participated in this study. Data were collected by using a pre/post format with the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire (VNOS-270), the Views of Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (VOSI-270), follow-up interviews, and classroom artifacts. The results indicated that most students initially held naïve views about certain aspects of NOS like tentativeness and subjectivity. By the end of the semester, almost all students dramatically improved their understanding about almost all aspects of NOS. However, several students still struggled with certain aspects like the differences between scientific theory and law, tentativeness, and socio-cultural embeddedness. Results suggested that instructional, motivational, and socio-cultural factors may influence if and how students changed their views about targeted NOS aspects. Students thought that classroom activities, discussions, and readings were most helpful to improve their views about NOS. The findings from the research have the potential to translate as practical advice for teachers, science educators, and future researchers.

  5. Changing Preservice Science Teachers' Views of Nature of Science: Why Some Conceptions May be More Easily Altered than Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesci, Gunkut; Schwartz, Renee'S.

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess preservice teachers' views of Nature of Science (NOS), identify aspects that were challenging for conceptual change, and explore reasons why. This study particularly focused on why and how some concepts of NOS may be more easily altered than others. Fourteen preservice science teachers enrolled in a NOS and Science Inquiry course participated in this study. Data were collected by using a pre/post format with the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire (VNOS-270), the Views of Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (VOSI-270), follow-up interviews, and classroom artifacts. The results indicated that most students initially held naïve views about certain aspects of NOS like tentativeness and subjectivity. By the end of the semester, almost all students dramatically improved their understanding about almost all aspects of NOS. However, several students still struggled with certain aspects like the differences between scientific theory and law, tentativeness, and socio-cultural embeddedness. Results suggested that instructional, motivational, and socio-cultural factors may influence if and how students changed their views about targeted NOS aspects. Students thought that classroom activities, discussions, and readings were most helpful to improve their views about NOS. The findings from the research have the potential to translate as practical advice for teachers, science educators, and future researchers.

  6. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery.

    PubMed

    Machnicka, Alicja; Grubel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2008-07-01

    Activated sludge systems designed for enhanced nutrient removal are based on the principle of altering anaerobic and aerobic conditions for growth of microorganisms with a high capacity of phosphorus accumulation. Most often, filamentous bacteria constitute a component of the activated sludge microflora. The filamentous microorganisms are responsible for foam formation and activated sludge bulking. The results obtained confirm unanimously that the filamentous bacteria have the ability of phosphorus uptake and accumulation as polyphosphates. Hydrodynamic disintegration of the foam microorganisms results in the transfer of phosphorus and metal cations and ammonium-nitrogen into the liquid phase. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits the removal of a portion of the nutrients in the form of struvite.

  7. Low cation coordination in oxide melts

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Lawrie; Benmore, Chris J; Du, Jincheng; Weber, Richard; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Tumber, Sonia; Parise, John B

    2014-01-01

    The complete set of Faber-Ziman partial pair distribution functions for a rare earth oxide liquid were measured for the first time by combining aerodynamic levitation, neutron diffraction, high energy x-ray diffraction and isomorphic substitution using Y2 O3 and Ho2 O3 melts. The average Y- O coordination is measured to be 5.5(2), which is significantly less than the octahedral coordination of crystalline Y2 O3 (or Ho2 O3 ). Investigation of high temperature La2 O3 , ZrO2 , SiO2 , and Al2 O3 melts by x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations also show lower-than-crystal cation- oxygen coordination. These measurements suggest a general trend towards lower M-O coordination compared to their crystalline counterparts. It is found that this coordination number drop is larger for lower field strength, larger radius cations and is negligible for high field strength (network forming) cations. These findings have broad implications for predicting the local structure and related physical properties of metal-oxide melts and oxide glasses.

  8. Gravity-flow open tubular cation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Petr; Pelcová, Pavlína; Kubán, Vlastimil; Klakurková, Lenka; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-08-01

    We describe ion chromatography (IC) on open tubular cation exchange columns with a controllable capacity multilayered stationary phase architecture. The columns of relatively large bore (75 microm id) are fabricated by coating fused-silica capillaries with multiple layers of poly(butadiene-maleic acid) (PBMA) copolymer and crosslinking the deposited layers by thermally initiated radical polymerisation. Column capacity increases in a predictable manner with increase in the number of successively coated layers. Gravity flow with a modest head (< 2 m) can provide the desired separations within a reasonable period. We provide a minimalist configuration where no suppression is used, the sample is injected hydrodynamically as in CE, and detection is accomplished by an inexpensive homebuilt contactless conductivity detector or a capacitance to voltage digital converter. A 1 m long 75 microm bore column coated with two layers of PBMA allows gravity-flow open tubular IC to separate four alkali cations in < 10 min with a 1 mM tartaric acid (TA) eluent. Simultaneous separation of alkali and alkaline earth metal cations can be accomplished in less than 25 min using 1.75 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as an eluent. Contactless conductometric detection (C(4)D) allows LODs down to 150 nmol/L, corresponding to 30 fmol injections. Analysis of real water samples is demonstrated.

  9. Controlling chemistry with cations: photochemistry within zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, V; Shailaja, J; Kaanumalle, Lakshmi S; Sunoj, R B; Chandrasekhar, J

    2003-08-21

    The alkali ions present in the supercages of zeolites X and Y interact with included guest molecules through quadrupolar (cation-pi), and dipolar (cation-carbonyl) interactions. The presence of such interactions can be inferred through solid-state NMR spectra of the guest molecules. Alkali ions, as illustrated in this article, can be exploited to control the photochemical and photophysical behaviors of the guest molecules. For example, molecules that rarely phosphoresce can be induced to do so within heavy cation-exchanged zeolites. The nature (electronic configuration) of the lowest triplet state of carbonyl compounds can be altered with the help of light alkali metal ions. This state switch (n pi*-pi pi*) helps to bring out reactivity that normally remains dormant. Selectivity obtained during the singlet oxygen oxidation of olefins within zeolites illustrates the remarkable control that can be exerted on photoreactions with the help of a confined medium that also has active sites. The reaction cavities of zeolites, like enzymes, are not only well-defined and confined, but also have active sites that closely guide the reactant molecule from start to finish. The examples provided here illustrate that zeolites are far more useful than simple shape-selective catalysts.

  10. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  11. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-06-15

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization.

  12. Cation uptake and allocation by red pine seedlings under cation-nutrient stress in a column growth experiment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and aims: Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient stress on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods: Column experim...

  13. Removal of Chalk River unidentified deposit (CRUD) radioactive waste by enhanced electrokinetic process

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Won-Seok; Nam, Seongsik; Chang, Seeun; ...

    2017-08-13

    Decontamination techniques proposed and used to remove Chalk River unidentified deposit (CRUD) in radioactive waste management. In cases of huge volumes of metal or radionuclides contaminated by CRUD, removal of CRUD by mechanical or chemical decontamination is difficult. An advanced electrokinetic process combined with chemical decontamination was applied to remove CRUD and experimentally evaluated. We used oxalic acid for CRUD removal, and cobalt (Co) released from the CRUD was transferred to the cathode in an electrokinetic reactor. Our results indicate that the combined system is efficient for CRUD removal with enhanced, efficiency by use of the cation exchange membrane andmore » zeolite.« less

  14. The effects of ATP on the interactions between monovalent cations and the sodium pump in dialysed squid axons

    PubMed Central

    Beaugé, Luis; Di Polo, Reinaldo

    1981-01-01

    1. The efflux of Na in dialysed axons of the squid has been used to monitor the sidedness of the interactions of the Na pump with Na+ ions, K+ ions and ATP. The axons were under conditions such that most of the Na efflux went through the Na pump by means of a complete cycle of ATP hydrolysis. 2. With 310 mm-Ki+, 70 mm-Nai+ and 10 mm-K+ artificial sea water (ASW) more than 97% of the Na efflux was abolished by removal of ATP. The efflux of Na was stimulated by ATP with a K½ of about 200 μm. This is similar to the K½ of 150 μm found for the ATP dependence of a ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase activity in membrane fragments isolated from squid optical nerves. 3. A 100-fold reduction in the ATP concentration (from 3-5 mm to 30-50 μm) increased the apparent affinity of the Na pump for Ko+ about 8-fold. In addition, the maximal rate of Ko+-stimulated Na efflux was reduced by a similar factor. Analogous results were seen in axons dialysed with 310 mm-Ki+ or without Ki+. 4. The relative effectiveness of external monovalent cations as activators of the Na efflux was a function of the ATP concentration inside the axon. With 3-5 mm-ATP the order of effectiveness was K+ > NH4+ > Rb+. With 30-50 μm-ATP the sequence was NH4+ » K+ » Rb+. These results were not affected by the removal of Ki+. 5. When the ATP concentration was 3 mm and the Nai+ concentration 70 mm, the removal of Ki+ produced a slight and reversible increase in the total efflux of Na (15%) and no change in the ATP-dependent Na efflux. When the ATP concentration was reduced to 30-50 μm, or the Nai+ concentration lowered to 5-10 mm, the removal of Ki+ reversibly increased the total and the ATP-dependent efflux of Na. The largest increase in Na efflux was seen when both ATP and Nai+ were simultaneously reduced. The ATP-dependent extra Na efflux resulting from the exclusion of Ki+ was abolished by 10-4 m-ouabain in the sea waters. 6. The increase in the ATP-dependent Na efflux observed in axons dialysed with 0 Ki

  15. [Sorption properties of carboxyl cation exchangers with a bacteriostatic effect].

    PubMed

    Ezhova, N M; Zaikina, N A; Shataeva, L K; Dubinina, N I; Ovechkina, T P; Kopylova, J V

    1980-01-01

    Sorption properties of new carboxyl cation exchangers containing components of salicylic acid (CST and CMTS) and benzoic acid (CBT and CMTB) were examined with respect to large organic ions. Such cation exchangers were shown to have greater permeability for high molecular weight proteins that sorbents of the Biocarb type. Bacteriostatic properties of the above cation exchangers were studied. With an increase in the content of the bactericidal component the bacteriostatic effect of the cation exchangers on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus enhanced. The cation exchangers CST and CMTS showed a greater bacteriostatic effect than those CBT and CMTB.

  16. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  17. Cell volume-regulated cation channels.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous turnover rates of ion channels when compared to carriers it is quite obvious that channel-mediated ion transport may serve as a rapid and efficient mechanism of cell volume regulation. Whenever studied in a quantitative fashion the hypertonic activation of non-selective cation channels is found to be the main mechanism of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Some channels are inhibited by amiloride (and may be related to the ENaC), others are blocked by Gd(3) and flufenamate (and possibly linked to the group of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels). Nevertheless, the actual architecture of hypertonicity-induced cation channels remains to be defined. In some preparations, hypertonic stress decreases K(+) channel activity so reducing the continuous K(+) leak out of the cell; this is equivalent to a net gain of cell osmolytes facilitating RVI. The hypotonic activation of K(+) selective channels appears to be one of the most common principles of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and, in most instances, the actual channels involved could be identified on the molecular level. These are BKCa (or maxi K(+)) channels, IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels (of intermediate and small conductance, respectively), the group of voltage-gated (Kv) channels including their Beta (or Kv ancilliary) subunits, two-pore K(2P) channels, as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels (also contributing to K(ATP) channels). In some cells, hypotonicity activates non-selective cation channels. This is surprising, at first sight, because of the inside negative membrane voltage and the sum of driving forces for Na(+) and K(+) diffusion across the cell membrane rather favouring net cation uptake. Some of these channels, however, exhibit a P(K)/P(Na) significantly higher than 1, whereas others are Ca(++) permeable linking hypotonic stress to the activation of Ca(++) dependent ion channels. In particular, the latter holds for the group of TRPs which are specialised in the

  18. Highly efficient adsorption of cationic dye by biochar produced with Korean cabbage waste.

    PubMed

    Sewu, Divine D; Boakye, Patrick; Woo, Seung H

    2017-01-01

    Biochar was produced from Korean cabbage (KC), rice straw (RS) and wood chip (WC) and the use as alternative adsorbents to activated carbon (AC) in wastewater treatment was investigated. Congo red (CR) and crystal violet (CV) were used as a model anionic and cationic dye, respectively. Initial solution pH had little effect on CR and CV adsorption onto all biochars except for AC on CR. The isotherm models and kinetic data showed that adsorption of CR and CV onto all biochars were dominantly by chemisorption. All biochars had lower adsorption capacity for CR than AC. KC showed higher Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity (1304mg/g) than AC (271.0mg/g), RS (620.3mg/g) and WC (195.6mg/g) for CV. KC may be a good alternative to conventional AC as cheap, superb and industrially viable adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes in wastewater.

  19. Preparation and flocculation properties of cationic starch/chitosan crosslinking-copolymer.

    PubMed

    You, Lijun; Lu, Feifei; Li, Dan; Qiao, Zhongming; Yin, Yeping

    2009-12-15

    A novel flocculant (CATCS) based on corn starch and chitosan was prepared and its flocculation behaviors were studied. The synthesis conditions of CATCS were discussed and the production obtained was characterized using Fourier infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Flocculation properties of the products were evaluated in terms of transmittance, removal of organic contaminant and solid suspending substances. Influences of temperature, pH and flocculant dosage on flocculation efficiency of CATCS were examined. CATCS had better flocculation performance at lower temperature for the wastewater investigated. CATCS showed better flocculation performance than cationic starch and chitosan in 5 g/L kaolin suspension trended to performance well in acidic and alkaline solution. The comparison of the flocculation performance between CATCS, Fe2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide showed CATCS had much efficient flocculation performance. In addition, cationic starch was prepared from corn starch using microwave-assisted method.

  20. Hydrophilic monolayer formation of adsorbed cationic starch and cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose derivatives on polyester surfaces.

    PubMed

    Roos, Peter; Westling, Asa; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2004-11-01

    Cationic starch, cationic cellulose derivatives, and hydrophobically modified cationic cellulose were physically adsorbed from aqueous solution onto oppositely charged hydrophobic polyester (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) fabric and nonwoven, and this resulted in hydrophilic surface properties. Surface coverage of the polysaccharides occurred primarily by strong electrostatic interactions, and the surface characteristics were evaluated by measuring the time required for a water droplet to be absorbed into the polyester material as well as by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). From a comparison of the adsorption characteristics we assess the polysaccharide-dependent and substrate-dependent adsorption behavior and discuss the similarities and differences in the hydrophilic properties and wettability observed. In particular, the temperature of the cationic polysaccharide solutions in which the substrate was immersed, the configuration of the polymer in solution, and the presence of hydrophobic substituents on the cationic moiety have a considerable effect on the polysaccharide affinity and its adsorption on the surface, irrespective of the substrate type (fabric or nonwoven). We also evaluate the relative contribution of the polyelectrolyte molecular weight, concentration in solution, and degree of charge density along the polymer chain which determine the range of interactions and alter surface hydroplilicity dependent on the type of substrate.

  1. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-01-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant specieswas reported.We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240members are separated into three families, i.e., Na+/H+ exchangers, K+ efflux antiporters, and cation/H+ exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H+ exchangers in the examined angiospermspecies. Sliding windowanalysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and foundmostmotifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants.

  2. Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Jiří; Čapek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM (“priming effect”). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze–thaw processes) to additions of 13C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased

  3. Bedside Stereomicroscopy of Fabry Kidney Biopsies: An Easily Available Method for Diagnosis and Assessment of Sphingolipid Deposits.

    PubMed

    Svarstad, Einar; Leh, Sabine; Skrunes, Rannveig; Kampevold Larsen, Kristin; Eikrem, Øystein; Tøndel, Camilla

    2017-08-26

    A previous case report found stereomicroscopic changes typical for Fabry disease in a kidney biopsy. This case series evaluates an expanded diagnostic capacity of the method. Bedside stereomicroscopy was performed in a cross-sectional prospective study of 31 consecutive enzyme-treated or treatment-naïve male (n = 14) and female Fabry disease patients. The burden of glomerular storage material was scored semiquantitatively on a visual analog scale (range 0-3) and a blinded comparison was done with a reference histologic method. Significant correlations (p < 0.001) were found between the stereomicroscopic scoring of glomerular characteristic white storage material and the amount of podocyte globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) deposits scored by standardized light microscopy. The bedside method correctly identified the variability of podocyte Gb3 accumulation after 10 years of identical agalsidase therapy in 2 brothers aged 24 and 27 years, and also identified tubular cell deposits. Stereomicroscopy correctly verified the absence of sphingolipid deposits in the biopsy of a female index patient with a genetic variant of unknown significance, and the diagnosis of Fabry disease was finally discarded. Bedside stereomicroscopy of kidney biopsies is an easily available, low-cost microscopy method handled by the clinician. The method carries a high diagnostic sensitivity for Fabry disease, reducing the risk of misdiagnosis in previously unknown cases. An expanded yield of the method is suggested, including the grading of the podocyte Gb3 burden and assessment of effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. We recommend the method as complementary to current standard histologic evaluation of Fabry kidney biopsies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    PubMed

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  5. Input of easily available organic C and N stimulates microbial decomposition of soil organic matter in arctic permafrost soil.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Barsukov, Pavel; Bárta, Jiří; Capek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Rusalimova, Olga; Santrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Richter, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic can affect soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition directly and indirectly, by increasing plant primary production and thus the allocation of plant-derived organic compounds into the soil. Such compounds, for example root exudates or decaying fine roots, are easily available for microorganisms, and can alter the decomposition of older SOM ("priming effect"). We here report on a SOM priming experiment in the active layer of a permafrost soil from the central Siberian Arctic, comparing responses of organic topsoil, mineral subsoil, and cryoturbated subsoil material (i.e., poorly decomposed topsoil material subducted into the subsoil by freeze-thaw processes) to additions of (13)C-labeled glucose, cellulose, a mixture of amino acids, and protein (added at levels corresponding to approximately 1% of soil organic carbon). SOM decomposition in the topsoil was barely affected by higher availability of organic compounds, whereas SOM decomposition in both subsoil horizons responded strongly. In the mineral subsoil, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two to three after any substrate addition (glucose, cellulose, amino acids, protein), suggesting that the microbial decomposer community was limited in energy to break down more complex components of SOM. In the cryoturbated horizon, SOM decomposition increased by a factor of two after addition of amino acids or protein, but was not significantly affected by glucose or cellulose, indicating nitrogen rather than energy limitation. Since the stimulation of SOM decomposition in cryoturbated material was not connected to microbial growth or to a change in microbial community composition, the additional nitrogen was likely invested in the production of extracellular enzymes required for SOM decomposition. Our findings provide a first mechanistic understanding of priming in permafrost soils and suggest that an increase in the availability of organic carbon or nitrogen, e.g., by increased plant

  6. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Microcystins in Raw Surface Waters with MALDI MS Utilizing Easily Synthesized Internal Standards

    PubMed Central

    Roegner, Amber F.; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl–Cys(7)-MC-LR and –RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC –LR, - RR and –YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 μg/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. PMID:24388801

  7. Cationic-anionic mediated charge compensation on La2Ti2O7 for visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Nisar, Jawad; Pathak, Biswarup; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-10-28

    The cationic-anionic mediated charge compensation effect was studied in the layered perovskite La2Ti2O7 for the visible light photocatalysis. Our screened hybrid density functional study shows that the electronic structure of La2Ti2O7 can be tuned by the cationic (V, Nb, Ta)/anionic (N) mono- and co-doping. Such mono-doping creates impurity states in the band gap which helps the electron-hole recombination. But if the charge compensation is made by the cationic-anionic mediated co-doping then such impurity states can be removed and can be a promising strategy for visible light photocatalysis. The absolute band edge position of the doped La2Ti2O7 has been aligned with respect to the water oxidation/reduction potential. The calculated defect formation energy shows the stability of the co-doping system is improved due to the coulomb interactions and charge compensations effect.

  8. Fast doping of Cu into ZnSe NCs by hydrazine promoted cation exchange in aqueous solution at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haibao; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Yin, Haihong; Cui, Yiping

    2015-03-01

    Controllable doping is an effective way of tuning the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, a simple strategy of fast doping Cu ions into ZnSe NCs under ambient conditions was proposed. The principle of doping is based on hydrazine (N2H4) promoted cation exchange reaction. By direct addition of Cu ion stock solution into the preformed ZnSe NCs, Cu doped ZnSe NCs can be obtained. Furthermore, the emission of doped NCs can be tuned by changing the amount of impurity ion addition. The cation exchange reaction is facilitated by three factors: 1) N2H4 addition, 2) fast impurity ions, and 3) partial stabilizer removal. The proposed cation exchange reaction in aqueous solution could be an alternate route for NC doping as well as synthesis of ionic NCs.

  9. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOEpatents

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  10. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  11. Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... say “co-lee-sist-eck-toe-mee”). During traditional surgery, the gallbladder is removed through a 5- ... stay and have a shorter recovery time. Unlike traditional surgery, laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder can ...

  12. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  13. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  14. Catalytic mechanism of cationic red GTL at wide pH using the Mo-Zn-Al-O nanocatalyst under room conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Li, Xiaoyi; Sun, Dezhi

    2014-09-01

    Catalytic mechanism of cationic red GTL at wide pH using the Mo-Zn-Al-O nanocatalyst under room conditions was investigated. The experimental results indicate that initial pH significantly affected the removal of cationic red GTL, the removal of COD, the pH value and residual oxygen in the reaction. In the range of pH value from 4 to 10, decolorization of cationic red GTL was almost above 90%. COD removal efficiency was enhanced with the decrease of pH in CWAO process and 79% of the COD was removed at pH 4.0, whereas only 57% COD removal was observed at pH 10.0. The terminal pH was in the range of 5.0-6.0 and the highest terminal concentrations of aqueous oxygen with 5.5 mg/L were observed at pH = 4.0. The radical inhibition experiments also carried out and the generation of *OH and 1O2 in catalytic wet air oxidation process were detected. It was found that the degradation of cationic red GTL occurs mainly via oxidation by 1O2 radical generated by Mo-Zn-Al-O nanocatalyst under acid conditions and *OH radical under alkaline conditions.

  15. Long-term tobacco plantation induces soil acidification and soil base cation loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting; He, Xinhua; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yueqiang; Xu, Chen; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Changes in soil exchangeable cations relative to soil acidification are less studied particularly under long-term cash crop plantation. This study investigated soil acidification in an Ali-Periudic Argosols after 10-year (2002-2012) long-term continuous tobacco plantation. Soils were respectively sampled at 1933 and 2143 sites in 2002 and 2012 (also 647 tobacco plants), from seven tobacco plantation counties in the Chongqing Municipal City, southwest China. After 10-year continuous tobacco plantation, a substantial acidification was evidenced by an average decrease of 0.20 soil pH unit with a substantial increase of soil sites toward the acidic status, especially those pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5, whereas 1.93 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) was mostly derived from nitrogen (N) fertilizer input and plant N uptake output. After 1 decade, an average decrease of 27.6 % total exchangeable base cations or of 0.20 pH unit occurred in all seven tobacco plantation counties. Meanwhile, for one unit pH decrease, 40.3 and 28.3 mmol base cations kg(-1) soil were consumed in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, the aboveground tobacco biomass harvest removed 339.23 kg base cations ha(-1) year(-1) from soil, which was 7.57 times higher than the anions removal, leading to a 12.52 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) as the main reason inducing soil acidification. Overall, our results showed that long-term tobacco plantation not only stimulated soil acidification but also decreased soil acid-buffering capacity, resulting in negative effects on sustainable soil uses. On the other hand, our results addressed the importance of a continuous monitoring of soil pH changes in tobacco plantation sites, which would enhance our understanding of soil fertility of health in this region.

  16. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  17. Removal program priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The directive contains general policy guidelines regarding removal program priorities as it specifically relates to the 10 regional offices. Emphasis is placed on addressing the most serious public health and environmental threats (classic emergencies, time-critical removals at NPL sites, and time-critical removals at non-NPL sites). Regions are urged to pursue cleanup by the responsible parties (RP) and manage the removal program within the boundaries of their resources.

  18. Ammonium and potassium removal from swine liquid manure using clinoptilolite, chabazite and faujasite zeolites.

    PubMed

    Montégut, Gaëtan; Michelin, Laure; Brendlé, Jocelyne; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Patarin, Joël

    2016-02-01

    This study concerns cationic exchanges performed in order to remove ammonium and potassium cations from manure by using various zeolites: clinoptilolite, chabazite and NaX faujasite. First, the effect of temperature (25 °C and 40 °C) on the exchange rate between zeolites and an ammonium chloride solution was investigated. Then, cationic exchanges were performed on these three zeolites using on one side a mixed ammonium and potassium chloride solution reproducing the chemical composition of a swine manure and on the other side the corresponding liquid manure. No significant difference was observed on the exchange rate and the trapping of ammonium cations by changing the temperature (25 or 40 °C). Clinoptilolite showed a good selectivity towards ammonium cations using model (NH4Cl, and mixed NH4Cl/KCl) solutions but is less efficient with the liquid manure. Chabazite and faujasite were found more efficient than clinoptilolite for trapping ammonium cations. However, NaX faujasite enables trapping 3 times more ammonium cations than chabazite from manure (60 and 20 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, chabazite allowed to trap the same amount of potassium cations than NaX faujasite (33 and 35 mg/g, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tool For Installation And Removal Of Welding Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Special tool assists in installation and removal of welding electrode in welding torch equipped with through-the-torch vision system. Inserted easily into welding torch after welding electrode loaded into hollow shaft. Designed specifically for use within unique configuration of weld block and welding-electrode collet of torch.

  20. Inactivation and Removal of Free-Living Amoebae.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoan that are predominantly harmless to humans. There are a few genera that cause disease in humans, Balamuthia, Naegleria, and Acanthamoeba. These organisms are not easily removed by physical means or inactivated by chemic...